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European Union
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{{redirect|EU}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|Economic and political union of European states}}{{Use British English|date=July 2013}}{{Use dmy dates|date=November 2018}}




}}|common_name = the European Union|linking_name = the European Union|image_flag = Flag of Europe.svg|alt_flag = Circle of 12 gold stars on a blue background! style="width:40px;"|Language! style="width:40px;"|Native speakers! style="width:40px;"|Total
laMotto of the European Union>In Varietate Concordia"nolink=onparensize=90%}}|englishmotto = "United in Diversity"Anthem of Europe>Ode to Joy" {{small|(orchestral)}}(File:Anthem of Europe (US Navy instrumental short version).ogg|center)|image_map = Global European Union.svg|map_width = 220px|alt_map = Globe projection with the European Union in green|map_caption =|image_map2=
{{collapsible list
| titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:center;line-height:normal;font-weight:normal;font-size:11px;
| title = Location of the European Union, its outermost regions, and the overseas countries and territories
| (File:EU OCT and OMR map en.png|center|frameless|upright=1.15)
}}|coordinates =|largest_settlement = London|largest_settlement_type = city|official_languages =
{{collapsible list
|framestyle = text-align:left;border:0;padding:0;line-height:16px;
|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
|title = 24 languages{{efn|The 24 languages are equally official and accepted as working languages. However, only three of them – English, French and German – have the higher status of procedural languages and are used in the day-to-day workings of the European institutions.WEB,weblink European Commission – Frequently asked questions on languages in Europe,, }}
|hlist = true
|Bulgarian |Croatian |Czech |Danish |Dutch |English |Estonian |Finnish |French |German |Greek |Hungarian |Irish |Italian |Latvian |Lithuanian |Maltese |Polish |Portuguese |Romanian |Slovak |Slovene |Spanish |Swedish
DATE=24 MAY 2007AUTHOR1=LEONARD ORBAN, 3 August 2014, Latin alphabet >Greek alphabet >Cyrillic}}|religion_year =|religion =
{{unbulleted list |style=white-space:nowrap;line-height:16px;
| 71.6% Christian
| {{unbulleted list |style=font-size:90%;margin-left:1em
| 45.3% Roman Catholic
| 11.1% Protestant
| 9.6% Eastern Orthodox
| 5.6% other Christian
| 24% No religion
| 1.8% Muslim
| 2.6% other faiths{{citation|title=DISCRIMINATION IN THE EU IN 2015|work=Special Eurobarometer |year=2015 |series=437 |url= |accessdate=15 October 2017|publisher=European Commission |location=European Union|via=GESIS}}
Citizenship of the European Union>EuropeanPolitical union>Political and economic union|membership_type = Member states|membership =
{{collapsible list
|framestyle = text-align:left;border:0;padding:0;line-height:16px;white-space:nowrap;
|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
|title = 28 states
|{{flaglist|Czech Republic}}
|{{flaglist|United Kingdom}}{{efn|Currently undergoing exit procedures known as Brexit.}}
Supranational union>Supranational and intergovernmental President of the European Council>President of the Council|leader_name1 = Donald TuskPresident of the European Parliament>President of the Parliament|leader_name2 = David SassoliPresident of the European Commission>President of the Commission|leader_name3 = Jean-Claude JunckerHistory of the European Union>FormationCurrent Article 1 of the Treaty of Maastricht reads: "The Union shall be founded on the present Treaty and on the Treaty of Rome>Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Those two Treaties shall have the same legal value. The Union shall replace and succeed the European Community".|established_event1 = Treaty of Rome|established_date1 = 1 January 1958|established_event2 = Single European Act|established_date2 = 1 July 1987Maastricht Treaty>Treaty of Maastricht|established_date3 = 1 November 1993|established_event4 = Treaty of Lisbon|established_date4 = 1 December 20092013 enlargement of the European Union>Last polity admitted|established_date5 = 1 July 2013|area_km2 = 4,475,7574,475,757sqmi|disp=number}}|percent_water = 3.08publisher=European Commission|accessdate=18 July 2019}}|population_estimate_year = 2019|population_density_km2 = 117.2|population_density_sq_mi = 307.5|population_density_rank =PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 22 December 2016, |GDP_PPP_rank = 2nd|GDP_PPP_year = 2018|GDP_PPP_per_capita = {{increase}} $43,188|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = |GDP_nominal = {{increase}} $18.7 trillion|GDP_nominal_rank = 2nd|GDP_nominal_year = 2018|GDP_nominal_per_capita = {{increase}} $36,550|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = |Gini_year = 2017|Gini_change = decrease|Gini = 30.7PUBLISHER=EUROSTAT DATA EXPLORER, 12 February 2017, |Gini_rank = |HDI_year = 2017|HDI_change = increase|HDI = 0.899 Calculated using UNDP data for the member states with weighted population.HTTP://HDR.UNDP.ORG/EN/COMPOSITE/HDI>TITLE=HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2018 SUMMARYACCESSDATE=19 MARCH 2018, }}|HDI_rank = Euro (ISO 4217>EUR; €; in eurozone) and {hide}collapsible list
