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Xinjiang
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{{Short description|Autonomous region of China}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2019}}{{Other uses}}







factoids
شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى}}{{lower{{noboldAutonomous regions of China>Autonomous region|translit_lang1 = Name|translit_lang1_type = Chinese1.4emPinyin:}} XÄ«n)Uyghur language>Uyghurشىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى}}Transliteration>transl.Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni}}| image_skyline = LakeKanas.jpg| image_alt = Beautiful blue water in the foreground with evergreen forest and mountains in the back ground| image_caption = Kanas Lake in the very north of Xinjiang|image_map = Xinjiang in China (de-facto) (+all claims hatched).svg|mapsize = 275px|map_alt = Map showing the location of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regionstyle = line-height: 1.1em; |Map showing the location of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region}}4185type:adm1st_region:CN-65_dim:2000000display=it}}style = line-height: 1.5em; Ãœrümqi|parts_type = Divisions|parts_style = para |parts = Prefectures of China>prefecturesCounties of China>countiesTownships of China>townshipsParty Committee Secretary>Secretary|leader_name = Chen Quanguo|leader_title1 = Chairman|leader_name1 = Shohrat ZakirTRANS-TITLE = 6-1 NATURAL RESOURCES PUBLISHER = STATISTICS BUREAU OF XINJIANG URL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVE-DATE=2015-12-22, |area_total_km2 = 1664897List of Chinese administrative divisions by area>1st|elevation_max_m = 8,611|elevation_max_point = K2|elevation_min_m = −154Lake AydingTHE CAMBRIDGE HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY CHINA FIRST=COLIN YEAR=1991 ISBN=978-0-521-38755-2 URL = HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/?ID=YIQ_F71UXBOC&PG=PA192&DQ=%2BAYDINGKOL, 2008-06-04, TITLE = EURASIAN CORRIDORS OF INTERCONNECTION: FROM THE SOUTH CHINA TO THE CASPIAN SEA PUBLISHER = ROUTLEDGE CHAPTER = WHERE INNER ASIA MEETS OUTER CHINA: THE XINJIANG UYGHUR AUTONOMOUS REGION OF CHINA, |population_total = 21,815,815|population_as_of = 2010List of Chinese administrative divisions by population>25th|population_est = 23,600,000|pop_est_as_of = 2015ACCESSDATE = MAY 6, 2015, {{dead link|date=August 2018}}|population_density_km2 = 13List of Chinese administrative divisions by population density>29th|demographics_type1 = Demographics|demographics1_footnotes = 0.5em}}composition45.84% Uyghurs>40.48% Han Chinese>6.50% Kazakhs>4.51% Hui people>2.67% Other}}Languages{{pad|0.5em}}and dialects}}Uyghur language (official)CHINA WEBSITE = ETHNOLOGUE, Mandarin Chinese>Mandarin (official)Kazakh language>KazakhKyrgyz language>KyrgyzOirat language>OiratMongolian language>Mongolian|43 other languages}}|iso_code = CN-XJGross domestic product>GDP (2017 HTTP://WWW.TJCN.ORG/TJGB/31XJ/35514.HTML >TRANS-TITLE=STATISTICAL COMMUNIQUé OF XINJIANG ON THE 2017 NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHER=STATISTICAL BUREAU OF XINJIANG DATE=APRIL 25, 2018 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180622111438/HTTP://WWW.TJCN.ORG/TJGB/31XJ/35514.HTML URL-STATUS=LIVE, )Renminbi>CNY 1.1 trillionUSD162 billion (List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP>26th)|blank1_name_sec1 =  - per capitaRenminbi>CNY 45,099 USD 6,680 (21st)Human Development Index>HDI (2014)YEAR= 2013 LOCATION= BEIJING ISBN= 978-7-5001-3754-2 ARCHIVE-URL= HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140611132435/HTTP://WWW.CN.UNDP.ORG/CONTENT/DAM/CHINA/DOCS/PUBLICATIONS/UNDP-CH-HD-PUBLICATION-NHDR_2013_EN_FINAL.PDF URL-STATUS= LIVE AUTHOR-LINK= UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM, (high) (27th)|website = Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region|footnotes =}}{{Contains Uyghur text}}Xinjiang (, SASM/GNC: Xinjang; ; alternately romanized as Sinkiang), officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous RegionWEB,weblink ______, The Government of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, August 19, 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171201030745weblink">weblink December 1, 2017, live, mdy-all, (XUAR), is a formally autonomous region in Northwestern China. Being the largest province-level division of China and the 8th largest country subdivision in the world, Xinjiang spans over 1.6 million km2 (640,000 square miles). A small part of Xinjiang is claimed by India, referring to it as "Aksai Chin". Xinjiang borders the countries of Mongolia (Bayan-Ölgii, Khovd and Govi-Altai Provinces), Russia (Altai Republic), Kazakhstan (East Kazakhstan and Almaty Provinces), Kyrgyzstan (Issyk Kul, Naryn and Osh Regions), Tajikistan (Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region), Afghanistan (Badakhshan Province), Pakistan (Gilgit Baltistan) and India (Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir). The rugged Karakoram, Kunlun and Tian Shan mountain ranges occupy much of Xinjiang's borders, as well as its western and southern regions. Xinjiang also borders the Tibet Autonomous Region and the provinces of Gansu and Qinghai. The most well-known route of the historical Silk Road ran through the territory from the east to its northwestern border. In recent decades, abundant oil and mineral reserves have been found in Xinjiang and it is currently China's largest natural-gas-producing region.It is home to a number of ethnic groups, including the Uyghur, Han, Kazakhs, Tibetans, Hui, Tajiks, Kyrgyz, Mongols, Russians and Xibe.WEB,weblink BBC News, Regions and territories: Xinjiang, May 7, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110520054144weblink">weblink 2011-05-20, More than a dozen autonomous prefectures and counties for minorities are in Xinjiang. Older English-language reference works often refer to the area as Chinese Turkestan.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Turkestan, Catholic Encyclopedia, XV, New York, Robert Appleton Company, 1912, November 26, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080420130916weblink">weblink April 20, 2008, live, mdy-all, Xinjiang is divided into the Dzungarian Basin in the north and the Tarim Basin in the south by a mountain range. Only about 9.7% of Xinjiang's land area is fit for human habitation.WEB,weblink zh, zh:新疆绿洲面积已从4.3%增至9.7%, Xinjiang oasis area has increased from 4.3% to 9.7%, August 3, 2015, 人民网 [People's Network], May 27, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171011102206weblink">weblink October 11, 2017, live, With a documented history of at least 2,500 years, a succession of people and empires have vied for control over all or parts of this territory. The territory came under the rule of the Qing dynasty in the 18th century, which was later replaced by the Republic of China government. Since 1949, it has been part of the People's Republic of China following the Chinese Civil War. In 1954, Xinjiang Bingtuan was set up to strengthen the border defense against the Soviet Union and also promote the local economy. In 1955, Xinjiang was turned into an autonomous region from a province. In the last decades, the East Turkestan independent movement, separatist conflict and the influence of radical Islam have both resulted in unrest in the region, with occasional terrorist attacks and clashes between separatist and government forces.MAGAZINE, October 3, 2015,weblink China's 'Protracted War' in Xinjiang, Shannonb, Tiezzi, The Diplomat, October 29, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161024230910weblink">weblink October 24, 2016, live, mdy-all, WEB,weblink East Turkestan: Chinese Authorities Confiscate Passports Amid Security Crackdown, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO), October 21, 2016, October 29, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161030075250weblink">weblink October 30, 2016, live, mdy-all, Starting in 2014WEB,weblink A Summer Vacation in China's Muslim Gulag, Foreign Policy, February 28, 2018, members of Kashgar's Muslim Uyghur minority have been detained in Xinjiang's re-education camps, reportedly aimed at changing the political thinking of detainees, their identities and their religious beliefs via indoctrination and torture.NEWS,weblink ‘Absolutely No Mercy’: Leaked Files Expose How China Organized Mass Detentions of Muslims, Ramzy, Austin, 2019-11-16, The New York Times, 2019-11-16, Buckley, Chris, en-US, 0362-4331, NEWS, China 'holding at least 120,000 Uighurs in re-education camps',weblink The Guardian, January 25, 2018, August 4, 2018,weblink August 19, 2018, live, WEB,weblink Former inmates of China's Muslim 'reeducation' camps tell of brainwashing, torture, The Washington Post, May 16, 2018, August 4, 2018,weblink September 21, 2018, live, WEB, China: Free Xinjiang 'Political Education' Detainees,weblink Human Rights Watch, August 5, 2018,weblink October 25, 2018, live, A United Nations panel cited reports in 2018 that 1 to 2 million were being held in internment camps.NEWS, UN says it has reports that China is holding 1 million Uygurs in 'secret internment camps',weblink July 25, 2019, South China Morning Post, Reuters, August 11, 2018, China has denied the existence of detention centers and referred to the facilities as "vocational education centers."NEWS, Full transcript: Interview with Xinjiang government chief on counterterrorism, vocational education and training in Xinjiang,weblink People's Daily, January 25, 2018, June 23, 2019, 50 countries, including many Muslim-majority countries, and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation have defended China's policies in a signed letter to the UN; among the 22 countries that have signed the competing letter supporting the Western narrative, none were Muslim-majority.NEWS, Why Indonesia's muted response to Xinjiang's Uyghur internment camps is in stark contrast to anger over Rohingya crisis,weblink June 23, 2019, NEWS, Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies?,weblink July 16, 2019, The Diplomat, August 19, 2019, NEWS, Ambassadors from 50 countries voice support to China's position on issues related to Xinjiang,weblink 2019-07-27, Xinhua, August 19, 2019,

