Barack Obama

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Barack Obama
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{{other uses}}{{Redirect2|Barack|Obama|other uses|Barack (disambiguation)|and|Obama (disambiguation)}}{{Pp-move-indef}}{{Pp-semi|small=yes}}{{short description|44th president of the United States}}{{Active editnotice}}{{Use American English|date=August 2018}}{{Use mdy dates|date=March 2019}}

|birth_place = Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.|death_date = |death_place = Democratic Party (United States)>DemocraticMichelle Robinson|October 3, 1992}}Malia Obama>Sasha}}|parents = Barack Obama Sr.Ann Dunham|residence = Kalorama (Washington, D.C.)|relatives = Obama familyOccidental CollegeColumbia University (Bachelor of Arts>BA)Harvard University (JD)|White House Archives}}Nobel Peace Prize (2009 Nobel Peace Prize>2009)Profile in Courage Award (2017)|signature = Barack Obama signature.svg}}{{Barack Obama sidebar}}{{New Democrats}}Barack Hussein Obama II ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Barack-Hussein-Obama.ogg|b|ə|ˈ|r|ɑː|k|_|h|uː|ˈ|s|eɪ|n|_|oʊ|ˈ|b|ɑː|m|ə}};{{YouTube|clMEg4-N7ao|"Barack Hussein Obama Takes The Oath Of Office"}}. January 20, 2009. born August 4, 1961) is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American to be elected to the presidency. He previously served as a U.S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008 and an Illinois state senator from 1997 to 2004.Obama was born in Honolulu, Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. He represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004, when he ran for the U.S. Senate. He received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, and his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began, after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton. He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months later, he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office. The main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (commonly referred to as the "Affordable Care Act" or "Obamacare"), the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, and the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U.S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya, contributing to the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi. He also ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki.After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans. His administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional (United States v. Windsor and Obergefell v. Hodges); same-sex marriage was fully legalized in 2015 after the Court ruled that a same-sex marriage ban was unconstitutional in Obergefell. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning global warming and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, and normalized U.S. relations with Cuba. Obama nominated three justices to the Supreme Court: Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan were confirmed as justices, while Merrick Garland faced unprecedented partisan obstruction and was ultimately not confirmed. During his term in office, America's soft power and reputation abroad significantly improved.WEB,weblink Most of the world doesn't actually see America the way Trump said it did, Wan, William, Scott Clement, The Washington Post, November 18, 2016, Obama's presidency has generally been regarded favorably, and evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and currently resides in Washington, D.C.NEWS,weblink Obama's First Retrospective Job Approval Rating Is 63%, Jones, Jeffrey M.,, February 15, 2018, April 5, 2018, en-us, A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years.WEB,weblink Barack and Michelle Obama top Gallup's list of most-admired men and women in the world, trouncing the Trumps, Jacob Shamsian, INSIDER, Business Insider, January 2, 2019, {{TOC limit|4}}

Early life and career

Obama was born on August 4, 1961,WEB, 2008, President Barack Obama, The White House,weblink December 12, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 26, 2009, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii.NEWS, Maraniss, David, August 24, 2008, Though Obama had to leave to find himself, it is Hawaii that made his rise possible, The Washington Post, A22,weblink October 28, 2008, NEWS, Nakaso, Dan, December 22, 2008, Twin sisters, Obama on parallel paths for years, The Honolulu Advertiser, B1,weblink January 22, 2011, He is the only president born outside the contiguous 48 states.BOOK, Barreto, Amílcar Antonio, Richard L. O'Bryant, American Identity in the Age of Obama,weblink May 8, 2017, November 12, 2013, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-317-93715-9, 18–19, Introduction, He was born to a white mother and a black father. His mother, Ann Dunham (1942–1995), was born in Wichita, Kansas; she was mostly of English descent,Obama (1995, 2004), p. 12. with some German, Irish (3.13%), Scottish, Swiss, and Welsh ancestry.JOURNAL, Smolenyak, Megan Smolenyak, November–December 2008, The quest for Obama's Irish roots, Ancestry, 26, 6, 46–47, 49, 1075-475X,weblink December 20, 2011,
  • NEWS, Smolenyak, Megan, May 9, 2011, Tracing Barack Obama's Roots to Moneygall,weblink HuffPost, May 19, 2011,
  • NEWS, Rising, David, Noelting, Christoph, Associated Press, June 4, 2009, Researchers: Obama has German roots, USA Today,weblink May 13, 2010,
  • NEWS, Hutton, Brian, Press Association of Ireland, Nickerson, Matthew, May 3, 2007, For sure, Obama's South Side Irish; One of his roots traces back to small village, Chicago Sun-Times, 3, paid archive,weblink's%20South%20Side%20Irish)%20AND%20date(all)&p_field_advanced-0=&p_text_advanced-0=(For%20sure)%20(%20Obama's%20South%20Side%20Irish)Êl_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:DÊl_useweights=no, November 24, 2008,
  • NEWS, Jordon, Mary, May 13, 2007, Tiny Irish village is latest place to claim Obama as its own, The Washington Post, A14,weblink May 13, 2007,
  • NEWS, David Williamson, July 5, 2008,weblink Wales link in US presidential candidate's past,, April 30, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 21, 2011, dead, His father, Barack Obama Sr. (1936–1982), was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship.NEWS, Jones, Tim, March 27, 2007, Barack Obama: Mother not just a girl from Kansas; Stanley Ann Dunham shaped a future senator, Chicago Tribune, 1 (Tempo),weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 7, 2017, mdy-all, Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10.
  • Scott (2011), pp. 80–86.
  • Jacobs (2011), pp. 115–118.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 154–160. The couple married in Wailuku, Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.NEWS, Ripley, Amanda, April 9, 2008, The story of Barack Obama's mother, Time (magazine), Time,weblink April 9, 2007, Scott (2011), p. 86.
  • Jacobs (2011), pp. 125–127.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 160–163.
In late August 1961, a few weeks after he was born, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962. He left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M.A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964.Scott (2011), pp. 87–93.
  • Jacobs (2011), pp. 115–118, 125–127, 133–161.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 170–183, 188–189. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance.Obama "Dreams from My Father a Story of Race and Inheritance" He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas 1971,Scott (2011), pp. 142–144.
  • Jacobs (2011), pp. 161–177, 227–230.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 190–194, 201–209, 227–230. before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old.NEWS, Ochieng, Philip, November 1, 2004, From home squared to the US Senate: how Barack Obama was lost and found, The EastAfrican, Nairobi,weblink September 27, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink
  • NEWS, Merida, Kevin, December 14, 2007, The ghost of a father, The Washington Post, A12,weblink June 25, 2008,
  • Jacobs (2011), pp. 251–255.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 411–417. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – barely registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.NEWS, Serrano, Richard A., March 11, 2007, Obama's peers didn't see his angst, Los Angeles Times, A20,weblink March 13, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 8, 2008, mdy-all,
  • Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 4 and 5.
In 1963, Dunham met Lolo Soetoro at the University of Hawaii; he was an Indonesian East–West Center graduate student in geography. The couple married on Molokai on March 15, 1965.Scott (2011), pp. 97–103.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 195–201, 225–230. After two one-year extensions of his J-1 visa, Lolo returned to Indonesia in 1966. His wife and stepson followed sixteen months later in 1967. The family initially lived in the Menteng Dalam neighborhood in the Tebet sub district of south Jakarta. From 1970, they lived in a wealthier neighborhood in the Menteng sub district of central Jakarta.Maraniss (2012), pp. 195–201, 209–223, 230–244.