|framestyle = text-align:left;border:0;padding:0;line-height:16px;
|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
|title = 10 others
|Lev (BGN; Bulgaria)
|Koruna (CZK; Czech Republic)
|Krone (DKK; Denmark)
|Pound sterling (GBP; United Kingdom)
|Gibraltar pound (GIP; Gibraltar)
|Kuna (HRK; Croatia)
|Forint (HUF; Hungary)
|ZÅ‚oty (PLN; Poland)
|Leu (RON; Romania)
|Krona (SEK; Sweden)
Western European Time>WET, Central European Time, Eastern European Time>EET|utc_offset =  to UTC+2Western European Summer Time>WEST, Central European Summer Time, Eastern European Summer Time>EEST|utc_offset_DST = +1 to UTC+3(see also Summer Time in Europe){{smaller>Note: with the exception of the Canary Islands and Madeira, the Special member state territories and the European Union#Outermost regions observe different time zones not shown.}}{{efn>Martinique, Guadeloupe (UTC−4); French Guiana (UTC−3); Azores (UTC−1 / UTC); Mayotte (UTC+3); and La Réunion (UTC+4); which, other than the Azores, do not observe DST.}}Anno Domini>AD/Common Era){{smaller>See also: Date and time notation in Europe}}.eu{{efn>.eu is representative of the whole of the EU; member states also have their own TLDs.}}weblink}}today=}}The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of {{EUnum}} member states that are located primarily in Europe.WEB,weblink The EU in brief, 16 June 2016, European Union, Its members have a combined area of {{convert|4,475,757|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} and an estimated total population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market,WEB, The EU Single Market: Fewer barriers, more opportunities, Europa web portal, European Commission,weblink 27 September 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 October 2007, WEB, Activities of the European Union: Internal Market, Europa web portal,weblink 29 June 2007, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade,WEB, Common commercial policy,weblink Europa Glossary, Europa web portal, 6 September 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 January 2009, agriculture,WEB, The Council of the European Union, Agriculture and Fisheries Council,weblink 3 June 2013, fisheries and regional development.WEB, Regional Policy Inforegio,weblink Europa web portal, 3 June 2013, For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished.WEB, Schengen area, Europa web portal,weblink 8 September 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 10 August 2011, dead, A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.The EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993.{{sfn|Craig |De Burca|2011|page=15}} The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), established, respectively, by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome. The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany. The Communities and their successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to their remit. The latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. No member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations (Greenland, an autonomous territory within Denmark, left the Communities in 1985). However, the United Kingdom signified its intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. The United Kingdom and its independent territories are scheduled to leave the European Union on 31 October 2019. Containing 7.3% of the world population,WEB, European Union reaches 500 Million through Combination of Accessions, Migration and Natural Growth, Vienna Institute of Demography,weblink 12 February 2016, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting approximately 24.6% of global nominal GDP.WEB,weblink World Economic Outlook Database, 7 June 2018, International Monetary Fund, Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.NEWS, EU collects Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, 10 December 2012, BBC News,weblink 3 June 2013, Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union was described in 2006 as an emerging superpower.BOOK, John McCormick, The European Superpower, 978-1-4039-9846-0, 2006, {{TOC limit|3}}


