Cato Institute

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Cato Institute
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{{Other uses|Cato (disambiguation)}}{{Use mdy dates|date=June 2012}}

|focus = Public advocacy, media exposure and societal influence|leader_title= President and CEO|leader_name = Peter N. Goettler|leader_title2 = Chairman|leader_name2 = Robert A. Levy|leader_title3= Executive Vice-PresidentDavid BoazCATO INSTITUTETITLE=CATO INSTITUTE WEBSITE PROFILE OF DAVID BOAZ, September 6, 2012, |staff = 100 staff 46 faculty 70 adjunct faculty|key_people =|budget = Revenue: $37.3 millionExpenses: $29.4 millionFiscal year>FYE March 2015|endowment =$72,934,328 (2015)|num_members =|motto = "Individual Liberty, Free Markets, and Peace"|formerly = Charles Koch Foundation; Cato FoundationMassachusetts Avenue (Washington, D.C.)>Massachusetts Ave. N.W. Washington, D.C.38127735display=inline,title}}}}|footnotes =}}The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch,WEB,weblink 25 years at the Cato Institute: The 2001 Annual Report, August 19, 2013, 52255585, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.Koch Industries is the second largest privately held company by revenue in the United States. WEB,weblink Forbes List, Forbes, November 13, 2011, In July 1976, the name was changed to the Cato Institute.WEB,weblink Articles of Incorporation Charles Koch Foundation and Restated Articles of Incorporation, December 19, 1974, March 20, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 15, 2012, mdy-all, Cato was established to have a focus on public advocacy, media exposure and societal influence.BOOK, Cobane, Craig T., Americans at War, 2005, Gale,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, March 29, 2015, August 18, 2013, Think Tanks, According to the 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), Cato is number 15 in the "Top Think Tanks Worldwide" and number 10 in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States".{{r|"Global Go To"}}The Cato Institute is libertarian in its political philosophy, and advocates a limited role for government in domestic and foreign affairs as well as a strong protection of civil rights. This includes support for the demilitarization of the police, lowering or abolishing most taxes, opposition to the Federal Reserve system, the privatization of numerous government agencies and programs including Social Security, the Affordable Care Act and the United States Postal Service, along with adhering to a non-interventionist foreign policy.(File:Cato Institute by Matthew Bisanz.JPG|thumb|290px|Cato Institute building in Washington, D.C.){{TOC limit|3}}


The institute was founded in December 1974 in Wichita, Kansas as the Charles Koch Foundation and initially funded by Charles Koch.Koch is chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries, the second largest privately held company by revenue in the United States. WEB,weblink Forbes List, Forbes, November 13, 2011, WEB,weblink Articles of Incorporation Charles Koch Foundation and Restated Articles of Incorporation, December 19, 1974, February 28, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 15, 2012, mdy-all, The other members of the first board of directors included co-founder Murray Rothbard, libertarian scholar Earl Ravenal, and businessmen Sam H. Husbands Jr. and David H. Padden.WEB, Burris, Charles, February 4, 2011,weblink Kochs v. Soros: A Partial Backstory,, August 14, 2013, At the suggestion of Rothbard, the institute changed its name in 1976 to Cato Institute after Cato's Letters, a series of British essays penned in the early 18th century by John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon.The essays, named after Cato the Younger, the defender of republican institutions in Rome, expounded on the political views of philosopher John Locke, that had a strong influence on the American Revolution's intellectual environment. See: JOURNAL, Mitchell, Annie, A Liberal Republican "Cato", American Journal of Political Science, July 2004, 48, 10.1111/j.0092-5853.2004.00089.x, 3, 588, BOOK, Rossiter, Clinton, Clinton Rossiter, Seedtime of the Republic: the origin of the American tradition of political liberty, 1953, Harcourt, Brace, New York, 141, No one can spend any time the newspapers, library inventories, and pamphlets of colonial America without realizing that Cato's Letters rather than John Locke's Civil Government was the most popular, quotable, esteemed source for political ideas in the colonial period., Cato relocated first to San Francisco, California in 1977, then to Washington, D.C. in 1981, settling initially in a historic house on Capitol Hill.BOOK, Doherty, Brian, Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement, 2007, PublicAffairs, New York, 978-1-58648-350-0, 741, Brian Doherty (journalist), 76141517, {{rp|page=446}} The Institute moved to its current location on Massachusetts Avenue in 1993. Cato Institute was named the fifth-ranked think tank in the world for 2009 in a study of think tanks by James G. McGann, PhD of the University of Pennsylvania, based on a criterion of excellence in "producing rigorous and relevant research, publications and programs in one or more substantive areas of research".WEB,weblink The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program 2009, University of Pennsylvania, November 20, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 7, 2011, mdy,


Various Cato programs were favorably ranked in a survey published by the University of Pennsylvania in 2012.