Names









factoids
|bpmf = ㄒㄧㄣ   ã„ã„§ã„¤|gr = Shinjiang|myr = SyÄ«njyāng|showflag = pسٍكِيْا}}|zh-dungan = Щинҗён|psp = Sinkiang|j = San1goeng1|y = Sān'gÄ“ungs1g1}}|poj = Sin-kiong|buc = SÄ­ng-giŏng|teo = Sing-kiang|h = Sîn-kiông|altname = Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region|psp2 = Sinkiang Uyghur Autonomous Region}}}}XÄ«njiāng Wéiwú'Ä›r ZìzhìqÅ«}}|bpmf2 = ㄒㄧㄣ   ã„ã„§ã„¤ã„¨ã„ŸËŠ   ã„¨ËŠ   ã„¦Ë‡ã„—Ë‹   ã„“Ë‹   ã„‘ã„©|w2 = Hsin1-chiang1 Wei2-wu2-êrh3 TzÅ­4-chih4-chʻü1x1j1wei.2er-4zhi.1}}|gr2 = Shinjiang Weiwueel Tzyhjyhchiu|myr2 = SyÄ«njyāng Wéiwúěr DzÌ€jrÌ€chyÅ«sin cian vi ng el zy zy chiu}}|poj2 = Sin-kiong Ûi-ngô͘-ní ChÅ«-tÄ«-khu|teo2 = Sing-kiang Jûi-û-jéu TsÄ•u-tÄ«-khu|buc2 = SÄ­ng-giŏng Mì-ngù-Ä« Cê̤ṳ-dê-kṳ̆|h2 = Sîn-kiông Vì-ngâ-ngì Tshá¹³-tshá¹³-khî|xej2 = سٍكِيْا وِءُعَر ذِجِٿُوُ|zh-dungan2 = Щинҗён Уйгур Зыҗычү|mon = Шиньжян Уйгурын өөртөө засах орон|mong = ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩᠮᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷᠮᠤᠨᠮᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨᠮᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤᠮᠣᠷᠤᠨ Shin'jyan Uiguryn öörtöö zasakh oron}} (Khalkha)|uig = شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونىShinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni}}Xinjang UyÆ£ur Aptonom Rayoni}}Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni}}|usy = Шинҗаң Уйғур Аптоном Райони|rus = Синьцзян|rusr = Sin'czjan|lang1 = Kazakh}}{{longitem}}|lang2 = Kyrgyz}}{{longitemÅžincañ-UyÄŸur avtonom rayonu}}|lang3 = Oirat|lang3_content = ЗуунгарZuungar|order = st}}The general region of Xinjiang has been known by many different names in earlier times, in indigenous languages as well as other languages. These names include Altishahr, the historical Uyghur name (referring to "the six cities" of the Tarim), as well as Khotan, Khotay, Chinese Tartary, High Tartary, East Chagatay (it was eastern part of Chagatai Khanate), Moghulistan ("land of the Mongols"), Kashgaria, Little Bokhara, Serindia (due to Indian cultural influence),{{sfnp|Tyler|2004|p=3}} and, in Chinese, "Western Regions".{{sfnp|Hill |2009 |pp=xviii, 60}}In Chinese, under the Han dynasty, Xinjiang was known as Xiyu (), meaning "Western Regions". Between the 2nd century BCE and 2nd century CE the Han Empire established the Protectorate of the Western Regions or Xiyu Protectorate () in an effort to secure the profitable routes of the Silk Road.BOOK, Susan, Whitfield, Susan Whitfield, The Silk Road: trade, travel, war and faith,weblink registration, 2004, Serindia Publications, 27, The Western Regions during the Tang era were known as Qixi (). Qi refers to the Gobi Desert while Xi refers to the west. The Tang Empire had established the Protectorate General to Pacify the West or Anxi Protectorate () in 640 to control the region. During the Qing dynasty, the northern part of Xinjiang, Dzungaria was known as Zhunbu (, "Dzungar region") and the southern Tarim Basin was known as Huijiang (, "Muslim Frontier") before both regions were merged and became the region of "Xiyu Xinjiang", later simplified as "Xinjiang".The current Chinese name "Xinjiang", which literally means "New Frontier" or "New Borderland", was given during the Qing dynasty. According to Chinese statesman Zuo Zongtang's report to the Emperor of Qing, Xinjiang means an "old land newly returned" (), or the new old land. (Note that "returned" [gui æ­¸] here is an ideological term, which does not indicate a "return", but what ought to be, from the Chinese empire's point of view).{{NoteTag|The imperial-era Chinese word gui æ­¸ is not descriptive, but normative: It is a term which seeks to justify new conquests by presenting them as a naturally appropriate "return." It does not indicate that the territory already had been conquered earlier. Thus "Xinjiang" was also used in many other places newly conquered, but never were ruled by Chinese empires before, including in what is now Southern China.{{sfnp|Weinstein|2013|p=4}}}}
The term was also given to other areas conquered by Chinese empires, for instance, present-day Jinchuan County was known as "Jinchuan Xinjiang'". In the same manner, present-day Xinjiang was known as Xiyu Xinjiang ({{zh |c = 西域新疆 |l = Western Regions' New Frontier }}) and Gansu Xinjiang ({{zh |t = 甘肅新疆 |l = Gansu Province's New Frontier}}, especially for present-day eastern Xinjiang).WEB,weblink Cultivating and Guarding the West Regions: the Establishment of Xinjiang Province, China Central Television, zh, August 27, 2009, December 6, 2004,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111109133033weblink">weblink November 9, 2011, live, mdy-all, The name "East Turkestan" is frequently used in the diaspora communities today, and also refers to the independent republic of East Turkestan. The name was created by Russian sinologist Hyacinth to replace the term "Chinese Turkestan" in 1829.{{NoteTag|Bartholemew, the Scottish cartographer, as late as 1912 was using the term "Chinese Turkestan" in their world atlas.{{sfnp|Bellér-Hann|2007|p=34}}}} Also, "East Turkestan" was used traditionally to only refer to the Tarim Basin in the south, the modern Xinjiang area and Dzungaria being excluded.In 1955, Xinjiang Province was renamed Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The name that was originally proposed was simply "Xinjiang Autonomous Region". Saifuddin Azizi, the first chairman of Xinjiang, registered his strong objections to the proposed name with Mao Zedong, arguing that "autonomy is not given to mountains and rivers. It is given to particular nationalities." As a result, the administrative region would be named "Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region".{{sfnp|Bovingdon|2010|p=199}}

Description

(File:Xinjiang regions simplified.png|thumb|upright=1.2|left|Dzungaria (Red) and the Tarim Basin (Blue))File:Xinjiang regions.png|thumb|upright=1.2|left|Northern Xinjiang (Junggar Basin) (Yellow), Eastern Xinjiang- Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami PrefectureHami Prefecture(File:Altai, Tienschan-Orte.png|260px|thumb|left|Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Taklamakan) by the Tien Shan Mountains)Xinjiang consists of two main geographically, historically, and ethnically distinct regions with different historical names, Dzungaria north of the Tianshan Mountains and the Tarim Basin south of the Tianshan Mountains, before Qing China unified them into one political entity called Xinjiang province in 1884. At the time of the Qing conquest in 1759, Dzungaria was inhabited by steppe dwelling, nomadic Tibetan Buddhist Dzungar people, while the Tarim Basin was inhabited by sedentary, oasis dwelling, Turkic speaking Muslim farmers, now known as the Uyghur people. They were governed separately until 1884. The native Uyghur name for the Tarim Basin is Altishahr.The Qing dynasty was well aware of the differences between the former Buddhist Mongol area to the north of the Tian Shan and the Turkic Muslim area south of the Tian Shan, and ruled them in separate administrative units at first.{{sfnp|Liu|Faure |1996 |p=69}} However, Qing people began to think of both areas as part of one distinct region called Xinjiang.{{sfnp|Liu|Faure |1996 |p=70}} The very concept of Xinjiang as one distinct geographic identity was created by the Qing and it was originally not the native inhabitants who viewed it that way, but rather it was the Chinese who held that point of view.{{sfnp|Liu|Faure |1996 |p=67}} During the Qing rule, no sense of "regional identity" was held by ordinary Xinjiang people; rather, Xinjiang's distinct identity was given to the region by the Qing, since it had distinct geography, history and culture, while at the same time it was created by the Chinese, multicultural, settled by Han and Hui, and separated from Central Asia for over a century and a half.{{sfnp|Liu|Faure |1996 |p=77}}In the late 19th century, it was still being proposed by some people that two separate parts be created out of Xinjiang, the area north of the Tianshan and the area south of the Tianshan, while it was being argued over whether to turn Xinjiang into a province.{{sfnp|Liu|Faure |1996 |p=78}}Xinjiang is a large, sparsely populated area, spanning over 1.6 million km2 (comparable in size to Iran), which takes up about one sixth of the country's territory. Xinjiang borders the Tibet Autonomous Region and India's Leh District to the south and Qinghai and Gansu provinces to the southeast, Mongolia to the east, Russia to the north, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India to the west.The east-west chain of the Tian Shan separate Dzungaria in the north from the Tarim Basin in the south. Dzungaria is a dry steppe and the Tarim Basin contains the massive Taklamakan Desert, surrounded by oases. In the east is the Turpan Depression. In the west, the Tian Shan split, forming the Ili River valley.