{{See also|History of Europe}}


File:IE_expansion.png|thumb|left|Scheme of Indo-European migrations from c. 4000 to 1000 BCE according to the Kurgan hypothesis{{legend|Magenta|The assumed Urheimat (Samara culture, Sredny Stog culture) and the subsequent size=60%|outline=Magenta}}{{legend|Red|Area possibly settled up to c. 2500 BCE.|size=60%|outline=Red}}{{legend|Coral|Area settled up to 1000 BCE.Christopher I. Beckwith (2009), Empires of the Silk Road, Oxford University Press, p.30 |size=60%|outline=Coral}} File:Europe 814.svg|thumb|right|Europe in the Early Middle AgesEarly Middle AgesFile:Roman Empire Trajan 117AD.png|left|thumb|The Roman Empire in AD 117, at its greatest extent (with its vassalsvassalsDuring the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii ("transfer of rule") of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire (481–843) and the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806) were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West.{{efn|Kikuchi Yoshio (菊池良生) of Meiji University suggested that the notion of Holy Roman Empire as a federal political entity influenced the later structural ideas of the European Union.BOOK, 神聖ローマ帝国, Kikuchi (菊池), Yoshio (良生), 2003, 978-4-06-149673-6, 264, }} This political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii ("restoration of the empire"),JOURNAL,weblink Renovatio imperii romanorum – Oxford Reference, en, 10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100414131, 2018-11-22, 2019-08-20, either in the forms of the Reichsidee ("imperial idea") or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum ("christian empire").JOURNAL, René, Metz, 1955, Robert Folz, L'idée d'Empire en Occident du Ve au XIVe siècle, Collection historique, 1953,weblink Revue des Sciences Religieuses, fr-FR, 29, 2, BOOK, Kaiser, Rom und Renovatio; Studien zur Geschichte des römischen Erneuerungsgedankens vom Ende des karolingischen Reiches bis zum Investiturstreit., Schramm, Percy Ernst, 1957, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, German, 15021725, Medieval ChristendomWEB,weblink Europe has been building a secret community of culture, Jones, Jonathan, 23 November 2010, The Guardian, en, live, 11 March 2018, BOOK,weblink Christendom and European Identity: The Legacy of a Grand Narrative Since 1789, Perkins, Mary Anne, 2004, Walter de Gruyter, 978-3-11-018244-6, en, and the political power of the PapacyBOOK,weblink Religion and the Struggle for European Union: Confessional Culture and the Limits of Integration, Nelsen, Brent F., Guth, James L., 2015, Georgetown University Press, 978-1-62616-070-5, en, BOOK,weblink Legitimating the European Union: Aspirations, Inputs and Performance, Mather, J., 2006, Springer, 978-0-230-62562-4, en, are often cited as conducive to European integration and unity.In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, and ultimately the Empire (1547–1917), declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.BOOK,weblink The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity, Parry, Ken, Melling, David J., Brady, Dimitri, Griffith, Sidney H., Healey, John F., 2001, Wiley, 978-0-631-23203-2, en, The gap between Greek East and Latin West had already been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054; and would be eventually widened again by the Iron Curtain (1945–91).BOOK,weblink The Greek East and the Latin West: A Study in the Christian Tradition, Sherrard, Philip, 1995, D. Harvey, 978-960-7120-04-5, en, Pan-European political thought truly emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire (1804–15). In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent, especially in the writings of Wojciech JastrzÄ™bowski,BOOK,weblink European Union in 21st Century, Pinterič, UroÅ¡, Prijon, Lea, 2013, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty of Social Sciences, 978-80-8105-510-2, en, Giuseppe MazziniBOOK,weblink Mazzini, Smith, Denis Mack, 2008, Yale University Press, 978-0-300-17712-1, en, or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski.BOOK,weblink L'avenir économique, social et politique en Europe, Szymanowski, Teodor Korwin, 1885, H. Marot, fr, The term United States of Europe () was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849:JOURNAL, Metzidakis, Angelo, 1994, Victor Hugo and the Idea of the United States of Europe, 23537320, Nineteenth-Century French Studies, 23, 1/2, 72–84, File:CongressVienna.jpg|thumb|The Congress of Vienna met in 1814–15. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman EmpireHoly Roman EmpireDuring the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.BOOK,weblink European Union History: Themes and Debates, Kaiser, W., Varsori, A., 2010, Springer, 978-0-230-28150-9, 140, en, In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established ... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union."John Maynard Keynes, Economic Consequences of the Peace, New York: Harcourt, Brace & Howe, 1920, pp. 265–66. During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement.BOOK,weblink Theories of European Integration, Rosamond, Ben, 2000, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-0-312-23120-0, 21–22, en, His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which then Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations.BOOK,weblink The Origins and development of the European Community, Weigall, David, Stirk, Peter M.R., 1992, Leicester University Press, 978-0-7185-1428-0, 11–15, en, In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, and mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace.BOOK,weblink Churchill's Last Stand: The Struggle to Unite Europe, Klos, Felix, 2017-09-30, Bloomsbury Publishing, 9781786732927, 51, en, live, File:Europa Congres Ridderzaal Den Haag. Overzicht, Bestanddeelnr 902-7379.jpg|thumb|Meeting in the Hall of Knights in The HagueThe Hague