The Cato Institute publishes numerous policy studies, briefing papers, periodicals, and books. Peer-reviewed academic journals include the Cato Journal{{ISSN|0273-3072}}Academic Search Complete: Journals & Magazines Only, EBSCOProQuest Database: ProQuest 5000 International {{Webarchive|url= |date=November 26, 2009 }}, ProQuest and Regulation.{{ISSN|0147-0590}}Business Source Complete: Journals & Magazines Only, EBSCOProQuest Database: ProQuest 5000 International {{Webarchive|url= |date=November 26, 2009 }}, ProQuest Other periodicals include Cato's Letter,{{OCLC|464445035|51687065}} Cato Supreme Court Review,{{ISSN|1936-0398}} and Cato Policy Report.{{ISSN|0743-605X}} Cato published Inquiry Magazine from 1977 to 1982 (before transferring it to the Libertarian Review Foundation){{ISSN|0148-5008}}; {{OCLC|3456688}} and Literature of Liberty from 1978 to 1979 (before transferring it to the Institute for Humane Studies).{{ISSN|0161-7303}}; {{OCLC|4007467}} (Literature of Liberty ended publication in 1982.)Notable books from Cato and Cato scholars include:

Web projects

In addition to maintaining its own website in English and Spanish,WEB,weblink,, Cato maintains websites focused on particular topics:
  • "Downsizing the Federal Government" contains essays on the size of the U.S. federal government and recommendations for decreasing various programs.WEB,weblink Downsizing the Federal Government,,
  • is a website focused on the theory and practice of libertarianism.
  • Cato Unbound, a web-only publication that features a monthly open debate among four people. The conversation begins with one lead essay, followed by three response essays by separate people. After that, all four participants can write as many responses and counter-responses as they want for the duration of that month.
  • contains reports and stories from Cato's National Police Misconduct Reporting Project and the National Police Misconduct News Feed.WEB,weblink - The Cato Institute's National Police Misconduct Reporting Project,,
  • Overlawyered is a law blog on the subject of tort reform run by author Walter Olson.
  • is an interactive data web project that catalogs increases in prosperity driven by the free market.
  • "Public Schooling Battle Map" illustrates different moral conflicts that result from public schooling.WEB,weblink Public Schooling Battle Map,,
Social media sponsored by Cato includes "Daily Podcasts" (through iTunes and RSS feeds), plus pages on Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and YouTube.WEB,weblink Multimedia: Cato Daily Podcast,,


Speakers at Cato have included Federal Reserve Chairmen Alan Greenspan and Ben Bernanke, and International Monetary Fund Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato.NEWS, Bleier, Karen,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 10, 2014, August 18, 2013, October 27, 2008, Getty Images, file photo taken on November 30, 2006, International Monetary Fund (IMF) Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato, NEWS, Wilson, Mark, Alan Greenspan Speaks About Euro in Washington,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 10, 2014, August 18, 2013, November 20, 2003, Getty Images, NEWS, Jones, Caleb, Bernanke,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 10, 2014, August 18, 2013, AP Images, Federal Reserve Board Chairman Ben Bernanke speaks at the Cato Institute's annual Monetary Conference{{nbsp, ...}} In 2009 Czech Republic President Václav Klaus spoke at a conference.NEWS, President of the Czech Republic Václav Klaus Delivers Remarks at the Cato Institute,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 10, 2014, August 18, 2013, Federal Document Clearing House, Inc., September 19, 2009, Washington Transcript Service,

Ideological relationships

Libertarianism, classical liberalism, and conservatism

Many Cato scholars advocate support for civil liberties, liberal immigration policies, drug liberalization, and the repeal of Don't Ask Don't Tell and laws restricting consensual sexual activity.WEB,weblink Government Shouldn't Police Morals – or Sexual Practices, Pilon, Roger, Cato Institute, November 20, 2010, The Cato Institute officially resists being labeled as part of the conservative movement because "'conservative' smacks of an unwillingness to change, of a desire to preserve the status quo"."Cato's Mission". The Cato Institute (accessed August 22, 2013)In 2006, Markos Moulitsas of the Daily Kos proposed the term "Libertarian Democrat" to describe his particular liberal position, suggesting that libertarians should be allies of the Democratic Party. Replying, Cato vice president for research Brink Lindsey agreed that libertarians and liberals should view each other as natural ideological allies,Lindsey, Brink. "Liberaltarians". December 4, 2006. and noted continuing differences between mainstream liberal views on economic policy and Cato's "Jeffersonian philosophy". Cato has stated on its "About Cato" page: "The Jeffersonian philosophy that animates Cato's work has increasingly come to be called 'libertarianism' or 'market liberalism.' It combines an appreciation for entrepreneurship, the market process, and lower taxes with strict respect for civil liberties and skepticism about the benefits of both the welfare state and foreign military adventurism."WEB,weblink Cato on "How to Label Cato", February 29, 2008, The Cato Institute, Cato Institute,weblink" title="">weblink August 22, 2007, Some Cato scholars disagree with conservatives on neo-conservative foreign policy, albeit that this has not always been uniform.WEB, Lindsey, Brink, Should We Invade Iraq?,weblink Reason Magazine (January 2003), Reason Magazine, July 5, 2012,


