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{{pp-move-indef}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{bots|deny=InternetArchiveBot}}{{short description|Current rise in Earth's average temperature and its effects}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2019}}{{Use British English Oxford spelling|date=June 2019}}{{hatnote|This page is about the current warming of the Earth's climate system. "Climate change" can also refer to climate trends at any point in Earth's history. For other uses see Global warming (disambiguation).}}(File:Global Temperature Anomaly.svg|thumb|upright=1.5|alt=refer to caption|The average annual temperature at the earth's surface has risen since the late 1800s, with year-to-year variations (shown in black) being smoothed out (shown in red) to show the general warming trend.)(File:1880- Global surface temperature - heat map animation - NASA SVS.webm|thumb|upright=1.5|right|Video: Since the late 1800s, temperatures in different geographic locations have increased by different amounts, shown by a changing pattern of growing intensities of red.)Global warming is the long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system. It is a major aspect of current climate change, and has been demonstrated by direct temperature measurements and by measurements of various effects of the warming.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Summary for Policymakers|2013|p=4|ps =: Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, sea level has risen, and the concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased}}WEB,weblink Myths vs. Facts: Denial of Petitions for Reconsideration of the Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 7 August 2017, The U.S. Global Change Research Program, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have each independently concluded that warming of the climate system in recent decades is "unequivocal". This conclusion is not drawn from any one source of data but is based on multiple lines of evidence, including three worldwide temperature datasets showing nearly identical warming trends as well as numerous other independent indicators of global warming (e.g. rising sea levels, shrinking Arctic sea ice)., The term commonly refers to the mainly human-caused increase in global surface temperatures and its projected continuation.{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 SYR Glossary|2014|page=124 |ps =: Global warming refers to the gradual increase, observed or projected, in global surface temperature, as one of the consequences of radiative forcing caused by anthropogenic emissions. {WGIII} }}{{harvnb|IPCC SR15 Ch1|2018|p=51|ps =: Global warming is defined in this report as an increase in combined surface air and sea surface temperatures averaged over the globe and over a 30-year period. Unless otherwise specified, warming is expressed relative to the period 1850–1900, used as an approximation of pre-industrial temperatures in AR5.}}. In this context, the terms global warming and climate change are often used interchangeably,{{Harvnb|Shaftel|2016|p=}}: "'Climate change' and 'global warming' are often used interchangeably but have distinct meanings. .... Global warming refers to the upward temperature trend across the entire Earth since the early 20th century .... Climate change refers to a broad range of global phenomena ...[which] include the increased temperature trends described by global warming."
but climate change includes both global warming and its effects, such as changes in precipitation and impacts that differ by region.{{harvnb|NOAA, 17 June|2015}}; {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 SYR Glossary|2014|p=120}}: "Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g., by using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forcings such as modulations of the solar cycles, volcanic eruptions and persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use. .... {WGI, II, III}" There were prehistoric periods of global warming,{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch5|2013|pages=389, 399–400|ps =: "5: Information from Paleoclimate Archives: The PETM [around 55.5–55.3 million years ago] was marked by ... global warming of 4°C to 7°C ..... Deglacial global warming occurred in two main steps from 17.5 to 14.5 ka [thousand years ago] and 13.0 to 10.0 ka.}} but observed changes since the mid-20th century have been much greater than those seen in previous records covering decades to thousands of years.{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 SYR Summary for Policymakers|2014|p=2|ps =: SPM 1.1 .... Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earth’s surface than any preceding decade since 1850. The period from 1983 to 2012 was likely the warmest 30-year period of the last 1400 years in the Northern Hemisphere, where such assessment is possible (medium confidence).}}
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report concluded, "It is {{em|extremely likely}} that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century."{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Summary for Policymakers|2013|p=17}}: "It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century." The largest human influence has been the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Climate model projections summarized in the report indicated that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further {{convert|0.3|to|1.7|C-change|1}} in a moderate scenario, or as much as {{convert|2.6|to|4.8|C-change|1}} in an extreme scenario, depending on the rate of future greenhouse gas emissions and on climate feedback effects.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Technical Summary|2013|p=57}}. These findings have been recognized by the national science academies of the major industrialized nationsWEB, harv
, Joint Science Academies' Statement
,weblink
, 6 January 2014
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130909022954weblink">weblink
, 9 September 2013
, and are not disputed by any scientific body of national or international standing.WEB, harv
, Scientific consensus: Earth's climate is warming
,
, Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet
,weblink
, 7 August 2017
,weblink
, 28 June 2018
, NASA,
WEB
, harv
, List of Organizations
, The Governor's Office of Planning & Research, State of California
, 7 August 2017
,weblink
, dead
,weblink
, 7 August 2017
, The effects of global warming include rising sea levels, regional changes in precipitation, more frequent extreme weather events such as heat waves, and expansion of deserts.{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Technical Summary|2014|pp=44–46}}; {{harvnb|D'Odorico|Bhattachan|Davis|Ravi|2013}}. Surface temperature increases are greatest in the Arctic, which has contributed to the retreat of glaciers, permafrost, and sea ice. Overall, higher temperatures bring more rain and snowfall, but for some regions droughts and wildfires increase instead.{{harvnb|National Geographic|2019}}; {{harvnb|NPR|2010}}. Climate change threatens to diminish crop yields, harming food security, and rising sea levels may flood coastal infrastructure and force the abandonment of many coastal cities.{{Harvnb|Campbella|Vermeulen|Aggarwa|Corner-Dolloff|2016|p=}}.{{Harvnb|US NRC|2012|pp=26–27}}. Environmental impacts include the extinction or relocation of many species as their ecosystems change, most immediately the environments of coral reefs,{{Harvnb|Knowlton|2001|p=}}. mountains, and the Arctic.WEB, harv
,weblink
, Climate Impacts on Ecosystems
, EPA
, 19 January 2017
, 5 February 2019
,weblink
, 27 January 2018
, live
, Because the climate system has a large "inertia" and greenhouse gases persist in the atmosphere, climatic changes and their effects will continue for many centuries even if greenhouse gas emissions are stopped.{{Harvnb|Clark|Shakun|Marcott|Mix|2016|p=}}.Possible societal responses to global warming include mitigation by emissions reduction, adaptation to its effects, and maybe climate engineering. Every country in the world is a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC),WEB
, harv
, Status of Ratification of the Convention
,weblink
, 2019
, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
, 19 May 2019
,weblink
, 19 May 2019
, live
, {{As of|May 2019}} 12 parties have not ratified the convention. Non-ratification means they are not legally bound by it. whose ultimate objective is to prevent dangerous anthropogenic climate change.
WEB, harv
, First steps to a safer future: Introducing The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
, 7 August 2017
, Preventing "dangerous" human interference with the climate system is the ultimate aim of the UNFCCC.
,weblink
, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140108192827weblink">weblink
, 8 January 2014
, Although the parties to the UNFCCC have agreed that deep cuts in emissions are requiredWEB, harv
, 2011
, Conference of the Parties â€“ Sixteenth Session: Decision 1/CP.16: The Cancun Agreements: Outcome of the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (English): Paragraph 4
, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
, UNFCCC Secretariat: Bonn, Germany
, 3
,weblink
, PDF
,
, 28 October 2011
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111117222459weblink">weblink
, 17 November 2011, live
, (...) deep cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions are required according to science, and as documented in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, with a view to reducing global greenhouse gas emissions so as to hold the increase in global average temperature below {hide}val, 2, °C, above preindustrial levels
{edih}
and that global warming should be limited to well below {{convert|2|C-change|F-change|1}}{{Harvnb|CNN, 12 December|2015}}; {{Harvnb|The Guardian, 12 December|2015|p=}}., the Earth's average surface temperature has already increased by about half this threshold.{{harvnb|IPCC SR15 Ch1|2018|p=51}}. Some scientists call into question whether it is possible to limit temperature rise to {{convert|2|C-change|F-change|1}}, {{Harvnb|Steffen|Rockström|Richardson|Lenton|2018}}. and some question the feasibility, in higher emissions scenarios, of climate adaptation.{{Harvnb|Hansen|Sato|Russel|Kharecha|2013|p=}}.

Observed temperature changes

{{multiple image| align = right| direction = horizontal| total_width = 300| image1 = Temperature reconstruction last two millennia.svg
indirectly through Proxy (climate)>deductive scientific methods (dark blue line), and directly by measuring instruments (black line, since 1858).}}Climate proxy records show that natural variations offset the early effects of the Industrial Revolution, so there was little net warming between the 18th century and the mid-19th century,{{harvnb|IPCC SR15 Ch1|2018|p=57|ps =: This report adopts the 51-year reference period, 1850–1900 inclusive, assessed as an approximation of pre-industrial levels in AR5 .... Temperatures rose by 0.0°C–0.2°C from 1720–1800 to 1850–1900 (Hawkins et al., 2017) }}.{{harvnb|Hawkins|Ortega|Suckling|Schurer|2017|p=}}: "The period after 1800 is influenced by the Dalton Minimum in solar activity and the large eruptions of an unlocated volcano in 1808/09, Tambora (1815; Raible et al. 2016), and several others in the 1820s and 1830s. In addition, greenhouse gas concentrations had already increased slightly by this time .... The 1720–1800 period is most suitable to be defined as preindustrial in physical terms ... The 1850–1900 period is a reasonable pragmatic surrogate for preindustrial global mean temperature."{{pn|date= September 2019}} when thermometer records began to provide global coverage.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Summary for Policymakers|2013|pp=4–5|ps =: Global-scale observations from the instrumental era began in the mid-19th century for temperature and other variables ... the period 1880 to 2012 ... multiple independently produced datasets exist.}} The IPCC has adopted the baseline reference period 1850–1900 as an approximation of pre-industrial global mean surface temperature.Multiple independently produced instrumental datasets confirm that the 2009–2018 decade was 0.93 ± 0.07 Â°C warmer than the pre-industrial baseline (1850–1900).{{harvnb|IPCC SR15 Summary for Policymakers|2018|p=4}}; {{harvnb|WMO|2019|p=6}}. Currently, surface temperatures are rising by about 0.2 Â°C per decade.{{Harvnb|IPCC SR15 Ch1|2018|p=81}}. Since 1950, the number of cold days and nights have decreased, and the number of warm days and night have increased.{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch2|2013|p=162}}. Historical patterns of warming and cooling, like the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, were not as synchronous as current warming, but may have reached temperatures as high as those of the late-20th century in a limited set of regions.{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch5|2013|p=386}}; {{harvnb|Neukom|Steiger|Gómez-Navarro|Wang|2019}}.Although the most common measure of global warming is the increase in the near-surface atmospheric temperature, over 90% of the additional energy stored in the climate system over the last 50 years has warmed ocean water.WEB, harv
, Climate Change: Ocean Heat Content
, NOAA
, 2018
,weblink
,weblink
, 12 February 2019
, live
, 20 February 2019
, The remainder of the additional energy has melted ice and warmed the continents and the atmosphere.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch3|2013|p=257}}: "Ocean warming dominates the global energy change inventory. Warming of the ocean accounts for about 93% of the increase in the Earth's energy inventory between 1971 and 2010 (high confidence), with warming of the upper (0 to 700 m) ocean accounting for about 64% of the total.The warming evident in the instrumental temperature record is consistent with a wide range of observations, documented by many independent scientific groups;{{harvnb|Kennedy|Thorne|Peterson|Ruedy|2010|p=S26}}. Figure 2.5 shows various graphs. for example, in most continental regions the frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation has increased.{{harvnb|USGCRP Chapter 1|2017|p=35}}. Further examples include sea level rise,{{harvnb|Cazenave|Dieng|Meyssignac|von Schuckmann|2014}}. widespread melting of snow and land ice,{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG1 Summary for Policymakers|2007|p=}}. increased heat content of the oceans,{{harvnb|Kennedy|Thorne|Peterson|Ruedy|2010|pp=S26}}. increased humidity,{{harvnb|Kennedy|Thorne|Peterson|Ruedy|2010|p=S26, S59-S60}}. and the earlier timing of spring events,{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG2 Summary for Policymakers|2007}}, Part B: "Current knowledge about observed impacts of climate change on the natural and human environment". such as the flowering of plants.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG2 Ch1|2007|loc= Sec. 1.3.5.1: "Changes in phenology"}}, p. 99.

Regional trends

{{See also|Regional effects of global warming|Polar amplification}}{{multiple image| align = right| direction = horizontal| total_width = 500| image1 = Annual Mean Temperature Change for Land and for Ocean NASA GISTEMP 2017 October.png| caption1 = The average annual temperature for the Earth's land area (thick red line) has risen more than that for ice-free sea surface (thick blue line). These lines are smoothed to iron out year-to-year variations.| image2 = 20190725 COMPARE Warming stripes - N vs S hemispheres 1880-2018 (ref 1901-2000).png
Warming stripes graphics exhibit greater recent temperature anomalies for the Northern HemisphereCLIMATE AT A GLANCE / GLOBAL TIME SERIES WEBSITE=NCDC.NOAA.GOV NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION>NOAA (NATIONAL CENTERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION; NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER) ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20190726160713/HTTPS://WWW.NCDC.NOAA.GOV/CAG/GLOBAL/TIME-SERIES/NHEM/LAND_OCEAN/12/12/1880-2019 DATE=DECEMBER 2018 Northern Hemisphere, Land and Ocean, Plot. than for the Southern HemisphereCLIMATE AT A GLANCE / GLOBAL TIME SERIES WEBSITE=NCDC.NOAA.GOV NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION>NOAA (NATIONAL CENTERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION; NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER) ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20190726161434/HTTPS://WWW.NCDC.NOAA.GOV/CAG/GLOBAL/TIME-SERIES/SHEM/LAND_OCEAN/12/12/1880-2019 DATE=DECEMBER 2018 Southern Hemisphere, Land and Ocean, Plot. {{font>text=({{bluecool}}, {{redwarm}},1880 (left) — 2018 (right) )|font=Arial narrow}}}}Global warming refers to global averages, with the amount of warming varying by region. Since the pre-industrial period, global average land temperatures have increased almost twice as fast as global average temperatures.{{harvnb|IPCC SRCCL Summary for Policymakers|2019|p=5}}. This is due to the larger heat capacity of oceans and because oceans lose more heat by evaporation.{{Harvnb|Sutton|Dong|Gregory|2007|p=}}. Patterns of warming are independent of the locations of greenhouse gas emissions because the gases persist long enough to diffuse across the planet; however, localized black carbon deposits on snow and ice do contribute to Arctic warming.{{harvnb|United States Environmental Protection Agency|2016|p=5|ps =: "Black carbon that is deposited on snow and ice darkens those surfaces and decreases their reflectivity (albedo). This is known as the snow/ice albedo effect. This effect results in the increased absorption of radiation that accelerates melting."}}The Northern Hemisphere and North Pole have warmed much faster than the South Pole and Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Hemisphere not only has much more land, but the arrangement of land masses around the Arctic Ocean has resulted in the maximum surface area flipping from reflective snow and ice cover to ocean and land surfaces that absorb more sunlight and thus more heat.WEB, harv
, 10 July 2011
, NOAA
,weblink
, Polar Opposites: the Arctic and Antarctic
, 20 February 2019
,weblink
, 22 February 2019, live
, Arctic temperatures have increased and are predicted to continue to increase during this century at over twice the rate of the rest of the world.{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch12|2013|p=1062}}; {{harvnb|Cohen|Screen|Furtado|Barlow|2014}}. As the temperature difference between the Arctic and the equator decreases, ocean currents that are driven by that temperature difference, like the Gulf Stream, are weakening.{{harvnb|NASA, 12 September|2018|p=}}: "We are seeing a major shift in the circulation in the North Atlantic, likely related to a weakening Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)", said Pershing. "One of the side effects of a weaker AMOC is that the Gulf Stream shifts northward and the cold current flowing into the Gulf of Maine gets weaker. This means we get more warmer water pushing into the Gulf."

Short-term slowdowns and surges

Because the climate system has large thermal inertia, it can take centuries for the climate to fully adjust. While record-breaking years attract considerable public interest, individual years are less significant than the overall trend. Global surface temperature is subject to short-term fluctuations that overlie long-term trends, and can temporarily mask or magnify them.{{Harvnb|Sévellec|Drijfhout|2018|p=}}; {{Harvnb|Mooney|2018|p=}}. An example of such an episode is the slower rate of surface temperature increase from 1998 to 2012, which was dubbed the global warming hiatus.{{Harvnb|England|McGregor|Spence|Meehl|2014|p=}}; {{Harvnb|Knight|Kenney|Folland|Harris|2009|p=}}. Throughout this period ocean heat storage continued to progress steadily upwards, and in subsequent years surface temperatures have spiked upwards. The slower pace of warming can be attributed to a combination of natural fluctuations, reduced solar activity, and increased volcanic activity.{{Harvnb|Lindsey|2018|p=}}.