Preliminary (1945{{ndash}}57)

File:Schuman Declaration.ogg|thumb|thumbtime=23|Robert Schuman proposing the Coal and Steel Community on 9 May 1950]]After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated parts of the continent.WEB, The political consequences, CVCE,weblink 28 April 2013, In a speech delivered on 19 September 1946 at the University of Zürich, Switzerland, Winston Churchill went further and advocated the emergence of a United States of Europe.NEWS,weblink Ein britischer Patriot für Europa: Winston Churchills Europa-Rede, Universität Zürich, 19. September 1946, Zeit Online, 13 January 2010, A British Patriot for Europe: Winston Churchill's Speech on Europe University of Zurich, 19 September 1946, The 1948 Hague Congress was a pivotal moment in European federal history, as it led to the creation of the European Movement International and of the College of Europe, where Europe's future leaders would live and study together.BOOK,weblink Dieter Mahncke, Léonce Bekemans, Robert Picht, The College of Europe. Fifty Years of Service to Europe, Bruges, 1999, College of Europe, 978-90-804983-1-0, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 December 2016, It also led directly to the founding of the Council of Europe in 1949, the first great effort to bring the nations of Europe together, initially ten of them. However, the Council focused primarily on values—human rights and democracy—rather than on economic or trade issues, and was always envisaged as a forum where sovereign governments could choose to work together, with no supra-national authority. It raised great hopes of further European integration, and there were fevered debates in the two years that followed as to how this could be achieved.But in 1952, disappointed at what they saw as the lack of progress within the Council of Europe, six nations decided to go further and created the European Coal and Steel Community, which was declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe".WEB, Declaration of 9 May 1950,weblink European Commission, 5 September 2007, This community helped to economically integrate and coordinate the large number of Marshall Plan funds from the United States.WEB,weblink Europe: How The Marshall Plan Took Western Europe From Ruins To Union, RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty, en, 2019-06-20, European leaders Alcide De Gasperi from Italy, Jean Monnet and Robert Schuman from France, and Paul-Henri Spaak from Belgium understood that coal and steel were the two industries essential for waging war, and believed that by tying their national industries together, future war between their nations became much less likely.WEB,weblink A peaceful Europe â€“ the beginnings of cooperation, European Commission, 12 December 2011, These men and others are officially credited as the founding fathers of the European Union.

Treaty of Rome (1957{{ndash}}92)