File:John A. Allison IV of the Cato Institute.jpg|thumb|John A. Allison IVJohn A. Allison IV{{Further|Objectivism and libertarianism}}The relationship between Cato and the Ayn Rand Institute (ARI) improved with the nomination of Cato's new president John A. Allison IV in 2012. He is a former ARI board member and is reported to be an "ardent devotee" of Rand who has promoted reading her books to colleges nationwide.Jane Mayer, The Kochs v. Cato: Winners and Losers, The New Yorker, July 3, 2012. In March 2015 Allison retired and was replaced by Peter Goettler. Allison remains on the Cato Institute's board.WEB,weblink Peter Goettler named new head of libertarian think tank Cato Institute,,

Cato positions on political issues and policies

The Cato Institute advocates policies that advance "individual liberty, limited government, free markets, and peace". They are libertarian in their policy positions, typically advocating diminished government intervention in domestic, social, and economic policies and decreased military and political intervention worldwide. Cato was cited by columnist Ezra Klein as nonpartisan, saying that it is "the foremost advocate for small-government principles in American life" and it "advocates those principles when Democrats are in power, and when Republicans are in power";NEWS, Klein, Ezra, Why Do the Kochs Want to Kill the Cato Institute?, Bloomberg L.P.,weblink March 7, 2012, July 12, 2012, and Eric Lichtblau called Cato "one of the country's most widely cited research organizations." Nina Eastman reported in 1995 that "on any given day, House Majority Whip Tom DeLay of Texas might be visiting for lunch. Or Cato staffers might be plotting strategy with House Majority Leader Dick Armey, another Texan, and his staff."NEWS, Easton, Nina J., Making America Work : RED WHITE AND SMALL : Ed Crane's Cato Institute Is a Think Tank That Believes the Country Would Work Better if There Was Less Governmenturl= November 9, 2017,