History

{{History of Xinjiang}}

Early history

{{Further|Western Regions|Kingdom of Khotan|Shule Kingdom|Shanshan|Saka|Tocharians|Sogdia}}According to J. P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair, the Chinese describe the existence of "white people with long hair" or the Bai people in the Shan Hai Jing, who lived beyond their northwestern border.The well-preserved Tarim mummies, today displayed at the Ürümqi Museum and dated to the 2nd millennium BC (4000 years ago), have been found in the same area of the Tarim Basin. Between 2009-2015, the remains of 92 individuals found at the Xiaohe Tomb complex were analyzed for Y-DNA and mtDNA markers. Genetic analyses of the mummies showed that the maternal lineages of the Xiaohe people originated from both East Asia and West Eurasia, whereas the paternal lineages all originated from West Eurasia.JOURNAL, Chunxiang Li, Hongjie Li, Yinqiu Cui, Chengzhi Xie, Dawei Cai, Wenying Li, Victor H Mair, Zhi Xu, Quanchao Zhang, Idelis Abuduresule, Li Jin, Hong Zhu and Hui Zhou, Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age, BMC Biology, 8, 15, 2010, 20163704, 2838831, 10.1186/1741-7007-8-15, Various nomadic tribes, such as the Yuezhi, Saka, and Wusun were probably part of the migration of Indo-European speakers who were settled in eastern Central Asia (possibly as far as Gansu) at that time. The Ordos culture in northern China east of the Yuezhi, is another example. By the time the Han dynasty under Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) wrestled the Western Regions of the Tarim Basin away from its previous overlords, the Xiongnu, it was inhabited by various peoples, such as Indo-European Tocharians in Turfan and Kucha and Indo-Iranian Saka peoples centered around Kashgar and Khotan.BOOK, Xavier, Tremblay, 2007, The Spread of Buddhism in Serindia: Buddhism Among Iranians, Tocharians and Turks before the 13th Century, Ann Heirman, yes, Stephan Peter Bumbacker, The Spread of Buddhism, Leiden & Boston, Koninklijke Brill, 77, 978-90-04-15830-6, Nomadic cultures such as the Yuezhi (Rouzhi) are documented in the area of Xinjiang where the first known reference to the Yuezhi was made in 645 BC by the Chinese Guan Zhong in his work Guanzi (, Guanzi Essays: 73: 78: 80: 81). He described the Yúshì (or Niúshì ), as a people from the north-west who supplied jade to the Chinese from the nearby mountains (also known as Yushi) in Gansu.Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Saces, {{ISBN|2-87772-337-2}}, p. 59. The supply of jadeBOOK, Michael, Dillon, China: A Historical and Cultural Dictionary, Psychology Press, 1998, 978-0-7007-0439-2, from the Tarim Basin from ancient times is well documented archaeologically: "It is well known that ancient Chinese rulers had a strong attachment to jade. All of the jade items excavated from the tomb of Fuhao of the Shang dynasty, more than 750 pieces, were from Khotan in modern Xinjiang. As early as the mid-first millennium BC, the Yuezhi engaged in the jade trade, of which the major consumers were the rulers of agricultural China."{{sfnp|Liu|2001|pp=267–268}}{{Full citation needed|date=August 2018|reason=Did not realize source was missing until conversion to sfnp template}}File:RomanandHanEmpiresAD1.png|thumb|upright=1.2|The Roman Empire and the Han Empire around AD 1AD 1File:Tarimbecken 3. Jahrhundert.png|thumb|The Tarim BasinTarim BasinTraversed by the Northern Silk Road,WEB,weblink C. Michael Hogan, Silk Road, North China, The Megalithic Portal, 2007, 2008-11-26,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131002140921weblink">weblink October 2, 2013, live, the Tarim and Dzungaria regions were known as the Western Regions. It was inhabited by various peoples, including Indo-European Tocharians in Turfan and Kucha and Indo-Iranian Saka peoples centered around Kashgar and Khotan. At the beginning of the Han dynasty (206 BC–AD 220), the region was subservient to the Xiongnu, a powerful nomadic people based in modern Mongolia. In the 2nd century BC, the Han dynasty made preparations for war against Xiongnu when Emperor Wu of Han dispatched the explorer Zhang Qian to explore the mysterious kingdoms to the west and to form an alliance with the Yuezhi people in order to combat the Xiongnu. As a result of these battles, the Chinese controlled the strategic region from the Ordos and Gansu corridor to Lop Nor. They succeeded in separating the Xiongnu from the Qiang peoples to the south, and also gained direct access to the Western Regions. Han China sent Zhang Qian as an envoy to the states in the region, beginning several decades of struggle between the Xiongnu and Han China over dominance of the region, eventually ending in Chinese success. In 60 BC Han China established the Protectorate of the Western Regions () at Wulei (, near modern Luntai) to oversee the entire region as far west as the Pamir Mountains, which would remain under the influence and suzerainty of the Han dynasty with some interruptions. For instance, it fell out of their control during the civil war against Wang Mang (r. AD 9–23). It was brought back under Han control in AD 91 due to the efforts of the general Ban Chao.The Western Jin dynasty succumbed to successive waves of invasions by nomads from the north at the beginning of the 4th century. The short-lived kingdoms that ruled northwestern China one after the other, including Former Liang, Former Qin, Later Liang, and Western Liáng, all attempted to maintain the protectorate, with varying degrees of success. After the final reunification of northern China under the Northern Wei empire, its protectorate controlled what is now the southeastern region of Xinjiang. Local states such as Shule, Yutian, Guizi and Qiemo controlled the western region, while the central region around Turpan was controlled by Gaochang, remnants of a state (Northern Liang) that once ruled part of what is now Gansu province in northwestern China.File:Westerner on a camel.jpg|thumb|upright=.85|A Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel, sancai ceramic statuette, Tang dynastyTang dynastyDuring the Tang dynasty, a series of expeditions were conducted against the Western Turkic Khaganate, and their vassals, the oasis states of southern Xinjiang.BOOK, Patricia Buckley, Ebrey, The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, 2010, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-12433-1, 111, Campaigns against the oasis states began under Emperor Taizong with the annexation of Gaochang in 640.BOOK, Howard J., Wechsler, Denis, Twitchett, Kao-tsung (reign 649-83) and the Empress Wu: The Inheritor and the Usurper, Denis Twitchett, John Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China, Volume 3: Sui and T'ang China Part I, 1979, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-21446-9, 228, The nearby kingdom of Karasahr was captured by the Tang in 644 and the kingdom of Kucha was conquered in 649.BOOK, Jonathan Karem, Skaff, Nicola Di Cosmo, Military Culture in Imperial China, 2009, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-03109-8, 183–185, The Tang Dynasty then established the Protectorate General to Pacify the West () or Anxi Protectorate in 640 to control the region.During the devastating Anshi Rebellion, which nearly led to the destruction of the Tang dynasty, Tibet invaded the Tang on a wide front, from Xinjiang to Yunnan. It occupied the Tang capital of Chang'an in 763 for 16 days, and took control of southern Xinjiang by the end of the century. At the same time, the Uyghur Khaganate took control of northern Xinjiang, as well as much of the rest of Central Asia, including Mongolia.As both Tibet and the Uyghur Khaganate declined in the mid-9th century, the Kara-Khanid Khanate, which was a confederation of Turkic tribes such as the Karluks, Chigils and Yaghmas,BOOK, A history of Inner Asia, Svatopluk, Soucek, Chapter 5 – The Qarakhanids, Cambridge University Press, 2000, 978-0-521-65704-4,weblink took control of western Xinjiang in the 10th century and the 11th century. Meanwhile, after the Uyghur Khaganate in Mongolia had been smashed by the Kirghiz in 840, branches of the Uyghurs established themselves in Qocha (Karakhoja) and Beshbalik, near the modern cities of Turfan and Urumchi. This Uyghur state remained in eastern Xinjiang until the 13th century, though it was subject to foreign overlords during that time. The Kara-Khanids converted to Islam. The Uyghur state in eastern Xinjiang remained Manichaean, but later converted to Buddhism.In 1132, remnants of the Liao dynasty from Manchuria entered Xinjiang, fleeing the rebellion of their neighbors, the Jurchens. They established a new empire, the Qara Khitai, which ruled over both the Kara-Khanid-held and Uyghur-held parts of the Tarim Basin for the next century. Although Khitan and Chinese were the primary languages of administration, the empire also administered in Persian and Uyghur.The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History: Between China and the Islamic World, pp. 94

Islamisation of Xinjiang

{{Islam and China|places}}The historical area of what is contemporary Xinjiang consisted of the distinct areas of the Tarim Basin and Dzungaria, and was originally populated by Indo-European Tocharian and Iranic Saka peoples who practiced the Buddhist religion. The Turfan and Tarim Basins were populated by speakers of Tocharian languages,{{sfnp|Millward |2007 |p=15}} with "Europoid" mummies found in the region.{{sfnp|Millward |2007 |p=16}} The area was subjected to Islamicisation at the hands of Turkic Muslims. The cultural change was carried out in the 9th and 10th centuries by two different Turkic kingdoms, the Buddhist Uyghur Kingdom of Qocho and the Muslim Karluk Kara-Khanid Khanate. Halfway through the 10th century the Saka Buddhist Kingdom of Khotan came under attack by the Turkic Muslim Karakhanid ruler Musa, and in what proved to be a pivotal moment in the Islamicisation of the Tarim Basin, the Karakhanid leader Yusuf Qadir Khan conquered Khotan around 1006.{{sfnp|Millward |2007 |p=55}}Professor James A. Millward described the original Uyghurs as physically Mongoloid, giving as an example the images in Bezeklik at Temple 9 of the Uyghur patrons, until they began to mix with the Tarim Basin's original eastern Iranian inhabitants.{{sfnp|Millward |2007 |p=43}} The modern Uyghurs are now a mixed ethnic group of East Asian Mongoloid and Europoid Caucasian populations.BOOK, Carter Vaughn Findley, The Turks in World History,weblink Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-988425-4, 242, 2004-11-11, WEB,weblink Uyghurs are hybrids, Khan, Razib, March 28, 2008, Discover Magazine, August 22, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111130171248weblink">weblink November 30, 2011, live, WEB,weblink Yes, Uyghurs are a new hybrid population, Khan, Razib, September 22, 2009, Discover Magazine, August 22, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150925202358weblink">weblink September 25, 2015, live,

Mongol period

{{see also|Mongol Empire|Yuan dynasty|Chagatai Khanate|Moghulistan|Kara Del|Yarkent Khanate|Dzungar Khanate}}File:Mongolia XVI.png|thumb|left|Mongol states, 14th–17th century: 1.Northern Yuan dynasty 2. Four Oirat. 3.Moghulistan 4.Qara DelQara DelAfter Genghis Khan unified Mongolia and began his advance west, the Uyghur state in the Turpan-Urumchi area offered its allegiance to the Mongols in 1209, contributing taxes and troops to the Mongol imperial effort. In return, the Uyghur rulers retained control of their kingdom. By contrast, Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire conquered the Qara Khitai in 1218.Xinjiang was a stronghold of Ogedai and later came under the control of his descendant Kaidu. This branch of the Mongol family kept the Yuan dynasty at bay until their rule came to an end.During the era of the Mongol Empire, the Yuan dynasty vied with the Chagatai Khanate for rule over the area, with the latter taking control of most of this region. After the break-up of the Chagatai Khanate into smaller khanates in the mid-14th century, the region fractured and was ruled by numerous Persianized Mongol Khans simultaneously, including the ones of Moghulistan (with the assistance of the local Dughlat Emirs), Uigurstan (later Turpan), and Kashgaria. These leaders engaged in wars with each other and the Timurids of Transoxania to the west and the Oirats to the east, the successor Chagatai regime based in Mongolia and in China. In the 17th century, the Dzungars established an empire over much of the region.The Mongolian Dzungar was the collective identity of several Oirat tribes that formed and maintained one of the last nomadic empires. The Dzungar Khanate covered the area called Dzungaria and stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan, and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia. Most of this area was only renamed "Xinjiang" by the Chinese after the fall of the Dzungar Empire. It existed from the early 17th century to the mid-18th century.File:Qing Dzungar wars.jpg|thumb|Map showing Dzungar–Qing Wars between Qing Dynasty and Dzungar KhanateDzungar KhanateThe Turkic Muslim sedentary people of the Tarim Basin were originally ruled by the Chagatai Khanate while the nomadic Buddhist Oirat Mongol in Dzungaria ruled over the Dzungar Khanate. The Naqshbandi Sufi Khojas, descendants of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, had replaced the Chagatayid Khans as the ruling authority of the Tarim Basin in the early 17th century. There was a struggle between two factions of Khojas, the Afaqi (White Mountain) faction and the Ishaqi (Black Mountain) faction. The Ishaqi defeated the Afaqi, which resulted in the Afaq Khoja inviting the 5th Dalai Lama, the leader of the Tibetans, to intervene on his behalf in 1677. The 5th Dalai Lama then called upon his Dzungar Buddhist followers in the Dzungar Khanate to act on this invitation. The Dzungar Khanate then conquered the Tarim Basin in 1680, setting up the Afaqi Khoja as their puppet ruler.After converting to Islam, the descendants of the previously Buddhist Uyghurs in Turfan failed to retain memory of their ancestral legacy and falsely believed that the "infidel Kalmuks" (Dzungars) were the ones who built Buddhist monuments in their area.BOOK, Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, Bernard Lewis, Johannes Hendrik Kramers, Charles Pellat, Joseph Schacht, The Encyclopaedia of Islam,weblink 1998, Brill, 677,