(File:EC-EU-enlargement animation.gif|thumb|left|upright=1.25|The continental territories of the member states of the European Union (European Communities pre-1993), coloured in order of accession)In 1957, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome, which created the European Economic Community (EEC) and established a customs union. They also signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958.The EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein (Hallstein Commission) and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand (Armand Commission) and then Étienne Hirsch. Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members.WEB,weblink A European Atomic Energy Community,, 13 October 1997, 13 October 2013, WEB,weblink A European Customs Union,, 2016, During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power. Nevertheless, in 1965 an agreement was reached and on 1 July 1967 the Merger Treaty created a single set of institutions for the three communities, which were collectively referred to as the European Communities.WEB,weblink Merging the executives, CVCE â€“ Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l'Europe, 28 April 2013, Merging the executives Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission (Rey Commission).Discover the former Presidents: The Rey Commission, Europa (web portal). Retrieved 28 April 2013.File:Thefalloftheberlinwall1989.JPG|thumb|In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the Community to expand further (Berlin WallBerlin WallIn 1973, the Communities were enlarged to include Denmark (including Greenland, which later left the Communities in 1985, following a dispute over fishing rights), Ireland, and the United Kingdom.WEB, The first enlargement, CVCE,weblink 28 April 2013, Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendum. In 1979, the first direct elections to the European Parliament were held.WEB, The new European Parliament, CVCE,weblink 28 April 2013, Greece joined in 1981, Portugal and Spain following in 1986.WEB, Negotiations for enlargement, CVCE,weblink 28 April 2013, In 1985, the Schengen Agreement paved the way for the creation of open borders without passport controls between most member states and some non-member states.NEWS, Schengen agreement, 30 April 2001, BBC News, 18 September 2009,weblink In 1986, the European flag began to be used by the EECWEB, History of the flag, Europa web portal,weblink 13 March 2009, and the Single European Act was signed.In 1990, after the fall of the Eastern Bloc, the former East Germany became part of the Communities as part of a reunified Germany.WEB,weblink 1980–1989 The changing face of Europe – the fall of the Berlin Wall, Europa web portal, 25 June 2007, A close fiscal integration with the introduction of the euro was not matched by institutional oversight making things more troubling.{{when|date=October 2018}} Attempts to solve the problems and to make the EU{{when|date=October 2018}} more efficient and coherent had limited success.BOOK, The World Transformed, 1945 to the Present, Hunt, Michael H., Oxford University press, 2014, 978-0-19-937103-7, New York, 516–517,

Maastricht Treaty (1992{{ndash}}2007)

File:Euro Series Banknotes (2019).jpg|thumb|right|The euroeuroThe European Union was formally established when the Maastricht Treaty—whose main architects were Helmut Kohl and François Mitterrand—came into force on 1 November 1993.{{sfn|Craig |De Burca|2011|page=15}}WEB, Treaty of Maastricht on European Union,weblink Activities of the European Union, Europa web portal, 20 October 2007, The treaty also gave the name European Community to the EEC, even if it was referred as such before the treaty. With further enlargement planned to include the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Cyprus and Malta, the Copenhagen criteria for candidate members to join the EU were agreed upon in June 1993. The expansion of the EU introduced a new level of complexity and discord. In 1995, Austria, Finland, and Sweden joined the EU.In 2002, euro banknotes and coins replaced national currencies in 12 of the member states. Since then, the eurozone has increased to encompass 19 countries. The euro currency became the second largest reserve currency in the world. In 2004, the EU saw its biggest enlargement to date when Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia joined the Union.WEB, A decade of further expansion, Europa web portal,weblink 25 June 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 11 February 2007, dead,

Lisbon Treaty (2007{{ndash}}present)

File:Tratado de Lisboa 13 12 2007 (081).jpg|thumb|left|The Lisbon Treaty entered into force in 2009]]In 2007, Bulgaria and Romania became EU members. The same year, Slovenia adopted the euro, followed in 2008 by Cyprus and Malta, by Slovakia in 2009, by Estonia in 2011, by Latvia in 2014, and by Lithuania in 2015.On 1 December 2009, the Lisbon Treaty entered into force and reformed many aspects of the EU. In particular, it changed the legal structure of the European Union, merging the EU three pillars system into a single legal entity provisioned with a legal personality, created a permanent President of the European Council, the first of which was Herman Van Rompuy, and strengthened the position of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.{{sfn|Piris|2010|page=448}}WEB,weblink European Parliament announces new President and Foreign Affairs Minister, 1 December 2009, File:Treaty of Rome anniversary group photograph 2017-03-25 03.jpg|thumb|Group photograph of European Union heads of government on occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome in Rome, Italy]]In 2012, the EU received the Nobel Peace Prize for having "contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy, and human rights in Europe."WEB,weblink The Nobel Peace Prize 2012,, 12 October 2012, 12 October 2012, JOURNAL, Nobel Committee Awards Peace Prize to E.U,weblink New York Times, 12 October 2012, 12 October 2012, In 2013, Croatia became the 28th EU member.NEWS,weblink Croatia: From isolation to EU membership, BBC, 14 May 2013, BBC News, 26 April 2013, From the beginning of the 2010s, the cohesion of the European Union has been tested by several issues, including a debt crisis in some of the Eurozone countries, increasing migration from the Middle East, and the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the EU.WEB,weblink EU Referendum Result, BBC, 26 June 2016, A referendum in the UK on its membership of the European Union was held in 2016, with 51.9% of participants voting to leave.NEWS,weblink Britain Votes to Leave E.U., Stunning the World, Erlanger, Steven, 23 June 2016, The New York Times, 0362-4331, 24 June 2016, The UK formally notified the European Council of its decision to leave on 29 March 2017, initiating the formal withdrawal procedure for leaving the EU, committing the UK in principle to leave the EU two years later, on 29 March 2019,WEB, 'No turning back' on Brexit as Article 50 triggered,weblink BBC politics, 29 March 2017, unless an extension was sought and granted, which occurred.