On domestic issues

Cato scholars have consistently called for the privatization of many government services and institutions, including NASA, Social Security, the United States Postal Service, the Transportation Security Administration, public schooling, public transportation systems, and public broadcasting.WEB,weblink Fixing Transit: The Case for Privatization, November 10, 2010,, WEB,weblink Privatizing Social Security: A Big Boost for the Poor, July 26, 1996,, WEB,weblink Top Ten Reasons to Privatize Public Broadcasting, July 25, 2005,, WEB,weblink Privatize Almost Everything, April 30, 2013,, WEB,weblink Postal Service Privatization, April 30, 1996,, WEB,weblink After Another Failure, Time to Privatize TSA, June 2, 2015,, WEB,weblink Time to Privatize NASA, January 26, 1998,, WEB,weblink Privatize the FAA!, April 24, 2013,, The institute opposes minimum wage laws, saying that they violate the freedom of contract and thus private property rights, and increase unemployment.WEB,weblink The Minimum Wage Is Cruelest to Those Who Can't Find a Job, July 22, 2013,, William Niskanen, "House Faces the Dumbest Bill of the Year (So Far): A $2.10 Increase in the Minimum Wage", Cato@Libery, June 14, 2006 It is opposed to expanding overtime regulations, arguing that it will benefit some employees in the short term, while costing jobs or lowering wages of others, and have no meaningful long-term impact.WEB,weblink Overtime Regulation, July 2, 2015,, WEB,weblink Obama's Overtime Edict: Anything But a Free Lunch, March 13, 2014,, It opposes child labor prohibitions.WEB,weblink A Case against Child Labor Prohibitions, July 29, 2014,, WEB,weblink Child Labor or Child Prostitution?, October 8, 2002,, WEB,weblink Bans on Child Labor, November 18, 2013,, It opposes public sector unions and supports right-to-work laws.WEB,weblink Labor Unions Against the Public Interest, July 2, 2013,, WEB, Vedder, Richard, 171 Right-to-Work Laws: Liberty, Prosperity, and Quality of Life,weblink Cato Institute, 9 March 2019, It opposes universal health care, arguing that it is harmful to patients and an intrusion onto individual liberty.WEB,weblink Universal Health Care,, WEB,weblink Universal Health Care Not Best Option, February 23, 2009,, It is against affirmative action.WEB,weblink The Affirmative Action Myth, Marie, Gryphon, Cato Institute, November 20, 2010, It has also called for total abolition of the welfare state, and has argued that it should be replaced with reduced business regulations to create more jobs, and argues that private charities are fully capable of replacing it.WEB,weblink Welfare and Private Charity, April 13, 2012,, WEB,weblink The Welfare State Needs Abolition, Not "Reform", May 5, 2015,, Cato has also opposed antitrust laws.WEB,weblink The Case Against Antitrust, November 17, 2004,, WEB,weblink It's Time To Reexamine Antitrust Legislation, November 13, 1997,, Cato is an opponent of campaign finance reform, arguing that government is the ultimate form of potential corruption and that such laws undermine democracy by undermining competitive elections. Cato also supports the repeal of the Federal Election Campaign Act.WEB,weblink Why Campaign Finance Reform Never Works, March 20, 1997,, WEB,weblink Campaign Finance,, Cato has published strong criticisms of the 1998 settlement which many U.S. states signed with the tobacco industry.Thomas C. O'Brien, "Constitutional and Antitrust Violations of the Multistate Tobacco Settlement" {{webarchive|url= |date=December 3, 2003 }}, Policy Analysis no. 371, Cato Institute, May 18, 2000 In 2004, Cato scholar Daniel Griswold wrote in support of President George W. Bush's failed proposal to grant temporary work visas to otherwise undocumented laborers which would have granted limited residency for the purpose of employment in the U.S.The Cato Institute published a study proposing a Balanced Budget Veto Amendment to the United States Constitution.Anthony Hawks, "The Balanced Budget Veto: A New Mechanism to Limit Federal Spending", Policy Analysis no. 487, Cato Institute, September 4, 2003In 2003, Cato filed an amicus brief in support of the Supreme Court's decision in Lawrence v. Texas, which struck down the remaining state laws that made private, non-commercial homosexual relations between consenting adults illegal. Cato cited the 14th Amendment, among other things, as the source of their support for the ruling. The amicus brief was cited in Justice Kennedy's majority opinion for the Court.WEB,weblink 539 U.S. 558 LAWRENCE et al. v. TEXAS No. 02-102. Supreme Court of United,, November 20, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 31, 2010, mdy-all, In 2006, Cato published a Policy Analysis criticising the Federal Marriage Amendment as unnecessary, anti-federalist, and anti-democratic.WEB,weblink The Federal Marriage Amendment: Unnecessary, Anti-Federalist, and Anti-Democratic, Dale, Carpenter, June 1, 2006, Cato Institute, November 20, 2010, The amendment would have changed the United States Constitution to prohibit same-sex marriage; the amendment failed in both houses of Congress.Cato scholars have been sharp critics of current U.S. drug policy and the perceived growing militarization of U.S. law enforcement.WEB, Radley, Balko,weblink Overkill: The Rise of Paramilitary Police Raids in America, Cato Institute, July 17, 2006,

Criticism of corporate welfare

In 2004, the Institute published a paper arguing in favor of "drug re-importation"."Drug Reimportation: The Free Market Solution", Policy Analysis no. 521, Cato Institute, August 4, 2004 Cato has published numerous studies criticizing what it calls "corporate welfare", the practice of public officials funneling taxpayer money, usually via targeted budgetary spending, to politically connected corporate interests.James Bovard, "Archer Daniels Midland: A Case Study In Corporate Welfare" {{webarchive|url= |date=July 11, 2007 }}, Policy Analysis no. 241, September 26, 1995Stephen Moore and Dean Stansel, "Ending Corporate Welfare As We Know It", Policy Analysis no. 225, May 12, 1995Stephen Slivinski, "The Corporate Welfare Budget: Bigger Than Ever", Policy Analysis no. 415, October 10, 2001Stephen Slivinski, "The Corporate Welfare State: How the Federal Government Subsidizes U.S. Businesses", Policy Analysis no. 592, May 14, 2007Cato president Ed Crane and Sierra Club executive director Carl Pope co-wrote a 2002 op-ed piece in The Washington Post calling for the abandonment of the Republican energy bill, arguing that it had become little more than a gravy train for Washington, D.C. lobbyists.NEWS, Pope, Carl, Crane, Ed, Fueled by Pork, The Washington Post, July 30, 2002, A.17,weblink August 21, 2013, {{Subscription required}}. Cato's link Again in 2005, Cato scholar Jerry Taylor teamed up with Daniel Becker of the Sierra Club to attack the Republican Energy Bill as a give-away to corporate interests.Jerry Taylor and Daniel Becker, "Energy Bill Blues", July 2, 2005

On copyright issues

A 2006 study criticized the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.Gigi Sohn, "A Welcome Voice on the Right" {{webarchive|url= |date=May 11, 2007 }}, Public Knowledge, March 21, 2006