Obama started in St. Francis Pre-Education from age three to five. From age six to ten, he then attended local Indonesian-language schools: Sekolah Dasar Katolik Santo Fransiskus Asisi (St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Elementary School) for two years and Sekolah Dasar Negeri Menteng 01 (State Elementary School Menteng 01/Besuki school) for one and a half years, supplemented by English-language Calvert School homeschooling by his mother.Maraniss (2012), pp. 216, 221, 230, 234–244.WEB,weblink Barack Obama: Calvert Homeschooler? – Calvert Education Blog,, November 25, 2015, January 25, 2014, As a result of those four years in Jakarta, he was able to speak Indonesian fluently as a child.WEB,weblink Wawancara Eksklusif RCTI dengan Barack Obama (Part 2), March 2010, YouTube, February 12, 2018, WEB, Obama's Indonesian pleasantries: the video,weblink Zimmer, Benjamin, January 23, 2009, October 7, 2012, Language Log, University of Pennsylvania, During his time in Indonesia, Obama's step-father taught him to be resilient and gave him "a pretty hardheaded assessment of how the world works".NEWS,weblink What Barack Obama Learned from His Father, Meacham, Jon, August 22, 2008, Newsweek,weblink" title="">weblink January 7, 2017, live, January 9, 2017, In 1971, Obama returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Dunham. He attended Punahou School—a private college preparatory school—with the aid of a scholarship from fifth grade until he graduated from high school in 1979.NEWS, Serafin, Peter, March 21, 2004, Punahou grad stirs up Illinois politics, Honolulu Star-Bulletin,weblink March 20, 2008,
  • NEWS, Scott, Janny, March 14, 2008, A free-spirited wanderer who set Obama's path, The New York Times, A1,weblink November 18, 2011,
  • Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 3 and 4.
  • Scott (2012), pp. 131–134.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 264–269. In his youth, Obama went by the nickname "Barry".WEB,weblink When Barry Became Barack, Wolffe, Richard, March 22, 2008, March 21, 2016, Newsweek, Obama lived with his mother and half-sister, Maya Soetoro, in Hawaii for three years from 1972 to 1975 while his mother was a graduate student in anthropology at the University of Hawaii.Scott (2011), pp. 139–157.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 279–281. Obama chose to stay in Hawaii with his grandparents for high school at Punahou when his mother and half-sister returned to Indonesia in 1975 so his mother could begin anthropology field work.Scott (2011), pp. 157–194.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 279–281, 324–326. His mother spent most of the next two decades in Indonesia, divorcing Lolo in 1980 and earning a PhD degree in 1992, before dying in 1995 in Hawaii following unsuccessful treatment for ovarian and uterine cancer.Scott (2011), pp. 214, 294, 317–346.
Obama later reflected on his years in Honolulu and wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered – to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect – became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."NEWS, Reyes, B.J., February 8, 2007, Punahou left lasting impression on Obama, Honolulu Star-Bulletin,weblink February 10, 2007, As a teenager, Obama went to parties and sometimes sought out gatherings on military bases or at the University of Hawaii that were attended mostly by blacks., Obama has also written and talked about using alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind".NEWS, Elliott, Philip, Associated Press, November 21, 2007, Obama gets blunt with N.H. students, Boston Globe, 8A,weblink May 18, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 7, 2012, Obama was also a member of the "choom gang", a self-named group of friends who spent time together and occasionally smoked marijuana.NEWS, Karl, Jonathan, ABC News, May 25, 2012, Obama and his pot-smoking "choom gang",weblink May 25, 2012,
  • BOOK, Barack, Obama, 2004, 1995,weblink Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance, 93–94, June 3, 2016, 9780307394125,
  • BOOK, David, Maraniss, 2012,weblink Barack Obama: The Story, pages with "choom gang", June 3, 2016, 9781439167533,
  • for analysis of the political impact of the quote and Obama's more recent admission that he smoked marijuana as a teenager ("When I was a kid, I inhaled"), see:
  • NEWS, Seelye, Katharine Q., October 24, 2006, Obama offers more variations from the norm, The New York Times, A21,weblink October 29, 2006,
  • NEWS, Romano, Lois, January 3, 2007, Effect of Obama's candor remains to be seen, The Washington Post, A1,weblink January 14, 2007, WEB,weblink FRONTLINE The Choice 2012, PBS, October 9, 2012, October 29, 2012,
After graduating from high school in 1979, Obama moved to Los Angeles to attend Occidental College. In February 1981, Obama made his first public speech, calling for Occidental to participate in the disinvestment from South Africa in response to that nation's policy of apartheid. In mid-1981, Obama traveled to Indonesia to visit his mother and half-sister Maya, and visited the families of college friends in Pakistan and India for three weeks. Later in 1981, he transferred as a junior to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialty in international relationsNEWS, Boss-Bicak, Shira, January 2005, Barack Obama '83, Columbia College Today, 0572-7820,weblink October 1, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink September 5, 2008, dead, mdy-all, and in English literatureNEWS,weblink Remarks by the President in Town Hall, June 26, 2014, White House, October 15, 2016, and lived off-campus on West 109th Street.NEWS,weblink The Approval Matrix, August 27, 2012, New York, He graduated with a BA degree in 1983 and worked for about a year at the Business International Corporation, where he was a financial researcher and writer,WEB,weblink Obama's Early Brush With Financial Markets, Horsley, Scott, July 9, 2008, NPR, en, July 17, 2017, WEB, Obama, Barack, 1998, Curriculum vitae, The University of Chicago Law School,weblink May 9, 2001,weblink" title="">weblink October 1, 2006,
  • NEWS, Issenberg, Sasha, August 6, 2008, Obama shows hints of his year in global finance; Tied markets to social aid, Boston Globe, 1A,weblink August 6, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink November 7, 2009, dead, mdy-all, then as a project coordinator for the New York Public Interest Research Group on the City College of New York campus for three months in 1985.NEWS, Scott, Janny, July 30, 2007, Obama's account of New York often differs from what others say, The New York Times, B1,weblink July 31, 2007,
  • Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 133–140.
  • Mendell (2007), pp. 62–63.BOOK, Chassie, Karen, 2007, Who's Who in America, 2008, 3468, New Providence, NJ, Marquis Who's Who, 978-0-8379-7011-0, NEWS,weblink Obama stood out, even during brief 1985 NYPIRG job, November 9, 2008, Newsday, Jason, Fink,

Family and personal life

File:Obama family portrait in the Green Room.jpg|thumb|Obama poses in the Green Room of the White House with wife Michelle and daughters Sasha and Malia, 2009.]]In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family: "It's like a little mini-United Nations", he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher."WEB,weblink Keeping Hope Alive: Barack Obama Puts Family First, October 18, 2006, The Oprah Winfrey Show, June 24, 2008, Obama has a half-sister with whom he was raised (Maya Soetoro-Ng) and seven other half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family—six of them living.NEWS, Scott, Fornek, Half Siblings: 'A Complicated Family', September 9, 2007,weblinkweblink January 18, 2010, Chicago Sun-Times, June 24, 2008, dead, See also: NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 3, 2008, Interactive Family Tree, September 9, 2007, Chicago Sun-Times, June 24, 2008, Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham,NEWS, Scott, Fornek, Madelyn Payne Dunham: 'A Trailblazer', September 9, 2007,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink March 4, 2009, Chicago Sun-Times, June 24, 2008, live, until her death on November 2, 2008,NEWS,weblink Obama's grandmother dies after battle with cancer, CNN, November 4, 2008, November 3, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink November 3, 2008, live, two days before his election to the Presidency. Obama also has roots in Ireland; he met with his Irish cousins in Moneygall in May 2011.NEWS,weblink Tracing Barack Obama's Roots to Moneygall, May 9, 2011, HuffPost, Megan, Smolenyak, In Dreams from My Father, Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. He also shares distant ancestors in common with George W. Bush and Dick Cheney, among others.Obama (1995, 2004), p. 13. For reports on Obama's maternal genealogy, including slave owners, Irish connections, and common ancestors with George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, and Harry S. Truman, see: NEWS, David, Nitkin, Harry Merritt, A New Twist to an Intriguing Family History, March 2, 2007,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink September 30, 2007, The Baltimore Sun, June 24, 2008, dead, NEWS, Mary, Jordan, Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own, May 13, 2007,weblink The Washington Post, June 24, 2008, NEWS, Obama's Family Tree Has a Few Surprises, September 8, 2007, CBS 2 (Chicago),weblink Associated Press, June 24, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink June 2, 2008, File:BlackhawksWhiteHouse2010.jpg|thumb|Obama with Jonathan Toews and the Stanley Cup champion Chicago BlackhawksChicago BlackhawksObama is a supporter of the Chicago White Sox, and he threw out the first pitch at the 2005 ALCS when he was still a senator.NEWS, Barack Obama: White Sox 'serious' ball, August 25, 2008, Mark, Silva, Chicago Tribune,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink August 29, 2008, In 2009, he threw out the ceremonial first pitch at the All-Star Game while wearing a White Sox jacket.WEB, Barack Obama Explains White Sox Jacket, Talks Nats in All-Star Booth Visit, July 14, 2009, MLB Fanhouse,weblink December 6, 2009, He is also primarily a Chicago Bears football fan in the NFL, but in his childhood and adolescence was a fan of the Pittsburgh Steelers, and rooted for them ahead of their victory in Super Bowl XLIII 12 days after he took office as president.NEWS, Branigin, William, Steelers Win Obama's Approval, The Washington Post, January 30, 2009,weblink But other than the Bears, the Steelers are probably the team that's closest to my heart., In 2011, Obama invited the 1985 Chicago Bears to the White House; the team had not visited the White House after their Super Bowl win in 1986 due to the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.WEB, Mayer, Larry,weblink 1985 Bears honored by President Obama, Chicago Bears, October 7, 2011, November 4, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink May 7, 2013, dead, mdy-all, He plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team,NEWS, Jodi, Kantor, One Place Where Obama Goes Elbow to Elbow, June 1, 2007,weblink The New York Times, April 28, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink April 1, 2009, live, See also: NEWS, The Love of the Game, video, April 15, 2008, Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel, HBO,weblink October 12, 2011, and he is left-handed.NEWS,weblink On First Day, Obama Quickly Sets a New Tone, Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, Kirkpatrick, David D., Shane, Scott, January 22, 2009, The New York Times, 1, September 7, 2012, File:Barack Obama playing basketball with members of Congress and Cabinet secretaries 2.jpg|thumb|upright|left|alt=Obama about to take a shot while three other players look at him. One of those players attempts to block Obama.|Obama takes a left-handed jump shot during a pickup gamepickup gameObama lived with anthropologist Sheila Miyoshi Jager while he was a community organizer in Chicago in the 1980s.NEWS, Hosie, Rachel, BEFORE MICHELLE: THE STORY OF BARACK OBAMA'S PROPOSAL TO SHEILA MIYOSHI JAGER,weblink May 11, 2017, The Independent, May 3, 2017, He proposed to her twice, but both Jager and her parents turned him down.NEWS, Tobias, Andrew J., Oberlin College professor received unsuccessful marriage proposal from Barack Obama in 1980s, new biography reveals,weblink May 11, 2017, The Plain Dealer, May 3, 2017, The relationship was not made public until May 2017, several months after his presidency had ended.In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Robinson when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.Obama (2006), pp. 327–332. See also: NEWS, Sarah, Brown, Obama '85 masters balancing act, The Daily Princetonian,weblink December 7, 2005, February 9, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink February 20, 2009, Robinson was assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, and she joined him at several group social functions but declined his initial requests to date.Obama (2006), p. 329. They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.NEWS, Fornek, Scott, Michelle Obama: 'He Swept Me Off My Feet', October 3, 2007,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2009, Chicago Sun-Times, April 28, 2008, dead, After suffering a miscarriage, Michelle underwent in vitro fertilisation to conceive their children.NEWS,weblink Michelle Obama had miscarriage, used IVF to conceive girls, The Daily Telegraph, Ben, Riley-Smith, November 9, 2018, November 15, 2018, The Telegraph, The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998,WEB,weblink Born on the 4th of July, July 4, 2008, July 10, 2008, Politico, Martin, Jonathan,weblink" title="">weblink July 10, 2008, live, followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.Obama (1995, 2004), p. 440, and Obama (2006), pp. 339–340. See also: WEB, Election 2008 Information Center: Barack Obama,weblink Gannett News Service, April 28, 2008, The Obama daughters attended the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the Sidwell Friends School.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink Obamas choose private Sidwell Friends School, International Herald Tribune, November 22, 2008, July 2, 2015, January 29, 2009, The Obamas have two Portuguese Water Dogs; the first, a male named Bo, was a gift from Senator Ted Kennedy.NEWS,weblink One Obama Search Ends With a Puppy Named Bo, The New York Times, April 13, 2009, December 22, 2010, Helene, Cooper, In 2013, Bo was joined by Sunny, a female.JOURNAL, Feldmann, Linda, New little girl arrives at White House. Meet Sunny Obama. (+video),weblink Christian Science Monitor, August 20, 2013, August 20, 2013, File:DIG13623-230.jpg|thumb|upright|Obama and his wife Michelle at the Civil Rights Summit at the LBJ Presidential LibraryLBJ Presidential LibraryIn 2005, the family applied the proceeds of a book deal and moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to a $1.6 million house (equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|1.6|2005|r=1}} million in {{Inflation-year|US}}) in neighboring Kenwood, Chicago.NEWS, Jeff, Zeleny, The first time around: Sen. Obama's freshman year, December 24, 2005,weblink Chicago Tribune, April 28, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink May 13, 2011, dead, The purchase of an adjacent lot—and sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer, campaign donor and friend Tony Rezko—attracted media attention because of Rezko's subsequent indictment and conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.In December 2007, Money Magazine estimated Obama's net worth at $1.3 million (equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|1.3|2007|r=1}} million in {{Inflation-year|US}}) .NEWS, Obama's Money, December 7, 2007,weblink, April 28, 2008, Marlys, Harris,weblink" title="">weblink April 24, 2008, live, See also:NEWS, Zachary A, Goldfarb, Measuring Wealth of the '08 Candidates, March 24, 2007,weblink The Washington Post, April 28, 2008, Their 2009 tax return showed a household income of $5.5 million—up from about $4.2 million in 2007 and $1.6 million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books.NEWS, Jeff, Zeleny, Book Sales Lifted Obamas' Income in 2007 to a Total of $4.2 Million,weblink April 17, 2008, The New York Times, April 28, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink April 16, 2009, live, NEWS,weblink Obamas report $5.5 million in income on 2009 tax return, The Washington Post, April 16, 2010, December 22, 2010, Michael D., Shear, David S., Hilzenrath, On his 2010 income of $1.7 million, he gave 14% to non-profit organizations, including $131,000 to Fisher House Foundation, a charity assisting wounded veterans' families, allowing them to reside near where the veteran is receiving medical treatments.NEWS,weblink April 18, 2011, How Much Did President Obama Make in 2010?, PBS NewsHour, Paul, Solman,weblink" title="">weblink May 2, 2011, January 27, 2012, NEWS,weblink April 27, 2011, The Obamas Gave $131,000 to Fisher House Foundation in 2010; What Is It?, PBS NewsHour, Paul, Solman,weblink" title="">weblink January 29, 2014, January 27, 2012, Per his 2012 financial disclosure, Obama may be worth as much as $10 million.NEWS,weblink Obama worth as much as $10 million, Wolf, Richard, May 16, 2012, USA Today, June 16, 2012, In early 2010, Michelle spoke about her husband's smoking habit and said Barack had quit smoking.Elsner, Alan (December 7, 2008). Obama says he won't be smoking in White House". Reuters. Retrieved February 28, 2010.Zengerle, Patricia (February 8, 2011). "Yes, he did: first lady says Obama quit smoking". Reuters. Retrieved May 9, 2011.On his 55th birthday, August 4, 2016, Obama penned an essay in Glamour, in which he described how his daughters and the presidency have made him a feminist.NEWS,weblink Glamour Exclusive: President Barack Obama Says, "This Is What a Feminist Looks Like", Glamour, August 4, 2016, Barack, Obama, August 5, 2016, NEWS,weblink Obama Writes Feminist Essay in Glamour, The New York Times, August 4, 2016, Daniel, Victor, August 5, 2016, NEWS,weblink President Obama in 'Glamour': It's important Sasha and Malia's dad is a feminist, USA Today, August 4, 2016, Cara, Kelly, August 5, 2016,