Physical drivers of recent climate change

File:Radiative forcing 1750-2011.svg|thumb|upright=1.5|Radiative forcing of different contributors to climate change in 2011, as reported in the fifth IPCC assessment report. For the gases and aerosols, the values represent both the effect they have themselves and the effect of any chemical compound they get converted into in the atmosphere.]]By itself, the climate system experiences various cycles which can last for years (such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation) to decades{{harvnb|Delworth|Mann|2000|p=661}}. or centuries.{{harvnb|Delworth|Zeng|2012|p=5}}. Other changes are caused by external forcings. These forcings are "external" to the climate system, but not always external to the Earth.{{Harvnb|US NRC|2012|p=9}}. Examples of external forcings include changes in the composition of the atmosphere (e.g. increased concentrations of greenhouse gases), solar luminosity, volcanic eruptions, and variations in the Earth's orbit around the Sun.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG1 Ch9|2007|p=690}}: "Recent estimates indicate a relatively small combined effect of natural forcings on the global mean temperature evolution of the second half of the 20th century, with a small net cooling from the combined effects of solar and volcanic forcings."Attributing detected temperature changes and extreme events to human-caused increases in greenhouse gases requires scientists to rule out known internal climate variability and natural external forcings. Therefore, a key approach is to use physically or statistically based computer modelling of the climate system to determine unique fingerprints for all potential causes. By comparing these fingerprints with observed patterns and evolution of climate change, and the observed evolution of the forcings, the causes of the observed changes can be determined.{{harvnb|Knutson|2017|p=443}}; {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch10|2013|pp=875–876}}. Scientists have determined that the major factors causing the current climate change are greenhouse gases, land use changes, and aerosols and soot.{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Summary for Policymakers|2013|pp=13-14}}.

Greenhouse gases

(File:Greenhouse Effect.svg|thumb|left|upright=1.5|Greenhouse effect schematic showing energy flows between space, the atmosphere, and the Earth's surface. Energy exchanges are expressed in watts per square meter (W/m2).)(File:Carbon Dioxide 800kyr.svg|thumb|left|upright=1.5|{{CO2}} concentrations over the last 800,000 years as measured from ice cores (blue/green) and directly (black))Greenhouse gases trap heat radiating from the Earth to space.WEB
, harv
, The Causes of Climate Change
, NASA
,weblink
, Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet
, 8 May 2019
,weblink
, 8 May 2019
, live
, This heat, in the form of infrared radiation, gets absorbed and emitted by these gases in the atmosphere, thus warming the lower atmosphere and the surface. Before the Industrial Revolution, naturally occurring amounts of greenhouse gases caused the air near the surface to be warmer by about {{convert|33|C-change|0}} than it would be in their absence.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG1 Ch1|2007|loc=FAQ1.1}}: "To emit 240 W m–2, a surface would have to have a temperature of around −19 Â°C. This is much colder than the conditions that actually exist at the Earth's surface (the global mean surface temperature is about 14 Â°C). Instead, the necessary −19 Â°C is found at an altitude about 5 km above the surface." Without the Earth's atmosphere, the Earth's average temperature would be well below the freezing temperature of water.WEB, harv, What Is the Greenhouse Effect?, ACS, American Chemical Society,weblink 26 May 2019,weblink 26 May 2019, live
, The major greenhouse gases are water vapour, which causes about 36–70% of the greenhouse effect; carbon dioxide (CO2), which causes 9–26%; methane (CH4), which causes 4–9%; and ozone (O3), which causes 3–7%.{{harvnb|Kiehl|Trenberth|1997}}.WEB
,weblink
, 6 April 2005
, Water vapour: feedback or forcing?
, Gavin, Schmidt
, Gavin Schmidt
, RealClimate
, 21 April 2009
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090418043001weblink">weblink
, 18 April 2009, live
, WEB
, Randy
, Russell
, The Greenhouse Effect & Greenhouse Gases
, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Windows to the Universe
,weblink
, 16 May 2007
, 27 December 2009
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100328171557weblink">weblink
, 28 March 2010
, dead
, Human activity since the Industrial Revolution has increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, leading to increased radiative forcing from CO2, methane, tropospheric ozone, CFCs, and nitrous oxide. As of 2011, the concentrations of CO2 and methane had increased by about 40% and 150%, respectively, since pre-industrial times.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Summary for Policymakers|2013|p=11}}. In 2013, CO2 readings taken at the world's primary benchmark site in Mauna Loa surpassing 400 ppm for the first time.{{Harvnb|BBC, 10 May|2013}}; {{Harvnb|Schiermeier|2015}}. These levels are much higher than at any time during the last 800,000 years, the period for which reliable data have been collected from ice cores.{{harvnb|Siegenthaler|Stocker|Monnin|Lüthi|2005}}; {{harvnb|Lüthi|Le Floch|Bereiter|Blunier|2008}}. Less direct geological evidence indicates that CO2 values have not been this high for millions of years.{{Harvnb|BBC, 10 May|2013}}; {{Harvnb|Schiermeier|2015|p=}}.Global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2010 were equivalent to 49 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide (using the most recent global warming potentials over 100 years from the AR5 report). Of these emissions, 65% was carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning and industry, 11% was carbon dioxide from land use change, which is primarily due to deforestation, 16% was from methane, 6.2% was from nitrous oxide, and 2.0% was from fluorinated gases.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG3 Summary for Policymakers|2014|pp=6–7}}. Using life-cycle assessment to estimate emissions relating to final consumption, the dominant sources of 2010 emissions were: food (26–30% of emissions);{{harvnb|Poore|Nemecek|2018}}. washing, heating, and lighting (26%); personal transport and freight (20%); and building construction (15%).{{harvnb|Bajzelj|Allwood|Cullen|2013}}.

Land use change

Changing the type of vegetation in a region impacts the local temperature by changing how much sunlight gets reflected back into space, called albedo, and how much heat is lost by evaporation. For instance, the change from a dark forest to grassland makes the surface lighter, causing it to reflect more sunlight. Humans change the land surface mainly to create more agricultural land.{{harvnb|Duveiller|Hooker|Cescatti|2018}}. Since the pre-industrial era, albedo has increased due to land use change, which has a cooling effect on the planet. Other processes linked to land use change however have had the opposite effect, so that the net effect remains unclear.{{harvnb|Andrews|Betts|Booth|Jones|2016}}; {{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Technical Summary|2013}}.

Aerosols and soot

File:ShipTracks MODIS 2005may11.jpg|thumb|alt=Refer to caption|Ship tracks can be seen as lines in these clouds over the Atlantic Ocean on the East Coast of the United States as an effect of aerosols.]] Solid and liquid particles known as aerosols – from volcanoes, plankton, and human-made pollutants – reflect incoming sunlight, cooling the climate.{{Harvnb|Haywood|2016}}. From 1961 to 1990, a gradual reduction in the amount of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface was observed, a phenomenon popularly known as global dimming,{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch2|2013|p=183}}. typically attributed to aerosols from biofuel and fossil fuel burning.{{harvnb|He|Wang|Zhou|Wild|2018}}; {{Harvnb|Storelvmo|Phillips|Lohmann|Leirvik|2016}}. Aerosol removal by precipitation gives tropospheric aerosols an atmospheric lifetime of only about a week, while stratospheric aerosols can remain in the atmosphere for a few years.{{harvnb|Ramanathan|Carmichael|2008}}. Globally, aerosols have been declining since 1990, removing some of the masking of global warming that they had been providing.{{harvnb|Wild|Gilgen|Roesch|Ohmura|2005}}; {{harvnb|Pinker|Zhang|Dutton|2005}}; {{Harvnb|Storelvmo|Phillips|Lohmann|Leirvik|2016}}.
In addition to their direct effect by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, aerosols have indirect effects on the Earth's radiation budget. Sulfate aerosols act as cloud condensation nuclei and thus lead to clouds that have more and smaller cloud droplets. These clouds reflect solar radiation more efficiently than clouds with fewer and larger droplets.{{harvnb|Twomey|1977}}. This effect also causes droplets to be of more uniform size, which reduces the growth of raindrops and makes clouds more reflective to incoming sunlight.{{harvnb|Albrecht|1989}}. Indirect effects of aerosols are the largest uncertainty in radiative forcing.{{Harvnb|USGCRP Chapter 2|2017|p=78}}.While aerosols typically limit global warming by reflecting sunlight, black carbon in soot that falls on snow or ice can contribute to global warming. Not only does this increase the absorption of sunlight, it also increases melting and sea level rise.{{harvnb|Ramanathan|Carmichael|2008}}; {{harvnb|RIVM|2016}}. Limiting new black carbon deposits in the Arctic could reduce global warming by 0.2 Â°C by 2050.{{harvnb|Sand|Berntsen|von Salzen|Flanner|2015}}. When soot is suspended in the atmosphere, it directly absorbs solar radiation, heating the atmosphere and cooling the surface. In areas with high soot production, such as rural India, as much as 50% of surface warming due to greenhouse gases may be masked by atmospheric brown clouds.{{harvnb|Ramanathan|Agrawal|Akimoto|Aufhamer|2008}}; {{harvnb|Ramanathan|Chung|Kim|Bettge|2005}}. The influences of atmospheric particles, including black carbon, are most pronounced in the tropics and northern mid-latitudes, with the effects of greenhouse gases dominant in the other parts of the world.WEB, harv
, Ramanathan, V.
, Part III: Global and Future Implications
, 2008
, Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Regional Assessment Report with Focus on Asia
, United Nations Environment Programme
,weblink
, etal
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110718201515weblink">weblink
, 18 July 2011, .{{harvnb|Wang|Xie|2016}}; {{harvnb|Zhang|Goll|Bastos|Balkanski|2019}}.

Minor forcings: the Sun and short-lived greenhouse gases

{{Further|Solar activity and climate}}As the Sun is the Earth's primary energy source, changes in incoming sunlight directly affect the climate system.{{harvnb|USGCRP Chapter 2|2017|p=78}} Solar irradiance has been measured directly by satellites,{{Harvnb|US NRC|2008|p=6}}. and indirect measurements are available beginning in the early 1600s. There has been no upward trend in the amount of the Sun's energy reaching the Earth, so it cannot be responsible for the current warming.WEB, harv, Is the Sun causing global warming?, Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet,weblink 10 May 2019,weblink 5 May 2019, live, Physical climate models are also unable to reproduce the rapid warming observed in recent decades when taking into account only variations in solar output and volcanic activity.{{harvnb|Schmidt|Shindell|Tsigaridis|2014}}; {{harvnb|Fyfe|Meehl|England|Mann|2016}}. Another line of evidence for the warming not being due to the Sun is how temperature changes differ at different levels in the Earth's atmosphere.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG1 Ch9|2007|pp=702–703}}. According to basic physical principles, the greenhouse effect produces warming of the lower atmosphere (the troposphere), but cooling of the upper atmosphere (the stratosphere).{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG1 Ch9|2007|pp=702–703}}; {{harvnb|Randel|Shine|Austin|Barnett|2009}}. If solar variations were responsible for the observed warming, warming of both the troposphere and the stratosphere would be expected, but that has not been the case.{{Harvnb|USGCRP|2009|p=20}}.Ozone in the lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, is itself a greenhouse gas. Furthermore, it is highly reactive and interacts with other greenhouse gases and aerosols.{{harvnb|Wang|Shugart|Lerdau|2017}}.

Climate change feedback{{anchor|Feedback}}

File:NORTH POLE Ice (19626661335).jpg|thumb|The dark ocean surface reflects only 6 percent of incoming solar radiation, whereas sea ice reflects 50 to 70 percent.WEB, harv
,weblink
, Thermodynamics: Albedo
, NSIDC
, 10 October 2017
,weblink
, 11 October 2017
, live
, The response of the climate system to an initial forcing is increased by positive feedbacks and reduced by negative feedbacks.WEB, harv
, The study of Earth as an integrated system
, Earth Science Communications Team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory / California Institute of Technology
, 2013
, Vitals Signs of the Planet
,weblink
, 26 February 2019
,weblink
, live
, . The main negative feedback to global temperature change is radiative cooling to space as infrared radiation, which increases strongly with increasing temperature.WEB, harv
, Lindsey, R.
, 14 January 2009
, Earth's Energy Budget, in: Climate and Earth's Energy Budget: Feature Articles
,weblink
, Earth Observatory, part of the EOS Project Science Office, located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
, The amount of heat a surface radiates is proportional to the fourth power of its temperature (in Kelvin).
,weblink 2 September 2018
, live
, The main positive feedbacks are the water vapour feedback, the ice–albedo feedback, and probably the net effect of clouds.{{harvnb|Met Office|2016}}. Uncertainty over feedbacks is the major reason why different climate models project different magnitudes of warming for a given amount of emissions.{{harvnb|Wolff|Shepherd|Shuckburgh|Watson|2015|p=}}: "the nature and magnitude of these feedbacks are the principal cause of uncertainty in the response of Earth's climate (over multi-decadal and longer periods) to a particular emissions scenario or greenhouse gas concentration pathway."As air gets warmer, it can hold more moisture. After an initial warming due to emissions of greenhouse gases, the atmosphere will hold more water. As water is a potent greenhouse gas, this further heats the climate: the water vapour feedback. The reduction of snow cover and sea ice in the Arctic reduces the albedo of the Earth's surface.{{harvnb|NASA, 28 May|2013}}. More of the Sun's energy is now absorbed in these regions, contributing to Arctic amplification, which has caused Arctic temperatures to increase at more than twice the rate of the rest of the world.{{harvnb|Cohen|Screen|Furtado|Barlow|2014}}. Arctic amplification also causes methane to be released as permafrost melts, which is expected to surpass land use changes as the second strongest anthropogenic source of greenhouse gases by the end of the century.{{harvnb|Farquharson|Romanovsky|Cable|Walker|2019}}; {{harvnb|NASA, 20 August|2018}}; {{harvnb|The Guardian, 18 June|2019}}.Cloud cover may change in the future. If cloud cover increases, more sunlight will be reflected back into space, cooling the planet. Simultaneously, the clouds enhance the greenhouse effect, warming the planet. The opposite is true if cloud cover decreases. It depends on the cloud type and location which process is more important. Overall, the net feedback over the industrial era has probably been positive.{{harvnb|USGCRP Chapter 2|2017|p=90}}. An analysis of satellite data between 1983 and 2009 reveals that cloud tops are reaching higher into the atmosphere and that cloudy storm tracks are shifting toward Earth's poles, suggesting clouds will be a positive feedback in the future.{{harvnb|Witze|2016|p=}}: "By 2009, the team found that there were fewer clouds over the mid-latitudes than there had been in 1983. That finding meshes with climate predictions that dry zones will expand out of the subtropics and push storms towards the poles. The team also found that cloud tops rose higher in the atmosphere by the end of the 2000s, again as predicted for a warming atmosphere."Carbon dioxide stimulates plant growth so the carbon cycle has been a negative feedback so far: roughly half of each year's CO2 emissions have been absorbed by plants on land and in oceans,{{harvnb|NASA, 16 June|2011|p=}}: "So far, land plants and the ocean have taken up about 55 percent of the extra carbon people have put into the atmosphere while about 45 percent has stayed in the atmosphere. Eventually, the land and oceans will take up most of the extra carbon dioxide, but as much as 20 percent may remain in the atmosphere for many thousands of years." with an estimated 30% increase in plant growth from 2000 to 2017.{{harvnb|NOAA, 20 April|2017}}. The limits and reversal point for this feedback are an area of uncertainty.{{harvnb|Scientific American, 23 January|2018|p=}}: "Climate change's negative effects on plants will likely outweigh any gains from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels". As more CO2 and heat are absorbed by the ocean it is acidifying and ocean circulation can change, changing the rate at which the ocean can absorb atmospheric carbon.WEB, harv
, How the oceans absorb carbon dioxide is critical for predicting climate change
, 24 February 2019
,weblink
,weblink
, 29 March 2019
, live
, increasing CO2 modifies the climate which in turn impacts ocean circulation and therefore ocean CO2 uptake. Changes in marine ecosystems resulting from rising CO2 and/or changing climate can also result in changes in air-sea CO2 exchange. These feedbacks can change the role of the oceans in taking up atmospheric CO2 making it very difficult to predict how the ocean carbon cycle will operate in the future.
, On land, greater plant growth will be constrained by nitrogen levels and can be reversed by plant heat stress, desertification, and the release of carbon from soil as the ground warms.{{harvnb|Melillo|Frey|DeAngelis|Werner|2017|p=}}: "Our first-order estimate of a warming-induced loss of 190 Pg of soil carbon over the 21st century is equivalent to the past two decades of carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning and is comparable in magnitude to the cumulative carbon losses to the atmosphere due to human-driven land use change during the past two centuries."A concern is that positive feedbacks will lead to a tipping point, where global temperatures transition to a hothouse climate state even if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced or eliminated. A 2018 study tried to identify such a planetary threshold for self-reinforcing feedbacks and found that even a {{convert|2|C-change}} increase in temperature over pre-industrial levels may be enough to trigger such a hothouse Earth scenario.{{harvnb|Phys.org, 6 August|2018|p=}}: "Hothouse Earth is likely to be uncontrollable and dangerous to many ... global average temperatures would exceed those of any interglacial period—meaning warmer eras that come in between Ice Ages—of the past 1.2 million years."; {{harvnb|Steffen|Rockström|Richardson|Lenton|2018|p=}}: "A Hothouse Earth trajectory would almost certainly flood deltaic environments, increase the risk of damage from coastal storms, and eliminate coral reefs (and all of the benefits that they provide for societies) by the end of this century or earlier". {{harvnb|The Guardian, 7 August|2018}}.