Qing dynasty

(File:Battle of Oroi-Jalatu.jpg|thumb|right|The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1756 between the Manchu and Oirat armies)File:Battle at Awabat-chuang.jpg|thumb|right|A scene of the Qing campaign against rebels in AltishahrAltishahrThe Turkic Muslims of the Turfan and Kumul Oases then submitted to the Qing dynasty of China, and asked China to free them from the Dzungars. The Qing accepted the rulers of Turfan and Kumul as Qing vassals. The Qing dynasty waged war against the Dzungars for decades until finally defeating them and then Qing Manchu Bannermen carried out the Dzungar genocide, nearly wiping them from existence and depopulating Dzungaria. The Qing then freed the Afaqi Khoja leader Burhan-ud-din and his brother Khoja Jihan from their imprisonment by the Dzungars, and appointed them to rule as Qing vassals over the Tarim Basin. The Khoja brothers decided to renege on this deal and declare themselves as independent leaders of the Tarim Basin. The Qing and the Turfan leader Emin Khoja crushed their revolt and China then took full control of both Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin by 1759.The Manchu Qing dynasty of China gained control over eastern Xinjiang as a result of a long struggle with the Dzungars that began in the 17th century. In 1755, with the help of the Oirat noble Amursana, the Qing attacked Ghulja and captured the Dzungar khan. After Amursana's request to be declared Dzungar khan went unanswered, he led a revolt against the Qing. Over the next two years, Qing armies destroyed the remnants of the Dzungar Khanate and many Han Chinese and (Hui) moved into the pacified areas.{{sfnp|Millward |2007 |p=98}}File:Qing Empire circa 1820 EN.svg|thumb|left|The Qing Empire ca. 1820]]The native Dzungar Oirat Mongols suffered heavily from the brutal campaigns and a simultaneous smallpox epidemic. One writer, Wei Yuan, described the resulting desolation in what is now northern Xinjiang as: "an empty plain for several thousand li, with no Oirat yurt except those surrendered."Wei Yuan, 聖武記 Sheng Wu Ji, vol. 4. It has been estimated that 80% of the 600,000 or more Dzungars were destroyed by a combination of disease and warfare,Chu, Wen-Djang (1966). The Moslem Rebellion in Northwest China 1862–1878. Mouton & co.. p. 1. and it took generations for it to recover.{{sfnp|Tyler|2004 |p=55}}Han and Hui merchants were initially only allowed to trade in the Tarim Basin, while Han and Hui settlement in the Tarim Basin was banned, until the Muhammad Yusuf Khoja invasion, in 1830 when the Qing rewarded the merchants for fighting off Khoja by allowing them to settle down.{{sfnp|Millward |2007 |p=113}} Robert Michell stated that in 1870 there were many Chinese of all occupations living in Dzungaria and they were well settled in the area, while in Turkestan (Tarim Basin) there were only a few Chinese merchants and soldiers in several garrisons among the Muslim population.{{sfnp|Martin|1847 |p=21}}{{vn|date=August 2018|reason=Text says Robert Michell, reference is to Martin 1847}}The Ush rebellion in 1765 by Uyghurs against the Manchus occurred after Uyghur women were gang raped by the servants and son of Manchu official Su-cheng.BOOK, Millward, James A., Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759–1864, 1998, Stanford University Press, 0804797927, 124,weblink It was said that Ush Muslims had long wanted to sleep on [Sucheng and son's] hides and eat their flesh. because of the rape of Uyghur Muslim women for months by the Manchu official Sucheng and his son.BOOK, Millward, James A., Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang, 2007, Columbia University Press, 978-0231139243, 108, illustrated,weblink The Manchu Emperor ordered that the Uyghur rebel town be massacred, the Qing forces enslaved all the Uyghur children and women and slaughtered the Uyghur men.BOOK, Millward, James A., Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang, 2007, Columbia University Press, 978-0231139243, 109, illustrated,weblink Manchu soldiers and Manchu officials regularly having sex with or raping Uyghur women caused massive hatred and anger by Uyghur Muslims to Manchu rule.BOOK, Millward, James A., Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759–1864, 1998, Stanford University Press, 0804797927, 206–207,weblink After reconquering Xinjiang from the Tajik adventurer Yaqub Beg in the late 1870s, the Qing dynasty established Xinjiang ("new frontier") as a province in 1884,{{sfnp|Mesny |1905 |p=5}} formally applying to it the political systems of the rest of China and dropping the old names of Zhunbu (, Dzungar region) and Huijiang, "Muslimland".{{sfnp|Tyler|2004 |p=61}}WEB,weblink zh:从 斌静案 看清代驻疆官员与新疆的稳定, zh, Viewing the Stability of Xinjiang Officials and Xinjiang in the Case of Bin Jing, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160420074720weblink">weblink April 20, 2016, April 16, 2011, After Xinjiang was converted into a province by the Qing, the provincialisation and reconstruction programs initiated by the Qing resulted in the Chinese government helping Uyghurs migrate from southern Xinjiang to other areas of the province, like the area between Qitai and the capital, which was formerly nearly completely inhabited by Han Chinese, and other areas like Ürümqi, Tacheng (Tabarghatai), Yili, Jinghe, Kur Kara Usu, Ruoqiang, Lop Nor, and the Tarim River's lower reaches.{{sfnp|Millward |2007 |p=151}} It was during Qing times that Uyghurs were settled throughout all of Xinjiang, from their original home cities in the western Tarim Basin.

Republic of China

{{see also|History of the Republic of China|Sinkiang Province, Republic of China|First East Turkestan Republic|Second East Turkestan Republic}}(File:Governor Sheng Shicai.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Governor Sheng Shicai ruled between 1933 and 1944)File:Kuomintang Party in Xinjiang 1942.jpg|thumb|KuomintangKuomintangIn 1912, the Qing dynasty was replaced by the Republic of China. Yuan Dahua, the last Qing governor of Xinjiang, fled. One of his subordinates, Yang Zengxin, took control of the province and acceded in name to the Republic of China in March of the same year. Through a balancing of mixed ethnic constituencies, Yang maintained control over Xinjiang until his assassination in 1928 after the Northern Expedition of the Kuomintang.WEB, Victor C., Falkenheim, Chiao-Min, Hsieh,weblink Xinjiang: autonomous region, China, August 9, 2018, Online article added July 26, 1999, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2018-08-19,weblink August 14, 2018, live, The Kumul Rebellion and other rebellions arose against his successor Jin Shuren in the early 1930s throughout Xinjiang, involving Uyghurs, other Turkic groups, and Hui (Muslim) Chinese. Jin drafted White Russians to crush the revolt. In the Kashgar region on November 12, 1933, the short-lived self-proclaimed First East Turkestan Republic was declared, after some debate over whether the proposed independent state should be called "East Turkestan" or "Uyghuristan".R. Michael Feener, "Islam in World Cultures: Comparative Perspectives", ABC-CLIO, 2004, {{ISBN|1-57607-516-8}}NEWS,weblink Uighurs and China's Xinjiang Region, cfr.org, October 13, 2018,weblink September 13, 2018, live, The region claimed by the ETR in theory encompassed Kashgar, Khotan and Aqsu prefectures in southwestern Xinjiang.{{sfnp|Millward |2007 |p=24}} The Chinese Muslim Kuomintang 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) destroyed the army of the First East Turkestan Republic at the Battle of Kashgar (1934), bringing the Republic to an end after the Chinese Muslims executed the two Emirs of the Republic, Abdullah Bughra and Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra. The Soviet Union invaded the province in the Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang. In the Xinjiang War (1937), the entire province was brought under the control of northeast Han warlord Sheng Shicai, who ruled Xinjiang for the next decade with close support from the Soviet Union, many of whose ethnic and security policies Sheng instituted in Xinjiang. The Soviet Union maintained a military base in Xinjiang and had several military and economic advisors deployed in the region. Sheng invited a group of Chinese Communists to Xinjiang, including Mao Zedong's brother Mao Zemin, but in 1943, fearing a conspiracy, Sheng executed them all, including Mao Zemin. In 1944, then the President and Premier of China Chiang Kai-shek, was informed of Shicai's intention of joining the Soviet Union by Soviets, decided to shift him out of Xinjiang to Chongqing as the Minister of Agriculture and Forest.BOOK, Dilemmas of Victory, Jeremy Brown, Paul Pickowicz, Harvard University Press, 2010, 978-0-6740-4702-0, 186, More than one decade of Sheng's era had stopped. However, a short-lived Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic was established in that year, which lasted until 1949 in what is now Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture (Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay Districts) in northern Xinjiang.

Modern China (People's Republic of China)

{{see also|Incorporation of Xinjiang into the People's Republic of China|Migration to Xinjiang}}(File:Second ETR in China.svg|The Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic existed in what is now the Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay districts of Xinjiang|thumb|right)During the Ili Rebellion the Soviet Union backed Uyghur separatists to form the Second East Turkestan Republic (2nd ETR) in Ili region while the majority of Xinjiang was under Republic of China Kuomintang control. The People's Liberation Army entered Xinjiang in 1949, then the Kuomintang commander Tao Zhiyue and the government's chairman Burhan Shahidi surrendered the province to them. Five ETR leaders who were to negotiate with the Chinese over the ETR's sovereignty died in an air crash in 1949 in Soviet airspace over the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic.NEWS, Amy Goodman, July 8, 2009,weblink Uyghur Protests Widen as Xinjiang Unrest Flares, Axis of Logic, July 20, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110707203326weblink">weblink July 7, 2011, live, The autonomous region of the PRC was established on October 1, 1955, replacing the province. In 1955 (the first modern census in China was taken in 1953), Uyghurs were counted as 73% of Xinjiang's total population of 5.11 million.{{sfnp|Bovingdon|2010|p=199}} Although Xinjiang as a whole is designated as a "Uyghur Autonomous Region", since 1954 more than 50% of Xinjiang's land area are designated autonomous areas for 13 native non-Uyghur groups.{{sfnp|Bovingdon|2010|pp=43–46}} The modern Uyghur people experienced ethnogenesis especially from 1955, when the PRC officially recognized that ethnic category – in opposition to the Han – of formerly separately self-identified oasis peoples.{{sfnp|Hopper|Webber|2009|p=176}}Southern Xinjiang is home to the majority of the Uyghur population (about nine million people). The majority of the Han (90%) population of Xinjiang, which is mostly urban, are in Northern Xinjiang.{{sfnp|Guo |Guo |2007 |p=220}}{{sfnp|Guo |Hickey |2009 |p=164}} This situation has been followed by an imbalance in the economic situation between the two ethnic groups, since the Northern Junghar Basin (Dzungaria) has been more developed than the Uygher south.{{sfnp|Howell |2009 |p=37}}Since China's economic reform from the late 1970s has exacerbated uneven regional development, more Uyghurs have migrated to Xinjiang cities and some Hans have also migrated to Xinjiang for independent economic advancement. Increased ethnic contact and labor competition coincided with Uyghur separatist terrorism from the 1990s, such as the 1997 Ürümqi bus bombings.{{sfnp|Hopper|Webber|2009|pp=173–175}}In 2000, Uyghurs comprised 45% of Xinjiang's population, but only 13% of Ürümqi's population. Despite having 9% of Xinjiang's population, Ürümqi accounts for 25% of the region's GDP, and many rural Uyghurs have been migrating to that city to seek work in the dominant light, heavy, and petrochemical industries.{{sfnp|Hopper|Webber|2009|pp=178–179}} Hans in Xinjiang are demographically older, better-educated, and work in higher-paying professions than their Uyghur cohabitants. Hans are more likely to cite business reasons for moving to Ürümqi, while some Uyghurs also cite trouble with the law back home and family reasons for their moving to Ürümqi.{{sfnp|Hopper|Webber|2009|p=184}} Hans and Uyghurs are equally represented in Ürümqi's floating population that works mostly in commerce. Self-segregation within the city is widespread, in terms of residential concentration, employment relationships, and a social norm of endogamy.{{sfnp|Hopper|Webber|2009|pp=187–188}} In 2010, Uyghurs constituted a majority in the Tarim Basin, and a mere plurality in Xinjiang as a whole.{{sfnp|Bovingdon|2010|p=11}}Xinjiang has been a focal point of ethnic and other tensions:WEB, Central Asia-Caucasus Institute Analyst,weblink February 16, 2000, January 29, 2010, Rudelson, Justin Ben-Adam, Uyghur "separatism": China's policies in Xinjiang fuel dissent,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120229150459weblink">weblink February 29, 2012, dead, JOURNAL, Gunaratna, Rohan, Rohan Gunaratna, 59, Pereire, Kenneth George, 2006, An al-Qaeda associate group operating in China?, 4, 2, China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly,weblink Since the Ghulja Incident, numerous attacks including attacks on buses, clashes between ETIM militants and Chinese security forces, assassination attempts, attempts to attack Chinese key installations and government buildings have taken place, though many cases go unreported., dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110106144335weblink">weblink January 6, 2011, incidents include the 2007 Xinjiang raid,NEWS,weblink November 26, 2008, Chinese police destroy terrorist camp in Xinjiang, one policeman killed, CCTV International, October 1, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090103093619weblink">weblink January 3, 2009, live, a thwarted 2008 suicide bombing attempt on a China Southern Airlines flight,Elizabeth Van Wie Davis, "China confronts its Uyghur threat {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080512201206weblink |date=May 12, 2008 }}," Asia Times Online, April 18, 2008. and the 2008 Xinjiang attack which resulted in the deaths of sixteen police officers four days before the Beijing Olympics.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Ambush in China Raises Concerns as Olympics Near, Andrew, Jacobs, August 5, 2008, March 27, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090410102057weblink">weblink April 10, 2009, live, NEWS,weblink Waterhouse Caulfield Cup breakthrough, July 7, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091004192759weblink">weblink October 4, 2009, dead, Culturally, Xinjiang maintains 81 public libraries and 23 museums, compared to none of each in 1949, and Xinjiang has 98 newspapers in 44 languages, up from 4 newspapers in 1952. According to official statistics, the ratios of doctors, medical workers, medical clinics, and hospital beds to people surpass the national average, and immunization rates have reached 85%.WEB,weblink VI. Progress in Education, Science and Technology, Culture and Health Work, May 26, 2003, December 31, 2010, History and Development of Xinjiang, State Council of the People's Republic of China,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110129173414weblink">weblink January 29, 2011, live,