Religious views

Obama is a Protestant Christian whose religious views developed in his adult life. He wrote in The Audacity of Hope that he "was not raised in a religious household". He described his mother, raised by non-religious parents, as being detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person{{nbsp}}... I have ever known". He described his father as a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful". Obama explained how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."File:Obamas at church on Inauguration Day 2013.jpg|thumb|The Obamas worship at African Methodist Episcopal ChurchAfrican Methodist Episcopal ChurchIn January 2008, Obama told Christianity Today: "I am a Christian, and I am a devout Christian. I believe in the redemptive death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I believe that faith gives me a path to be cleansed of sin and have eternal life."NEWS, Pulliam, Sarah, Olsen, Ted,weblink Q&A: Barack Obama, Christianity Today, January 23, 2008, January 4, 2013, On September 27, 2010, Obama released a statement commenting on his religious views saying, "I'm a Christian by choice. My family didn't – frankly, they weren't folks who went to church every week. And my mother was one of the most spiritual people I knew, but she didn't raise me in the church. So I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead – being my brothers' and sisters' keeper, treating others as they would treat me."NEWS,weblink Obama 'Christian By Choice': President Responds To Questioner, Charles Babington, Darlene Superville, Associated Press, September 28, 2010, HuffPost, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 11, 2011, WEB,weblink President Obama: 'I am a Christian By Choice...The Precepts of Jesus Spoke to Me', ABC News, September 29, 2010, December 27, 2016, Obama met Trinity United Church of Christ pastor Jeremiah Wright in October 1987 and became a member of Trinity in 1992. During Obama's first presidential campaign in May 2008, he resigned from Trinity after some of Wright's statements were criticized.NEWS, Associated Press, November 17, 2008, Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized, MSNBC,weblink January 20, 2009, Since moving to Washington, D.C., in 2009, the Obama family has attended several Protestant churches, including Shiloh Baptist Church and St. John's Episcopal Church, as well as Evergreen Chapel at Camp David, but the members of the family do not attend church on a regular basis.Parker, Ashley. "As the Obamas Celebrate Christmas, Rituals of Faith Become Less Visible," The New York Times, December 28, 2013. Retrieved January 15, 2017.Gilgoff, Dan. "TIME Report, White House Reaction Raise More Questions About Obama's Church Hunt," U.S. News & World Report, June 30, 2009. Retrieved January 15, 2017.""First Lady: We Use Sundays For Naps If We're Not Going To Church", CBS DC, April 22, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2017.

Law career

Community organizer and Harvard Law School

Two years after graduating from Columbia, Obama moved from New York to Chicago when he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project, a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Roseland, West Pullman, and Riverdale on Chicago's South Side. He worked there as a community organizer from June 1985 to May 1988.MAGAZINE, Lizza, Ryan, March 19, 2007, The agitator: Barack Obama's unlikely political education, The New Republic, 236, 12, 22–26, 28–29, 0028-6583,weblink August 21, 2007,
  • NEWS, Bob Secter, John McCormick, March 30, 2007, Portrait of a pragmatist, Chicago Tribune, 1,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink May 18, 2012, December 14, 2009, dead,
  • Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 140–295.
  • Mendell (2007), pp. 63–83. He helped set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.NEWS, Matchan, Linda, February 15, 1990, A Law Review breakthrough, Boston Globe, 29,weblink June 15, 2008,
  • NEWS, Corr, John, February 27, 1990, From mean streets to hallowed halls, The Philadelphia Inquirer, C01, paid archive,weblink June 6, 2008, Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.MAGAZINE, Obama, Barack, August–September 1988, Why organize? Problems and promise in the inner city, Illinois Issues, 14, 8–9, 40–42, 0738-9663, reprinted in:BOOK, Knoepfle, Peg, 1990, After Alinsky: community organizing in Illinois, Springfield, IL, Sangamon State University, 35–40, 978-0-9620873-3-2, He has also been a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, an organizing institute working throughout the Midwest., In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time in Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time.BOOK, Obama, Auma, 2012, And then life happens: a memoir, New York, St. Martin's Press, 978-1-250-01005-6, 189–208, 212–216, Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 299–437.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 564–570.
{{external media | float = right | video1 = Derrick Bell threatens to leave Harvard, April 24, 1990, 11:34, Boston TV Digital Archive"Ten O'Clock News; Derrick Bell threatens to leave Harvard", April 24, 1990, 11:34, WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston and Washington, D.C.. Retrieved September 23, 2016. Student Barack Obama introduces Professor Derrick Bell starting at 6:25. }}Obama entered Harvard Law School in the fall of 1988, living in nearby Somerville, Massachusetts.NEWS, Somerville Scout, January/February 2014, 26, Something in the Water, Joey Del Ponte, Somerville Scout Staff, "Barack Obama lived in the big, ivy-covered brick building at 365 Broadway ... From 1988 to 1991, the future president resided in a basement apartment while attending Harvard Law School." He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year,NEWS, Michael Levenson, Jonathan Saltzman, January 28, 2007, At Harvard Law, a unifying voice, Boston Globe, 1A,weblink June 15, 2008,
  • NEWS, Kantor, Jodi, January 28, 2007, In law school, Obama found political voice, The New York Times, A1,weblink June 15, 2008,
  • NEWS, Mundy, Liza, August 12, 2007, A series of fortunate events, The Washington Post, W10,weblink June 15, 2008,
  • Mendell (2007), pp. 80–92. president of the journal in his second year,NEWS, Butterfield, Fox, February 6, 1990, First black elected to head Harvard's Law Review, The New York Times, A20,weblink June 15, 2008,
  • NEWS, Ybarra, Michael J, February 7, 1990, Activist in Chicago now heads Harvard Law Review, Chicago Tribune, 3,weblink October 29, 2011,
  • NEWS, Drummond, Tammerlin, March 12, 1990, Barack Obama's law; Harvard Law Review's first black president plans a life of public service, Los Angeles Times, E1, paid archive,weblink June 15, 2008,
  • MAGAZINE, Evans, Gaynelle, March 15, 1990, Opening another door: The saga of Harvard's Barack H. Obama, Black Issues in Higher Education, 7, 1, 5, 0742-0277,weblink May 18, 2012,
  • NEWS, Pugh, Allison J., Associated Press, April 18, 1990, Law Review's first black president aims to help poor, The Miami Herald, C01,weblink June 15, 2008, and research assistant to the constitutional scholar Laurence Tribe while at Harvard for two years.{{YouTube|wzmmBZ7i4BQ}} During his summers, he returned to Chicago, where he worked as a summer associate at the law firms of Sidley Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.NEWS, Aguilar, Louis, July 11, 1990, Survey: Law firms slow to add minority partners, Chicago Tribune, 1 (Business),weblink June 15, 2008, After graduating with a JD degree magna cum laude from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago. Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations,NEWS, Scott, Janny, May 18, 2008, The story of Obama, written by Obama, The New York Times, A1,weblink June 15, 2008,
  • Obama (1995, 2004), pp. xiii–xvii. which evolved into a personal memoir. The manuscript was published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.