Climate models

File:All forcing agents CO2 equivalent concentration.png|upright=1.5|thumb|left|Future CO2 projections, including all forcing agents' atmospheric CO2-equivalent concentrations in parts-per-million-by-volume (ppmv) according to four RCPs (Representative Concentration PathwaysRepresentative Concentration PathwaysFile:Projected change in annual mean surface air temperature from the late 20th century to the middle 21st century, based on SRES emissions scenario A1B.png|upright=1.5|thumb|left|Projected change in annual mean surface air temperature from the late 20th century to the mid-21st century, based on a medium emissions scenario.JOURNAL, harv
, January 2007
, Patterns of greenhouse warming
,weblink
, 1, 6
, The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL)
, Princeton, New Jersey
, GFDL Climate Modeling Research Highlights, 1 December 2012
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121014011420weblink">weblink
, 14 October 2012, dead
, This scenario assumes that no future policies are adopted to limit greenhouse gas emissions. Image credit: NOAA GFDL.WEB, harv
,weblink
, NOAA GFDL Climate Research Highlights Image Gallery: Patterns of Greenhouse Warming
, 9 October 2012
, NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL)
, 1 December 2012
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121014011725weblink">weblink 14 October 2012, dead
, ]]A climate model is a representation of the physical, chemical, and biological processes that affect the climate system.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 SYR Glossary|2007}}, "Climate Model {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181223073653weblink |date=23 December 2018 }}". Computer models are run on supercomputers to reproduce and predict the circulation of the oceans, the annual cycle of the seasons, and the flows of carbon between the land surface and the atmosphere.{{harvnb|Carbon Brief, 15 January|2018|loc= "What is a climate model?"}}. There are more than two dozen scientific institutions that develop climate models.{{harvnb|Carbon Brief, 15 January|2018|loc= "Who does climate modelling around the world?"}}. Models not only project different future temperature with different emissions of greenhouse gases, but also do not fully agree on the strength of different feedbacks on climate sensitivity and the amount of inertia of the system.{{harvnb|Stott|Kettleborough|2002}}.A subset of climate models add societal factors to a simple physical climate model. These models simulate how population, economic growth, and energy use affect – and interact with – the physical climate. With this information, scientists can produce scenarios of how greenhouse gas emissions may vary in the future. Scientists can then run these scenarios through physical climate models to generate climate change projections.{{harvnb|Carbon Brief, 15 January|2018|loc= "What are the inputs and outputs for a climate model?"}}; {{harvnb|Carbon Brief, 21 March|2019}}.Climate models include different external forcings for their models.{{harvnb|Séférian|Smith|Kriegler|Forster|2019}}. For different greenhouse gas inputs four RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways) are used: "a stringent mitigation scenario (RCP2.6), two intermediate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP6.0) and one scenario with very high GHG [greenhouse gas] emissions (RCP8.5)".{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 SYR Summary for Policymakers|2014|loc=Sec. 2.1}}.. Models also include changes in the Earth's orbit, historical changes in the Sun's activity, and volcanic forcing.{{harvnb|Carbon Brief, 15 January|2018|loc= "What are the different types of climate models?"}}. RCPs only look at concentrations of greenhouse gases, factoring out uncertainty as to whether the carbon cycle will continue to remove about half of the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere each year.{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Technical Summary|2013}}.The physical realism of models is tested by examining their ability to simulate contemporary or past climates.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG1 Ch8|2007}}, Sec. FAQ 8.1. Past models have underestimated the rate of Arctic shrinkage{{harvnb|Stroeve|Holland|Meier|Scambos|2007}}.WEB,weblink Arctic permafrost is thawing fast. That affects us all., 2019-08-13, National Geographic, 2019-08-25, and underestimated the rate of precipitation increase.{{harvnb|Liepert|Previdi|2009}}. Sea level rise since 1990 was underestimated in older models, but now agrees well with observations.{{harvnb|Rahmstorf|Cazenave|Church|Hansen|2007}};{{harvnb|Mitchum|Masters|Hamlington|Fasullo|2018}}. The 2017 United States-published National Climate Assessment notes that "climate models may still be underestimating or missing relevant feedback processes".{{harvnb|USGCRP Chapter 15|2017}}.

Effects

(File:Sea Level Rise.png|thumb|upright=1.5|Historical sea level reconstruction and projections up to 2100 published in January 2017 by the U.S. Global Change Research Program for the Fourth National Climate Assessment.{{harvnb|NOAA|2017}}.)

Physical environment

The environmental effects of global warming are broad and far-reaching. They include effects on the oceans, ice, and weather and may occur gradually or rapidly.Between 1993 and 2017, the global mean sea level rose on average by 3.1 ± 0.3 mm per year, with an acceleration detected as well.{{harvnb|WCRP Global Sea Level Budget Group|2018}}. Over the 21st century, the IPCC projects that in a high emissions scenario the sea level could rise by 52–98 cm.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch13|2013|p=}}. The rate of ice loss from glaciers and ice sheets in the Antarctic is a key area of uncertainty since this source could account for 90% of the potential sea level rise.{{harvnb|U.S. Geological Survey, 18 June 2018}}. Increased ocean warmth is undermining and threatening to unplug Antarctic glacier outlets, potentially resulting in more rapid sea level rise.{{harvnb|DeConto|Pollard|2016}}; {{harvnb|NOAA, 1 August|2018}}. The retreat of non-polar glaciers also contributes to sea level rise.{{harvnb|NOAA, 1 August|2018}}.Global warming has led to decades of shrinking and thinning of the Arctic sea ice, making it vulnerable to atmospheric anomalies.{{harvnb|Zhang|Lindsay|Steele|Schweiger|2008}}. Projections of declines in Arctic sea ice vary.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch11|2013|p=995}}; {{Harvnb|Wang|Overland|2009}}. Recent projections suggest that Arctic summers could be ice-free (defined as an ice extent of less than 1 million square km) as early as 2025–2030,WEB, harv
, Arctic sea ice 2012
, Met Office
, Exeter, UK
,weblink
, 29 March 2013
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130515193512weblink">weblink 15 May 2013, {{update inline|reason= Out-of-date (2012) information, likely no longer reflects expert opinion.|date=August 2019}} increasing the ice–albedo feedback.{{harvnb|Pistone|Eisenman|Ramanathan|2019}}. Higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations have led to an increase in dissolved CO2, which causes ocean acidification.{{Harvnb|NCADAC|2013|pp=69–70}}. Furthermore, oxygen levels decrease because oxygen is less soluble in warmer water, an effect known as ocean deoxygenation.{{harvnb|Deutsch|Brix|Ito|Frenzel|2011}}.
Many regions have probably already seen increases in warm spells and heat waves, and it is virtually certain that these changes will continue over the 21st century.{{harvnb|IPCC SREX Summary for Policymakers|2012}}, section D ("Future Climate Extremes, Impacts, and Disaster Losses"), pp. 9-13. Since the 1950s, droughts and heat waves have appeared simultaneously with increasing frequency.{{harvnb|USGCRP Chapter 15|2017|p=415}}. Extremely wet or dry events within the monsoon period have increased in India and East Asia.{{harvnb|Scientific American, 29 April|2014}}; {{harvnb|Burke|Stott|2017}}. Various mechanisms have been identified that might explain extreme weather in mid-latitudes from the rapidly warming Arctic, such as the jet stream becoming more erratic.{{harvnb|Francis|Vavrus|2012}}; {{harvnb|Sun|Perlwitz|Hoerling|2016}}; {{harvnb|Carbon Brief, 31 January|2019}}.{{update after|2029|reason=The Carbon Brief source states that they expect consensus about this in 5 to 10 years.}} The maximum rainfall and wind speed from hurricanes and typhoons are likely increasing.{{Harvnb|USGCRP Chapter 9|2017|p=260}}.Long-term effects of global warming: On the timescale of centuries to millennia, the magnitude of global warming will be determined primarily by anthropogenic CO2 emissions.{{harvnb|National Research Council|2011|p=14|loc=Summary}}; {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch12|2013|pp=88–89|loc = FAQ 12.3}}. This is due to carbon dioxide's very long lifetime in the atmosphere. The emissions are estimated to have prolonged the current interglacial period by at least 100,000 years.{{harvnb|Crucifix|2016}} Because the great mass of glaciers and ice caps depressed the Earth's crust, another long-term effect of ice melt and deglaciation is the gradual rising of landmasses, a process called post-glacial rebound. This could be facilitating seismic and volcanic activity in places like Iceland.{{harvnb|Jull|McKenzie|1996}}. Tsunamis could be generated by submarine landslides caused by warmer ocean water thawing ocean-floor permafrost or releasing gas hydrates.{{harvnb|McGuire|2010}}. Sea level rise will continue over many centuries.{{harvnb|Smith|Schneider|Oppenheimer|Yohe|2009}}.Abrupt climate change, tipping points in the climate system: Climate change could result in global, large-scale changes.{{Harvnb|IPCC TAR WG2 Ch19|2001}}, Section 19.6: Extreme and Irreversible Effects {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190628213756weblink |date=28 June 2019 }}. Some large-scale changes could occur abruptly, i.e. over a short time period, and might also be irreversible. One potential source of abrupt climate change would be the rapid release of methane and carbon dioxide from permafrost, which would amplify global warming.JOURNAL, Turetsky, Merritt R., Abbott, Benjamin W., Jones, Miriam C., Anthony, Katey Walter, Koven, Charles, Kuhry, Peter, Lawrence, David M., Gibson, Carolyn, Sannel, A. Britta K., 2019-04-30, Permafrost collapse is accelerating carbon release,weblink Nature, 2019-09-18, Another example is the possibility for the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to slow or shut down (see also shutdown of thermohaline circulation).{{harvnb|Clark|Weaver|Brook|Cook|2008}}; {{harvnb|BBC, 22 February|2013}}. This could trigger cooling in the North Atlantic, Europe, and North America.{{harvnb|ScienceDaily, 20 December|2004}}; {{harvnb|Liu|Xie|Liu|Zhu|2017}}.

Biosphere

File:Endangered arctic - starving polar bear.jpg|left|thumb|upright=1.15|The U.S. Geological Survey projects that reduced sea ice from climate change will lower the population of polar bears by two-thirds by 2050.WEB, harv
,weblink
, Global Warming and Polar Bears – National Wildlife Federation
, 16 October 2017
, As climate change melts sea ice, the U.S. Geological Survey projects that two thirds of polar bears will disappear by 2050.
,weblink
, 17 October 2017
, live, {hide}harvnb|Amstrup|Marcot|Douglas|2013|p=213
polar bearIn terrestrial ecosystems, the earlier timing of spring events, as well as poleward and upward shifts in plant and animal ranges, have been linked with high confidence to recent warming.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 SYR|2007}}, Section 1: Observed changes in climate and their effects {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181223121017weblink |date=23 December 2018 }}. It is expected that most ecosystems will be affected by higher atmospheric CO2 levels and higher global temperatures.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG2 Ch4|2007}},Executive Summary {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190627230745weblink |date=27 June 2019 }}, p. 213. Global warming has contributed to the expansion of drier climatic zones, such as, probably, the expansion of deserts in the subtropics.{{harvnb|IPCC SRCCL Summary for Policymakers|2019|p=6}}; {{harvnb|Zeng|Yoon|2009}}. Without substantial actions to reduce the rate of global warming, land-based ecosystems risk major shifts in their composition and structure.{{harvnb|The Washington Post, 30 August|2018}}. Overall, it is expected that climate change will result in the extinction of many species and reduced diversity of ecosystems.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG2 Ch19|2007}}, Section 19.3.4: Ecosystems and biodiversity {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181223121214weblink |date=23 December 2018 }}. Rising temperatures push bees to their physiological limits, and could cause the extinction of bee populations.{{harvnb|ScienceDaily, 28 June|2018}}.The ocean has heated more slowly than the land, but plants and animals in the ocean have migrated towards the colder poles as fast as or faster than species on land.{{harvnb|Poloczanska|Brown|Sydeman|Kiessling|2013}}. Just as on land, heat waves in the ocean occur more due to climate change, with harmful effects found on a wide range of organisms such as corals, kelp, and seabirds.{{harvnb|Smale|Wernberg|Oliver|Thomsen|2019}}. Ocean acidification threatens damage to coral reefs, fisheries, protected species, and other natural resources of value to society.{{Harvnb|NCADAC|2013|pp=69–70}}; {{Harvnb|UNEP|2010|pp=73–81}}. Higher oceanic CO2 may affect the brain and central nervous system of certain fish species, which reduces their ability to hear, smell, and evade predators.{{harvnb|ScienceDaily, 21 January|2012}}.

Humans

{{Further|Effects of global warming on human health|Climate security|Economics of global warming|Climate change and agriculture|}}File:FEMA - 33364 - A helicopter drops water on the wildfire in California.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|A helicopter drops water on a wildfire in California. National Geographic 15 November|2018}}; {{harvnb|Barbero|Abatzoglou|Larkin|Kolden|2015}}.The effects of climate change on human systems, mostly due to warming and shifts in precipitation, have been detected worldwide. The future social impacts of climate change will be uneven across the world.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Technical Summary|2014|pp=93–94}}, FAQ 7 and 8. All regions are at risk of experiencing negative impacts,{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Technical Summary|2014}}, Section B-3: "Regional Risks and Potential for Adaptation", pp. 27–30. with low-latitude, less developed areas facing the greatest risk.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch19|2014|p=1077}}. Global warming has likely already increased global economic inequality, and is projected to do so in the future.{{harvnb|Diffenbaugh|Burke|2019}}; {{harvnb|The Guardian, 26 January|2015}}; {{harvnb|Burke|Davis|Diffenbaugh|2018}}. Regional impacts of climate change are now observable on all continents and across ocean regions.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch18|2014}} Executive Summary (p. 983), an section 8.6.2 (p. 1008). The Arctic, Africa, small islands, and Asian megadeltas are regions that are likely to be especially affected by future climate change.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 SYR|2007}}, Section 3.3.3: Especially affected systems, sectors and regions {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181223030103weblink |date=23 December 2018 }}. Many risks increase with higher magnitudes of global warming.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch19|2014|pp=1073–1080}}.

Food and water

Crop production will probably be negatively affected in low-latitude countries, while effects at northern latitudes may be positive or negative.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch7|2014|p=488}}. Global warming of around 4 Â°C relative to late 20th century levels could pose a large risk to global and regional food security.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Summary for Policymakers|2014|p=18}}. The impact of climate change on crop productivity for the four major crops was negative for wheat and maize, and neutral for soy and rice, in the years 1960–2013.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch7|2014|pp=491–492}}. Up to an additional 182 million people worldwide, particularly those with lower incomes, are at risk of hunger as a consequence of warming.{{harvnb|IPCC SRCCL Ch5|2019|p=5}} While increased {{CO2}} levels help crop growth at lower temperature increases, those crops do become less nutritious.{{harvnb|IPCC SRCCL Ch5|2019|p=5}} Based on local and indigenous knowledge, climate change is already affecting food security in mountain regions in South America and Asia, and in various drylands, particularly in Africa.{{harvnb|IPCC SRCCL Ch5|2019|p=5}} Regions dependent on glacier water, regions that are already dry, and small islands are also at increased risk of water stress due to climate change.{{harvnb|Holding|Allen|Foster|Hsieh|2016}}; {{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch3|2014|pp=232-233}}.

Health and security

File:US Navy 071120-M-8966H-005 An aerial view over southern Bangladesh reveals extensive flooding as a result of Cyclone Sidr.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Aerial view over southern Bangladesh after the passage of Kabir|Khan|Ball|Caldwell|2016}}Generally, impacts on public health will be more negative than positive.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch11|2014|p=742}}; {{harvnb|Costello|Abbas|Allen|Ball|2009}}; {{harvnb|Watts|Adger|Agnolucci|Blackstock|2015}}. Impacts include the direct effects of extreme weather, leading to injury and loss of life;{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch11|2014|pp=720–723}}. and indirect effects, such as undernutrition brought on by crop failures.{{harvnb|Costello|Abbas|Allen|Ball|2009}}; {{harvnb|Watts|Adger|Agnolucci|Blackstock|2015}}; {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch11|2014|p=713}}. Temperature rise has been connected to increased numbers of suicides.{{harvnb|USA Today, 13 July|2018}}. Climate change has been linked to an increase in violent conflict by amplifying poverty and economic shocks, which are well-documented drivers of these conflicts.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Summary for Policymakers|2014|p=20}}. Links have been made between a wide range of violent behaviour including fist fights, violent crimes, civil unrest, and wars.{{harvnb|The Washington Post, 22 October|2014}}; {{harvnb|Ranson|2014}}; {{harvnb|Marshall|Hsiang|Edward|2014}}; {{harvnb|National Review, 27 February|2014}}. Climate change may also lead to new human diseases. For example, while ordinary temperatures usually kill off the yeast Candida auris before it infects humans, three strains have recently appeared in widely separate regions, leading researchers to postulate that warmer temperatures are driving it to adapt to higher temperatures at which it can more readily infect humans.NEWS, American Society for Microbiology, Rise of Candida auris blamed on global warming,weblink 25 July 2019, Science Daily, July 23, 2019,

Livelihoods, industry, and infrastructure

In small islands and mega deltas, inundation from sea level rise is expected to threaten vital infrastructure and human settlements.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 SYR|2007}}, Section 3.3.3: "Especially affected systems, sectors and regions" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181223030103weblink |date=23 December 2018 }};{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG2 Ch16|2007}}, Executive Summary {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181223073618weblink |date=23 December 2018 }}. This could lead to homelessness in countries with low-lying areas such as Bangladesh, as well as statelessness for populations in island nations, such as the Maldives and Tuvalu.{{harvnb|UNHCR|2011}}. Climate change can be an important driver of migration, both within and between countries.{{harvnb|UN Environment, 25 October|2018}}; {{harvnb|UNFCCC, 17 October|2017}}.The majority of severe impacts of climate change are expected in sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia, where existing poverty is exacerbated.{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch3|2014|pp=796-797}} Current inequalities between men and women, between rich and poor and between people of different ethnicity have been observed to worsen as a consequence of climate variability and climate change.{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch3|2014|p=796}} Existing stresses include poverty, political conflicts, and ecosystem degradation. Regions may even become uninhabitable, with humidity and temperatures reaching levels too high for humans to survive.{{harvnb|Sherwood|Huber|2010}}.