Administrative divisions

Xinjiang is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions: four prefecture-level cities, six prefectures, and five autonomous prefectures (including the sub-provincial autonomous prefecture of Ili, which in turn has two of the seven prefectures within its jurisdiction) for Mongol, Kyrgyz, Kazakh and Hui minorities. At the end of the year 2017, the total population of Xinjiang is 24.45 million.中国统计年鉴—2018These are then divided into 13 districts, 25 county-level cities, 62 counties, and 6 autonomous counties. Ten of the county-level cities do not belong to any prefecture, and are de facto administered by the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. Sub-level divisions of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is shown in the adjacent picture and described in the table below:{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 0 auto 0 auto; font-size:90%; text-align: center;"! colspan="14" |Administrative divisions of Xinjiang(File:Xinjiang prfc map2alt.png|500px){{Color box|#7C9973|border=darkgray}} {{small|Prefecture-level city district areas}} {{Color box|#729996|border=darkgray}} {{small|County-level cities}}!! scope="col" rowspan="2" | No.!! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Division codeWEB, zh-hans,weblink zh:2014å¹´12月中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码, Administrative code of the county or above in the People's Republic of China in December 2014, Ministry of Civil Affairs, Archived copy, December 12, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402113603weblink">weblink April 2, 2015, live, Ministry of Civil Affairs, !! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Division!! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Area in km2{{zh}}BOOK, zh-hans, Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics, China Statistics Print, zh:深圳统计年鉴2014, Shenzhen Statistical Yearbook 2014,weblink 2015-05-29, Archived copy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150512184740weblink">weblink May 12, 2015, dead, !! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Population 2010BOOK, Compiled by 国务院人口普查办公室 [Department of Population Census of the State Council], 国家统计局人口和就业统计司编 [Department of Population and Employment Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics], zh:中国2010年人口普查分乡, 镇, 街道资料, zh, China 2010 Census by Country, Town, Street Information, 2012, Z Hongguo Statistics Press, Beijing, 978-7-5037-6660-2, 992517929, !! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Seat!! scope="col" colspan="4" | DivisionsBOOK, zh-hans, Ministry of Civil Affairs, zh:中国民政统计年鉴2014, August 2014, China Statistics Print, China Civil Affairs Statistics Yearbook 2014, 978-7-5037-7130-9, Ministry of Civil Affairs, !! scope="col" width="45" | Districts!! scope="col" width="45" | Counties!! scope="col" width="45" | Aut. counties!! scope="col" width="45" | CL cities style="font-weight: bold;"  ! 650000 !!Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous RegionÃœrümqi city >| 25! 1 !! 650100 !! Ãœrümqi cityTianshan District > bgcolor="grey"|! 2 !! 650200 !! Karamay cityKaramay District > bgcolor="grey"! 3 !! 650400 !! Turpan cityGaochang District > bgcolor="grey"|! 4 !! 650500 !! Hami cityYizhou District, Hami>Yizhou District 1 bgcolor="grey"| 1! 5 !! 652300 !! Changji Autonomous PrefectureChangji city > 4 1 2! 6 !! 652700 !! Bortala Autonomous PrefectureBole, Xinjiang>Bole city bgcolor="grey" 2! 7 !! 652800 !! Bayingolin Autonomous PrefectureKorla city > 7 1 1! 8 !! 652900 !! Aksu PrefectureAksu, Xinjiang>Aksu city bgcolor="grey" 1! 9 !! 653000 !! Kizilsu Autonomous PrefectureArtux city > 3 bgcolor="grey"| 1! 10 !! 653100 !! Kashi PrefectureKashgar>Kashi city bgcolor="grey"| 1! 11 !! 653200 !! Hotan PrefectureHotan city > 7 bgcolor="grey"| 1 bgcolor="#98fb98"! 12 !! 654000 !! Ili Autonomous PrefectureYining City>Yining city bgcolor="grey"| 3 *! 12a !! 654200 !! Tacheng Prefecture*Tacheng city > 4 1 2! 12b !! 654300 !! Altay Prefecture*Altay City>Altay city bgcolor="grey" 1 style = "background: lightgrey; height: 2pt;" bgcolor="lightyellow"! A !! 659001 !! Shihezi cityHongshan Subdistrict, Shihezi>Hongshan Subdistrict bgcolor="grey" bgcolor="grey"| 1 bgcolor="lightyellow"! B !! 659002 !! Wujiaqu cityRenmin Road Subdistrict, Wujiaqu>Renmin Road Subdistrict bgcolor="grey" bgcolor="grey"| 1 bgcolor="lightyellow"! C !! 659003 !! Tumxuk cityQiganquele Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey" 1 bgcolor="lightyellow"! D !! 659004 !! Aral cityJinyinchuan Road Subdistrict> bgcolor="grey" 1 bgcolor="lightyellow"! E !! 659005 !! Beitun cityBeitun Town>Beitun town bgcolor="grey" bgcolor="grey"| 1 bgcolor="lightyellow"! F !! 659006 !! Tiemenguan cityChengqu Subdistrict, Tiemenguan>Chengqu Subdistrict bgcolor="grey" bgcolor="grey"| 1 bgcolor="lightyellow"! G !! 659007 !! Shuanghe cityTasierhai town > bgcolor="grey" 1 bgcolor="lightyellow"! H !! 659008 !! Kokdala cityKokdala Town>Kokdala town bgcolor="grey" bgcolor="grey"| 1 bgcolor="lightyellow"! I !! 659009 !! Kunyu cityKunyu Town>Kunyu town bgcolor="grey" bgcolor="grey"| 1 {{legendSub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China >border = 1px solid #AAAAAA}} {{legendXinjiang Production and Construction Corps cities |border = 1px solid #AAAAAA}}
  • – Altay Prefecture or Tacheng Prefecture are subordinate to Ili Prefecture. / The population or area figures do not include Altay Prefecture or Tacheng Prefecture which are subordinate to Ili Prefecture.
{|class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="text-font:90%; width:auto; text-align:center; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"! colspan="5" |Administrative divisions in Uyghur, Chinese, and varieties of romanizations! English !! Uyghur !! SASM/GNC Uyghur Pinyin !! Chinese !! PinyinXinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region >شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى}} Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr ZìzhìqūÜrümqi city >ئۈرۈمچى شەھىرى}} Ürümqi Xäĥiri Wūlǔmùqí ShìKaramay city >قاراماي شەھىرى}} K̂aramay Xäĥiri Kèlāmǎyī ShìTurpan city >تۇرپان شەھىرى}} Turpan Xäĥiri Tǔlǔfān ShìHami City>Hami city {{ug-textonly| Hāmì ShìChangji Hui Autonomous Prefecture >سانجى خۇيزۇ ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى}} Sanji Huyzu Aptonom Oblasti Chāngjí Huízú ZìzhìzhōuBortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture >بۆرتالا موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى}} Börtala Mongĝul Aptonom Oblasti Bó'ěrtǎlā Měnggǔ ZìzhìzhōuBayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture >بايىنغولىن موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى}} Bayinĝolin Mongĝul Aptonom Oblasti Bāyīnguōlèng Měnggǔ ZìzhìzhōuAksu Prefecture >ئاقسۇ ۋىلايىتى}} Ak̂su Vilayiti Ākèsū DìqūKizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture >قىزىلسۇ قىرغىز ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى}} K̂izilsu K̂irĝiz Aptonom Oblasti Kèzīlèsū Kē'ěrkèzī ZìzhìzhōuKashgar Prefecture>Kashi Prefecture {{ug-textonly| Kāshí DìqūHotan Prefecture >خوتەن ۋىلايىتى}} Hotän Vilayiti Hétián DìqūIli Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture >ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى}} Ili K̂azak̂ Aptonom Oblasti Yīlí Hāsàkè ZìzhìzhōuTacheng Prefecture >تارباغاتاي ۋىلايىتى}} Tarbaĝatay Vilayiti Tǎchéng DìqūAltay Prefecture >ئالتاي ۋىلايىتى}} Altay Vilayiti Ālètài DìqūShihezi city >شىخەنزە شەھىرى}} Xihänzä Xäĥiri Shíhézǐ ShìAral, Xinjiang>Aral city {{ug-textonly| Ālā'ěr ShìTumxuk city >تۇمشۇق شەھىرى}} Tumxuk̂ Xäĥiri Túmùshūkè ShìWujiaqu city >ۋۇجياچۈ شەھىرى}} Vujyaqü Xäĥiri Wǔjiāqú ShìBeitun, Xinjiang>Beitun city {{ug-textonly| Běitún ShìTiemenguan City>Tiemenguan city {{ug-textonly| Tiĕménguān ShìShuanghe city >قوشئۆگۈز شەھىرى}} K̂oxögüz Xäĥiri Shuānghé ShìKokdala city >كۆكدالا شەھىرى}} Kökdala Xäĥiri Kěkèdálā ShìKunyu, Xinjiang>Kunyu city {{ug-textonly| Kūnyù Shì