Chicago Law School and civil rights attorney

In 1991, Obama accepted a two-year position as Visiting Law and Government Fellow at the University of Chicago Law School to work on his first book. He then taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School for twelve years, first as a lecturer from 1992 to 1996, and then as a senior lecturer from 1996 to 2004.WEB, March 27, 2008, Statement regarding Barack Obama, University of Chicago Law School,weblink June 5, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink June 8, 2008, dead, mdy-all,
  • WEB, Miller, Joe, March 28, 2008, Was Barack Obama really a constitutional law professor?,,weblink May 18, 2012,
  • WEB, Holan, Angie Drobnic, March 7, 2008, Obama's 20 years of experience,,weblink June 10, 2008,
From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration campaign with ten staffers and seven hundred volunteer registrars; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, leading Crain's Chicago Business to name Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.He joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a 13-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004. In 1994, he was listed as one of the lawyers in Buycks-Roberson v. Citibank Fed. Sav. Bank, 94 C 4094 (N.D. Ill.).WEB,weblink Civil Docket for Case #: 1:94-cv-04094, United States District Court: Northern District of Illinois â€“ CM/ECF LIVE, Ver 3.0 (Chicago), July 6, 1994,, June 3, 2016, This class action lawsuit was filed in 1994 with Selma Buycks-Roberson as lead plaintiff and alleged that Citibank Federal Savings Bank had engaged in practices forbidden under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act.WEB,weblink Buycks-Roberson v. Citibank Fed. Sav. Bank – Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse,, November 25, 2015, The case was settled out of court.WEB,weblink Settlement Agreement, United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois Eastern Division, January 16, 1988,, June 3, 2016, Final judgment was issued on May 13, 1998, with Citibank Federal Savings Bank agreeing to pay attorney fees.WEB,weblink Final Judgment and Order of Dismissal, United States District Cuurt For the Northern District of Illinois Eastern Division, May 13, 1998,, June 3, 2016, His law license became inactive in 2007.WEB,weblink The Obamas' Law Licenses,, June 14, 2012, July 16, 2012, Gore, D'Angelo, From 1994 to 2002, Obama served on the boards of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago—which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project—and of the Joyce Foundation. He served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.

Legislative career

Illinois State Senator (1997–2004)

File:Obamamiltondavis1.jpg|thumb|right|State Senator Obama and others celebrate the naming of a street in Chicago after ShoreBankShoreBankObama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding Democratic State Senator Alice Palmer from Illinois's 13th District, which, at that time, spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park–Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.NEWS, David, Jackson, Ray Long, Obama Knows His Way Around a Ballot, April 3, 2007,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink Chicago Tribune, May 18, 2012, October 11, 2008, dead,
  • BOOK, White, Jesse, Jesse White (politician), 2001, Legislative Districts of Cook County, 1991 Reapportionment,weblink" title="">weblink Illinois Blue Book 2001–2002, Springfield, Illinois Secretary of State, 65, July 16, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 26, 2008, mdy-all,weblink State Sen. District 13 = State Rep. Districts 25 & 26. Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation that reformed ethics and health care laws.NEWS, Peter, Slevin, Obama Forged Political Mettle in Illinois Capitol, February 9, 2007,weblink The Washington Post, April 20, 2008, NEWS, Scott, Helman, In Illinois, Obama dealt with Lobbyists, September 23, 2007,weblink Boston Globe, April 20, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink April 16, 2008, live, See also:NEWS, Obama Record May Be Gold Mine for Critics, January 17, 2007, CBS News,weblink Associated Press, April 20, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink April 12, 2008, live, He sponsored a law that increased tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.NEWS, Janny, Scott, In Illinois, Obama Proved Pragmatic and Shrewd, July 30, 2007,weblink The New York Times, April 20, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 10, 2008, live, In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.NEWS, Allison, Melissa, December 15, 2000, State takes on predatory lending; Rules would halt single-premium life insurance financing,weblink paid archive, Chicago Tribune, 1 (Business), June 1, 2008,weblink June 17, 2008, live, NEWS, Ray Long, Melissa Allison, April 18, 2001, Illinois OKs predatory loan curbs; State aims to avert home foreclosures,weblink paid archive, Chicago Tribune, 1, June 1, 2008,
He was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the general election, and was re-elected again in 2002.WEB,weblink 13th District: Barack Obama, April 20, 2008, August 24, 2000, Illinois State Senate Democrats,weblink" title="">weblink April 12, 2000, WEB,weblink 13th District: Barack Obama, April 20, 2008, October 9, 2004, Illinois State Senate Democrats,weblink" title="">weblink August 2, 2004, In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary race for Illinois's 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.NEWS, Jackie, Calmes, Statehouse Yields Clues to Obama, February 23, 2007,weblink The Wall Street Journal, April 20, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 18, 2008, He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained, and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.NEWS, Tavella, Anne Marie, April 14, 2003, Profiling, taping plans pass Senate,weblink paid archive, Daily Herald, 17, June 1, 2008, NEWS, Haynes, V. Dion, June 29, 2003, Fight racial profiling at local level, lawmaker says; U.S. guidelines get mixed review,weblink paid archive, Chicago Tribune, 8, June 1, 2008,weblink June 17, 2008, live, NEWS, Pearson, Rick, July 17, 2003, Taped confessions to be law; State will be 1st to pass legislation,weblink paid archive, Chicago Tribune, 1 (Metro), June 1, 2008, During his 2004 general election campaign for the U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.NEWS, Sam, Youngman, Aaron Blake, Obama's Crime Votes Are Fodder for Rivals, March 14, 2007,weblink The Hill, May 18, 2012, See also: NEWS, US Presidential Candidate Obama Cites Work on State Death Penalty Reforms, November 12, 2007, International Herald Tribune,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink Associated Press, May 18, 2012, June 7, 2008, Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.NEWS, Melanie, Coffee, Attorney Chosen to Fill Obama's State Senate Seat, November 6, 2004, HPKCC,weblink Associated Press, April 20, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink May 16, 2008, dead,

2004 U.S. Senate campaign

(File:Illinois Senate Election Results by County, 2004.svg|upright=.5|thumb|Results of the 2004 U.S. Senate race in Illinois; Obama won the counties in blue.)In May 2002, Obama commissioned a poll to assess his prospects in a 2004 U.S. Senate race. He created a campaign committee, began raising funds, and lined up political media consultant David Axelrod by August 2002. Obama formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.NEWS, Helman, Scott, October 12, 2007, Early defeat launched a rapid political climb, Boston Globe, 1A,weblink April 13, 2008, Obama was an early opponent of the George W. Bush administration's 2003 invasion of Iraq.NEWS, Strausberg, Chinta, September 26, 2002, Opposition to war mounts, Chicago Defender, 1,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, May 11, 2011, paid archive, February 3, 2008, On October 2, 2002, the day President Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War, Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally, and spoke out against the war. He addressed another anti-war rally in March 2003 and told the crowd "it's not too late" to stop the war.Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun to not participate in the election resulted in wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving 15 candidates.NEWS, Davey, Monica, March 7, 2004, Closely watched Illinois Senate race attracts 7 candidates in millionaire range,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink April 16, 2009, The New York Times, 19, April 13, 2008, In the March 2004 primary election, Obama won in an unexpected landslide—which overnight made him a rising star within the national Democratic Party, started speculation about a presidential future, and led to the reissue of his memoir, Dreams from My Father. In July 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention,NEWS, Bernstein, David, June 2007, The Speech, Chicago Magazine,weblink April 13, 2008, seen by nine million viewers. His speech was well received and elevated his status within the Democratic Party.Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.NEWS, June 25, 2004, Ryan drops out of Senate race in Illinois, CNN,weblink May 18, 2012,
  • Mendell (2007), pp. 260–271. Six weeks later, Alan Keyes accepted the Republican nomination to replace Ryan.NEWS, Lannan, Maura Kelly, Associated Press, August 9, 2004, Alan Keyes enters U.S. Senate race in Illinois against rising Democratic star, Union-Tribune,weblink April 13, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 14, 2011, dead, In the November 2004 general election, Obama won with 70% of the vote.

U.S. Senator from Illinois (2005–08)

(File:BarackObamaportrait.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Official portrait of Obama as a member of the United States Senate)Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 3, 2005,{{CongBio|o000167|inline=1|date=October 12, 2011}} becoming the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.WEB, Member Info,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 9, 2008, Congressional Black Caucus, June 25, 2008, CQ Weekly characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes from 2005 to 2007. Obama announced on November 13, 2008, that he would resign his Senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.


{{See also|List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate}}Obama cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.WEB, 109th Congress, 1st Session, U.S. Senate, S. 1033, Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act, May 12, 2005,weblink Library of Congress, February 25, 2017, He introduced two initiatives that bore his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction concept to conventional weapons;WEB,weblink Lugar–Obama Nonproliferation Legislation Signed into Law by the President, January 11, 2007, Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office, April 27, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 18, 2008, See also: NEWS, Richard G., Lugar, Barack Obama, Junkyard Dogs of War, December 3, 2005,weblink The Washington Post, April 27, 2008, and the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006, which authorized the establishment of, a web search engine on federal spending.NEWS, John, McCormack, Google Government Gone Viral, December 21, 2007,weblink Weekly Standard, April 27, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink April 23, 2008, live, See also: WEB, President Bush Signs Coburn–Obama Transparency Act, September 26, 2006,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink May 1, 2008, Tom Coburn U.S. Senate Office, April 27, 2008, On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama—along with Senators Tom Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain—introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.WEB,weblink S. 3077: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008: 2007–2008 (110th Congress),, June 3, 2008, May 18, 2012, Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.NEWS, McIntire, Mike,weblink Nuclear Leaks and Response Tested Obama in Senate, February 3, 2008, The New York Times, April 27, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 9, 2008, live, Regarding tort reform, Obama voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.NEWS,weblink November Election A Lawyer's Delight, Fisher, Daniel, Forbes, August 11, 2008, January 11, 2009, File:Lugar-Obama.jpg|thumb|alt=Gray-haired man and Obama stand, wearing casual polo shirts. Obama wears sunglasses and holds something slung over his right shoulder.|left|Obama and U.S. Senator Richard LugarRichard LugarIn December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.WEB, Democratic Republic of the Congo, April 2006,weblink United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, January 26, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink January 8, 2011, WEB, The IRC Welcomes New U.S. Law on Congo, January 5, 2007,weblink International Rescue Committee, April 27, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink August 7, 2011, In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.NEWS, Nathaniel, Weixel, Feingold, Obama Go After Corporate Jet Travel, November 15, 2007,weblink The Hill, April 27, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink May 15, 2008, live, NEWS, Nathaniel, Weixel, Lawmakers Press FEC on Bundling Regulation, December 5, 2007,weblink The Hill, April 27, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink April 16, 2008, live, See also: NEWS, Federal Election Commission Announces Plans to Issue New Regulations to Implement the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007, September 24, 2007, Federal Election Commission,weblink April 27, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink April 11, 2008, dead, Obama also introduced two unsuccessful bills: the Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections,NEWS, Seth, Stern, Obama–Schumer Bill Proposal Would Criminalize Voter Intimidation, January 31, 2007,,weblink April 27, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink May 16, 2008, live, WEB, 110th Congress, 1st Session, U.S. Senate, S. 453, Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act of 2007, January 31, 2007,weblink Library of Congress, February 25, 2017, See also: NEWS, Honesty in Elections, January 31, 2007,weblink The New York Times, editorial, April 27, 2008, and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007.NEWS, E. Kasak, Krystin, Obama Introduces Measure to Bring Troops Home, February 7, 2007, Medill News Service,weblink April 27, 2008, Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act to add safeguards for personality-disorder military discharges.WEB, Obama, Bond Hail New Safeguards on Military Personality Disorder Discharges, Urge Further Action, October 1, 2007,weblink Kit Bond U.S. Senate Office, April 27, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 5, 2010, This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.WEB, Obama, Bond Applaud Senate Passage of Amendment to Expedite the Review of Personality Disorder Discharge Cases,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink December 18, 2008, March 14, 2008, He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which was never enacted but later incorporated in the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010;WEB,weblink Iran Sanctions Enabling Act of 2009 (2009 – S. 1065),, en, August 27, 2018, and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism. Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program, providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.WEB, Senate Passes Obama, McCaskill Legislation to Provide Safety Net for Families of Wounded Service Members, August 2, 2007,weblink Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office, April 27, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 18, 2008,