Responses

Mitigation of and adaptation to climate change are two complementary responses to global warming. Successful adaptation is easier if there are substantial emission reductions. Many of the countries that have contributed least to global greenhouse gas emissions are among the most vulnerable to climate change, which raises questions about justice and fairness with regard to mitigation and adaptation.{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 SYR Summary for Policymakers|2014|loc=Section 3|p=17}}.

Mitigation

File:Mitigation pathways.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.5|alt=Refer to caption and image description|The graph shows multiple "pathways" to meet the UNFCCC's 1.5  Â°C or 2 Â°C target. All pathways include negative emission technologies such as afforestation and BECCSBECCS(File:Annual greenhouse gas emissions by sector, in 2010 (color).png|thumb|upright=1.5|Annual greenhouse gas emissions attributed to different sectors as of 2010. Emissions are given as a percentage share of total emissions, measured in carbon dioxide-equivalents, using global warming potentials from the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report.)Climate change can be mitigated through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions or the enhancement of the capacity of carbon sinks to absorb greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.Mitigation {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150121083052weblink |date=21 January 2015 }}, in {{harvnb|USGCRP|2015}}. There is a large potential for future reductions in emissions by a combination of activities, including energy conservation and increased energy efficiency; the use of low-carbon energy technologies, such as renewable energy, nuclear energy, and carbon capture and storage; decarbonizing buildings and transport; and enhancing carbon sinks through, for example, reforestation and preventing deforestation.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 SYR|2007}}, Section 4: Adaptation and mitigation options {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100501175206weblink |date=1 May 2010 }}; Table TS.3, in {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG3 Technical Summary|2014|p=68}}. {{harvnb|The Guardian, 4 July|2019}}. A 2015 report by Citibank concluded that transitioning to a low-carbon economy would yield a positive return on investments.{{harvnb|The Guardian, 31 August|2015|p=}}.File:CO2 emission pie chart.svg|thumb|left|Global carbon dioxide emissions by country in 2015]]

Drivers of greenhouse gas emissions

Over the last three decades of the twentieth century, gross domestic product per capita and population growth were the main drivers of increases in greenhouse gas emissions.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG3 Ch1|2007}}, Section 1.3.1.2: Intensities {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181223120915weblink |date=23 December 2018 }}. CO2 emissions are continuing to rise due to the burning of fossil fuels and land-use change.{{harvnb|NRC|2008}}; {{harvnb|World Bank|2010|p=71}}. Emissions can be attributed to different regions. The attribution of emissions from land-use change is subject to considerable uncertainty.{{harvnb|Liverman|2009|p=289}}.Emissions scenarios, estimates of changes in future emission levels of greenhouse gases, depend upon uncertain economic, sociological, technological, and natural developments.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG3 Ch3|2007}}, Section 3.1: Emissions scenarios: Issues related to mitigation in the long term context {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181223031805weblink |date=23 December 2018 }} In some scenarios emissions continue to rise over the century, while others have reduced emissions.{{harvnb|Riahi|van Vuuren|Kriegler|Edmonds|2017}}; {{harvnb|Carbon Brief, 19 April|2018}}. Fossil fuel reserves are abundant, and will not limit carbon emissions in the 21st century.{{Harvnb|IPCC TAR WG3 Summary for Policymakers|2001}}, Introduction, paragraph 6 {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060311001538weblink |date=11 March 2006 }}. Emission scenarios can be combined with modelling of the carbon cycle to predict how atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases might change in the future. According to these combined models, by 2100 the atmospheric concentration of CO2 could be as low as 380 or as high as 1400 ppm, depending on the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) the world takes and the mitigation scenario.{{harvnb|Carbon Brief, 19 April|2018}}; {{harvnb|Meinshausen|2019|p=462}}.

Reducing greenhouse gases

Near- and long-term trends in the global energy system are inconsistent with limiting global warming to below 1.5 or 2 Â°C relative to pre-industrial levels.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG3 Ch6|2014|p=418}}; {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG3 Summary for Policymakers|2014|pp=10–13}}. Current pledges made as part of the Paris Agreement would lead to about 3.0 Â°C of warming at the end of the 21st century, relative to pre-industrial levels.{{harvnb|Climate Action Tracker, 11 December|2018}}. To keep warming below 2 Â°C, more stringent emission reductions in the near-term would allow for less rapid reductions after 2030,{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG3 Technical Summary|2014|pp=55–56}}. and be cheaper overall.{{harvnb|UNFCCC SYN|2016}} p.10-11 {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190414181242weblink |date=14 April 2019 }} To keep warming under 1.5°C, a far-reaching system change on an unprecedented scale is necessary in energy, land, cities, transport, buildings, and industry.{{harvnb|IPCC SR15 Summary for Policymakers|2018|p=15}}.Although low-level ozone is harmful, when in the stratosphere ozone is beneficial. As many of the substances which can cause stratospheric ozone depletion are also greenhouse gases, the Montreal Protocol against their emissions may have done more than any other measure, {{as of|2017|lc=y}}, to mitigate climate change.{{harvnb|UN Environment, 20 November|2017}}.Co-benefits of climate change mitigation may help society and individuals more quickly. For example, bicycling reduces greenhouse gas emissions while reducing the effects of a sedentary lifestyle at the same time.{{harvnb|Quam|Rocklöv|Quam|Lucas|2017}}. The development and scaling-up of clean technology, such as cement that produces less CO2,{{harvnb|BBC, 17 December|2018}}. is critical to achieve sufficient emission reductions for the Paris agreement goals.WEB
, {{harvid, United Nations Development Program, 2019,
|title=Reducing emissions, promoting clean energy and protecting forests
|author=United Nations Development Program
|url=https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/climate-and-disaster-resilience/climate-change/reducing-emissions--promoting-clean-energy-and-protecting-forest.html
|access-date=17 April 2019
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190417082846weblink
|archive-date=17 April 2019
|url-status=live
}} Many integrated models are unable to meet the 2 Â°C target if pessimistic assumptions are made about the availability of mitigation technologies.{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG3 Technical Summary|2014|p=58}}..
It has been suggested that the most effective and comprehensive policy to reduce carbon emissions is a carbon tax{{harvnb|The Economist, 7 February|2019}}. or the closely related emissions trading.{{harvnb|Hagmann|Ho|Loewenstein|2019}}.There are diverse opinions on how people could mitigate their carbon footprint. One suggestion is that the best approach is having fewer children, and to a lesser extent living car-free, forgoing air travel, and adopting a plant-based diet.{{harvnb|Science, 11 July|2017}};{{harvnb|Wynes|Nicholas|2017}}. Some disagree with encouraging people to stop having children, saying that children "embody a profound hope for the future", and that more emphasis should be placed on overconsumption, lifestyle choices of the world's wealthy, fossil fuel companies, and government inaction.{{harvnb|The Guardian, 27 February|2019}}; {{harvnb|Vox, 15 October|2018}}.

Adaptation

Climate change adaptation is "the adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities." {{harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG2 Technical Summary|2007|p=27}}: Box TS.3. Definitions of key terms. Examples of adaptation are improved coastline protection, better disaster management, and the development of more resistant crops.WEB, harv
, Global climate change adaptation and mitigation
, NASA's Global Climate Change
, Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet
,weblink
,weblink
, 3 April 2019
, live, 12 April 2019
,
The adaptation may be planned, either in reaction to or anticipation of global warming, or spontaneous, i.e. without government intervention.{{Harvnb|IPCC TAR WG2 Ch18|2001}},
Section 18.2.3: Adaptation Types and Forms.The public sector, private sector, and communities are all gaining experience with adaptation, and adaptation is becoming embedded within certain planning processes. {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 SYR Summary for Policymakers|2014|loc= Topic 1.6}}, p. 54. While some adaptation responses call for trade-offs, others bring synergies and co-benefits.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 SYR Summary for Policymakers|2014|loc=Topic 4.5}}, p. 112. Environmental organizations and public figures have emphasized changes in the climate and the risks they entail, while promoting adaptation to changes in infrastructural needs and emissions reductions.PRESS RELEASE, {{harvid, U.S. Global Change Research Program, 16 June, 2009,
|title=New Report Provides Authoritative Assessment of National, Regional Impacts of Global Climate Change
|date=16 June 2009
|publisher=U.S. Global Change Research Program
|url=https://www.globalchange.gov/news/new-assessment-national-regional-impacts-climate-change
|accessdate=14 January 2016
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160413114009weblink
|archive-date=13 April 2016
|url-status=live
}}Adaptation is especially important in developing countries since they are predicted to bear the brunt of the effects of global warming.{{harvnb|Cole|2008}}. The capacity and potential for humans to adapt, called adaptive capacity, is unevenly distributed across different regions and populations, and developing countries generally have less capacity to adapt.{{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG2 Ch19|2007|p=796}}. In June 2019, U.N. special rapporteur Philip Alston warned of a "climate apartheid" situation developing, where global warming "could push more than 120 million more people into poverty by 2030 and will have the most severe impact in poor countries, regions, and the places poor people live and work".NEWS, June 25, 2019, UN expert condemns failure to address impact of climate change on poverty,weblink OHCHR, July 9, 2019,weblink 10 July 2019,

Climate engineering

Climate engineering (sometimes called geoengineering or climate intervention) is the deliberate modification of the climate. It has been investigated as a possible response to global warming by groups including NASAREPORT, harv
, Workshop on managing solar radiation
, Lane, Lee
, Caldeira, Ken
, Ken Caldeira
, April 2007
, NASA
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090531173021weblink">weblink
, 31 May 2009
, dead, 23 May 2009
, and the Royal Society.
PRESS RELEASE, {{harvid, The Royal Society, 28 August, 2009,
|title =Stop emitting CO2 or geoengineering could be our only hope
|date=28 August 2009
|publisher=The Royal Society
|accessdate=14 June 2011
|url-status = dead
|url=http://royalsociety.org/Stop-emitting-CO2-or-geoengineering-could-be-our-only-hope/
|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110624054716weblink
|archivedate=24 June 2011}} Techniques studied fall generally into the categories of solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal, although various other schemes have been suggested. A study from 2014 investigated the most common climate engineering methods and concluded that they are either ineffective or have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change.{{harvnb|Keller|Feng|Oschlies|2014|p=}}: We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited ( An influential 1979 National Academy of Sciences study headed by Jule Charney followed Broecker in using global warming to refer to rising surface temperatures, while describing the wider effects of increased {{co2}} as climate change.{{harvnb|Conway|2008}}.
There were increasing heatwaves and drought problems in the summer of 1988, and NASA climate scientist James Hansen's testimony in the U.S. Senate sparked worldwide interest.{{harvnb|Weart|2014b}}, "News reporters gave only a little attention....". He said, "Global warming has reached a level such that we can ascribe with a high degree of confidence a cause and effect relationship between the greenhouse effect and the observed warming."{{harvnb|U.S. Senate, Hearings|1988|p= 44}}. Public attention increased over the summer, and global warming became the dominant popular term, commonly used both by the press and in public discourse.{{harvnb|Conway|2008}}. In the 2000s, the term climate change increased in popularity.{{harvnb|Joo|Kim|Do|Lineman|2015}}.

Climate crisis

People who regard climate change as catastrophic, irreversible, or rapid might label climate change as a climate crisis or a climate emergency.{{harvnb|Hodder|Martin|2009}}. One newspaper, The Guardian, has embraced this terminology (as well as global heating) in their editorial guidelines.{{harvnb|The Guardian, 17 May|2019}}. In a statement explaining the paper's policy editor-in-chief, Katharine Viner said "We want to ensure that we are being scientifically precise, while also communicating clearly with readers on this very important issue.”

See also

{{Wikipedia books}}{{col div|colwidth=30em}}
  • Anthropocene – proposed geological time interval for a new period where humans are having significant geological impact
  • Global cooling – minority view held by scientists in the 1970s that imminent cooling of the Earth would take place
  • Holocene extinction
  • Planetary boundaries – global warming is one of them
{{colend}}

Notes

{{notelist}}{{reflist|25em}}

Sources

{{Cleanup|reason=This section is being reorganized; many sources are not yet where they belong, and at times maybe out of order.|date=July 2019}}

IPCC reports

TAR Working Group II Report
  • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC TAR WG2, 2001,


|author= IPCC |author-link= IPCC
|year= 2001
|title= Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability
|series= Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
|display-editors= 4
|editor-first1= J.J. |editor-last1= McCarthy
|editor-first2= O.F. |editor-last2= Canziani
|editor-first3= N.A. |editor-last3= Leary
|editor-first4= D.J. |editor-last4= Dokken
|editor-first5= K.S. |editor-last5= white
|isbn= 0-521-80768-9
|publisher= Cambridge University Press
|location= Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
|url=
}} pb: {{ISBNT|0 521-01500-6}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC TAR WG2 Ch18, 2001,


|chapter= Chapter 18: Adaptation to Climate Change in the Context of Sustainable Development and Equity
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2001
|display-authors= 4
|first1= B. |last1= Smit
|first2= O. |last2= Pilifosova
|first3= I. |last3= Burton
|first4= B. |last4= Challenger
|first5= S. |last5= Huq
|first6= R.J.T. |last6= Klein
|first7= G. |last7= Yohe
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC TAR WG2|2001}}
|pages= 877–912
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC TAR WG2 Ch19, 2001,


|chapter= Chapter 19: Vulnerability to Climate Change and Reasons for Concern: A Synthesis
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2001
|display-authors= 4
|first1= J.B. |last1= Smith
|first2= H.-J. |last2= Schellnhuber
|first3= M.M.Q. |last3= Mirza
|first4= S. |last4= Fankhauser
|first5= R. |last5= Leemans
|first6= Lin |last6= Erda
|first7= L. |last7= Ogallo
|first8= B. |last8= Pittock
|first9= R. |last9= Richels
|first10= C. |last10= Rosenzweig
|first11= U. |last11= Safriel
|first12= R.S.J. |last12= Tol
|first13= J. |last13= Weyant
|first14= G. |last14= Yohe
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC TAR WG2|2001}}
|pages= 913–967
}} TAR Working Group III Report
  • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC TAR WG3, 2001,


|author= IPCC |author-link= IPCC
|year= 2001
|title= Climate Change 2001: Mitigation
|series= Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
|editor-first1= B. |editor-last1= Metz
|editor-first2= O. |editor-last2= Davidson
|editor-first3= R. |editor-last3= Swart
|editor-first4= J. |editor-last4= Pan
|isbn = 0-521-80769-7
|publisher= Cambridge University Press
|location= Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
|url=weblink
}} pb: {{ISBNT|0-521-01502-2}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC TAR WG3 Summary for Policymakers, 2001,


|chapter= Summary for Policymakers
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2001
|author= IPCC |author-link= IPCC
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC TAR WG3|2001}}
|pages= 1–13
}} AR4 Working Group I Report
  • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 WG1, 2007,


|author = IPCC |author-link = IPCC
|year = 2007
|title = Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis
|series = Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
|display-editors= 4
|editor-first1= S. |editor-last1= Solomon
|editor-first2= D. |editor-last2= Qin
|editor-first3= M. |editor-last3= Manning
|editor-first4= Z. |editor-last4= Chen
|editor-first5= M. |editor-last5= Marquis
|editor-first6= K.B. |editor-last6= Averyt
|editor-first7= M. |editor-last7= Tignor
|editor-first8= H.L. |editor-last8= Miller
|publisher = Cambridge University Press
|url =weblink
|isbn = 978-0-521-88009-1
}} (pb: {{ISBNT|978-0-521-70596-7}}).
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 WG1 Summary for Policymakers, 2007,


|chapter= Summary for Policymakers
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2007
|author= IPCC |author-link= IPCC
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG1|2007}}
|pages= 1–18
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 WG1 Ch1, 2007,


|chapter= Chapter 1: Historical Overview of Climate Change Science
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2007
|display-authors= 4
|first1= H. |last1= Le Treut
|first2= R. |last2= Somerville
|first3= U. |last3= Cubasch
|first4= Y. |last4= Ding
|first5= C. |last5= Mauritzen
|first6= A. |last6= Mokssit
|first7= T. |last7= Peterson
|first8= M. |last8= Prather


|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG1|2007}}
|pages= 93–127
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 WG1 Ch8, 2007,