On foreign policy

Cato's non-interventionist foreign policy views, and strong support for civil liberties, have frequently led Cato scholars to criticize those in power, both Republican and Democratic. Cato scholars opposed President George H. W. Bush's 1991 Gulf War operations (a position which caused the organization to lose nearly $1 million in funding),{{rp|page=454}} President Bill Clinton's interventions in Haiti and Kosovo, President George W. Bush's 2003 invasion of Iraq, and President Barack Obama's 2011 military intervention in Libya. As a response to the September 11 attacks, Cato scholars supported the removal of al Qaeda and the Taliban regime from power, but are against an indefinite and open-ended military occupation of Afghanistan.WEB,weblink Escaping the 'Graveyard of Empires': A Strategy to Exit Afghanistan, Malou Innocent and Ted Galen Carpenter, September 14, 2009, Cato Institute, November 20, 2010, Cato scholars criticized U.S. involvement in Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen."GOP's Foreign Policy Goes from Bad to Ugly as Marco Rubio Pushes Intervention for Fun and Profit". Cato Institute. August 12, 2015.Ted Galen Carpenter, Cato's Vice President for Defense and Foreign Policy Studies, criticized many of the arguments offered to justify the 2003 invasion of Iraq. One of the war's earliest critics, Carpenter wrote in January 2002: "Ousting Saddam would make Washington responsible for Iraq's political future and entangle the United States in an endless nation-building mission beset by intractable problems."WEB,weblink Overthrow Saddam? Be Careful What You Wish For, Ted Galen, Carpenter, Cato Institute, November 20, 2010, Carpenter also predicted: "Most notably there is the issue posed by two persistent regional secession movements: the Kurds in the north and the Shiites in the south." But in 2002 Carpenter wrote, "the United States should not shrink from confronting al-Qaeda in its Pakistani lair,"WEB,weblink Take the War on Terrorism to Pakistan, Ted Galen, Carpenter, Cato Institute, November 9, 2017, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink June 1, 2002, mdy-all, a position echoed in the Institute's Policy Recommendations for the 108th Congress.WEB,weblink Waging an Effective War, Charles V., Peña, Cato Handbook for Congress: Policy Recommendations for the 108th Congress, 53, November 9, 2017, Cato's Director of Foreign Policy Studies, Christopher Preble, argues in The Power Problem: How American Military Dominance Makes Us Less Safe, Less Prosperous, and Less Free, that America's position as an unrivaled superpower tempts policymakers to constantly overreach and to redefine ever more broadly the "national interest".NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, The Big Idea – The Power Problem, Carlos, Lozada, May 3, 2009, April 28, 2010, Christopher Preble has said that the "scare campaign" to protect military spending from cuts under the Budget Control Act of 2011 has backfired.WEB,weblink Defense Execs Say Deeper DoD Budget Cuts, Higher Taxes OK,,

On environmental policy

Cato scholars have written about the issues of the environment, including global warming, environmental regulation, and energy and Scientific American have criticized Cato's work on global Cato Institutes claim on global warming] disputed by most experts.] April 1, 2009.Cato was criticized for publishing an alleged misleading Addendum: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. See: JOURNAL, Fischer, Douglas, The Daily Climate, Fake Addendum by Contrarian Group Tries to Undo U.S. Government Climate Report, Scientific American, October 22, 2012,weblink February 5, 2018, A December 2003 Cato panel included Patrick Michaels, Robert Balling and John Christy.{{citation needed|date=August 2016}} Michaels, Balling and Christy agreed that global warming is related at least some degree to human activity but that some scientists and the media have overstated the danger.{{citation needed|date=August 2016}} The Cato Institute has also criticized political attempts to stop global warming as expensive and ineffective:Cato scholars have been critical of the Bush administration's views on energy policy. In 2003, Cato scholars Jerry Taylor and Peter Van Doren said the Republican Energy Bill was "hundreds of pages of corporate welfare, symbolic gestures, empty promises, and pork-barrel projects".MAGAZINE,weblink Mighty Porking Power Rangers: Scanning the energy bill, Jerry, Taylor, Peter Van Doren, National Review Online, November 19, 2003, May 27, 2008, They also spoke out against the former president's calls for larger ethanol subsidies.NEWS, Chicago Sun-Times,weblink Ethanol Makes Gasoline Costlier, Dirtier, Jerry, Taylor, Peter Van Doren, January 27, 2007, With regard to the "Takings Clause" of the United States Constitution and environmental protection, libertarians associated with Cato contend that the Constitution is not adequate to guarantee the protection of private property rights.BOOK, Ball, Terence, Environmental Encyclopedia, 2003, Gale,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, April 2, 2015, August 18, 2013, Takings,