(File:Barack Obama Iraq 2006.jpg|thumb|Obama speaks with a soldier stationed in Iraq, 2006.)Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.WEB,weblink December 9, 2006, Committee Assignments, April 27, 2008, Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office,weblink" title="">weblink December 9, 2006, In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.NEWS, Obama Gets New Committee Assignments, November 15, 2006, Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office,weblink Associated Press, April 27, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 18, 2008, He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.NEWS, Tom, Baldwin, Stay-At-Home Barack Obama Comes Under Fire for a Lack of Foreign Experience, December 21, 2007,weblink Sunday Times (UK), April 27, 2008, As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before Abbas became President of the Palestinian National Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi in which he condemned corruption within the Kenyan government.

Presidential campaigns


File:Flickr Obama Springfield 01.jpg|thumb|alt=Photograph|Obama on stage with his wife and daughters just before announcing his presidential candidacy in Springfield, IllinoisSpringfield, IllinoisOn February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois.NEWS,weblink Obama: I'm running for president, Chicago Tribune, Pearson, Rick, Long, Ray, February 10, 2007, September 20, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink August 13, 2007, live, NEWS, Obama Launches Presidential Bid, February 10, 2007,weblink BBC News, January 14, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink February 2, 2008, live, The choice of the announcement site was viewed as symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, May 11, 2011, Obama's launch site: Symbolic Springfield: Announcement venue evokes Lincoln legacy, Parsons, Christi, February 10, 2007, Chicago Tribune, June 12, 2009, Obama emphasized issues of rapidly ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence, and reforming the health care system,NEWS, Barack Obama on the Issues: What Would Be Your Top Three Overall Priorities If Elected?,weblink The Washington Post, April 14, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink May 9, 2008, dead, See also:
  • BOOK, Thomas, Evan, A Long Time Coming, PublicAffairs, 2009, New York, 74, 978-1586486075, Evan Thomas,
  • NEWS, Michael, Falcone, Obama's 'One Thing', December 21, 2007,weblink The New York Times, April 14, 2008, in a campaign that projected themes of hope and change.NEWS,weblink The Obama promise of hope and change, The Independent, London, November 1, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink May 15, 2011,
Numerous candidates entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. The field narrowed to a duel between Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton after early contests, with the race remaining close throughout the primary process but with Obama gaining a steady lead in pledged delegates due to better long-range planning, superior fundraising, dominant organizing in caucus states, and better exploitation of delegate allocation rules. On June 7, 2008, Clinton ended her campaign and endorsed Obama.NEWS, Nagourney, Adam, Jeff, Zeleny, Clinton to End Bid and Endorse Obama,weblink The New York Times, June 5, 2008, November 20, 2010, File:President George W. Bush and Barack Obama meet in Oval Office.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Photograph|Outgoing President George W. Bush meets with President-elect Obama in the Oval OfficeOval OfficeOn August 23, Obama announced his selection of Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.NEWS, September 20, 2008,weblink Nagourney, Adam, Jeff, Zeleny, The New York Times, August 23, 2008, Obama Chooses Biden as Running Mate,weblink" title="">weblink April 1, 2009, live, Obama selected Biden from a field speculated to include former Indiana Governor and Senator Evan Bayh and Virginia Governor Tim Kaine. At the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Hillary Clinton called for her supporters to endorse Obama, and she and Bill Clinton gave convention speeches in his support. Obama delivered his acceptance speech, not at the center where the Democratic National Convention was held, but at Invesco Field at Mile High to a crowd of approximately 84,000 people; the speech was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide.NEWS,weblink Obama To Accept Nomination at Mile High Stadium, NPR, July 7, 2008, December 22, 2010, Mara Liasson, Mara, Michele Norris, NEWS,weblink Barack Obama, Al Gore Raise the Roof at Invesco Field, Los Angeles Times, Robert, Lloyd, August 29, 2008, August 29, 2008, During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations. On June 19, 2008, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.NEWS, Salant, Jonathan D., Obama Won't Accept Public Money in Election Campaign,weblink Bloomberg L.P., Bloomberg, June 19, 2008, June 19, 2008, (File:ElectoralCollege2008.svg|thumb|upright=1.25|2008 electoral vote results)John McCain was nominated as the Republican candidate, and he selected Sarah Palin as his running mate. The two candidates engaged in three presidential debates in September and October 2008. On November 4, Obama won the presidency with 365 electoral votes to 173 received by McCain. Obama won 52.9% of the popular vote to McCain's 45.7%.WEB,weblink General Election: McCain vs. Obama, February 20, 2009, Real Clear Politics,weblink" title="">weblinkepolls200presidentugeneral_election_mccain_vs_obama-225.html, February 17, 2009, live, He became the first African American to be elected president.NEWS,, Obama wins historic US election, BBC News, November 5, 2008, November 5, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 18, 2008, live,
  • NEWS, November 5, 2008,weblink Obama Elected President as Racial Barrier Falls, Adam, Nagourney, November 4, 2008, The New York Times,weblink" title="">weblink December 9, 2008, live,
  • NEWS, November 5, 2008,weblink Obama: 'This is your victory', CNN, November 5, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink November 4, 2008, live, Obama delivered his victory speech before hundreds of thousands of supporters in Chicago's Grant Park.NEWS, November 5, 2008,weblink Change has come, says President-elect Obama, The Independent, London, November 5, 2008, Johnson, Wesley,weblink" title="">weblink December 9, 2008, live,


File:P112912PS-0444 - President Barack Obama and Mitt Romney in the Oval Office - crop.jpg|thumb|left|Obama greets former Governor Mitt Romney in the Oval OfficeOval OfficeOn April 4, 2011, Obama announced his reelection campaign for 2012 in a video titled "It Begins with Us" that he posted on his website and filed election papers with the Federal Election Commission.NEWS, Obama Begins Re-Election Facing New Political Challenges,weblink April 4, 2011, Michael D., Shear, The New York Times (blog),weblink" title="">weblink April 5, 2011, NEWS, Obama announces re-election bid,weblink April 4, 2011, United Press International,weblink" title="">weblink May 10, 2011, NEWS, Obama Opens 2012 Campaign, With Eye on Money and Independent Voters,weblink April 4, 2011, Jeff, Zeleny, The New York Times, Jackie, Calmes, yes, April 5, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink November 15, 2012, As the incumbent president he ran virtually unopposed in the Democratic Party presidential primaries,NEWS,weblink Leading presidential candidate to clinch nomination Tuesday, CNN (blog), Yoon, Robert, April 3, 2012, May 2, 2012, and on April 3, 2012, Obama had secured the 2778 convention delegates needed to win the Democratic nomination.NEWS,weblink Obama clinches Democratic nomination, CNN (blog), April 3, 2012, April 3, 2012, (File:ElectoralCollege2012.svg|thumb|upright=1.25|2012 electoral vote results)At the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina, Obama and Joe Biden were formally nominated by former President Bill Clinton as the Democratic Party candidates for president and vice president in the general election. Their main opponents were Republicans Mitt Romney, the former governor of Massachusetts, and Representative Paul Ryan of Wisconsin.NEWS, Cohen, Tom, Clinton says Obama offers a better path forward for America,weblink CNN, September 6, 2012, July 5, 2015, On November 6, 2012, Obama won 332 electoral votes, exceeding the 270 required for him to be reelected as president.NEWS, Lauter, David, Romney campaign gives up in Florida,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink November 9, 2012, Chicago Tribune, November 8, 2012, July 5, 2015, dead, NEWS, Barnes, Robert, Obama wins a second term as U.S. president,weblink The Washington Post, November 6, 2012, July 5, 2015, NEWS, Welch, William M., Strauss, Gary, With win in critical battleground states, Obama wins second term,weblink USA Today, November 7, 2012, July 5, 2015, With 51.1% of the popular vote,WEB,weblink Election Results for the U.S. President, the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives, Federal Elections Commission, FEC, July 2013, August 20, 2013, 5, Obama became the first Democratic president since Franklin D. Roosevelt to win the majority of the popular vote twice.NEWS, Brownstein, Ronald, The U.S. has reached a demographic milestone â€“ and it's not turning back,weblink National Journal, November 9, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink November 11, 2012, July 5, 2015, NEWS,weblink Obama's 3 Million Vote, Electoral College Landslide, Majority of States Mandate, Nichols, John, November 9, 2012, The Nation, November 18, 2012, Obama addressed supporters and volunteers at Chicago's McCormick Place after his reelection and said: "Tonight you voted for action, not politics as usual. You elected us to focus on your jobs, not ours. And in the coming weeks and months, I am looking forward to reaching out and working with leaders of both parties."NEWS, Lee, Kristen A., Election 2012: President Obama gives victory speech in front of thousands in Chicago, 'I have never been more hopeful about America{{'-, |url=|accessdate=November 8, 2012|newspaper=Daily News|location=New York|date=November 7, 2012}}NEWS,weblink Obama Offers Liberal Vision: 'We Must Act{{'-, |newspaper=The New York Times|first=Michael|last=Shear|date=January 21, 2013|accessdate=July 10, 2013}}

Presidency (2009–2017)