|chapter= Chapter 8: Climate Models and their Evaluation
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2007
|display-authors= 4
|first1= D.A. |last1= Randall
|first2= R.A. |last2= Wood
|first3= S. |last3= Bony
|first4= R. |last4= Colman
|first5= T. |last5= Fichefet
|first6= J. |last6= Fyfe
|first7= V. |last7= Kattsov
|first8= A. |last8= Pitman
|first9= J. |last9= Shukla
|first10= J. |last10= Srinivasan
|first11= R.J. |last11= Stouffer
|first12= A. |last12= Sumi
|first13= K.E. |last13= Taylor


|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG1|2007}}
|pages= 589–662
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 WG1 Ch9, 2007,


|chapter= Chapter 9: Understanding and Attributing Climate Change
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2007
|display-authors= 4
|first1= G.C. |last1= Hegerl
|first2= F.W. |last2= Zwiers
|first3= P. |last3= Braconnot |authorlink3=Pascale Braconnot
|first4= N.P. |last4= Gillett
|first5= Y. |last5= Luo
|first6= J.A. |last6= Marengo Orsini
|first7= N. |last7= Nicholls
|first8= J.E. |last8= Penner
|first9= P.A. |last9= Stott


|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG1|2007}}
|pages= 663–745
}}AR4 Working Group II Report
  • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 WG2, 2007,


|author = IPCC |author-link = IPCC
|year = 2007
|title = Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability
|series = Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
|display-editors= 4
|editor-first1= M.L. |editor-last1= Parry
|editor-first2= O.F. |editor-last2= Canziani
|editor-first3= J.P. |editor-last3= Palutikof
|editor-first4= P.J. |editor-last4= van der Linden
|editor-first5= C.E. |editor-last5= Hanson
|publisher = Cambridge University Press
|url =weblink
|isbn = 978-0-521-88010-7
}} (pb: {{ISBNT|978-0-521-70597-4}}).
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 WG2 Summary for Policymakers, 2007,


|chapter= Summary for Policymakers
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2007
|author= IPCC |author-link= IPCC
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG2|2007}}
|pages= 7–22
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 WG2 Technical Summary, 2007,


|chapter= Technical Summary
|chapter-url=weblink
|display-authors= 4
|first1= M.L. |last1= Parry
|first2= O.F. |last2= Canziani
|first3= J.P. |last3= Palutikof
|author4= Co-authors
|year= 2007
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG2 |2007}}
|pages= 23–78
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 WG2 Ch1, 2007,


|chapter= Chapter 1: Assessment of observed changes and responses in natural and managed systems
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2007
|display-authors= 4
|first1= C. |last1= Rosenzweig
|first2= G. |last2= Casassa
|first3= D.J. |last3= Karoly
|first4= A. |last4= Imeson
|first5= C. |last5= Liu
|first6= A. |last6= Menzel
|first7= S. |last7= Rawlins
|first8= T.L. |last8= Root
|first9= B. |last9= Seguin
|first10= P. |last10= Tryjanowski
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG2|2007}}
|pages= 79–131
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 WG2 Ch4, 2007,


|chapter= Chapter 4: Ecosystems, their properties, goods and services
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2007
|display-authors= 4
|first1= A. |last1= Fischlin
|first2= G.F. |last2= Midgley
|first3= J.T. |last3= Price
|first4= R. |last4= Leemans
|first5= B. |last5= Gopal
|first6= C. |last6= Turley
|first7= M.D.A. |last7= Rounsevell
|first8= O.P. |last8= Dube
|first9= J. |last9= Tarazona
|first10= A.A. |last10= Velichko
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG2|2007}}
|pages= 211–272
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 WG2 Ch16, 2007,


|chapter= Chapter 16: Small islands
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2007
|display-authors= 4
|first1= N. |last1= Mimura
|first2= L. |last2= Nurse
|first3= R.F. |last3= McLean
|first4= J. |last4= Agard
|first5= L. |last5= Briguglio
|first6= P. |last6= Lefale
|first7= R. |last7= Payet
|first8= G. |last8= Sem
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG2|2007}}
|pages= 687–716
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 WG2 Ch19, 2007,


|chapter= Chapter 19: Assessing key vulnerabilities and the risk from climate change
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2007
|display-authors= 4
|first1= S.H. |last1= Schneider
|first2= S. |last2= Semenov
|first3= A. |last3= Patwardhan
|first4= I. |last4= Burton
|first5= C.H.D. |last5= Magadza
|first6= M. |last6= Oppenheimer
|first7= A.B. |last7= Pittock
|first8= A. |last8= Rahman
|first9= J.B. |last9= Smith
|first10= A. |last10= Suarez
|first11= F. |last11= Yamin
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG2|2007}}
|pages= 779–810
}}AR4 Working Group III Report
  • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 WG3, 2007,


|author = IPCC |author-link = IPCC
|year = 2007
|title = Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change
|series = Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
|display-editors= 4
|editor-first1= B. |editor-last1= Metz
|editor-first2= O.R. |editor-last2= Davidson
|editor-first3= P.R. |editor-last3= Bosch
|editor-first4= R. |editor-last4= Dave
|editor-first5= L.A. |editor-last5= Meyer
|publisher = Cambridge University Press
|url =weblink
|isbn = 978-0-521-88011-4
}} (pb: {{ISBNT|978-0-521-70598-1}}).
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 WG3 Ch1, 2007,


|chapter= Chapter 1: Introduction
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2007
|display-authors= 4
|first1= H.-H.|last1= Rogner
|first2= D. |last2= Zhou
|first3= R. |last3= Bradley
|first4= P. |last4= Crabbé
|first5= O. |last5= Edenhofer
|first6= B. |last6= Hare
|first7= L. |last7= Kuijpers
|first8= M. |last8= Yamaguchi
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG3|2007}}
|pages= 95–116
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 WG3 Ch3, 2007,


|chapter= Chapter 3: Issues related to mitigation in the long-term context
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2007
|display-authors= 4
|first1= B.S. |last1= Fisher
|first2= N. |last2= Nakicenovic
|first3= K. |last3= Alfsen
|first4= J. |last4= Corfee Morlot
|first5= F. |last5= de la Chesnaye
|first6= J.-Ch.|last6= Hourcade
|first7= K. |last7= Jiang
|first8= M. |last8= Kainuma
|first9= E. |last9= La Rovere
|first10= A. |last10= Matysek
|first11= A. |last11= Rana
|first12= K. |last12= Riahi
|first13= R. |last13= Richels
|first14= S. |last14= Rose
|first15= D. |last15= van Vuuren
|first16= R. |last16= Warren
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 WG3|2007}}
|pages= 169–250
}} AR4 Synthesis Report
  • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR4 SYR, 2007,


|author = IPCC |author-link = IPCC
|year = 2007
|title = Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report
|series = Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
|editor1= Core Writing Team
|editor-first2= R.K. |editor-last2= Pachuri
|editor-first3= A. |editor-last3= Reisinger
|publisher = IPCC
|url=weblink
|isbn = 978-92-9169-122-7
}}
    • BOOK, {hide}harvid, IPCC AR4 SYR Glossary, 2007,


|chapter= Annex II: Glossary
|year= 2007
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 SYR|2007{edih}
|pages= 76–89
}}AR5 Working Group I Report
  • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG1, 2013,


|author = IPCC |author-link = IPCC
|year= 2013
|title= Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis
|series= Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
|display-editors= 4
|editor1-first= T. F. |editor1-last= Stocker
|editor2-first= D. |editor2-last= Qin
|editor3-first= G.-K. |editor3-last= Plattner
|editor4-first= M. |editor4-last= Tignor
|editor5-first= S. K. |editor5-last= Allen
|editor6-first= J. |editor6-last= Boschung
|editor7-first= A. |editor7-last= Nauels
|editor8-first= Y. |editor8-last= Xia
|editor9-first= V. |editor9-last= Bex
|editor10-first= P. M. |editor10-last= Midgley
|publisher= Cambridge University Press
|place= Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
|isbn= 978-1-107-05799-9
|url=weblink
}} (pb: {{ISBNT|978-1-107-66182-0}}).
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG1 Summary for Policymakers, 2013,


|chapter= Summary for Policymakers
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2013
|author= IPCC |author-link= IPCC
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1|2013}}
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG1 Technical Summary, 2013,


|year= 2013
|chapter= Technical Summary
|chapter-url=weblink
|display-authors= 4
|first1= T. F. |last1= Stocker
|first2= D. |last2= Qin
|first3= G.-K. |last3= Plattner
|first4= L. V. |last4= Alexander
|first5= S. K. |last5= Allen
|first6= N. L. |last6= Bindoff
|first7= F.-M. |last7= Bréon
|first8= J. A. |last8= Church
|first9= U. |last9= Cubasch
|first10= S. |last10= Emori
|first11= P. |last11= Forster
|first12= P. |last12= Friedlingstein
|first13= N. |last13= Gillett
|first14= J. M. |last14= Gregory
|first15= D. L. |last15= Hartmann
|first16= E. |last16= Jansen
|first17= B. |last17= Kirtman
|first18= R. |last18= Knutti
|first19= K. |last19= Krishna Kumar
|first20= P. |last20= Lemke
|first21= J. |last21= Marotzke
|first22= V. |last22= Masson-Delmotte
|first23= G. A. |last23= Meehl
|first24= I. I. |last24= Mokhov
|first25= S. |last25= Piao
|first26= V. |last26= Ramaswamy
|first27= D. |last27= Randall
|first28= M. |last28= Rhein
|first29= M. |last29= Rojas
|first30= C. |last30= Sabine
|first31= D. |last31= Shindell
|first32= L. D. |last32= Talley
|first33= D. G. |last33= Vaughan
|first34= S.-P. |last34= Xie
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1|2013}}
|pages= 33–115
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch2, 2013,


|chapter= Chapter 2: Observations: Atmosphere and Surface
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2013
|display-authors= 4
|first1= D. L. |last1= Hartmann
|first2= A. M. G. |last2= Klein Tank
|first3= M. |last3= Rusticucci
|first4= L. V. |last4= Alexander
|first5= S. |last5= Brönnimann
|first6= Y. |last6= Charabi
|first7= F. J. |last7= Dentener
|first8= E. J. |last8= Dlugokencky
|first9= D. R. |last9= Easterling
|first10= A. |last10= Kaplan
|first11= B. J. |last11= Soden
|first12= P. W. |last12= Thorne
|first13= M. |last13= Wild
|first14= P. M. |last14= Zhai
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1|2013}}
|pages= 159–254
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch3, 2013,


|chapter= Chapter 3: Observations: Ocean
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2013
|display-authors= 4
|first1= M. |last1= Rhein
|first2= S. R. |last2= Rintoul
|first3= S. |last3= Aoki
|first4= E. |last4= Campos
|first5= D. |last5= Chambers
|first6= R. A. |last6= Feely
|first7= S. |last7= Gulev
|first8= G. C. |last8= Johnson
|first9= S. A. |last9= Josey
|first10= A. |last10= Kostianoy
|first11= C. |last11= Mauritzen
|first12= D. |last12= Roemmich
|first13= L. D. |last13= Talley
|first14= F. |last14= Wang
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1|2013}}
|pages= 255–315
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch5, 2013,


|chapter= Chapter 5: Information from Paleoclimate Archives
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2013
|display-authors= 4
|first1= V. |last1= Masson-Delmotte
|first2= M. |last2= Schulz
|first3= A. |last3= Abe-Ouchi
|first4= J. |last4= Beer
|first5= A. |last5= Ganopolski
|first6= J. F. |last6= González Rouco
|first7= E. |last7= Jansen
|first8= K. |last8= Lambeck
|first9= J. |last9= Luterbacher
|first10= T. |last10= Naish
|first11= T. |last11= Osborn
|first12= B. |last12= Otto-Bliesner
|first13= T. |last13= Quinn
|first14= R. |last14= Ramesh
|first15= M. |last15= Rojas
|first16= X. |last16= Shao
|first17= A. |last17= Timmermann
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1|2013}}
|pages= 383–464
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch10, 2013,


|chapter= Chapter 10: Detection and Attribution of Climate Change: from Global to Regional
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2013
|display-authors= 4
|first1= N. L. |last1= Bindoff
|first2= P. A. |last2= Stott
|first3= K. M. |last3= AchutaRao
|first4= M. R. |last4= Allen
|first5= N. |last5= Gillett
|first6= D. |last6= Gutzler
|first7= K. |last7= Hansingo
|first8= G. |last8= Hegerl
|first9= Y. |last9= Hu
|first10= S. |last10= Jain
|first11= I. I. |last11= Mokhov
|first12= J. |last12= Overland
|first13= J. |last13= Perlwitz
|first14= R. |last14= Sebbari
|first15= X. |last15= Zhang
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1|2013}}
|pages= 867–952
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch11, 2013,


|chapter= Chapter 11: Near-term Climate Change: Projections and Predictability
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2013
|display-authors= 4
|first1= B. |last1= Kirtman
|first2= S. |last2= Power
|first3= J.A. |last3= Adedoyin
|first4= G.J. |last4= Boer
|first5= R. |last5= Bojariu
|first6= I. |last6= Camilloni
|first7= F.J. |last7= Doblas-Reyes
|first8= A.M. |last8= Fiore
|first9= M. |last9= Kimoto
|first10= G.A. |last10= Meehl
|first11= M. |last11= Prather
|first12= A. |last12= Sarr
|first13= C. |last13= Schär
|first14= R. |last14= Sutton
|first15= G.J. |last15= van Oldenborgh
|first16= G. |last16= Vecchi
|first17= H.J. |last17= Wang
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1|2013}}
|pages= 953–1028
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch12, 2013,


|chapter= Chapter 12: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2013
|display-authors= 4
|first1= M. |last1= Collins
|first2= R. |last2= Knutti
|first3= J. M. |last3= Arblaster
|first4= J.-L. |last4= Dufresne
|first5= T. |last5= Fichefet
|first6= P. |last6= Friedlingstein
|first7= X. |last7= Gao
|first8= W. J. |last8= Gutowski
|first9= T. |last9= Johns
|first10= G. |last10= Krinner
|first11= M. |last11= Shongwe
|first12= C. |last12= Tebaldi
|first13= A. J. |last13= Weaver
|first14= M. |last14= Wehner
|pages= 1029–1136
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1|2013}}
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch13, 2013,


|chapter= Chapter 13: Sea Level Change
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2013
|display-authors= 4
|first1= J. A. |last1= Church
|first2= P. U. |last2= Clark
|first3= A. |last3= Cazenave
|first4= J. M. |last4= Gregory
|first5= S. |last5= Jevrejeva
|first6= A. |last6= Levermann
|first7= M. A. |last7= Merrifield
|first8= G. A. |last8= Milne
|first9= R. S. |last9= Nerem
|first10= P. D. |last10= Nunn
|first11= A. J. |last11= Payne
|first12= W. T. |last12= Pfeffer
|first13= D. |last13= Stammer
|first14= A. S. |last14= Unnikrishnan
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG1|2013}}
|pages= 1137–1216
}}AR5 Working Group II Report{{anchor|{{harvid|IPCC AR5 WG2|2014}}}}
  • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG2 A, 2014,


|author = IPCC |author-link = IPCC
|year= 2014
|title= Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects
|series= Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
|display-editors= 3
|editor-first1= C.B. |editor-last1= Field
|editor-first2= V.R. |editor-last2= Barros
|editor-first3= D.J. |editor-last3= Dokken
|editor-first4= K.J. |editor-last4= Mach
|editor-first5= M.D. |editor-last5= Mastrandrea
|editor-first6= T.E. |editor-last6= Bilir
|editor-first7= M. |editor-last7= Chatterjee
|editor-first8= K.L. |editor-last8= Ebi
|editor-first9= Y.O. |editor-last9= Estrada
|editor-first10= R.C. |editor-last10= Genova
|editor-first11= B. |editor-last11= Girma
|editor-first12= E.S. |editor-last12= Kissel
|editor-first13= A.N. |editor-last13= Levy
|editor-first14= S. |editor-last14= MacCracken
|editor-first15= P.R. |editor-last15= Mastrandrea
|editor-first16= L.L |editor-last16= White
|publisher= Cambridge University Press
|isbn= 978-1-107-05807-1
|url=
}} (pb: {{ISBNT|978-1-107-64165-5}}). Chapters 1–20, SPM, and Technical Summary.
  • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG2 B, 2014,


|author = IPCC |author-link = IPCC
|year= 2014
|title= Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects
|series= Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
|display-editors= 3
|editor-first1= V.R. |editor-last1= Barros
|editor-first2= C.B. |editor-last2= Field
|editor-first3= D.J. |editor-last3= Dokken
|editor-first4= K.J. |editor-last4= Mach
|editor-first5= M.D. |editor-last5= Mastrandrea
|editor-first6= T.E. |editor-last6= Bilir
|editor-first7= M. |editor-last7= Chatterjee
|editor-first8= K.L. |editor-last8= Ebi
|editor-first9= Y.O. |editor-last9= Estrada
|editor-first10= R.C. |editor-last10= Genova
|editor-first11= B. |editor-last11= Girma
|editor-first12= E.S. |editor-last12= Kissel
|editor-first13= A.N. |editor-last13= Levy
|editor-first14= S. |editor-last14= MacCracken
|editor-first15= P.R. |editor-last15= Mastrandrea
|editor-first16= L.L |editor-last16= White
|publisher= Cambridge University Press
|isbn= 978-1-107-05816-3
|url=
}} (pb: {{ISBNT|978-1-107-68386-0}}). Chapters 21–30, Annexes, and Index.
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG2 Summary for Policymakers, 2014,