Urban areas{|class"wikitable sortable collapsible" style"font-size:90%;"

! colspan="6" | Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities!#!!City!!style ="background-color: #aaaaff;"|Urban area!!style ="background-color: #aaffaa;"|District area!!style ="background-color: #ffaaaa;"|City properBOOK, Compiled by 国务院人口普查办公室 [Department of Population Census of the State Council], 国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 [Department of Population and Social Science and Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics], 2012, zh:中国2010年人口普查分县资料, Beijing, China Statistics Print, 978-7-5037-6659-6, !!Census dateÜrümqi>|2010-11-01Korla>''part of Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture''}}>|2010-11-01Yining>''part of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture''}}>|2010-11-01Karamay>|2010-11-01Shihezi>|2010-11-01Hami{{efn-lr>name=HamiYizhou District, Hami>Yizhou after census.}}310,500472,175572,4002010-11-01Kashgar>Kashi310,448506,640{{smallpart of Kashgar Prefecture>Kashi Prefecture}}2010-11-01Changji>''part of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture''}}>|2010-11-01Aksu City>Aksu284,872535,657{{smallpart of Aksu Prefecture}}>|2010-11-01Wusu>Usu131,661298,907{{smallpart of Tacheng Prefecture}}>|2010-11-01Bole, Xinjiang>Bole120,138235,585{{smallpart of Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture>Bortala Prefecture}}2010-11-01Hotan>part of Hotan Prefecture}}2010-11-01Altay City>Altay112,711190,064{{smallpart of Altay Prefecture}}>|2010-11-01Turpan{{efn-lr>name=TurpanGaochang District>Gaochang after census.}}89,719273,385622,9032010-11-01Tacheng>part of Tacheng Prefecture}}2010-11-01Wujiaqu>|2010-11-01Fukang>''part of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture''}}>|2010-11-01Aral, Xinjiang>Aral65,175158,593158,5932010-11-01Artux>''part of Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture''}}>|2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"Beitun, Xinjiang>Beitun{{efn-lrBeitun CLC was established from parts of Altay City after census.}}>|2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"Kokdala{{efn-lr>name=KokdalaHuocheng County after census.}}>|2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"Shuanghe{{efn-lr>name=ShuangheBole, Xinjiang>Bole CLC after census.}}53,56553,56553,5652010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"Khorgas>Korgas{{efn-lrKorgas CLC was established from parts of Huocheng County after census.}}51,46251,462{{smallpart of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture>Ili Prefecture}}2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"Kunyu, Xinjiang>Kunyu{{efn-lrKunyu CLC was established from parts of Hotan County, Pishan County, Karakax County, & Qira County after census.}}>|2010-11-01Tumxuk>|2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"Tiemenguan City>Tiemenguan{{efn-lrTiemenguan CLC was established from parts of Korla after census.}}>|2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"Kuytun>''part of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture''}}>|2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"Alashankou{{efn-lr>name=AlashankouBole, Xinjiang>Bole CLC & Jinghe County after census.}}15,49215,492{{smallpart of Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture>Bortala Prefecture}}2010-11-01{{notelist-lr}}

Geography and geology

File:Karakorum-d04.jpg|thumb|Close to Karakoram HighwayKarakoram HighwayFile:Tianchi Lake.jpg|thumb|Tianchi lake.]]File:ColourfulBeach.jpg|thumb|Black Irtysh river in Burqin County is a famous spot for sightseeingsightseeingFile:Turpan-flaming-mountains-camellos-d01.jpg|thumb|Flaming MountainsFlaming MountainsFile:Fly over Pamir Mountains and Karakoram Highway.jpg|thumb|Pamir Mountains and Muztagh AtaMuztagh AtaXinjiang is the largest political subdivision of China—it accounts for more than one sixth of China's total territory and a quarter of its boundary length. Xinjiang is mostly covered with uninhabitable deserts and dry grasslands, with dotted oases at the foot of Tian Shan, Kunlun Mountains and Altai Mountains. The inhabitable oasis accounts for 9.7% of Xinjiang's total area by 2015.

Mountain systems and basins

{{Unreferenced section|date=July 2019}}Xinjiang is split by the Tian Shan mountain range ({{ug-textonly|تەڭرى تاغ}}, Тәңри Тағ, Tengri Tagh), which divides it into two large basins: the Dzungarian Basin in the north, and the Tarim Basin in the south. A small V-shaped wedge between these two major basins, limited by the Tian Shan's main range in the south and the Borohoro Mountains in the north, is the basin of the Ili River, which flows into Kazakhstan's Lake Balkhash; an even smaller wedge farther north is the Emin Valley.Other major mountain ranges of Xinjiang include the Pamir Mountains and Karakoram in the southwest, the Kunlun Mountains in the south (along the border with Tibet), and the Altai Mountains in the northeast (shared with Mongolia). The region's highest point is the mountain K2, 8611 metres above sea level, in the Karakoram Mountains on the border with Pakistan.Much of the Tarim Basin is dominated by the Taklamakan Desert. North of it is the Turpan Depression, which contains the lowest point in Xinjiang, and in the entire PRC, at 155 metres below sea level.The Dzungarian Basin is slightly cooler, and receives somewhat more precipitation, than the Tarim Basin. Nonetheless, it, too, has a large Gurbantünggüt Desert (also known as Dzoosotoyn Elisen) in its center.The Tian Shan mountain range marks the Xinjiang-Kyrgyzstan border at the Torugart Pass (3752 m). The Karakorum highway (KKH) links Islamabad, Pakistan with Kashgar over the Khunjerab Pass.

Geology

Xinjiang is young geologically. Collision of the Indian and the Eurasian plates formed the Tian Shan, Kunlun Shan, and Pamir mountain ranges. Xinjiang is a very active earthquake zone. Older geological formations are located in the far north, where the Junggar Block is geologically part of Kazakhstan, and in the east, where is part of the North China Craton.

Center of the continent

Xinjiang has within its borders, in the Dzoosotoyn Elisen Desert, the location in Eurasia that is furthest from the sea in any direction (a continental pole of inaccessibility): {{coord|46|16.8|N|86|40.2|E|type:landmark|name=Eurasian pole of inaccessibility}}. It is at least {{convert|1645|mi|km|abbr=on|order=flip}} (straight-line distance) from any coastline.In 1992, local geographers determined another point within Xinjiang{{spaced ndash}}{{coord|43|40|52|N|87|19|52|E}} in the southwestern suburbs of Ürümqi, Ürümqi County{{spaced ndash}}to be the "center point of Asia". A monument to this effect was then erected there and the site has become a local tourist attraction.WEB,weblink DCP: Geographic Center of Asia (visit #1), www.confluence.org, October 13, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160602180943weblink">weblink June 2, 2016, live,

Rivers and lakes

Having hot summer and low precipitation, most of Xinjiang is endorheic. Its rivers either disappear in the desert, or terminate in salt lakes (within Xinjiang itself, or in neighboring Kazakhstan), instead of running towards an ocean. The northernmost part of the region, with the Irtysh River rising in the Altai Mountains, that flows (via Kazakhstan and Russia) toward the Arctic Ocean, is the only exception. But even so, a significant part of the Irtysh's waters were artificially diverted via the Irtysh–Karamay–Ürümqi Canal to the drier regions of southern Dzungarian Basin.Elsewhere, most of Xinjiang's rivers are comparatively short streams fed by the snows of the several ranges of the Tian Shan. Once they enter the populated areas in the mountains' foothills, their waters are extensively used for irrigation, so that the river often disappears in the desert instead of reaching the lake to whose basin it nominally belongs. This is the case even with the main river of the Tarim Basin, the Tarim, which has been dammed at a number of locations along its course, and whose waters have been completely diverted before they can reach the Lop Lake. In the Dzungarian basin, a similar situation occurs with most rivers that historically flowed into Lake Manas. Some of the salt lakes, having lost much of their fresh water inflow, are now extensively use for the production of mineral salts (used e.g., in the manufacturing of potassium fertilizers); this includes the Lop Lake and the Manas Lake.

Time

Xinjiang has the same time belt as the rest of China, Beijing time, UTC+8. But while Xinjiang being about two time zones west of Beijing, some residents, local organizations and governments watch another time standard known as Xinjiang Time, UTC+6.WEB,weblink The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111204115929weblink">weblink December 4, 2011, Han people tend to use Beijing Time, while Uyghurs tend to use Xinjiang Time as a form of resistance to Beijing.JOURNAL, Han, Enze, Boundaries, Discrimination, and Interethnic Conflict in Xinjiang, China, International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 4, 2, 2010, 251,weblink December 14, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141019103838weblink">weblink October 19, 2014, live, But, regardless of the time standard preferences, most businesses, schools open and close two hours later than in the other regions of China.WEB,weblink Clocks square off in China's far west, Barbara, Demick, March 31, 2009, LA Times, December 14, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121217031320weblink">weblink December 17, 2012, live,

Deserts

Deserts include:

Major cities

Due to the water situation, most of Xinjiang's population lives within fairly narrow belts that are stretched along the foothills of the region's mountain ranges, where irrigated agriculture can be practised. It is in these belts where most of the region's cities are found.(File:Xinjiang map.png|right|thumb|Largest cities and towns of Xinjiang)

Climate

A semiarid or desert climate (Köppen BSk or BWk, respectively) prevails in Xinjiang. The entire region has great seasonal differences in temperature with cold winters. The Turpan Depression recorded the hottest temperatures nationwide in summer,WEB,weblink zh:吐鲁番 – 气象数据 – 中国天气网, www.weather.com.cn, Archived copy, June 30, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131014172034weblink">weblink October 14, 2013, live, with air temperatures easily exceeding {{convert|40|°C}}. Winter temperatures regularly fall below {{convert|−20|°C}} in the far north and highest mountain elevations.Continuous permafrost is typically found in the Tian Shan starting at the elevation of about 3,500–3,700 m above sea level. Discontinuous alpine permafrost usually occurs down to 2,700–3,300 m, but in certain locations, due to the peculiarity of the aspect and the microclimate, it can be found at elevations as low as 2,000 m.{{citation |contribution=Geocryology in Mt. Tianshan |first=A.P. |last=Gorbunov |title=PERMAFROST: Sixth International Conference. Proceedings. July 5–9, Beijing, China |volume=2 |publisher=South China University of Technology Press |pages=1105–1107 |isbn=978-7-5623-0484-5 |year=1993}}

Bordering regions

{{hatnote |See the "Geographic location" template below.}}

Politics

{{further|List of current Chinese provincial leaders}}File:Kashgar (23968353536).jpg|thumb|Statue of Mao ZedongMao Zedong
Secretaries of the CPC Xinjiang Committee
  1. 1949–1952 Wang Zhen ()
  2. 1952–1967 Wang Enmao ()
  3. 1970–1972 Long Shujin ()
  4. 1972–1978 Saifuddin Azizi (; )
  5. 1978–1981 Wang Feng ()
  6. 1981–1985 Wang Enmao ()
  7. 1985–1994 Song Hanliang ()
  8. 1994–2010 Wang Lequan ()
  9. 2010–2016 Zhang Chunxian ()
  10. 2016–{{small|present}} Chen Quanguo ()