{{for timeline|Timeline of the Presidency of Barack Obama}}{{See also|Confirmations of Barack Obama's Cabinet|List of international presidential trips made by Barack Obama}}

First 100 days

File:US President Barack Obama taking his Oath of Office - 2009Jan20.jpg|thumb|Barack Obama takes the oath of office administered by Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. at the Capitolthe CapitolThe inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President took place on January 20, 2009. In his first few days in office, Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda directing the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq.NEWS, Obama asks Pentagon for responsible Iraq drawdown, January 23, 2009,weblink China Daily, September 4, 2009, He ordered the closing of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp,NEWS,weblink Obama Orders Halt to Prosecutions at Guantánamo, Glaberson, William, January 21, 2009, The New York Times, February 3, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink April 16, 2009, but Congress prevented the closure by refusing to appropriate the required fundsNEWS, Senate blocks transfer of Gitmo detainees,weblink May 20, 2009, MSNBC, Associated Press, cs2, March 22, 2011, WEB, Presidential Memorandum â€“ Closure of Detention Facilities at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base,weblink December 15, 2009, Barack, Obama, White House, cs2, March 22, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 15, 2011, NEWS, Obama signs Defense authorization bill,weblink January 7, 2011, Jared, Serbu, Federal News Radio, cs2, March 22, 2011, and preventing moving any Guantanamo detainee into the U.S. or to other countries.NEWS,weblink Obama's Promise To Close Guantanamo Prison Falls Short, Northam, Jackie, January 23, 2013, April 22, 2013, NPR, Obama reduced the secrecy given to presidential records.WEB,weblink Executive Order â€“ Presidential Records, January 22, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink January 22, 2009, dead, He also revoked President George W. Bush's restoration of President Ronald Reagan's Mexico City Policy prohibiting federal aid to international family planning organizations that perform or provide counseling about abortion.WEB, Obama, Barack, January 23, 2009, Mexico City Policy and assistance for voluntary population planning (Presidential memorandum), The White House,weblink September 21, 2012,
  • NEWS, Meckler, Laura, January 24, 2009, Obama lifts 'gag rule' on family-planning groups, The Wall Street Journal, A3,weblink September 21, 2012,
  • NEWS, Stein, Rob, Shear, Michael, January 24, 2009, Funding restored to groups that perform abortions, other care, The Washington Post, A3,weblink September 21, 2012, Lifting the Mexico City Policy would not permit U.S. tax dollars to be used for abortions, but it would allow funding to resume to groups that provide other services, including counseling about abortions.,

Domestic policy

{{See also|Social policy of the Barack Obama administration}}The first bill signed into law by Obama was the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, relaxing the statute of limitations for equal-pay lawsuits.NEWS, Obama Signs Equal-Pay Legislation, The New York Times, Sheryl Gay, Stolberg,weblink June 15, 2009, January 30, 2009, Five days later, he signed the reauthorization of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to cover an additional 4 million uninsured children.NEWS, Obama signs into law expansion of SCHIP health care program for children, Chicago Tribune,weblink June 15, 2009, Noam N., Levey,weblink" title="">weblink April 30, 2009, dead, In March 2009, Obama reversed a Bush-era policy that had limited funding of embryonic stem cell research and pledged to develop "strict guidelines" on the research.NEWS,weblink Obama overturns Bush policy on stem cells, CNN, March 9, 2009, April 18, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink March 30, 2010, File:Barack Obama addresses joint session of Congress 2009-02-24.jpg|thumb|left|Obama delivers a speech at joint session of Congress with Vice President Joe Biden and House Speaker Nancy PelosiNancy PelosiObama appointed two women to serve on the Supreme Court in the first two years of his Presidency. He nominated Sonia Sotomayor on May 26, 2009 to replace retiring Associate Justice David Souter; she was confirmed on August 6, 2009,NEWS, Senate confirms Sotomayor for Supreme Court,weblink August 6, 2009, CNN, August 6, 2009, becoming the first Supreme Court Justice of Hispanic descent.NEWS,weblink Obama nominates Sotomayor to Supreme Court, September 13, 2014, Obama nominated Elena Kagan on May 10, 2010 to replace retiring Associate Justice John Paul Stevens. She was confirmed on August 5, 2010, bringing the number of women sitting simultaneously on the Court to three justices for the first time in American history.NEWS,weblink New Era Begins on High Court: Kagan Takes Place as Third Woman, Sherman, Mark, October 4, 2010, Associated Press, November 13, 2010, On March 30, 2010, Obama signed the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, a reconciliation bill that ended the process of the federal government giving subsidies to private banks to give out federally insured loans, increased the Pell Grant scholarship award, and made changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.NEWS, Parsons, Christi,weblink Obama signs student loan reforms into law, Los Angeles Times, March 30, 2010, April 18, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink April 19, 2010, NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, April 12, 2010, Obama signs higher-education measure into law, Branigin, William, File:Obama cabinet meeting 2009-11.jpg|thumb|Obama meets with the Cabinet of the United StatesCabinet of the United StatesIn a major space policy speech in April 2010, Obama announced a planned change in direction at NASA, the U.S. space agency. He ended plans for a return of human spaceflight to the moon and development of the Ares I rocket, Ares V rocket and Constellation program, in favor of funding Earth science projects, a new rocket type, and research and development for an eventual manned mission to Mars, and ongoing missions to the International Space Station.NEWS, Robert Block, Robert, Mark K. Matthews,weblink White House won't fund NASA moon program, President Obama's budget proposal includes no money for the Ares I and Ares V rocket or Constellation program. Instead, NASA would be asked to monitor climate change and develop a new rocket, January 27, 2010, Los Angeles Times, January 30, 2011, President Obama's 2011 State of the Union Address focused on themes of education and innovation, stressing the importance of innovation economics to make the United States more competitive globally. He spoke of a five-year freeze in domestic spending, eliminating tax breaks for oil companies and reversing tax cuts for the wealthiest Americans, banning congressional earmarks, and reducing healthcare costs. He promised the United States would have one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 and be 80% reliant on "clean" electricity.NEWS, Obama Pushes Innovation in Tech-Heavy State of the Union, PC Magazine, January 25, 2011, Chloe, Albanesius,weblink May 17, 2011, NEWS, Anne E., Kornblut, Wilson, Scott, State of the Union 2011: 'Win the future,' Obama says,weblink January 26, 2011, The Washington Post, May 18, 2011,

LGBT rights

On October 8, 2009, Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, a measure that expanded the 1969 United States federal hate-crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.NEWS,weblink Obama signs hate crimes bill into law, CNN, October 28, 2009, October 12, 2011, On October 30, 2009, Obama lifted the ban on travel to the United States by those infected with HIV, which was celebrated by Immigration Equality.Preston, Julia (October 30, 2009),"Obama Lifts a Ban on Entry Into U.S. by H.I.V.-Positive People", The New York Times. Retrieved February 8, 2017.On December 22, 2010, Obama signed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010, which fulfilled a key promise made in the 2008 presidential campaignNEWS,weblink 'Don't ask, don't tell' repealed as Obama signs landmark law, The Guardian, London, December 22, 2010, June 2, 2018, NEWS,weblink Obama to delay 'don't ask, don't tell' repeal, Rowan, Scarborough, The Washington Times, November 21, 2008, December 22, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink January 25, 2011, to end the Don't ask, don't tell policy of 1993 that had prevented gay and lesbian people from serving openly in the United States Armed Forces.WEB, Lee, Jesse,weblink The President Signs Repeal of "Don't Ask Don't Tell": "Out of Many, We Are One", The White House, December 22, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink December 25, 2010, December 22, 2010, In 2016, the Pentagon also ended the policy that barred transgender people from serving openly in the military.NEWS,weblink US military ends ban on transgender service members, The Guardian, June 30, 2016, As a candidate for the Illinois state senate in 1996, Obama had said he favored legalizing same-sex marriage.NEWS, Baim, Tracy, Windy City Times exclusive: Obama's Marriage Views Changed. WCT Examines His Step Back,weblink May 10, 2012, Windy City Times, January 14, 2009, By the time of his Senate run in 2004, he said he supported civil unions and domestic partnerships for same-sex partners but opposed same-sex marriages.NEWS, Baim, Tracy, Obama Seeks U.S. Senate seat,weblink May 10, 2012, Windy City Times, February 4, 2004, In 2008, he reaffirmed this position by stating "I believe marriage is between a man and a woman. I am not in favor of gay marriage."NEWS,weblink President Barack Obama's shifting stance on gay marriage, @politifact, November 28, 2018, en, On May 9, 2012, shortly after the official launch of his campaign for re-election as president, Obama said his views had evolved, and he publicly affirmed his personal support for the legalization of same-sex marriage, becoming the first sitting U.S. president to do so.NEWS,weblink Obama backs same-sex marriage, CBS News, May 9, 2012, May 9, 2012, NEWS,weblink Obama Backs Gay Marriage, Stein, Sam, May 9, 2012, HuffPost, AOL Inc, July 5, 2015, File:Celebrating a new America -lovewins 58242 (18588276403).jpg|thumb|The White HouseWhite HouseDuring his second inaugural address on January 21, 2013, Obama became the first U.S. President in office to call for full equality for gay Americans: "Our journey is not complete until our gay brothers and sisters are treated like anyone else under the law – for if we are truly created equal, then surely the love we commit to one another must be equal as well." This was the first time that a president mentioned gay rights or the word "gay" in an inaugural address.NEWS, Robillard, Kevin, First inaugural use of the word 'gay',weblink January 21, 2013, Politico, January 21, 2013, NEWS, Obama Inauguration Speech Makes History With Mention of Gay Rights Struggle, Stonewall Uprising,weblink HuffPost, January 21, 2013, Noah, Michelson, January 21, 2013, In 2013, the Obama Administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to rule in favor of same-sex couples in the cases of Hollingsworth v. Perry (regarding same-sex marriage)NEWS,weblink Obama Administration: Gay Marriage Ban Unconstitutional In Prop. 8 Supreme Court Case, Reilly, Ryan J., February 28, 2013, HuffPost, April 21, 2013, and United States v. Windsor (regarding the Defense of Marriage Act).NEWS,weblink Obama administration weighs in on defense of marriage law, Mears, Bill, February 27, 2013, CNN, April 21, 2013, Then, following the Supreme Court's 2015 decision in Obergefell v. Hodges (ruling same-sex marriage to be a fundamental right), Obama asserted that, "This decision affirms what millions of Americans already believe in their hearts: When all Americans are treated as equal we are all more free."WEB,weblink Remarks by the President on the Supreme Court Decision on Marriage Equality, The White House, October 25, 2015, June 26, 2015, On July 30, 2015, the White House Office of National AIDS Policy revised its strategy for addressing the disease, which included widespread testing and linkage to healthcare, which was celebrated by the Human Rights Campaign."Obama Administration Releases Revised National HIV and AIDS Strategy", Human Rights Campaign. July 30, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2017