|chapter= Summary for Policymakers
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2014
|author= IPCC |author-link= IPCC
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 A|2014}}
|pages= 1–32
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG2 Technical Summary, 2014,


|chapter= Technical Summary
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2014
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 A|2014}}
|pages= 35–94
|display-authors= 4
|first1= C.B. |last1= Field
|first2= V.R. |last2= Barros
|first3= K.J. |last3= Mach
|first4= M.D. |last4= Mastrandrea
|first5= M. |last5= van Aalst
|first6= W.N. |last6= Adger
|first7= D.J. |last7= Arent
|first8= J. |last8= Barnett
|first9= R. |last9= Betts
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch3, 2014,


|chapter= Chapter 3: Freshwater Resources
|chapter-url=weblink
|display-authors= 4
|first1= B. E. |last1= Jiménez Cisneros
|first2= T. |last2= Oki
|first3= N. W. |last3= Arnell
|first4= G. |last4= Benito
|first5= J. G. |last5= Cogley
|first6= P. |last6= Döll
|first7= T. |last7= Jiang
|first8= S. S. |last8= Mwakalila
|year= 2014
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 A|2014}}
|pages= 229–269
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch7, 2014,


|chapter= Chapter 7: Food Security and Food Production Systems
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2014
|display-authors= 4
|first1= J.R. |last1= Porter
|first2= L. |last2= Xie
|first3= A.J. |last3= Challinor
|first4= K. |last4= Cochrane
|first5= S.M. |last5= Howden
|first6= M.M. |last6= Iqbal
|first7= D.B. |last7= Lobell
|first8= M.I. |last8= Travasso


|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 A|2014}}
|pages= 485–533
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch11, 2014,


|chapter = Chapter 11: Human Health: Impacts, Adaptation, and Co-Benefits
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2014
|display-authors= 4
|first1 = K. R. |last1 = Smith
|first2 = A. |last2 = Woodward
|first3 = D. |last3 = Campbell-Lendrum
|first4 = D. D. |last4 = Chadee
|first5 = Y. |last5 = Honda
|first6 = Q. |last6 = Lui
|first7 = J. M. |last7 = Olwoch
|first8 = B. |last8 = Revich
|first9 = R. |last9 = Sauerborn
|title = In {{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 A|2014}}
|pages= 709–754
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch13, 2014,


|chapter= Chapter 13: Livelihoods and Poverty
|chapter-url=weblink
|display-authors= 4
|first1= L. |last1= Olsson
|first2= M. |last2= Opondo
|first3= P. |last3= Tschakert
|first4= A. |last4= Agrawal
|first5= S. H. |last5= Eriksen
|first6= S. |last6= Ma
|first7= L. N. |last7= Perch
|first8= S. A. |last8= Zakieldeen
|year= 2014
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 A|2014}}
|pages= 793–832
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch18, 2014,


|chapter= Chapter 18: Detection and Attribution of Observed Impacts
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2014
|display-authors= 4
|first1= W. |last1= Cramer
|first2= G.W. |last2= Yohe
|first3= M. |last3= Auffhammer
|first4= C. |last4= Huggel
|first5= U. |last5= Molau
|first6= M.A.F. |last6= da Silva Dias
|first7= A. |last7= Solow
|first8= D.A. |last8= Stone
|first9= L. |last9= Tibig
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 A|2014}}
|pages= 979–1037
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch19, 2014,


|chapter= Chapter 19: Emergent Risks and Key Vulnerabilities
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2014
|display-authors= 4
|first1= M. |last1= Oppenheimer
|first2= M. |last2= Campos
|first3= R. |last3= Warren
|first4= J. |last4= Birkmann
|first5= G. |last5= Luber
|first6= B. |last6= O'Neill
|first7= K. |last7= Takahashi
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 A|2014}}
|pages= 1039–1099
}}AR5 Working Group III Report
  • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG3, 2014,


|author = IPCC |author-link = IPCC
|year= 2014
|title= Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change
|series= Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
|display-editors= 3
|editor-first1= O. |editor-last1= Edenhofer
|editor-first2= R. |editor-last2= Pichs-Madruga
|editor-first3= Y. |editor-last3= Sokona
|editor-first4= E. |editor-last4= Farahani
|editor-first5= S. |editor-last5= Kadner
|editor-first6= K. |editor-last6= Seyboth
|editor-first7= A. |editor-last7= Adler
|editor-first8= I. |editor-last8= Baum
|editor-first9= S. |editor-last9= Brunner
|editor-first10= P. |editor-last10= Eickemeier
|editor-first11= B. |editor-last11= Kriemann
|editor-first12= J. |editor-last12= Savolainen
|editor-first13= S. |editor-last13= Schlömer
|editor-first14= C. |editor-last14= von Stechow
|editor-first15= T. |editor-last15= Zwickel
|editor-first16= J.C. |editor-last16= Minx
|publisher= Cambridge University Press
|place= Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
|isbn= 978-1-107-05821-7
|url=
}} (pb: {{ISBNT|978-1-107-65481-5}}).
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG3 Summary for Policymakers, 2014,


|chapter= Summary for Policymakers
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2014
|author= IPCC |author-link= IPCC
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG3|2014}}
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG3 Technical Summary, 2014,


|chapter= Technical Summary
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2014
|display-authors= 4
|first1= O. |last1= Edenhofer
|first2= R. |last2= Pichs-Madruga
|first3= Y. |last3= Sokona
|first4= S. |last4= Kadner
|first5= J. C. |last5= Minx
|first6= S. |last6= Brunner
|first7= S. |last7= Agrawala
|first8= G. |last8= Baiocchi
|first9= I. A. |last9= Bashmakov
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG3|2014}}
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 WG3 Ch6, 2014,


|chapter= Chapter 6: Assessing Transformation Pathways
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2014
|display-authors= 4
|first1= L. |last1= Clarke
|first2= K. |last2= Jiang
|first3= K. |last3= Akimoto
|first4= M. |last4= Babiker
|first5= G. |last5= Blanford
|first6= K. |last6= Fisher-Vanden
|first7= J.-C. |last7= Hourcade
|first8= V. |last8= Krey
|first9= E. |last9= Kriegler
|first10= A. |last10= Löschel
|first11= D. |last11= McCollum
|first12= S. |last12= Paltsev
|first13= S. |last13= Rose
|first14= P.R. |last14= Shukla
|first15= M. |last15= Tavoni
|first16= B. C. C. |last16= van der Zwaan
|first17= D.P. |last17= van Vuuren
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG3|2014}}
}}AR5 Synthesis Report
  • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 SYR, 2014,


|author = IPCC AR5 SYR |author-link = IPCC
|year= 2014
|title= Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report
|series= Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
|editor1 = The Core Writing Team
|editor-first2= R.K. |editor-last2= Pachauri
|editor-first3= L.A. |editor-last3= Meyer
|publisher= IPCC
|place= Geneva, Switzerland
|isbn=
|url=weblink
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 SYR Summary for Policymakers, 2014,


|chapter= Summary for Policymakers
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2014
|author= IPCC |author-link= IPCC
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 SYR|2014}}
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC AR5 SYR Glossary, 2014,


|chapter= Annex II: Glossary
|chapter-url=weblink
|year= 2014
|author= IPCC |author-link= IPCC
|title= {{Harvnb|IPCC AR5 SYR|2014}}
}} Special Report: SREX
  • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC SREX, 2012,


|author= IPCC |author-link= IPCC
|year= 2012
|title= Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation.
|series= A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
|editor-first1= C.B. |editor-last1= Field
|editor-first2= V. |editor-last2= Barros
|editor-first3= T.F. |editor-last3= Stocker
|editor-first4= D. |editor-last4= Qin
|editor-first5= D.J. |editor-last5= Dokken
|editor-first6= K.L. |editor-last6= Ebi
|editor-first7= M.D. |editor-last7= Mastrandrea
|editor-first8= K.J. |editor-last8= Mach
|editor-first9= G.-K. |editor-last9= Plattner
|editor-first10= S.K. |editor-last10= Allen
|editor-first11= M. |editor-last11= Tignor
|editor-first12= P.M. |editor-last12= Midgley
|publisher= Cambridge University Press
|location= Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA
|pages= 582
|isbn= 978-1-107-02506-6
|url=weblink
}}
    • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC SREX Summary for Policymakers, 2012,


|chapter= Summary for Policymakers
|chapter-url=weblink
|author= IPCC |author-link= IPCC
|year= 2012
|title= {{harvnb|IPCC SREX|2012}}
|pages= 1–19
}} Special Report: SR15
  • BOOK, {{harvid, IPCC SR15, 2018,


|author= IPCC |author-link= IPCC
|year= 2018
|title= Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty
|display-editors= 4
|editor-first1= V. |editor-last1= Masson-Delmotte
|editor-first2= P. |editor-last2= Zhai
|editor-first3= H. O. |editor-last3= Pörtner
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| author= USGCRP
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| editor-last2 = Fahey|editor2-first= D. W.
| editor-last3 = Hibbard|editor3-first= K. A.
| editor-last4 = Dokken|editor4-first= D. J.
| editor-last5 = Stewart|editor5-first= B. C.
| editor-last6 = Maycock|editor6-first= T. K.
| location = Washington, DC, USA
| publisher = U.S. Global Change Research Program
}}
  • REPORT, harv


, US NRC
, 2008
, Understanding and responding to climate change: Highlights of National Academies Reports, 2008 edition, produced by the US National Research Council (US NRC)
, National Academy of Sciences
, Washington, DC
,weblink
, 14 January 2016
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304052136weblink">weblink
, 4 March 2016
, live
, dmy-all
,
  • REPORT, harv


, US NRC
, 2012
, Climate Change: Evidence, Impacts, and Choices
,weblink
, US National Research Council (US NRC)
, 9 September 2017
,weblink
, 3 May 2016
, live
, dmy-all
, Also available as PDF {{Webarchive|url=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130220184517weblink">weblink |date= 20 February 2013 }}
  • JOURNAL, harv


, Weart, Spencer
, Rise of interdisciplinary research on climate
, 2013
, 110
, 3657–3664, Supplement 1
, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
, 10.1073/pnas.1107482109
,
  • JOURNAL, harv


, Wang, M.
, Overland, J. E.
, 2009
, A sea ice free summer Arctic within 30 years?
,weblink
, Geophysical Research Letters
, 36, 7
, n/a, 2009GeoRL..36.7502W, 10.1029/2009GL037820
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120119014134weblink">weblink
, 19 January 2012, live
,
  • JOURNAL, harv


, Wang, Hai
, Xie, Shang-Ping
, 2016
, Comparison of Climate Response to Anthropogenic Aerosol versus Greenhouse Gas Forcing: Distinct Patterns
, Journal of Climate
, 29, 5175–5188, 14
, 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0106.1, 2016JCli...29.5175W
,
  • JOURNAL, harv


, Wang, Bin
, Shugart, Herman H.
, Lerdau, Manuel T.
, 2017
, Sensitivity of global greenhouse gas budgets to tropospheric ozone pollution mediated by the biosphere
,weblink
, Environmental Research Letters
, 12, 8, 084001
, 10.1088/1748-9326/aa7885, 1748-9326
,
  • JOURNAL, harv


, Watts, Nick
, Adger, W Neil
, Agnolucci, Paolo
, Blackstock, Jason
, Byass, Peter
, Cai, Wenjia
, Chaytor, Sarah
, Colbourn, Tim
, Collins, Mat
, November 2015
, Health and climate change: policy responses to protect public health
,weblink live
, The Lancet
, 386, 10006, 1861–1914, 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60854-6, 26111439
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170407184359weblink">weblink
, 7 April 2017
, Cooper, Adam
, Cox, Peter M
, Depledge, Joanna
, Drummond, Paul
, Ekins, Paul
, Galaz, Victor
, Grace, Delia, Graham, Hilary, Grubb, Michael, Haines, Andy, Hamilton, Ian, Hunter, Alasdair, Jiang, Xujia, Li, Moxuan, Kelman, Ilan, Liang, Lu, Lott, Melissa, Lowe, Robert, Luo, Yong, Mace, Georgina, Maslin, Mark, Nilsson, Maria, Oreszczyn, Tadj, Pye, Steve, Quinn, Tara, Svensdotter, My, Venevsky, Sergey, Warner, Koko, Xu, Bing, Yang, Jun, Yin, Yongyuan, Yu, Chaoqing, Zhang, Qiang, Gong, Peng, Montgomery, Hugh, Costello, Anthony
, dmy-all
, 4, 10871/20783
,
  • JOURNAL, harv


, WCRP Global Sea Level Budget Group
, Earth System Science Data
, 28 August 2018
, Global sea-level budget 1993–present
, 10, 3, 1551–1590
, 10.5194/essd-10-1551-2018, 1866-3508
, 2018ESSD...10.1551W
,
  • JOURNAL, harv


, Wild, M.
, Gilgen, Hans
, Roesch, Andreas
, Ohmura, Atsumu
, Long, Charles
, 4
, 2005
, From Dimming to Brightening: Decadal Changes in Solar Radiation at Earth's Surface
, Science, 308, 5723
, 10.1126/science.1103215, 847–850, 15879214, 2005Sci...308..847W
,weblink
,
  • REPORT


, {{harvid, USGCRP Chapter 1, 2017,
| year = 2017
| chapter = Chapter 1: Our Globally Changing Climate
| title = In {{harvnb|USGCRP2017}}
| chapter-url =weblink
| first1 = D. J. | last1 = Wuebbles
| first2 = D. R. | last2 = Easterling
| first3 = K. | last3 = Hayhoe
| first4 = T. | last4 = Knutson
| first5 = R. E. | last5 = Kopp
| first6 = J. P. | last6 = Kossin
| first7 = K. E. | last7 = Kunkel
| last9 = A. N. | last8 = LeGran-de
| first10 = C. | last10 = Mears
| first11 = W. V. | last11 = Sweet
| first12 = P. C. | last12 = Taylor
| first13 = R. S. | last13 = Vose
| first14 = M. F. | last14 = Wehne
}}
  • JOURNAL, harv


, The climate mitigation gap: education and government recommendations miss the most effective individual actions
, Wynes, Seth
, Nicholas, Kimberly A
, 2017
, Environmental Research Letters
, 12
, 074024, 7
, 10.1088/1748-9326/aa7541, 2017ERL....12g4024W
,
  • JOURNAL, harv


, 2019
, Yuan, Zhang
, Daniel, Goll
, Ana, Bastos
, Yves, Balkanski
, Global Biogeochemical Cycles
, Increased Global Land Carbon Sink Due to Aerosol‐Induced Cooling
, 33
, 3
, 439–457
, 10.1029/2018GB006051
, etal, 2019GBioC..33..439Z
,
  • JOURNAL, harv


, Zeng, Ning
, Yoon, Jinho
, Expansion of the world's deserts due to vegetation-albedo feedback under global warming
, 2009
, Geophysical Research Letters
, 36, 17, L17401
, 2009GeoRL..3617401Z, 10.1029/2009GL039699, 1944-8007
,
  • JOURNAL, harv


, Zhang, Jinlun
, Lindsay, Ron
, Steele, Mike
, Schweiger, Axel
, 2008
, What drove the dramatic arctic sea ice retreat during summer 2007?
, Geophysical Research Letters, 35, 1–5
, 10.1029/2008gl034005, 2008GeoRL..3511505Z
,

Books, reports and legal documents

  • WEB, {{harvid, Climate Focus, 2015,


|title= The Paris Agreement: Summary. Climate Focus Client Brief on the Paris Agreement III
|author= Climate Focus
|date= December 2015
|access-date= 12 April 2019
|url=https://climatefocus.com/sites/default/files/20151228%20COP%2021%20briefing%20FIN.pdf
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181005005832weblink
|archive-date=5 October 2018
|url-status=live
}}
  • BOOK, harv


, Clark, P. U.
, Weaver, A.J.
, Brook, E.
, Cook, E.R.
, Delworth, T.L.
, Steffen, K.
, Executive Summary
, In: Abrupt Climate Change. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research
, 4
,weblink
, December 2008
, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130504113820weblink">weblink
, 4 May 2013
,
  • BOOK, harv


, Climate Change: What It Means for Us, Our Children, and Our Grandchildren
, DiMento, Joseph F. C.
, Doughman, Pamela M.
, The MIT Press
, 2007
, 978-0-262-54193-0
,
  • BOOK, harv


, The Callendar Effect: the life and work of Guy Stewart Callendar (1898–1964)
, 2007
, Fleming, James Rodger
, American Meteorological Society
, Boston
, 978-1-878220-76-9
,
  • WEB, {{harvid, G8+5 Academies, 2009,


|title= G8+5 Academies' joint statement: Climate change and the transformation of energy technologies for a low carbon future
|date= May 2009
|publisher= The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
|author1= Academia Brasileira de Ciéncias (Brazil)
|author2= Royal Society of Canada
|author3= Chinese Academy of Sciences
|author4= Académie des Sciences (France)
|author5= Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina (Germany)
|author6= Indian National Science Academy
|author7= Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Italy)
|author8= Science Council of Japan, Academia Mexicana de Ciencias
|author9= Russian Academy of Sciences
|author10= Academy of Science of South Africa
|author11= Royal Society (United Kingdom)
|author12= National Academy of Sciences (United States of America)
|url=weblink
|archive-url=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100215171429weblink">weblink
|archive-date= 15 February 2010
|url-status= live
|accessdate= 5 May 2010
|df=dmy-all
}}
  • BOOK, harv