Structural evolution

The following timeline illustrates the integration that has led to the formation of the present union, in terms of structural development driven by international treaties:{{EU evolution timeline}}

Future enlargement

The criteria for accession to the Union are included in the Copenhagen criteria, agreed in 1993, and the Treaty of Maastricht (Article 49). Article 49 of the Maastricht Treaty (as amended) says that any "European state" that respects the "principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law", may apply to join the EU. Whether a country is European or not is subject to political assessment by the EU institutions.WEB, Members of the European Parliament, Legal questions of enlargement, Enlargement of the European Union, The European Parliament, 19 May 1998,weblink 9 July 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 March 2006, dmy-all, There are five recognised candidates for future membership of the Union: Turkey (applied on 14 April 1987), North Macedonia (applied on 22 March 2004 as "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"), Montenegro (applied in 2008), Albania (applied in 2009), and Serbia (applied in 2009). While the others are progressing, Turkish talks are at an effective standstill.NEWS,weblink Turkey's EU dream is over, for now, top official says, Reuters, 2 May 2017, NEWS,weblink "Turkey is no longer an EU candidate", MEP says, EuroNews, 10 April 2017, NEWS,weblink A truce with the EU?, Daily SabahEuroNews, 2 May 2017,



(File:Density of Population in EU 2014.svg|right|200px|thumb|EU population density in 2014){{as of|2019|January|1}}, the population of the European Union was about 513.5 million people (6.9% of the world population).WEB,weblink Share of world population, 1960, 2015 and 2060 (%),, en, 28 June 2017, In 2015, 5.1 million children were born in the EU-28, corresponding to a birth rate of 10 per 1,000, which is 8 births below the world average.WEB,weblink The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency,, en, 28 June 2017, dead,weblink 11 December 2007, For comparison, the EU-28 birth rate had stood at 10.6 in 2000, 12.8 in 1985 and 16.3 in 1970.WEB,weblink Fertility statistics,, en, 28 June 2017, Its population growth rate was positive at an estimated 0.23% in 2016.WEB,weblink The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency,, en, 23 November 2017, In 2010, 47.3 million people who lived in the EU were born outside their resident country. This corresponds to 9.4% of the total EU population. Of these, 31.4 million (6.3%) were born outside the EU and 16.0 million (3.2%) were born in another EU member state. The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4 million), France (5.1 million), the United Kingdom (4.7 million), Spain (4.1 million), Italy (3.2 million), and the Netherlands (1.4 million).6.5% of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4% are born abroad {{webarchive |url= |date=12 August 2011 }}, Eurostat, Katya VASILEVA, 34/2011. In 2017, approximately 825,000 persons acquired citizenship of a member state of the European Union. The largest groups were nationals of Morocco, Albania, India, Turkey and Pakistan.WEB, Acquisition of citizenship statistics,weblink, Eurostat, 4 May 2019, March 2019, 2.4 million immigrants from non-EU countries entered the EU in 2017.NEWS, Migration and migrant population statistics,weblink Eurostat, March 2019, NEWS, Migration and migrant population statistics,weblink Eurostat, March 2019,