White House advisory and oversight groups

On March 11, 2009, Obama created the White House Council on Women and Girls, which formed part of the Office of Intergovernmental Affairs, having been established by {{Executive Order|13506}} with a broad mandate to advise him on issues relating to the welfare of American women and girls.Executive Order 13506, Washington, DC: President Barack Obama, The White House, March 11, 2009, Obama, B.. Retrieved January 27, 2014. The Council was chaired by Senior Advisor to the President Valerie Jarrett.WEB,weblink A renewed call to action to end rape and sexual assault, September 13, 2014, January 23, 2014, Obama also established the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault through a government memorandum on January 22, 2014, with a broad mandate to advise him on issues relating to sexual assault on college and university campuses throughout the United States.WEB,weblink Memorandum: Establishing White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault, September 13, 2014, January 22, 2014, WEB,weblink Obama admin: Freedom from sexual assault a basic human right, MSNBC, September 13, 2014, January 22, 2014, The co-chairs of the Task Force were Vice President Joe Biden and Jarrett. The Task Force was a development out of the White House Council on Women and Girls and Office of the Vice President of the United States, and prior to that the 1994 Violence Against Women Act first drafted by Biden."Rape and sexual assault: A renewed call to action", White House Council on Women and Girls, Washington, D.C.: White House Council on Women and Girls & Office of the Vice President, January 2014. Retrieved June 10, 2014.

Economic policy

File:20090124 WeeklyAddress.ogv|thumbtime=1:3|thumb|Obama presents his first (commons:Obama Administration weekly video addresses|weekly address) as President of the United States on January 24, 2009, discussing the alt=PhotographOn February 17, 2009, Obama signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, a $787 billion economic stimulus package aimed at helping the economy recover from the deepening worldwide recession.NEWS,weblink Stimulus package en route to Obama's desk, March 29, 2009, CNN, February 14, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink March 30, 2009, live, The act includes increased federal spending for health care, infrastructure, education, various tax breaks and incentives, and direct assistance to individuals.File:U.S. Total Deficits vs. National Debt Increases 2001-2010.png|thumb|Deficit and debt increases, 2001–16]]In March, Obama's Treasury Secretary, Timothy Geithner, took further steps to manage the financial crisis, including introducing the Public–Private Investment Program for Legacy Assets, which contains provisions for buying up to two trillion dollars in depreciated real estate assets.Obama intervened in the troubled automotive industryNEWS, White House questions viability of GM, Chrysler, March 30, 2009, HuffPost,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 7, 2009, in March 2009, renewing loans for General Motors and Chrysler to continue operations while reorganizing. Over the following months the White House set terms for both firms' bankruptcies, including the sale of Chrysler to Italian automaker FiatNEWS, Chrysler and Union Agree to Deal Before Federal Deadline,weblink The New York Times, Nick, Bunkley, Bill, Vlasic, April 27, 2009, April 12, 2010, and a reorganization of GM giving the U.S. government a temporary 60% equity stake in the company, with the Canadian government taking a 12% stake.WEB, GM Begins Bankruptcy Process With Filing for Affiliate, John, Hughes, Caroline, Salas, Jeff, Green, Bob, Van Voris,weblink Bloomberg News, June 1, 2009, July 5, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 13, 2010, In June 2009, dissatisfied with the pace of economic stimulus, Obama called on his cabinet to accelerate the investment.NEWS, Obama Presses Cabinet to Speed Stimulus Spending, June 9, 2009, The Wall Street Journal, News Corp,weblink Christopher, Conkey, Louise, Radnofsky, July 5, 2015, He signed into law the Car Allowance Rebate System, known colloquially as "Cash for Clunkers", which temporarily boosted the economy.NEWS,weblink U.S. Says 'Cash for Clunkers' Program Will End on Monday, Dana Hedgpeth, The Washington Post, August 21, 2009, March 26, 2010, NEWS,weblink Was Cash for Clunkers a Success?, Joseph R. Szczesny, Time, August 26, 2009, March 26, 2010, JOURNAL, Mian, Atif R., Amir, Sufi, The Effects of Fiscal Stimulus: Evidence from the 2009 'Cash for Clunkers' Program, September 1, 2010, 1670759, 10.2139/ssrn.1670759, The Bush and Obama administrations authorized spending and loan guarantees from the Federal Reserve and the Treasury Department. These guarantees totaled about $11.5 trillion, but only $3 trillion had been spent by the end of November 2009.NEWS,'s bailout tracker, CNNMoney, 20, 06,weblink March 26, 2010, Goldman, David, April 6, 2009, Obama and the Congressional Budget Office predicted the 2010 budget deficit would be $1.5 trillion or 10.6% of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP) compared to the 2009 deficit of $1.4 trillion or 9.9% of GDP.NEWS, Montgomery, Lori, Federal budget deficit to exceed $1.4 trillion in 2010 and 2011,weblink The Washington Post, July 29, 2010, July 24, 2010, NEWS, Jeff, Mason, Alister, Bull, Obama's 2010 budget: deficit soars amid job spending,weblink Reuters, July 29, 2010, February 1, 2010, For 2011, the administration predicted the deficit would shrink to $1.34 trillion, and the 10-year deficit would increase to $8.53 trillion or 90% of GDP.NEWS, Dickson, David M., CBO report: Debt will rise to 90% of GDP,weblink The Washington Times, Associated Press, July 29, 2010, March 26, 2010, The most recent increase in the U.S. debt ceiling to $17.2 trillion took effect in February 2014.NEWS, Sahadi, Jeanne, Where's the debt ceiling now?,weblink March 21, 2014, CNN, February 12, 2014, On August 2, 2011, after a lengthy congressional debate over whether to raise the nation's debt limit, Obama signed the bipartisan Budget Control Act of 2011. The legislation enforces limits on discretionary spending until 2021, establishes a procedure to increase the debt limit, creates a Congressional Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction to propose further deficit reduction with a stated goal of achieving at least $1.5 trillion in budgetary savings over 10 years, and establishes automatic procedures for reducing spending by as much as $1.2 trillion if legislation originating with the new joint select committee does not achieve such savings.WEB, NBC's Sylvie Stein,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink January 14, 2012, First Read â€“ A breakdown of the debt-limit legislation, MSNBC, August 3, 2011, By passing the legislation, Congress was able to prevent a U.S. government default on its obligations.WEB,weblink House passes debt ceiling bill, MSNBC, March 8, 2011, August 3, 2011, File:US Employment Statistics.svg|thumb|left|upright=1.35|US employment statistics (unemployment rate and monthly changes in net employment) during Obama's tenure as U.S. PresidentWEB,weblink Unemployment Rate, Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 12, 2018, WEB,weblink 1-month net change in employment, Bureau of Labor StatisticsBureau of Labor StatisticsAs it did throughout 2008, the unemployment rate rose in 2009, reaching a peak in October at 10.0% and averaging 10.0% in the fourth quarter. Following a decrease to 9.7% in the first quarter of 2010, the unemployment rate fell to 9.6% in the second quarter, where it remained for the rest of the year.JOURNAL, Theodossiou, Eleni, Hipple, Steven F., 2011, Unemployment Remains High in 2010, Monthly Labor Review, 134, 3, 3–22,weblink April 7, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 8, 2011, Between February and December 2010, employment rose by 0.8%, which was less than the average of 1.9% experienced during comparable periods in the past four employment recoveries.JOURNAL, Eddlemon, John P., 2011, Payroll Employment Turns the Corner in 2010, Monthly Labor Review, 134, 3, 23–32,weblink April 7, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 6, 2011, By November 2012, the unemployment rate fell to 7.7%,WEB,weblink Unemployment Rate, Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 11, 2012, decreasing to 6.7% in the last month of 2013.WEB,weblink Unemployment Rate, Bureau of Labor Statistics, January 10, 2014, During 2014, the unemployment rate continued to decline, falling to 6.3% in the first quarter.WEB,weblink Unemployment Rate, Bureau of Labor Statistics, June 6, 2014, GDP growth returned in the third quarter of 2009, expanding at a rate of 1.6%, followed by a 5.0% increase in the fourth quarter.WEB,weblink Percent Change in Real Gross Domestic Product (Quarterly), National Income and Product Accounts Table, Bureau of Economic Analysis, April 7, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 12, 2011, dead, mdy-all, Growth continued in 2010, posting an increase of 3.7% in the first quarter, with lesser gains throughout the rest of the year. In July 2010, the Federal Reserve noted that economic activity continued to increase, but its pace had slowed, and chairman Ben Bernanke said the economic outlook was "unusually uncertain".WEB, Harding, Robin, Beige Book survey reports signs of slowdown,weblink Financial Times, July 29, 2010, July 28, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink July 29, 2010, Overall, the economy expanded at a rate of 2.9% in 2010.WEB,weblink Percent Change in Real Gross Domestic Product (Annual), National Income and Product Accounts Table, Bureau of Economic Analysis, April 7, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 12, 2011, dead, mdy-all, The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and a broad range of economists credit Obama's stimulus plan for economic growth. The CBO released a report stating that the stimulus bill increased employment by 1–2.1 million,NEWS,weblink New Consensus Sees Stimulus Package as Worthy Step, The New York Times, November 20, 2009, December 21, 2010, Jackie, Calmes, Michael, Cooper,weblink" title="">weblink May 11, 2011, WEB,weblink CBO: Stimulus created as many as 2.1 million jobs, February 23, 2010, April 25, 2010, NEWS,weblink Too Little of a Good Thing, The New York Times, November 2, 2009, December 22, 2010, Paul, Krugman, NEWS, Isidore, Chris,weblink Best economic growth in six years, CNN, January 29, 2010, April 18, 2010, while conceding that "It is impossible to determine how many of the reported jobs would have existed in the absence of the stimulus package."WEB,weblink Estimated Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on Employment and Economic Output, Congressional Budget Office, February 21, 2012, Although an April 2010, survey of members of the National Association for Business Economics showed an increase in job creation (over a similar January survey) for the first time in two years, 73% of 68 respondents believed the stimulus bill has had no impact on employment.WEB,weblink New NABE Survey Shows Business Recovery Gaining Momentum, with More Jobs Ahead, April 26, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink May 2, 2010, dead, The economy of the United States has grown faster than the other original NATO members by a wider margin under President Obama than it has anytime since the end of World War II.Politics that Work, "U.S. GDP Growth Relative to Original NATO Members", Politics that Work, March 9, 2015 The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development credits the much faster growth in the United States to the stimulus plan of the US and the austerity measures in the European Union.Irene Chapple, "OECD: U.S. will recover faster, Europe faces unemployment crisis", CNN, May 29, 2013Within a month of the 2010 midterm elections, Obama announced a compromise deal with the Congressional Republican leadership that included a temporary, two-year extension of the 2001 and 2003 income tax rates, a one-year payroll tax reduction, continuation of unemployment benefits, and a new rate and exemption amount for estate taxes.NEWS,weblink Democrats Skeptical of Obama on New Tax Plan, Herszenhorn, David M., Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, The New York Times, December 7, 2010, The compromise overcame opposition from some in both parties, and the resulting $858 billion Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 passed with bipartisan majorities in both houses of Congress before Obama signed it on December 17, 2010.NEWS,weblink Obama signs tax deal into law, CNN, December 17, 2010, December 17, 2010, In December 2013, Obama declared that growing income inequality is a "defining challenge of our time" and called on Congress to bolster the safety net and raise wages. This came on the heels of the nationwide strikes of fast-food workers and Pope Francis' criticism of inequality and trickle-down economics.NEWS,weblink Obama: Income Inequality a Defining Challenge, Jim, Kuhnhenn, Associated Press, December 5, 2013, January 9, 2014, Obama urged Congress to ratify a 12-nation free trade pact called the Trans-Pacific Partnership.WEB,weblink President Obama uses his final months to bring congressional approval of a 12-nation free trade pact called the Trans-Pacific Partnership, September 5, 2016, CBS News, September 5, 2016,