Chairmen of the Xinjiang Government
File:Voa chinese Xinjiang Governor Nur Bekri 7mar10.jpg|thumb|right|Nur BekriNur Bekri
  1. 1949–1955 Burhan Shahidi (包尔汉·沙希迪; بۇرھان شەھىدى)
  2. 1955–1967 Saifuddin Azizi (; )
  3. 1968–1972 Long Shujin ()
  4. 1972–1978 Saifuddin Azizi (; )
  5. 1978–1979 Wang Feng ()
  6. 1979–1985 Ismail Amat (; )
  7. 1985–1993 Tömür Dawamat (; )
  8. 1993–2003 Abdul'ahat Abdulrixit (; )
  9. 2003–2007 Ismail Tiliwaldi (; )
  10. 2007–2015 Nur Bekri (; )
  11. 2015–{{small|present}} Shohrat Zakir (; )

Human rights

{{See also| Law of the People's Republic of China}}Human Rights Watch has documented the denial of due legal process and fair trials and failure to hold genuinely open trials as mandated by law e.g. to suspects arrested following ethnic violence in the city of Ürümqi's 2009 riots.WEB,weblink China Promises Unfulfilled, An Assessment of China's National Human Rights Action Plan, 2011, Human Rights Watch, December 4, 2016,weblink October 11, 2017, live, According to the Radio Free Asia and HRW, at least 120,000 members of Kashgar's Muslim Uyghur minority have been detained in Xinjiang's re-education camps, aimed at changing the political thinking of detainees, their identities and their religious beliefs. Reports from the World Uyghur Congress submitted to the United Nations in July 2018 suggest that 1 million Uyghurs are currently being held in the re-education camps.An October 2018 exposé by the BBC News claimed based on analysis of satellite imagery collected over time that hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs must be interned in the camps, and they are rapidly being expanded.WEB,weblink China's hidden camps, Sudworth, John, October 24, 2018, BBC News, en-GB, February 17, 2019, In 2019, The Art Newspaper reported that "hundreds" of writers, artists, and academics had been imprisoned, in what the magazine qualified as an attempt to "punish any form of religious or cultural expression" among Uighurs.NEWS, Movius, Lisa, 'Hundreds' of cultural figures caught up in China's Uyghur persecution,weblink The Art Newspaper, January 3, 2019, In July 2019, 22 countries including: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK, sent a letter to the UN Human Rights Council, criticizing China for its mass arbitrary detentions and other violations against Muslims in China's Xinjiang region. However, a group of 37 countries submitted a similar letter in defense of China's policies, including: Algeria, Angola, Bahrain, Belarus, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Comoros, Congo, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Gabon, Kuwait, Laos, Myanmar, Nigeria, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Togo, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, and Zimbabwe.WEB,weblink 37 countries rally around China at top UN human rights body, Associated Press, July 12, 2019, WEB,weblink Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies?, The Diplomat, July 15, 2019, However, in August 2019, Qatar ended its support for China over its detention of millions of Uyghur Muslims._WEB,weblink Qatar refuses to certify China's human rights record on treatment of Uighur Muslims, 21 August 2019, The Print,

Economy

{{Update|date=March 2019}}(File:新疆各地人均GDP.jpg|thumb|The distribution map of Xinjiang's GDP per person (2011))(File:Urumq city ZT plaza.jpg|thumb|Ürümqi is a major industrial center within Xinjiang.)File:Wind farm xinjiang.jpg|thumb|Wind farmWind farmFile:Khotan-mercado-d09.jpg|thumb|Sunday market in KhotanKhotanXinjiang being traditionally agricultural region, is rich of the deposits of minerals and oil.Nominal GDP was about 932.4 billion RMB (US$140 billion) as of 2015 with an average annual increase of 10.4% for the past four years,NEWS,weblink Bulletin for the economy and society development in 2015, May 6, 2010, due to discovery of the abundant reserves of coal, oil, gas as well as the China Western Development policy introduced by the State Council to boost economic development in Western China.WEB,weblink Xinjiang Province: Economic News and Statistics for Xinjiang's Economy, October 22, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111008045314weblink">weblink October 8, 2011, live, Its per capita GDP for 2009 was 19,798 RMB (US$2,898), with a growth rate of 1.7%. Southern Xinjiang, with 95% non-Han population, has an average per capita income half that of Xinjiang as a whole.{{sfnp|Millward |2007 |p=305}}In July 2010, China Daily reported that:Local governments in China's 19 provinces and municipalities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Liaoning, are engaged in the commitment of "pairing assistance" support projects in Xinjiang to promote the development of agriculture, industry, technology, education and health services in the region.NEWS,weblink Efforts to boost 'leapfrog development' in Xinjiang, China Daily{{, Xinhua |date=July 5, 2010 |accessdate=July 14, 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100723193952weblink |archive-date=July 23, 2010 |url-status=live |df=mdy-all }}

Agriculture and fishing

Main area is of irrigated agriculture. By 2015, the agricultural land area of the region is 631 thousand km2 or 63.1 million ha, of which 6.1 million ha is arable land.WEB, zh-hans, 12–13 Sown Area of Crops in Major Years,weblink zh:12–13 主要年份农作物播种面积, Statistics Bureau of Xinjiang, January 2, 2018, Archived copy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180102132315weblink">weblink January 2, 2018, live, In 2016, the total cultivated land rose to 6.2 million ha, with the crop production reaching 15.1 million tons.WEB, zh-hans, Statistical Communique of 2016 National Economic and Social Development of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,weblink zh:新疆维吾尔自治区2016年国民经济和社会发展统计公报, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region People's Government, April 17, 2017, April 17, 2017, Archived copy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170609222205weblink">weblink June 9, 2017, live, Wheat was the main staple crop of the region, maize grown as well, millet found in the south, while only a few areas (in particular, Aksu) grew rice.{{sfnp|Bellér-Hann|2008|pp=112–113}}Cotton became an important crop in several oases, notably Khotan, Yarkand, and Turpan by the late 19th century.{{sfnp|Bellér-Hann|2008|pp=112–113}} Sericulture is also practiced.{{sfnp|Bellér-Hann|2008|p=152}}Xinjiang is famous for its grapes, melons, pears, walnuts, particularly Hami melons and Turpan raisins.The main livestock of the region have traditionally been sheep. Much of the region's pasture land is in its northern part, where more precipitation is available,{{sfnp|Bellér-Hann|2008|p=37}} but there are mountain pastures throughout the region.Due to the lack of access to the ocean, and limited amount of inland water, Xinjiang's fish resources are somewhat limited. Nonetheless, there is a significant amount of fishing in Lake Ulungur and Lake Bosten and in the Irtysh River. A large number of fish ponds have been constructed since the 1970s, their total surface exceeding 10,000 hectares by the 1990s. In 2000, the total of 58,835 tons of fish was produced in Xinjiang, 85% of which came from aquaculture.Guo Yan, Fisheries Development in Xinjiang, China {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131008163542weblink |date=October 8, 2013 }}In the past, the Lop Lake was known for its fisheries, and the area residents, for their fishing culture; now, due to the diversion of the waters of the Tarim River, the lake has dried out.

Mining and minerals

Xinjiang was known for producing salt, soda, borax, gold, jade in the 19th century.{{sfnp|Mesny |1899 |p=386}}The oil and gas extraction industry in Aksu and Karamay is on the rise, with the West–East Gas Pipeline linking to Shanghai. The oil and petrochemical sector get up to 60 percent of Xinjiang's economy.BOOK, The China Business Handbook, Alain Charles, 8th, 2005, 978-0-9512512-8-7, Containing over a fifth of China's coal, natural gas and oil resources, Xinjiang has the highest concentration of fossil fuel reserves of any region in the country.WEB,weblink The Energy Industry in Xinjiang, China: Potential, Problems, and Solutions, Power Mag, Jinhui Duan, Shuying Wei, Ming Zeng, Yanfang Ju, January 1, 2016, July 4, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160702045115weblink">weblink July 2, 2016, live,

Foreign trade

Xinjiang's exports amounted to US$19.3 billion, while imports turned out to be US$2.9 billion in 2008. Most of the overall import/export volume in Xinjiang was directed to and from Kazakhstan through Ala Pass. China's first border free trade zone (Horgos Free Trade Zone) was located at the Xinjiang-Kazakhstan border city of Horgos.NEWS,weblink Work on free trade zone on the agenda, People's Daily Online, November 2, 2004, November 26, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080929215919weblink">weblink September 29, 2008, live, Horgos is the largest "land port" in China's western region and it has easy access to the Central Asian market. Xinjiang also opened its second border trade market to Kazakhstan in March 2006, the Jeminay Border Trade Zone.NEWS,weblink Xinjiang to open 2nd border trade market to Kazakhstan, Xinhua, December 12, 2006, November 26, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090107105750weblink">weblink January 7, 2009, live,

Economic and Technological Development Zones

{{see also|List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita}}
  • Bole Border Economic Cooperation AreaWEB,weblink RightSite.asia – Bole Border Economic Cooperation Area, July 22, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110826055142weblink">weblink August 26, 2011, live,
  • Shihezi Border Economic Cooperation AreaWEB,weblink RightSite.asia – Shihezi Border Economic Cooperation Area, July 22, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120509204933weblink">weblink May 9, 2012, live,
  • Tacheng Border Economic Cooperation AreaWEB,weblink RightSite.asia – Tacheng Border Economic Cooperation Area, July 22, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120509205025weblink">weblink May 9, 2012, live,
File:China Xinjiang Airlines Boeing 757-200 Newton-1.jpg|thumb|right|Ürümqi Diwopu International AirportÜrümqi Diwopu International Airport
  • Ãœrümqi Economic & Technological Development Zone is northwest of Ãœrümqi. It was approved in 1994 by the State Council as a national level economic and technological development zones. It is {{cvt|1.5|km}} from the Ãœrümqi International Airport, {{cvt|2|km}} from the North Railway Station, and {{cvt|10|km}} from the city center. Wu Chang Expressway and 312 National Road passes through the zone. The development has unique resources and geographical advantages. Xinjiang's vast land, rich in resources, borders eight countries. As the leading economic zone, it brings together the resources of Xinjiang's industrial development, capital, technology, information, personnel and other factors of production.WEB,weblink RightSite.asia {{!, Ãœrümqi Economic & Technological Development Zone |access-date=July 22, 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120509205242weblink |archive-date=May 9, 2012 |url-status=live }}
  • Ãœrümqi Export Processing Zone is in Urumuqi Economic and Technology Development Zone. It was established in 2007 as a state-level export processing zone.WEB,weblink RightSite.asia {{!, Ãœrümqi Export Processing Zone |access-date=July 22, 2010 |archive-url=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120509205519weblink">weblink |archive-date=May 9, 2012 |url-status=live }}
  • Ãœrümqi New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in 1992, and it is the only high-tech development zone in Xinjiang, China. There are more than 3470 enterprises in the zone, of which 23 are Fortune 500 companies. It has a planned area of {{convert|9.8|km2|abbr=on}}, and it is divided into four zones. There are plans to expand the zone.WEB,weblink RightSite.asia {{!, Urumuqi Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone |access-date= July 22, 2010 |archive-url=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120509205546weblink">weblink |archive-date=May 9, 2012 |url-status=live }}
  • Yining Border Economic Cooperation AreaWEB,weblink RightSite.asia {{!, Yining Border Economic Cooperation Area |access-date=July 22, 2010 |archive-url=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120509205757weblink">weblink |archive-date= May 9, 2012 |url-status=live }}