, Climate Change: Observed Impacts on Planet Earth
, Haywood, Jim
, 2016
, Elsevier
, 9780444635242
, Letcher, Trevor M.
, 456
, Chapter 27 - Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Role in Climate Change
,
  • BOOK, harv


, Meinshausen, Malte
, Implications of the Developed Scenarios for Climate Change
, 2019
,weblink
, Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals: Global and Regional 100% Renewable Energy Scenarios with Non-energy GHG Pathways for +1.5°C and +2°C
, 459–469
, Teske, Sven
, Springer International Publishing
, 10.1007/978-3-030-05843-2_12, 9783030058432,
  • BOOK, harv


, 2009
, Morgan, M. Granger
, Dowlatabadi, Hadi
, Henrion, Max
, Keith, David
, Lempert, Robert
, McBride, Sandra
, Small, Mitchell
, Wilbanks, Thomas
, 4
, Non-Technical Summary: BOX NT.1 Summary of Climate Change Basics
, Synthesis and Assessment Product 5.2: Best practice approaches for characterizing, communicating, and incorporating scientific uncertainty in decision making. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research
, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
, Washington, D.C.
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110815020930weblink">weblink
, 15 August 2011
, live
,
  • BOOK, harv


, Copenhagen 2009: Failure or final wake-up call for our leaders? EV 49
, Müller, Benito
, February 2010
, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 978-1-907555-04-6,
, i,weblink
, 18 May 2010
,weblink
, 10 July 2017, live,
  • BOOK, harv


, Newell, Peter
, Climate for Change: Non-State Actors and the Global Politics of the Greenhouse
, 14 December 2006
, 30 July 2018
, Cambridge University Press
,weblink
, 978-0-521-02123-4
, 2001AgFM..109...75B
, 10.1016/S0168-1923(01)00246-5,
  • WEB, {{harvid, NOAA, 2017,


|author = NOAA
|url =weblink
|title =January 2017 analysis from NOAA: Global and Regional Sea Level Rise Scenarios for the United States
|access-date=7 February 2019
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171218140625weblink
|archive-date=18 December 2017 |url-status=live }}
  • WEB, harv


,weblink
, Understanding and Responding to Climate Change
, NRC
, 2008
, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, US National Academy of Sciences
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171011182257weblink">weblink
, 11 October 2017
, live
, 9 November 2010,
  • BOOK, harv


, Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming
, 25 May 2010
, Oreskes, Naomi
, Naomi Oreskes
, Erik, Conway
, Bloomsbury Press
, first, 978-1-59691-610-4
,
  • BOOK, harv


, 15 June 2012
, PBL Netherlands Environment Agency
, van Vuuren, D.
, Kok, M.
, Roads from Rio+20
, Figure 6.14, in: Chapter 6: The energy and climate challenge
,weblink
, 978-90-78645-98-6
, 30 May 2013
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130515063030weblink">weblink
, 15 May 2013
, live
, dmy-all
, , p. 177, Report no: 500062001. Report website. {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130601031105weblink |date=1 June 2013 }}
  • WEB, {{harvid, UNHCR, 2011,


|title=Climate Change and the Risk of Statelessness: The Situation of Low-lying Island States
|last=Park |first=Susin
|date=May 2011
|publisher=United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
|url=http://www.unhcr.org/4df9cb0c9.pdf
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130502223251weblink
|archive-date=2 May 2013|url-status=live|accessdate=13 April 2012}}
  • BOOK, harv, 13 April 2005, Royal Society, Economic Affairs – Written Evidence, The Economics of Climate Change, the Second Report of the 2005–2006 session, produced by the UK Parliament House of Lords Economics Affairs Select Committee,weblink UK Parliament, 9 July 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111113084025weblink">weblink 13 November 2011, live, dmy-all
,
  • WEB, harv


, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
, 1992
, New York
, UN General Assembly
,weblink
,
  • WEB, {{harvid, UNFCC, 1997,


| date = 1997
| title = Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
| url =weblink
| work = Conference of the Parties
}}
  • WEB, {{harvid, UNFCCC, 2010,


| date = 30 March 2010
| publisher = United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
| title = Decision 2/CP. 15 Copenhagen Accord. In: Report of the Conference of the Parties on its fifteenth session, held in Copenhagen from 7 to 19 December 2009. Addendum. Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its fifteenth session
| page = 5
| format = PDF
| url =weblink
| accessdate = 17 May 2010
| archive-url =weblink
| archive-date = 30 April 2010
| url-status = live
| df = dmy-all
}}
  • REPORT, harv


, United States Environmental Protection Agency
, 2016
, Methane and Black Carbon Impacts on the Arctic: Communicating the Science
,weblink
, 27 February 2019
,weblink
, 6 September 2017, live
,
  • BOOK, {{harvid, U.S. Senate, Hearings, 1988,


|author= ((U.S. Senate, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, 100th Cong. 1st sess.))
|title= Greenhouse Effect and Global Climate Change: hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, part 2
|date= 23 June 1988
|url=weblink
|publisher=
}}
  • REPORT, {{harvid, WMO, 2019,


|author = World Meteorological Organization
|title = WMO Statement on the State of the Global Climate in 2018
|url =weblink
|year = 2019
}}

Non-technical sources



* NEWS
, {{harvid, ABC, 3 January, 2007,
|last = Sandell
|first = Clayton
|date = 3 January 2007
|title = Report: Big Money Confusing Public on Global Warming
|work =
|publisher = ABC
|url =weblink
|accessdate = 27 April 2007
|archive-url =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070219122415weblink">weblink
|archive-date = 19 February 2007
|url-status = dead
}}

*{{citation |mode=cs1 |ref=harv
|last = Weart |first= Spencer |authorlink= Spencer R. Weart
|year = 2008
|title = The Discovery of Global Warming
|chapter= The Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse Effect
|url =weblink
|chapter-url =weblink
|publisher= American Institute of Physics
|archive-url=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161111191800weblink">weblink
|archive-date= 11 November 2016
|url-status= live
|accessdate= 21 April 2009
}}
*{{citation |mode=cs1 |ref=harv
|last = Weart |first= Spencer R.
|date = February 2014a
|title = The Discovery of Global Warming
|chapter= The Public and Climate Change: Suspicions of a Human-Caused Greenhouse (1956–1969)
|url =weblink
|chapter-url =weblink
|publisher = American Institute of Physics
|accessdate= 12 May 2015
|archive-url=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161111191711weblink">weblink
|archive-date= 11 November 2016
|url-status= live
}}
*{{citation |mode=cs1 |ref=harv
|last1 = Weart |first1 = S.
|date = February 2015
|title = The Discovery of Global warming
|chapter= The Public and Climate Change (cont. â€“ since 1980)
|url =weblink
|chapter-url =weblink
|publisher = American Institute of Physics
|archive-url =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161111191659weblink">weblink
|archive-date = 11 November 2016
|url-status = live
|accessdate=18 August 2015
}}
*{{citation |mode=cs1 |ref=harv
|first = Spencer R. |last= Weart
|date = February 2014b
|title = The Discovery of Global Warming
|chapter= The Public and Climate Change: The Summer of 1988
|url =weblink
|chapter-url =weblink
|publisher= American Institute of Physics
|accessdate= 12 May 2015
|archive-url=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161111191659weblink">weblink
|archive-date= 11 November 2016
|url-status= live
}}

* NEWS, {{harvid, BBC, 22 February, 2013,
|date= 22 February 2013
|title= Siberian permafrost thaw warning sparked by cave data
|publisher= BBC
|accessdate=24 February 2013
|url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-21549643
|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/6EebP9y69?url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-21549643
|archive-date=23 February 2013 |url-status=live
}}
* NEWS, {{harvid, BBC, 10 May, 2013,
|last = Amos |first = Jonathan
|date= 10 May 2013
|title= Carbon dioxide passes symbolic mark
|publisher= BBC
|url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-22486153
|accessdate= 27 May 2013
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130529053355weblink
|archive-date=29 May 2013
|url-status=live
}}
* WEB, {{harvid, BBC, 17 December, 2018,
|last= Rodgers |first= Lucy
|date= 17 December 2018
|title= Climate change: The massive CO2 emitter you may not know about
|publisher= BBC
|url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-46455844
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181217144443weblink
|archive-date=17 December 2018
}}
* NEWS, {{harvid, BBC, 16 April, 2019,
|date= 16 April 2019
|title= Extinction Rebellion: Climate protesters block roads
|publisher= BBC
|url=weblink
|accessdate=16 April 2019
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190416132334weblink
|archive-date=16 April 2019
|url-status=live
}}
* NEWS, {{harvid, BBC, 1 May, 2019,
|date = 1 May 2019
|title = UK Parliament declares climate change emergency
|publisher= BBC
|url =weblink
|accessdate = 30 June 2019
}}

* WEB, {{harvid, Carbon Brief, 15 January, 2018,
|date = 15 January 2018
|last1 = McSweeney |first1 = Robert M.
|last2 = Hausfather |first2 = Zeke
|title= Q&A: How do climate models work?
|website= Carbon Brief
|url=https://www.carbonbrief.org/qa-how-do-climate-models-work
|access-date=2 March 2019
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190305004530weblink
|archive-date=5 March 2019
|url-status=live
}}
* WEB, {{harvid, Carbon Brief, 19 April, 2018,
|date = 2018-04-19
|last1 = Hausfather |first1 = Zeke
|title = Explainer: How ‘Shared Socioeconomic Pathways’ explore future climate change
|website= Carbon Brief
|url =weblink
|access-date = 2019-07-20
}}
* WEB, {{harvid, Carbon Brief, 31 January, 2019,
|date = 31 January 2019
|last1 = McSweeney |first1 = Robert M.
|title = Q&A: How is Arctic warming linked to the ‘polar vortex’ and other extreme weather?
|website= Carbon Brief
|url =weblink
}}
* WEB, {{harvid, Carbon Brief, 21 March, 2019,
|date=21 March 2019
|last=Belcher |first=Stephen
|last2=Boucher |first2=Olivier
|last3=Sutton |first3=Rowan
|title=Guest post: Why results from the next generation of climate models matter
|website=Carbon Brief
|url=https://www.carbonbrief.org/guest-post-why-results-from-the-next-generation-of-climate-models-matter
|access-date=2019-08-25
}}
  • Climate Action Tracker


*WEB
, {{harvid, Climate Action Tracker, 11 December, 2018,
|title = The CAT Thermometer
|date = 11 December 2018
|url =weblink
|work = Climate Action Tracker
|access-date = 14 April 2019
|archive-url =weblink
|archive-date = 14 April 2019
|url-status = live
}}


*NEWS, harv
, Montlake, Simon
, 5 August 2019
, What does climate change have to do with socialism
, The Christian Science Monitor
, 0882-7729
,weblink
, August 16, 2019
,

* NEWS, {{harvid, CNN, 12 December, 2015,
|title= Final draft of climate deal formally accepted in Paris
|last1= Sutter |first1= John D.
|last2= Berlinger |first2= Joshua
|date= 12 December 2015
|publisher= CNN
|url=weblink
|access-date= 12 December 2015
|archive-url=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151212145741weblink">weblink
|archive-date= 12 December 2015
|url-status= live |df= dmy-all
}}

*NEWS, {{harvid, Deutsche Welle, 22 June, 2019,
|last1=Ruiz |first1=Irene Banos
|title=Climate Action: Can We Change the Climate From the Grassroots Up?
|url=https://www.ecowatch.com/climate-action-grassroots-2638915946.html
|accessdate=23 June 2019
|agency=Deutsche Welle
|publisher=Ecowatch
|date=22 June 2019
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190623124154weblink
|archive-date=23 June 2019 |url-status=live }}


* NEWS, {{harvid, The Economist, 9 February, 2009,
|date= 9 February 2019
|title= The truth about big oil and climate change
|work= The Economist
|issn= 0013-0613
|access-date= 19 May 2019
|url=weblink
}}
* NEWS, {{harvid, The Economist, 7 February, 2019,
|last =
|date= 7 February 2019
|title= A bold new plan to tackle climate change ignores economic orthodoxy
|newspaper= The Economist
|location= London
|url=weblink
|access-date= 28 May 2019
|url-status= live
}}

* WEB, harv
,weblink
, Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data
, US EPA
, 12 January 2016
, 12 April 2019
,weblink
, 20 March 2019, live,


* WEB, {{harvid, EUobserver, 20 December, 2009,
|date = 20 December 2009
|title=Copenhagen failure 'disappointing', 'shameful'
|website=euobserver.com
|access-date=12 April 2019
|url=https://euobserver.com/environment/29181
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190412092312weblink
|archive-date=12 April 2019
|url-status=live}}


*WEB, {{harvid, Euronews, 22 June, 2019,
|url=https://www.euronews.com/2019/06/21/thousands-of-protesters-occupy-german-coal-mine
|title=Thousands of protesters occupy German coal mine
|last=Cox |first=Sam
|date=22 June 2019
|website=www.euronews.com|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190713123919weblink
|archive-date=13 July 2019|url-status=live|access-date=2019-07-13}}


* NEWS, {{harvid, Gallup, 22 April, 2011,
|title=Worldwide, Blame for Climate Change Falls on Humans
|last=Ray |first=Julie
|last2=Pugliese |first2=Anita
|date=22 April 2011
|work=Gallup.Com
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110504082326weblink
|archive-date=4 May 2011|url-status=live|accessdate=3 May 2011
|url=http://www.gallup.com/poll/147242/Worldwide-Blame-Climate-Change-Falls-Humans.aspx}}


* NEWS, {{harvid, Gallup, 20 April, 2011,
|title=Fewer Americans, Europeans View Global Warming as a Threat
|last=Pugliese |first=Anita
|date=20 April 2011
|publisher=Gallup
|url=http://www.gallup.com/poll/147203/Fewer-Americans-Europeans-View-Global-Warming-Threat.aspx
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110424030516weblink|archive-date=24 April 2011
|url-status=live|accessdate=22 April 2011}}


* NEWS, {{harvid, The Guardian, 20 September, 2006,
|last= Adams |first= David
|date= 20 September 2006
|title= Royal Society tells Exxon: stop funding climate change denial
|newspaper= The Guardian
|url=weblink
|accessdate= 9 August 2007
|archive-url= weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140211153615weblink">weblink
|archive-date= 11 February 2014
|url-status= live
}}
* NEWS, {{harvid, The Guardian, 26 January, 2015,
|last1= Nuccitelli |first1= Dana
|date= 26 January 2015
|title= Climate change could impact the poor much more than previously thought
|newspaper= The Guardian
|url=weblink
|archive-url=weblink
|archive-date= 28 December 2016
|url-status= live
}}
* NEWS, {{harvid, The Guardian, 31 August, 2015,
|last= Nuccitelli |first= Dana
|date= 31 August 2015
|title= Citi report: slowing global warming would save tens of trillions of dollars
|newspaper= The Guardian
|url=weblink
|archive-url=weblink
|archive-date= 4 February 2017|url-status= live
}}
* NEWS, {{harvid, The Guardian, 12 December, 2015,
|last= Vaughan |first= Adam
|date= 12 December 2015
|title= Paris climate deal: key points at a glance
|newspaper= The Guardian
|url= weblink
|access-date= 12 December 2015
|url-status= live |archiveurl=weblink |archivedate= 13 December 2015 |df= dmy
}}
* NEWS, {{harvid, The Guardian, 7 August, 2018,
|last= Watts|first= Jonathan
|date= 7 August 2018
|title= Domino-effect of climate events could push Earth into a 'hothouse' state
|newspaper= The Guardian
|url=weblink
|archive-url=weblink
|archive-date= 7 August 2018|url-status= live
}}
* NEWS, {{harvid, The Guardian, 27 February, 2019,
|last= Taylor |first= Matthew
|date= 27 February 2019
|title= Is Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez right to ask if the climate means we should have fewer children?
|newspaper= The Guardian
|url=weblink
|access-date= 19 May 2019
}}
* NEWS, {{harvid, The Guardian, 19 March, 2019,
|last= Carrington |first= Damian
|date= 19 March 2019
|title= School climate strikes: 1.4 million people took part, say campaigners
|newspaper= The Guardian
|url=weblink
|access-date= 12 April 2019
|archive-url=weblink
|archive-date= 20 March 2019|url-status= live
}}
* NEWS, {{harvid, The Guardian, 2 May, 2019,
|last= Milman |first= Oliver
|date= 2 May 2019
|title= Microsoft joins group seeking to kill off historic climate change lawsuits
|newspaper= The Guardian
|access-date= 19 May 2019
|url= weblink
}}
* NEWS, {{harvid, The Guardian, 17 May, 2019,
|last= Carrington |first= Damian
|date= 17 May 2019
|title= Why the Guardian is changing the language it uses about the environment
|newspaper= The Guardian
|url=weblink
|access-date= 20 May 2019
}}
* NEWS, {{harvid, The Guardian, 18 June, 2019,
|agency= Reuters
|date= 18 June 2019
|title= Scientists shocked by Arctic permafrost thawing 70 years sooner than predicted
|newspaper= The Guardian
|url=weblink
|access-date= 2019-06-24
}}
*NEWS, {{harvid, The Guardian, 4 July, 2019,
|last= Carrington |first= Damian
|date= 4 July 2019
|title= Tree planting 'has mind-blowing potential' to tackle climate crisis
|newspaper= The Guardian
|access-date= 2019-07-05
|url=weblink
|archive-url=weblink
|archive-date= 5 July 2019
|url-status= live
}}
*NEWS, {{harvid, The Guardian, 15 September, 2019,
|last= Milman |first= Oliver
|date= September 15, 2019
|title= 'Americans are waking up': two thirds say climate crisis must be addressed
|url=https://www.theguardian.com/science/2019/sep/15/americans-climate-change-crisis-cbs-poll
|newspaper= The Guardian
|access-date=September 16, 2019
}}