Other commentaries of presidential administrations

Cato scholars were critical of George W. Bush's Republican administration (2001–2009) on several issues, including education,WEB,weblink Feds in the Classroom, Neal, McCluskey, Cato Institute, and excessive government spending.WEB,weblink Downsizing the Federal Government, December 16, 2010, On other issues, they supported Bush administration initiatives, most notably health care,WEB,weblink Yes, Mr. President, A Free Market Can Fix Health Care, Michael F, Cannon, October 21, 2009, Cato Institute, November 20, 2010, Social Security,NEWS, Mike, Allen,weblink Semantics Shape Social Security Debate: Democrats Assail 'Crisis' While GOP Gives 'Privatization' a 'Personal' Twist, The Washington Post, January 23, 2005, A04, WEB,weblink Cutting Corporate Welfare Could Fund a Bush Social Security Plan, Andrew, Biggs, Maya, Macguineas, CATO Institute, January 6, 2003, global warming,WEB,weblink Global Warming, Patrick J, Michaels, Cato Handbook for Congress: Policy Recommendations for the 108th Congress, 474, July 4, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 6, 2012, mdy-all, tax policy,WEB,weblink Show Me the Money! Dividend Payouts after the Bush Tax Cut, Stephen, Moore, Phil, Kerpen, Cato Institute, October 12, 2004, July 4, 2012, and immigration.WEB, Daniel, Griswold,weblink Beyond the Barbed Wire: Bush won a mandate for immigration reform,, December 3, 2004, August 21, 2013, Cato's linkWEB,weblink America Needs Real Immigration Reform, Daniel, Griswold, Cato Institute, May 18, 2006, July 4, 2012, WEB,weblink Illegal Immigration: Will Congress Finally Solve It?, Daniel, Griswold, Cato Institute, July 4, 2012, WEB,weblink Immigration Reform Must Include a Temporary Worker Program, Daniel, Griswold, Cato Institute, July 4, 2012, During the 2008 U.S. presidential election, Cato scholars criticized both major-party candidates, John McCain and Barack Obama.JOURNAL, Samples, John, McCain vs. Madison, The American Spectator, January 15, 2008,weblink August 20, 2013, The American Spectator Foundation,weblink" title="">weblink July 28, 2013, dead, mdy-all, Cato's linkJOURNAL, Carpenter, Ted Galen, John McCain on Foreign Policy: Even Worse Than Bush, Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture,weblink July 7, 2008, Rockford Institute, August 21, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink September 4, 2012, dead, mdy-all, Cato's linkCato has criticized President Obama's stances on policy issues such as fiscal stimulus,WEB, Mitchell, Dan, Obama's New Stimulus Schemes: Same Song, Umpteenth Verse,weblink Cato @ Liberty, July 5, 2012, healthcare reform,NEWS, Healy, Gene, Obamacare is unconstitutional,weblink August 20, 2013, Washington Examiner, November 24, 2009, , Cato's link foreign policy,WEB, Obama's War Without Policy in Libya,weblink July 5, 2012, and drug-related matters,WEB, Hidalgo, Juan Carlos, Barack Obama: The Enthusiastic Drug Warrior,weblink July 5, 2012, while supporting his stance on the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't TellWEB, Preble, Christopher, Obama Right on "Don't Ask, Don't Tell",weblink Cato@Liberty, July 12, 2012, and the DREAM Act.WEB, Shapiro, Ilya, One Cheer for Obama's New Immigration Policy,weblink Cato@Liberty, July 12, 2012, Cato was strongly critical of Trump's immigration ban, which was enacted in January 2017.WEB, Greenwald, Glenn, Glenn Greenwald, January 28, 2017, Trump's Muslim Ban Is Culmination of War on Terror Mentality but Still Uniquely Shameful,weblink The Intercept, January 31, 2017,

Funding, tax status, and corporate structure

The Cato Institute is classified as a 501(c)(3) organization under U.S. Internal Revenue Code. For revenue, the Institute is largely dependent on private contributions and does not receive government funding.WEB,weblink About Cato, Cato Institute, en, 2019-01-24, The Cato Institute reported fiscal year 2015 revenue of $37.3 million and expenses of $29.4 million.WEB, 2014 Annual Report,weblink Cato Institute, 14 April 2016, According to the organization's annual report, $32.1 million came from individual donors, $2.9 million came from foundations, $1.2 million came from program revenue and other income, and $1 million came from corporations.Sponsors of Cato have included FedEx, Google, CME Group and Whole Foods Market.MAGAZINE, Bennett, Laurie, The Kochs Aren't the Only Funders of Cato,weblink 22 December 2015, Forbes, March 13, 2012, The Nation reported support for Cato from the tobacco industry in a 2012 story.NEWS, Ames, Mark, Independent and Principled? Behind the Cato Myth,weblink 9 December 2014, The Nation, The Nation Company, L.P., 20 April 2012,

Funding details

{{col-begin}}{{col-break}}Funding details as of FYE March 2015:{{col-break}}{{Pie chart
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| other =
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| label2 = Foundations
| value2 = 7.7 | color2 = chartreuse
| label3 = Corporations
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}}{{col-end}}Net assets as of FYE March 2015: $70,186,000.