Culture

{{See also|Major national historical and cultural sites (Xinjiang)}}

Demographics

{{Further|Migration to Xinjiang|Islamization and Turkification of Xinjiang|Xinjiang re-education camps}}(File:Uyghur language geographical extent.svg|thumb|left|Distribution of ethnic Uyghurs in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region)(File:Languages areas of East-Turkistan.png|thumb|right|The languages of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region)File:Khotan-mercado-chicas-d01.jpg|thumb|left|Three Uyghur girls at a Sunday market in the oasis city KhotanKhotan{{Historical populations|title = Historical populationACCESS-DATE=MARCH 6, 2014 ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150924032922/HTTP://WWW.IER.HIT-U.AC.JP/COE/JAPANESE/DISCUSSIONPAPERS/DP97.9/FHYO2.HTML URL-STATUS=LIVE, |2,098,000ACCESS-DATE=MARCH 6, 2014ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150924032924/HTTP://WWW.IER.HIT-U.AC.JP/COE/JAPANESE/DISCUSSIONPAPERS/DP97.9/FHYO3.HTM URL-STATUS=LIVE, |2,552,000ACCESS-DATE=MARCH 6, 2014ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150924032925/HTTP://WWW.IER.HIT-U.AC.JP/COE/JAPANESE/DISCUSSIONPAPERS/DP97.9/FHYO4.HTM URL-STATUS=LIVE, |4,360,000ACCESS-DATE=MARCH 6, 2014 ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130913053600/HTTP://WWW.IER.HIT-U.AC.JP/COE/JAPANESE/DISCUSSIONPAPERS/DP97.9/FHYO5.HTM URL-STATUS=LIVE, |4,047,000PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20090805174810/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16767.HTM 4,873,608PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120914173158/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16768.HTM 7,270,067PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120510075429/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16769.HTM 13,081,681PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120619002216/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16772.HTM 15,155,778PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120829052024/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020331_15435.HTM 18,459,511PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130727021210/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/ENGLISH/NEWSANDCOMINGEVENTS/T20110429_402722516.HTM 21,813,334}}The earliest Tarim mummies, dated to 1800 BC, are of a Caucasoid physical type.JOURNAL, Mallory, J. P., J. P. Mallory, Mair, Victor H., Victor H. Mair, 2000, The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West, London, Thames & Hudson, 237, East Asian migrants arrived in the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin about 3,000 years ago, while the Uygher peoples appeared after the collapse of the Orkon Uygher Kingdom, based in modern-day Mongolia, round about 842 CE.A meeting of civilisations: The mystery of China's Celtic mummies {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080403234936weblink |date=April 3, 2008 }}. The Independent. August 28, 2006.WEB,weblink Rumbles on the Rim of China's Empire, Edward, Wong, February 23, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170701094523weblink">weblink July 1, 2017, live, Xinjiang Muslim Turkic peoples contain Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Tatars, Kazakhs; Muslim Iranian peoples comprise Pamiris, Sarikolis/Wakhis (often conflated as Pamiris); Muslim Sino-Tibetan peoples are such as the Hui. Other PRC ethnic groups in the region are Hans, Mongols (Oirats, Daurs, Dongxiangs), Russians, Xibes, Manchus. Around 70,000 Russian immigrants were living in Xinjiang in 1945.BOOK, George, Ginsburgs, The Citizenship Law of the USSR,weblink 1983, BRILL, 978-90-247-2863-3, 309, The Han Chinese of Xinjiang arrived at different times, from different directions and social backgrounds: They are descendants of criminals and officials who had been exiled from China proper during the second half of the eighteenth and first half of the 19th centuries; descendants of families of military and civil officers from Hunan, Yunnan, Gansu and Manchuria; descendants of merchants from Shanxi, Tianjin, Hubei and Hunan and descendants of peasants who started immigrating into the region in 1776.{{sfnp|Bellér-Hann|2008|pp=51–52}}Some Uygher scholars claim descent from both the Turkic Uyghers and the pre-Turkic Tocharians (or Tokharians, whose language was Indo-European), and relatively fair-skin, hair and eyes, as well as other so-called 'Caucasoid' physical traits, are not uncommon among them.In 2002, there were 9,632,600 males (growth rate of 1.0%) and 9,419,300 females (growth rate of 2.2%). The population overall growth rate was 1.09%, with 1.63% of birth rate and 0.54% mortality rate.The Qing began a process of settling Han, Hui, and Uyghur settlers into Northern Xinjiang (Dzungaria) starting in the 18th century. At the start of the 19th century, 40 years after the Qing reconquest, there were around 155,000 Han and Hui Chinese in northern Xinjiang and somewhat more than twice that number of Uyghurs in southern Xinjiang.{{sfnp|Millward |2007 |p=306}} A census of Xinjiang under Qing rule in the early 19th century tabulated ethnic shares of the population as 30% Han and 60% Turkic, while it dramatically shifted to 6% Han and 75% Uyghur in the 1953 census. However, a situation similar to the Qing era-demographics with a large number of Han had been restored by 2000 with 40.57% Han and 45.21% Uyghur.JOURNAL,weblink Demographics and Development in Xinjiang after 1949, Stanley, Toops, May 2004, 1, 1, East-West Center Washington Working Papers, East–West Center, November 14, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070716193518weblink">weblink July 16, 2007, live, Professor Stanley W. Toops noted that today's demographic situation is similar to that of the early Qing period in Xinjiang.{{sfnp|Starr|2004|p=243}} Before 1831, only a few hundred Chinese merchants lived in southern Xinjiang oases (Tarim Basin) and only a few Uyghurs lived in northern Xinjiang (Dzungaria).{{sfnp|Millward|2007|p=104}} After 1831 the Qing permitted and encouraged Han Chinese migration into the Tarim basin in southern Xinjiang, although with very little success, and stationed permanent troops on the land there as well.{{sfnp|Millward |2007 |p=105}} Political killings and expulsions of non Uyghur populations in the uprisings of the 1860s{{sfnp|Millward|2007|p=105}} and 1930s saw them experience a sharp decline as a percentage of the total population{{sfnp|Bellér-Hann|2008|p=52}} though they rose once again in the periods of stability following 1880 (which saw Xinjiang increase its population from 1.2 million){{sfnp|Mesny|1896|p=272}}{{sfnp|Mesny |1899|p=485}} and 1949. From a low of 7% in 1953, the Han began to return to Xinjiang between then and 1964, where they comprised 33% of the population (54% Uyghur), similarly to Qing times. A decade later, at the beginning of the Chinese economic reform in 1978, the demographic balance was 46% Uyghur and 40% Han; this has not changed drastically until the last census in 2000, with the Uyghur population reduced to 42%.WEB,weblink China: Human Rights Concerns in Xinjiang, October 2001, Human Rights Watch Backgrounder, Human Rights Watch, December 4, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081112153554weblink">weblink November 12, 2008, live, mdy-all, Military personnel are not counted and national minorities are undercounted in the Chinese census, as in most censuses.{{sfnp|Starr|2004|p=242}} While some of the shift has been attributed to an increased Han presence, Uyghurs have also emigrated to other parts of China, where their numbers have increased steadily. Uyghur independence activists express concern over the Han population changing the Uyghur character of the region, though the Han and Hui Chinese mostly live in northern Xinjiang Dzungaria, and are separated from areas of historical Uyghur dominance south of the Tian Shan mountains (southwestern Xinjiang), where Uyghurs account for about 90% of the population.BOOK, Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司), Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China, zh-Hans-CN, zh:2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料, 2 vols, Beijing, Nationalities PublishingHouse, 2003, 978-7-105-05425-1, 54494505, In general, Uyghurs are the majority in southwestern Xinjiang, including the prefectures of Kashgar, Khotan, Kizilsu, and Aksu (about 80% of Xinjiang's Uyghurs live in those four prefectures), as well as Turpan prefecture in eastern Xinjiang. Han are the majority in eastern and northern Xinjiang (Dzungaria), including the cities of Ãœrümqi, Karamay, Shihezi and the prefectures of Changjyi, Bortala, Bayin'gholin, Ili (especially the cities of Kuitun), and Kumul. Kazakhs are mostly concentrated in Ili prefecture in northern Xinjiang. Kazakhs are the majority in the northernmost part of Xinjiang.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="float:right; text-align:right;"!style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Ethnic groups in Xinjiang{{smaller|{{nobold|根据2015年底人口抽查统计 WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181121184615weblink">weblink November 21, 2018, live, }}}}! Nationality !! Population !! Percentage Uyghurs >| 46.42% Han Chinese >| 38.99% Kazakhs >| 7.02% Hui Chinese >| 4.54% Kyrgyz people >| 0.88% OiratsDongxiang people>DongxiangsDaurs 18.06 0.83% Pamiri (China) >| 0.21% Xibe people >| 0.20% Manchu 27,515 0.11% Tujia people >| 0.086% Uzbeks >| 0.066% Russians in China >| 0.048% Hmong people >| 0.038% Tibetan people >| 0.033% Zhuang people >| 0.031% Chinese Tatars >| 0.024% Salar people >| 0.020% Other 129,190 0.600%{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:right;"! style="text-align: center;" colspan="5"| Major ethnic groups in Xinjiang by region (2000 census){{efn-ur|Does not include members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.}}P = Prefecture; AP = Autonomous prefecture; PLC = Prefecture-level city; DACLC = Directly administered county-level city.新疆公布第六次人口普查数据:全区常住人口2181万 – 新疆天山网 {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120205095424weblink |date=February 5, 2012 }}. Tianshannet.com (May 6, 2011). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.! !! Uyghurs {{nobold|(%)}} !! Han {{nobold|(%)}} !! Kazakhs {{nobold|(%)}} !! others {{nobold|(%)}} Xinjiang 43.6 40.6 8.3 7.5 Ãœrümqi PLC 11.8 75.3 3.3 9.6 Karamay PLC 13.8 78.1 3.7 4.5 Turpan >70.0 >| {{-}}{{Geographic locationEast Kazakhstan Province>East Kazakhstan and Almaty Provinces, {{flag|Kazakhstan}}Altai Republic}}, {{flag|Russia}}Bayan-Ölgii}}, {{flagGovi-Altai}} Provinces, {{flag|Mongolia}}Issyk kul obl flag.svg}} Issyk Kul Region, {{flagicon image>Naryn obl flag.svg}} Naryn Region and {{flagicon image>Flag of Osh.svg}} Osh Regions, {{flagGorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province, {{flag>Tajikistan}}Badakhshan Province, {{flag|Afghanistan}}|Centre = Xinjiang|East = GansuGilgit-Baltistan}}, {{flagJammu and Kashmir}}, {{flagAksai Chin>Disputed region of Aksai Chin|South = Tibet Autonomous Region|Southeast = Qinghai}}{{Xinjiang topics}}{{Xinjiang}}{{Province-level divisions of the People's Republic of China}}{{Inner Asia}}{{Authority control}}

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