* NEWS, {{harvid, MSNBC, 12 January, 2007,
|last= |first=
|date= 12 January 2007
|title= Exxon cuts ties to global warming skeptics
|work=
|publisher= MSNBC
|url=weblink
|accessdate= 2 May 2007
|archive-url=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070618152340weblink">weblink
|archive-date= 18 June 2007
|url-status = dead
}}

* WEB
, {{harvid, Met Office, 2016,
| last = Booth | first = Ben
| date = 10 October 2016
| title = Climate feedbacks
| publisher = Met Office
| url =weblink
| access-date = 27 April 2019
}}

*WEB, harv
, Conway, Erik M.
, Erik M. Conway
, 5 December 2008
, What's in a Name? Global Warming vs. Climate Change
, NASA
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100809221926weblink">weblink
, 9 August 2010
,
* WEB, {{harvid, NASA, 16 June, 2011,
|title=The Carbon Cycle: Feature Articles: Effects of Changing the Carbon Cycle
|last1=Riebeek |first1= H.
|date=16 June 2011
|url=http://www.earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/CarbonCycle/page5.php
|publisher=Earth Observatory, part of the EOS Project Science Office located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
|access-date=4 February 2013
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130206043139weblink
|archive-date=6 February 2013
|url-status=live }}


* NEWS, {{harvid, NASA, 28 May, 2013,
|title=Arctic amplification
|work=NASA
|year=2013
|url=https://climate.nasa.gov/news/927/arctic-amplification
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180731054007weblink
|archive-date=31 July 2018
|url-status=live }}


* WEB, harv
, Shaftel, Holly
, January 2016
, What's in a name? Weather, global warming and climate change
, NASA Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet
,weblink
, 12 October 2018
,weblink
, 28 September 2018
, live
, dmy-all
,
* NEWS, {{harvid, NASA, 20 August, 2018,
|last1= Gray |first1=Ellen
|publisher=NASA's Earth Science News Team
|date=20 August 2018
|title=Unexpected future boost of methane possible from Arctic permafrost
|url=https://climate.nasa.gov/news/2785/unexpected-future-boost-of-methane-possible-from-arctic-permafrost/
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190331160432weblink
|archive-date=31 March 2019 |url-status=live }}


* NEWS, {{harvid, NASA, 12 September, 2018,
|last =Carlowicz |first= Michael
|work=NASA's Earth Observatory
|date=12 September 2018
|title=Watery heatwave cooks the Gulf of Maine
|url=https://climate.nasa.gov/news/2798/watery-heatwave-cooks-the-gulf-of-maine/
}}

* WEB, {{harvid, National Geographic 15 November, 2018,
|title=See how a warmer world primed California for large fires
|date=15 November 2018
|last = Borunda |first= Alejandra
|website=National Geographic
|url=https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2018/11/climate-change-california-wildfire/
|access-date=10 May 2019}}


* WEB, {{harvid, National Geographic, 2019,
|publisher = National Geographic
|url=weblink
|title = Global warming effects
|access-date= 18 May 2019
}}

* NEWS, {{harvid, National Review, 27 February, 2014,
|url=https://www.nationalreview.com/corner/climate-change-will-cause-rape-and-murder-and-assault-and-robbery-and-larceny-and-make/
|title=Climate Change Will Cause Rape and Murder and Assault and Robbery and Larceny and Make People Steal Your Car
|date=27 February 2014
|work=National Review
|access-date=17 November 2018}}


* NEWS, harv
, Schiermeier, Quirin
, 7 July 2015
, Climate scientists discuss future of their field
, 10.1038/nature.2015.17917
, Nature
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171011182255weblink">weblink
, 11 October 2017, live
,
* JOURNAL, harv
, Witze, Alexandra
, 11 July 2016
, Clouds get high on climate change
, Nature
,weblink
, live
, 10.1038/nature.2016.20230
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160718024008weblink">weblink
, 18 July 2016
,
*JOURNAL, harv
, Crucifix, Michel
, 2016
, Earth's narrow escape from a big freeze
,weblink
, Nature
, 529, 162, 1476-4687
,

* NEWS, {{harvid, Newsweek, 13 August, 2007,
|last= Begley |first= Sharon
|date= 13 August 2007
|title= The Truth About Denial
|work= Newsweek
|url=weblink
|accessdate= 13 August 2007
|archive-url=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071021024942weblink">weblink
|archive-date= 21 October 2007
|url-status= live
}}

* WEB, {{harvid, NOAA, 17 June, 2015,
|title=What's the difference between global warming and climate change?
|website=NOAA Climate.gov
|date=17 June 2015
|url=https://www.climate.gov/news-features/climate-qa/whats-difference-between-global-warming-and-climate-change
|access-date=15 October 2018
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181107010134weblink
|archive-date=7 November 2018
|url-status=live
}}
* WEB, {{harvid, NOAA, 20 April, 2017,
|title=Study: Global plant growth surging alongside carbon dioxide
|date=20 April 2017
|publisher=National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190302024702weblink
|archive-date=2 March 2019
|url-status=live|access-date=27 February 2019
|url=https://www.noaa.gov/news/study-global-plant-growth-surging-alongside-carbon-dioxide
}}
*WEB, {{harvid, NOAA, 1 August, 2018,
|author = NOAA
|title=Climate Change: Global Sea Level
|date = 1 August 2018
|access-date=27 February 2019
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190228065905weblink
|archive-date=28 February 2019
|url=https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-global-sea-level
|url-status=dead}}


* NEWS
,weblink
, Get This: Warming Planet Can Mean More Snow
, 15 February 2010
, Joyce, Christopher
, NPR
, 5 April 2018
,weblink 21 March 2018, live, dmy-all, {hide}harvid, NPR, 2010,
{edih}

* WEB, {{harvid, openDemocracy, 12 January, 2010,
|date = 12 January 2010
|title = Copenhagen: a successful failure
|website = openDemocracy
|access-date = 12 April 2019
|url =weblink
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190412092312weblink
|archive-date=12 April 2019|url-status=live}}


* NEWS, {{harvid, Pew Research Center, 24 June, 2013,
|date= 24 June 2013
|author= Pew Research Center
|title= Climate Change and Financial Instability Seen as Top Global Threats
|publisher= Pew Research Center for the People & the Press
|url=http://www.pewglobal.org/2013/06/24/climate-change-and-financial-instability-seen-as-top-global-threats/
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131004225647weblink
|archive-date=4 October 2013
|url-status=live
}}
*REPORT, harv
, 5 November 2015
, Pew Research Center


, Global Concern about Climate Change, Broad Support for Limiting Emissions
,weblink
, 7 August 2017
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170729130237weblink">weblink
, 29 July 2017
, live
, dmy-all
,

* NEWS, {{harvid, Phys.org, 6 August, 2018,
|url=https://phys.org/news/2018-08-earth-hothouse-state.html
|title=Earth risks tipping into 'hothouse' state: study
|last = Sheridan |first=Kerry
|work=Phys.org
|date=6 August 2018
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190329002534weblink
|archive-date=29 March 2019
|url-status=live
}}
* JOURNAL, harv
, European Attitudes to Climate Change and Energy
, Poortinga, Wouter
, Fisher, Stephen
, Böhm, Gisela
, Steg, Linda
, Whitmarsh, Lorraine
, Ogunbode, Charles
, 2018
, 9
, September 2018
, Journal of Environmental and Public Health
,weblink
,

* WEB, {{harvid, Popular Mechanics, March, 1912,
|title=Remarkable Weather of 1911: The Effect of Combustion of Coal on Climate – What Scientists Predict for the Future
|last1=Molina |first1= Francis
|date=March 1912
|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Tt4DAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA339#v=onepage
|publisher=Popular Mechanics
|pages=339–342|accessdate=13 October 2018}}


* AV MEDIA, {{harvid, RIVM, 2016,
|date=11 October 2016
|title=Documentary Sea Blind
|medium=Dutch Television
|language=Dutch
|url=http://www.rivm.nl/en/Documents_and_publications/Common_and_Present/Newsmessages/2016/Documentary_Sea_Blind_on_Dutch_Television
|access-date=26 February 2019
|publisher=RIVM: Netherlands National Institute for Public Health and the Environment
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180817055817weblink
|archive-date=17 August 2018
|url-status=live }}


* NEWS, {{harvid, Science, 11 July, 2017,
|title = The best way to reduce your carbon footprint is one the government isn't telling you about
|last = Perkins |first=Sid
|date=11 July 2017
|work=Science
|access-date=29 November 2017
|url=https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/07/best-way-reduce-your-carbon-footprint-one-government-isn-t-telling-you-about
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171201030527weblink
|archive-date=1 December 2017|url-status=live}}


* NEWS, {{harvid, ScienceDaily, 20 December, 2004,
|url=https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/12/041219153611.htm
|title=Shutdown Of Circulation Pattern Could Be Disastrous, Researchers Say
|last= |first=
|date=20 December 2004
|publisher=ScienceDaily
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050113152254weblink
|archive-date=13 January 2005
|url-status=live |access-date= }}


* NEWS, {{harvid, ScienceDaily, 21 January, 2012,
|url=https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/01/120120184233.htm
|title=Carbon dioxide is 'driving fish crazy'
|publisher=ScienceDaily
|date=21 January 2012
|access-date=30 July 2018
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180730170944weblink
|archive-date=30 July 2018|url-status=live}}


* NEWS, {{harvid, ScienceDaily, 28 June, 2018,
|title=Climate change linked to potential population decline in bees
|publisher=ScienceDaily
|date= 28 June 2018
|url=https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/06/180628105009.htm
|access-date=30 July 2018
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180730170757weblink
|archive-date=30 July 2018
|url-status=live }}


* MAGAZINE, {{harvid, Scientific American, 29 April, 2014,
|title=Indian Monsoons Are Becoming More Extreme
|last=Ogburn |first=Stephanie Paige
|date=29 April 2014
|url=https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/indian-monsoons-are-becoming-more-extreme/
|work=Scientific American
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622193126weblink
|archive-date=22 June 2018
|url-status=live }}


* NEWS, {{harvid, Scientific American, 23 January, 2018,
|last1= Sneed |first1=Annie
|title=Ask the Experts: Does Rising CO2 Benefit Plants?
|date=23 January 2018
|work=Scientific American
|url=https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ask-the-experts-does-rising-co2-benefit-plants1/
|access-date=27 February 2019
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190329222726weblink
|archive-date=29 March 2019 |url-status=live }}


* WEB, {{harvid, The Braidwood Dispatch and Mining Journal, 17 July, 1912,
|title=Coal Consumption Affecting Climate
|date=17 July 1912
|publisher=The Braidwood Dispatch and Mining Journal (New South Wales)
|page=4
|url=https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/100645214
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181014091456weblink
|archive-date=14 October 2018
|url-status=live|accessdate=13 October 2018}}


* NEWS, {{harvid, The New York Times, 25 May, 2015,
|title = Paris Can't Be Another Copenhagen
|work = The New York Times
|last = Rudd
|first = Kevin
|date = 25 May 2015
|accessdate = 26 May 2015
|url =weblink
|archive-url =weblink
|archive-date = 3 February 2018
|url-status = live
}}
* NEWS, {{harvid, The New York Times, 29 April, 2017,
|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/29/us/politics/peoples-climate-march-trump.html
|title=Climate March Draws Thousands of Protesters Alarmed by Trump's Environmental Agenda
|last=Fandos |first=Nicholas
|date=29 April 2017
|work=The New York Times
|access-date=12 April 2019
|issn=0362-4331
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190412214420weblink|archive-date=12 April 2019
|url-status=live}}


* NEWS, {{harvid, The New York Times, 7 October, 2018,
|last=Davenport |first=Carol
|date=7 October 2018
|title=Major Climate Report Describes a Strong Risk of Crisis as Early as 2040
|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/07/climate/ipcc-climate-report-2040.html
|work=The New York Times
|access-date=10 October 2018
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181010140827weblink
|archive-date=10 October 2018 |url-status=live }}


* WEB, {{harvid, The Washington Post, 22 October, 2014,
|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2014/10/22/the-surprisingly-strong-link-between-climate-change-and-violence/
|title=There's a surprisingly strong link between climate change and violence
|last=Mooney |first=Chris
|date=22 October 2014
|work=The Washington Post
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150512120232weblink
|archive-date=12 May 2015
|url-status=live}}


* NEWS, harv
, Mooney, Chris
, 2018
, The next five years will be 'anomalously warm,' scientists predict
, The Washington Post
,weblink
, 14 August 2018
,weblink
, 14 August 2018, live
,
* NEWS, {{harvid, The Washington Post, 30 August, 2018,
|title=Climate change could render many of Earth's ecosystems unrecognizable|last1=Kaplan |first1 = Sarah
|work=The Washington Post
|year=2018
|access-date=30 August 2018
|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/science/2018/08/30/climate-change-could-render-many-earths-ecosystems-unrecognizable
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180830201401weblink|archive-date=30 August 2018
|url-status=live}}
  • UN Environment


* WEB, {{harvid, UN Environment, 20 November, 2017,
|url=http://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/story/montreal-protocol-triumph-treaty
|title=The Montreal Protocol: triumph by treaty
|date = 20 November 2017
|website=UN Environment
|access-date=12 April 2019
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190412104936weblink
|archive-date=12 April 2019|url-status=live}}


* WEB
, {{harvid, UN Environment, 25 October, 2018,
|title = Curbing environmentally unsafe, irregular and disorderly migration
|website = UN Environment
|date = 25 October 2018
|url =weblink
|access-date = 18 April 2019
|archive-url =weblink
|archive-date = 18 April 2019
|url-status = live
}}


* WEB
, {{harvid, UNFCCC, 17 October, 2017,
|title=Climate Change Is A Key Driver of Migration and Food Insecurity
|work=UNFCCC
|date=17 October 2017
|url=https://unfccc.int/news/climate-change-is-a-key-driver-of-migration-and-food-insecurity
|access-date=18 April 2019
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190418154915weblink
|archive-date=18 April 2019
|url-status=live
}}


* WEB, {{harvid, U.S. Geological Survey, 18 June 2018,
|last1=Perlman |first1=Howard
|url=https://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleice.html
|title=Ice, Snow, and Glaciers: The Water Cycle
|date=18 June 2018
|publisher=U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190228070103weblink
|archive-date=28 February 2019
|url-status=live|access-date=27 February 2019}}
  • Univ. Wisconsin – Oshkosh


*WEB, CITEREFOil Company Positions
, [unknown]
, n.d.
, Oil Company Positions on the Reality and Risk of Climate Change
, Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin – Oshkosh
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160416075908weblink">weblink
, 16 April 2016
, live
, 27 March 2016
,

* NEWS, {{harvid, USA Today, 13 July, 2018,
|date=13 July 2018
|title=Global warming risk: Rising temperatures from climate change linked to rise in suicides
|newspaper=USA Today
|access-date=30 July 2018
|url=https://amp.usatoday.com/amp/817731002
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180730050322weblink
|archive-date=30 July 2018
|url-status=live}}


* NEWS, {{harvid, Vice, 2 May, 2019,
|website=Vice
|last1=Segalov |first1=Michael
|title=The UK Has Declared a Climate Emergency: What Now?
|url=https://www.vice.com/en_uk/article/evyxyn/uk-climate-emergency-what-does-it-mean
|accessdate=30 June 2019 |date=2 May 2019
}}

* WEB, {{harvid, Vox, 15 October, 2018,
|title=The best way to reduce your personal carbon emissions: don't be rich
|url=https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2017/7/14/15963544/climate-change-individual-choices
|publisher=Vox
|date = 15 October 2018
|accessdate=19 April 2019
}}
  • Yale Climate Connections


* WEB, {{harvid, Yale Climate Connections, 2 November, 2010,
|title = Yale Researcher Anthony Leiserowitz On Studying, Communicating with American Public
|date = 2 November 2010
|last = Peach |first = Sara
|publisher=Yale Climate Connections
|access-date=30 July 2018
|url=https://www.yaleclimateconnections.org/2010/11/communicating-with-american-public
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190207130823weblink
|archive-date=7 February 2019
|url-status=live
}}

External links

{{Sister project links|wikt=global warming|b=Climate Change|q=Global warming|commons=Category:Global warming|n=Category:Climate change|v=Global warming}}{{Library resources box|by=no|onlinebooks=no|others=yes|lcheading=Global warming}}

Research

Educational

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