{{See also|List of cities in the European Union by population within city limits|list of urban areas in the European Union}}The EU contains about 40 urban areas with populations of over one million, including the two megacities (cities with a population of over 10 million) of London and Paris.WEB,weblink Eurostat – Data Explorer, Eurostat, 22 November 2018, Also, there are several other metropolises with a population of over 5 million like Madrid, Barcelona, Berlin and includes polycentric urbanised regions like Rhine-Ruhr (Cologne, Dortmund, Düsseldorf et al.), Randstad (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht et al.), Frankfurt Rhine-Main, the Flemish Diamond (Antwerp, Brussels, Leuven, Ghent et al.) and Upper Silesian area (Katowice, Ostrava et al.).{{clear}}{{Largest urban centers of European Union}}


{{see also|Euro English}}{|class="wikitable sortable" style="border:1px black; line-height:1em; float:right; font-size:90%; margin-right:1em"
English language>English|13%|51%
German language>German|18%|32%
French language>French|13%|26%
Italian language>Italian|12%|16%
Spanish language>Spanish|8%|15%
Polish language>Polish|8%|9%
Romanian language>Romanian|5%|5%
Dutch language>Dutch|4%|5%
Greek language>Greek|3%|4%
Hungarian language>Hungarian|3%|3%
Portuguese language>Portuguese|2%|3%
Czech language>Czech|2%|3%
Swedish language>Swedish|2%|3%
Bulgarian language>Bulgarian|2%|2%
Slovak language>Slovak|1%|2%
Danish language>Danish|1%|1%
Finnish language>Finnish|1%|1%
Lithuanian language>Lithuanian|1%|1%
Croatian language>Croatian|1%|1%
Slovene language>Slovene|The New Oxford American Dictionary, Second Edn., Erin McKean (editor), 2051 pages, 2005, Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|0-19-517077-6}}.WEB,weblink IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2016, International Monetary Fund, 17 April 2016, }}