Shareholder dispute and departure of Ed Crane

According to an agreement signed in 1977, there were to be four shareholders of the Cato Institute. They were Charles and David Koch, Ed Crane,Koch Brothers File Lawsuit Over The Ownership Of the Cato Institute, March 1, 2012, AP via The Huffington Post, retrieved March 1, 2012 and William A. Niskanen. Niskanen died in October 2011.Kochs launch court fight over Cato, Mike Allen, POLITICO, March 1, 2012, retrieved March 1, 2012 In March 2012, a dispute broke out over the ownership of Niskanen's shares. Charles and David Koch filed suit in Kansas, seeking to void his shareholder seat. The Kochs argued that Niskanen's shares should first be offered to the board of the Institute, and then to the remaining shareholders.Battle for control of Cato Institute highlights unusual structure, March 3, 2012, The Washington Post, Retrieved December 3, 2012. Crane contended that Niskanen's share belonged to his widow, Kathryn Washburn, and that the move by the Kochs was an attempt to turn Cato into "some sort of auxiliary for the G.O.P ... It's detrimental to Cato, it's detrimental to Koch Industries, it's detrimental to the libertarian movement."NEWS, Lichtblau, Eric, Cato Institute Is Caught in a Rift Over Its Direction,weblink March 6, 2012, The New York Times, March 6, 2012, In June 2012, Cato announced an agreement in principle to settle the dispute by changing the institute's governing structure. Under the agreement, a board replaced the shareholders and Crane, who at the time was also Chief Executive Officer, retired. Former BB&T bank CEO John A. Allison IV replaced him.NEWS,weblink Koch Brothers, Cato Institute Settle Dispute, Danny, Yadron, The Wall Street Journal, June 25, 2012, June 25, 2012, Cato Institute and Shareholders Reach Agreement in Principle, Cato Institute press release, June 25, 2012. The Koch brothers agreed to drop two lawsuits.NEWS, Lichtblau, Eric, Cato Institute and Koch Brothers Reach Agreement,weblink June 25, 2012, The New York Times, July 8, 2012, In 2018, several former Cato employees alleged longtime sexual harassment by Crane, going back to the 1990s and continuing until his departure in 2012. Politico reported that he settled one such claim in 2012. Crane denied the allegations.NEWS, Former Cato employees describe years of harassment,weblink 8 February 2018, POLITICO, 8 February 2018,

Associates in the news

  • Cato senior fellow Robert A. Levy personally funded the plaintiffs' successful Supreme Court challenge to the District of Columbia's gun ban (District of Columbia v. Heller), on the basis of the Second Amendment.NEWS, Greenhouse, Linda,weblink Supreme Court May Take Gun Case – New York Times, The New York Times, November 12, 2007, November 13, 2011,
  • In January 2008, Dom Armentano wrote an op-ed piece about UFOs and classified government data in the Vero Beach Press-Journal.NEWS, Armentano, Dom, Intelligent extraterrestrial life: The other inconvenient truth?,weblink August 20, 2013, TC Palm, February 8, 2008, Stuart, FL, Cato Executive Vice President David Boaz wrote that "I won't deny that this latest op-ed played a role in our decision{{nbsp}}..." to drop Armentano as a Cato adjunct scholar.NEWS, Cox, Billy, Cato caves on UFOs,weblink August 20, 2013, Herald-Tribune, January 30, 2008, Sarasota, FL,

Nobel laureates at Cato

The following Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences laureates have worked with Cato:WEB,weblink Nobel Laureates at Cato, {{col-begin}}{{col-break|widht=33%}} {{col-break|widht=33%}} {{col-break|widht=33%}} {{col-end}}