  • BOOK, Barnard, Catherine, Catherine Barnard, The Substantive Law of the EU: The four freedoms, 3rd, 2010, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-0-19-956224-4, 447, harv,
  • BOOK, Craig, Paul, Grainne, De Burca, EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials, 5th, 2011, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-0-19-957699-9, 15, harv,
  • BOOK, Demey, Thierry, S. Strange (trans.), Brussels, capital of Europe, 2007, Badeaux, Brussels, 978-2-9600414-6-0, 387, harv,
  • BOOK, The Lisbon Treaty: A Legal and Political Analysis (Cambridge Studies in European Law and Policy), Piris, Jean-Claude, 2010, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 978-0-521-19792-2, 448, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink EuroDiversity (Managing Cultural Differences), 110, George F., Simons, 2002, Routledge, Abingdon-on-Thames, 978-0-87719-381-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Wilkinson, Paul, International Relations: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 100, The EU states have never felt the need to make the organisation into a powerful military alliance. They already have NATO to undertake that task., 978-0-19-280157-9, 2007, 1st, harv,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Berend, Ivan T., The Contemporary Crisis of the European Union: Prospects for the Future, New York, Routledge, 2017, 978-1-138-24419-1,
  • BOOK, Elizabeth, Bomberg, John, Peterson, Richard, Corbett, Richard Corbett, The European Union: How Does it Work? (New European Union), 3rd, 2012, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-0-19-957080-5,
  • BOOK, Corbett, Richard, Jacobs, Francis, Francis Jacobs, Shackleton, Michael, The European Parliament, 8th, Harper (publisher), John Harper Publishing, 2011, London, 978-0-9564508-5-2,
  • BOOK, Craig, Paul, Gráinne, de Búrca, EU Law, Text, Cases and Materials, 4th, 2007, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-0-19-927389-8,
  • BOOK, Federiga, Bindi, The Foreign Policy of the European Union: Assessing Europe's Role in the World, Brookings Institution, Brookings Institution Press, 2010, Washington, DC, 978-0-8157-2252-6, 2nd, The E.U.'s foreign-policy mechanisms and foreign relations, including with its neighbours.
  • BOOK, Gareis, Sven, Hauser, Gunther, Kernic, Franz, The European Union – A Global Actor?, Leverkusen, Germany, Barbara Budrich Publishers, 2013, 978-3-8474-0040-0,
  • BOOK, Grinin, L., Korotayev, A., Tausch, A., 2016, Economic Cycles, Crises, and the Global Periphery, Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht, London, 978-3-319-17780-9,
  • BOOK, Erik, Jones, Menon, Anand, Stephen, Weatherill, The Oxford Handbook of the European Union, 2012, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-0-19-954628-2,
  • BOOK, A.J., Jordan, Camilla, Adelle, Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics, 3rd, Routledge, Abingdon-on-Thames, 978-1-84971-469-3, 2012,
  • BOOK, Kaiser, Wolfram, Christian Democracy and the Origins of European Union (New Studies in European History), 2009, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 978-0-511-49705-6,
  • BOOK, Le Gales, Patrick, King, Desmond, Reconfiguring European States in Crisis, Corby, Oxford University Press, 2017, 978-0-19-879337-3,
  • McAuley, James, "A More Perfect Union?" (review of Luuk van Middelaar, Alarums and Excursions: Improving Politics on the European Stage, translated from the Dutch by Liz Waters, Agenda, 2019, 301 pp.; and Stéphanie Hennette, Thomas Piketty, Guillaume Sacriste, and Antoine Vauchez, How to Democratize Europe, translated from the French by Paul Dermine, Marc LePain, and Patrick Camiller, Harvard University Press, 2019, 209 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXVI, no. 13 (15 August 2019), pp. 46–48. James McAuley writes: "There was never a single moment that marked the definitive establishment of the European Union, which... has continued to define itself since World War II. [T]he major turning points have all been quiet steps on the way to further economic integration while preserving national sovereignty. Today there is only an incomplete monetary union without a real political contract to manage it... [Nevertheless, the Union's] various peoples have grown remarkably closer... The European Union now has open borders, a single market from Portugal to the Baltics, and more or less monthly meetings of member state leaders [the European Council]. What's more, those member states are now closer to each other than they are to the United States... [T]his transformation has occurred informally and organically... [R]obust supranational politics are taking root in Europe... Luuk van Middelaar writes: '[W]hat unites us as Europeans on this continent is bigger and stronger than anything that divides us.'" (pp. 47–48.)
  • BOOK, John, McCormick, The European Union: Politics and Policies, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, 2007, 978-0-8133-4202-3, 5th,
  • Mount, Ferdinand, "Why We Go to War", London Review of Books, vol. 41, no. 11 (6 June 2019), pp. 11–14. "[H]istorians have tended to weave their narratives around [...] high-flown themes: the struggle to maintain the balance of power, the struggles against fascism and communism, against the French Revolution or German militarism. In reality, most large wars have contained within them a violent and persistent economic conflict. [p. 12.] Not for one second do [the U.K.'s Brexiteers] pause to think how hard-won [Europe's economic integration and peace, within the European Union, have] been. They are the feckless children of seventy years of peace." [p. 14.]
  • BOOK, Pinder, John, Simon, Usherwood, The European Union: A Very Short Introduction, 2013, 3rd, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-0-19-968169-3, excerpt and text search
  • BOOK, The European Dream: How Europe's Vision of the Future Is Quietly Eclipsing the American Dream, Jeremy, Rifkin, Penguin GroupImprints, TarcherPerigee, 2005, City of Westminster, London, 978-1-58542-435-1,weblink
  • BOOK, Smith, Charles, Charles Emrys Smith, International Trade and Globalisation, 3rd, Anforme Ltd, 2007, Stocksfield, 978-1-905504-10-7,
  • BOOK, Staab, Andreas, The European Union Explained: Institutions, Actors, Global Impact, Indiana University Press, 2011, Bloomington, IN, 978-0-253-22303-6, excerpt and text search
  • BOOK, Steiner, Josephine, Lorna, Woods, Christian, Twigg-Flesner, EU Law, 9th, 2006, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-0-19-927959-3,
  • BOOK, Tausch, Arno, Arno Tausch, Globalization, the Human Condition, and Sustainable Development in the Twenty-first Century: Cross-national Perspectives and European Implications. With Almas Heshmati and a Foreword by Ulrich Brand, Anthem Press, London, 2012, 1st, 978-0-85728-410-5,
  • BOOK, Yesilada, Birol A., David M., Wood, The Emerging European Union, 5th, 2009, Routledge, Abingdon-on-Thames, 978-0-205-72380-5,

External links

Official: Overviews and data: News and interviews: Educational resources:
  • European Studies Hub – interactive learning tools and resources to help students and researchers better understand and engage with the European Union and its politics.
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