Milton Friedman Prize

Since 2002, the Cato Institute has awarded the Milton Friedman Prize for Advancing Liberty every two years to "an individual who has made a significant contribution to advancing human freedom."BOOK, Ronall, Joachim O., Encyclopaedia Judica, 2007, Thomson Gale,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, March 29, 2015, 2nd, Saxena, Rohan, Beloff, Ruth, August 18, 2013, Friedman, Milton, The prize comes with a cash award of US$250,000.WEB,weblink The Milton Friedman Prize, Cato Institute, 13 April 2015, {| class="wikitable"|! Year !! Recipient !! NationalityPeter Thomas BauerPETER BAUER, 86; ECONOMIST FOUGHT FOREIGN AID AGENCY = TRIBUNE COMPANYURL=HTTP://ARTICLES.LATIMES.COM/2002/MAY/19/LOCAL/ME-BAUER19 GBR|name=British}}Hernando de Soto PolarKONRAD AGENCY=ASSOCIATED PRESS DATE=MAY 6, 2004 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20121105064542/HTTP://WWW.HIGHBEAM.COM/DOC/1P1-94317529.HTML ARCHIVE-DATE=NOVEMBER 5, 2012 POSTSCRIPT={{INCONSISTENT CITATIONS, }} {{PER}}vianMart LaarCATO POLICY REPORT DATE=JULY–AUGUST 2006 URL=HTTP://WWW.CATO.ORG/RESEARCH/ARTICLES/CPR28N4-3.HTML URL-STATUS=DEAD ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 23, 2010, {{EST}}nYon GoicoecheaASSOCIATED PRESS PUBLISHER=MSNBC DATE=APRIL 23, 2008, {{VEN}}nAkbar GanjiIRANIAN WRITER AKBAR GANJI WINS MILTON FRIEDMAN PRIZE ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://ARCHIVE.TODAY/20120702235316/HTTP://WWW.ARABIANBUSINESS.COM/585897-IRANIAN-WRITER-AKBAR-GANJI-WINS-MILTON-FRIEDMAN-PRIZE ARCHIVE-DATE=JULY 2, 2012 DATE=APRIL 13, 2010 Iran|name=Iranian}}Mao YushiHTTP://REALTIME.ZAOBAO.COM/2012/03/JG120330_036.SHTMLLAST=联合早报网YEAR=2012URL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=MAY 2, 2012China|name=Chinese}}Leszek BalcerowiczHTTPS://WWW.FORBES.COM/SITES/JAMESDORN/2014/05/19/LESZEK-BALCEROWICZ-TRANSFORMED-POLAND-THROUGH-AN-EMBRACE-OF-ECONOMIC-FREEDOM/ LAST=DORN WORK=FORBES ACCESSDATE=MAY 22, 2014, {{flagname=Polish}}Flemming RoseHTTP://WWW.CATO.ORG/NEWS-RELEASES/2016/5/11/CATO-INSTITUTE-HONORS-FREE-SPEECH-ADVOCATE-FLEMMING-ROSE-2016-MILTON/ YEAR=2016 Denmark|name=Danish}}Ladies in WhiteHTTPS://WWW.CATO.ORG/FRIEDMAN-PRIZE/LAS-DAMAS-DE-BLANCO/ YEAR=2018 Cuba|name=Cuban}}

Board of directors

As of 2016:WEB,weblink Board of Directors, Cato Institute, 22 March 2016, {{colbegin}} {{colend}}

Notable Cato experts

Notable scholars associated with Cato include the following:WEB,weblink Policy Scholars,,

Policy scholars

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Adjunct scholars

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The Cato Institute is an associate member of the State Policy Network, a U.S. national network of free-market oriented think tanks.NEWS,weblink Report: Think tanks tied to Kochs, Politico, November 13, 2013, Tal, Kopan, February 24, 2015, WEB,weblink Directory SPN Members, State Policy Network, March 23, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 18, 2015, mdy,


According to the 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), Cato is number 15 in the "Top Think Tanks Worldwide" and number 10 in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States".WEB, James G. McGann (Director), James McGann,weblink 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, January 31, 2018, June 28, 2018, Other "Top Think Tank" rankings include # 13 (of 85) in Defense and National Security, #5 (of 80) in Domestic Economic Policy, #4 (of 55) in Education Policy, #17 (of 85) in Foreign Policy and International Affairs, #8 (of 30) in Domestic Health Policy, #14 (of 25) in Global Health Policy, #18 (of 80) in International Development, #14 (of 50) in International Economic Policy, #8 (of 50) in Social Policy, #8 (of 75) for Best Advocacy Campaign, #17 (of 60) for Best Think Tank Network, #3 (of 60) for best Use of Social Networks, #9 (of 50) for Best External Relations/Public Engagement Program, #2 (of 40) for Best Use of the Internet, #12 (of 40) for Best Use of Media, #5 (of 30) for Most Innovative Policy Ideas/Proposals, #11 (of 70) for the Most Significant Impact on Public Policy, and #9 (of 60) for Outstanding Policy-Oriented Public Programs. Cato also topped the 2014 list of the budget-adjusted ranking of international development think tanks.WEB, Center for Global Development, CGD's Think Tank Public Profile Rankings Are Back, March 17, 2015, Gelb, Alan, Diofasi, Anna, Hashmi, Nabil, Post, Lauren,weblink, July 17, 2015,

See also





External links

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