Environmental policy

{{See also|Climate change policy of the United States}}File:Obama-venice-la.jpg|thumb|Obama at a 2010 briefing on the BP oil spill at the Coast Guard Station Venice in Venice, LouisianaVenice, LouisianaOn September 30, 2009, the Obama administration proposed new regulations on power plants, factories, and oil refineries in an attempt to limit greenhouse gas emissions and to curb global warming.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, John M., Broder, E.P.A. Moves to Curtail Greenhouse Gas Emissions, October 1, 2009, NEWS,weblinkweblink May 23, 2012, US moves to limit industrial greenhouse gas emissions, Agence France-Presse, October 1, 2009, April 18, 2010, On April 20, 2010, an explosion destroyed an offshore drilling rig at the Macondo Prospect in the Gulf of Mexico, causing a major sustained oil leak. Obama visited the Gulf, announced a federal investigation, and formed a bipartisan commission to recommend new safety standards, after a review by Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar and concurrent Congressional hearings. He then announced a six-month moratorium on new deepwater drilling permits and leases, pending regulatory review.NEWS, Obama Halts Drilling Projects, Defends Actions, NPR, May 27, 2010,weblink As multiple efforts by BP failed, some in the media and public expressed confusion and criticism over various aspects of the incident, and stated a desire for more involvement by Obama and the federal government.NEWS, Patrik, Jonsson,weblink Gulf oil spill: Obama's big political test, The Christian Science Monitor, May 29, 2010, June 6, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink June 1, 2010, live, In July 2013, Obama expressed reservations and stated he "would reject the Keystone XL pipeline if it increased carbon pollution" or "greenhouse emissions".Goldenberg, Suzanne (July 28, 2013). "Barack Obama expresses reservations about Keystone XL pipeline project". The Guardian (London).Stein, Sam (June 25, 2013). Obama: Keystone XL Should Not Be Approved If It Will Increase Greenhouse Gas Emissions. HuffPost (US). Obama's advisers called for a halt to petroleum exploration in the Arctic in January 2013.Goldenberg, Suzanne (January 18, 2013)."Shell's plans in Arctic at risk as Obama advisers call for halt to oil exploration". The Guardian (London). On February 24, 2015, Obama vetoed a bill that would have authorized the pipeline.WEB,weblink Obama Vetoes Keystone XL Pipeline Bill, February 24, 2015, February 24, 2015, NPR, It was the third veto of Obama's presidency and his first major veto.WEB,weblink Keystone veto override fails, March 4, 2015, Laura, Barron-Lopez, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, Capitol Hill Publishing, July 2, 2015, Obama emphasized the conservation of federal lands during his term in office. He used his power under the Antiquities Act to create 25 new national monuments during his presidency and expand four others, protecting a total of {{convert|553000000|acre|ha}} of federal lands and waters, more than any other U.S. president.Juliet Eilperin & Brady Dennis, With new monuments in Nevada, Utah, Obama adds to his environmental legacy, The Washington Post (December 28, 2016).

Health care reform

(File:Obama signs health care-20100323.jpg|thumb|alt=Photograph|Obama signs the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act at the White House, March 23, 2010.)Obama called for Congress to pass legislation reforming health care in the United States, a key campaign promise and a top legislative goal. He proposed an expansion of health insurance coverage to cover the uninsured, to cap premium increases, and to allow people to retain their coverage when they leave or change jobs. His proposal was to spend $900 billion over 10 years and include a government insurance plan, also known as the public option, to compete with the corporate insurance sector as a main component to lowering costs and improving quality of health care. It would also make it illegal for insurers to drop sick people or deny them coverage for pre-existing conditions, and require every American to carry health coverage. The plan also includes medical spending cuts and taxes on insurance companies that offer expensive plans.NEWS,weblink Obama, Armed With Details, Says Health Plan Is Necessary, Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, Zeleny, Jeff, September 9, 2009, The New York Times, July 5, 2015, WEB, Mike, Allen,weblink Barack Obama will hedge on public option, Politico, July 5, 2015, September 9, 2009, File:PPACA Premium Chart.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|left|Maximum Out-of-Pocket Premium as Percentage of Family Income and federal poverty level, under Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, starting in 2014 (Source: CRS)WEB,weblink Health Insurance Premium Credits in the PPACA, Congressional Research Service, May 17, 2015, ]]On July 14, 2009, House Democratic leaders introduced a 1,017-page plan for overhauling the U.S. health care system, which Obama wanted Congress to approve by the end of 2009.WEB,weblink Obama July 22, 2009 press conference. Transcript, Chicago Sun-Times, July 22, 2009, July 5, 2015, Lynn, Sweet, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 16, 2015, After much public debate during the Congressional summer recess of 2009, Obama delivered a speech to a joint session of Congress on September 9 where he addressed concerns over the proposals.NEWS,weblink Obama calls for Congress to face health care challenge, September 9, 2009, September 9, 2009, CNN,weblink" title="">weblink September 10, 2009, live, In March 2009, Obama lifted a ban on using federal funds for stem cell research.NEWS,weblink Stem cell, Daniel Nasaw, The Guardian, September 13, 2014, March 10, 2009, On November 7, 2009, a health care bill featuring the public option was passed in the House.NEWS,weblink Sweeping Health Care Plan Passes House, Hulse, Carl, Robert Pear, November 7, 2009, The New York Times, November 8, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink March 31, 2011, live, NEWS,weblink Abortion Was at Heart of Wrangling, Herszenhorn, David M., Jackie Calmes, December 7, 2009, The New York Times, December 6, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink March 31, 2011, live, On December 24, 2009, the Senate passed its own bill—without a public option—on a party-line vote of 60–39.NEWS,weblink Senate Says Yes To Landmark Health Bill, Hensley, Scott, December 24, 2009, December 24, 2009, NPR,weblink" title="">weblink January 21, 2010, live, On March 21, 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) passed by the Senate in December was passed in the House by a vote of 219 to 212.NEWS,weblink Health Care Reform, at Last, The New York Times, March 21, 2010, March 22, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink March 26, 2010, Obama signed the bill into law on March 23, 2010.NEWS,weblink Obama Signs Landmark Health Care Bill, March 23, 2010, March 23, 2010, The New York Times, Gay Stolberg, Sheryl,weblink" title="">weblink March 25, 2010, The ACA includes health-related provisions, most of which took effect in 2014, including expanding Medicaid eligibility for people making up to 133% of the federal poverty level (FPL) starting in 2014,NEWS, Rice, Sabriya,weblink 5 key things to remember about health care reform, CNN, March 25, 2010, January 6, 2013, subsidizing insurance premiums for people making up to 400% of the FPL ($88,000 for family of four in 2010) so their maximum "out-of-pocket" payment for annual premiums will be from 2% to 9.5% of income,NEWS, Grier, Peter,weblink March 20, 2010, Health Care Reform Bill 101, The Christian Science Monitor, July 5, 2015, providing incentives for businesses to provide health care benefits, prohibiting denial of coverage and denial of claims based on pre-existing conditions, establishing health insurance exchanges, prohibiting annual coverage caps, and support for medical research. According to White House and CBO figures, the maximum share of income that enrollees would have to pay would vary depending on their income relative to the federal poverty level.WEB,weblink Policies to Improve Affordability and Accountability, The White House, January 6, 2013, WEB, Elmendorf, Douglas W.,weblink An Analysis of Health Insurance Premiums Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Congressional Budget Office, November 30, 2009, April 9, 2012, File:Percentage of Individuals in the United States Without Health Insurance, 1963-2015.png|thumb|Percentage of Individuals in the United States without Health Insurance, 1963–2015 (Source: JAMA)JOURNAL, Obama, Barack, United States Health Care Reform, JAMA, August 2, 2016, 316, 5, 525–532, 10.1001/jama.2016.9797, 27400401, 0098-7484, 5069435, ]]The costs of these provisions are offset by taxes, fees, and cost-saving measures, such as new Medicare taxes for those in high-income brackets, taxes on indoor tanning, cuts to the Medicare Advantage program in favor of traditional Medicare, and fees on medical devices and pharmaceutical companies;JOURNAL, Grier, Peter, March 21, 2010,weblink Health care reform bill 101: Who will pay for reform?, Christian Science Monitor, July 5, 2015, there is also a tax penalty for those who do not obtain health insurance, unless they are exempt due to low income or other reasons.NEWS,weblink Health care reform bill 101: Who must buy insurance?, Grier, Peter, March 19, 2010, The Christian Science Monitor, April 7, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink April 5, 2010, In March 2010, the CBO estimated that the net effect of both laws will be a reduction in the federal deficit by $143 billion over the first decade.WEB, Elmendorf, Douglas W., H.R. 4872, Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Final Health Care Legislation),weblink Congressional Budget Office, January 6, 2013, The law faced several legal challenges, primarily based on the argument that an individual mandate requiring Americans to buy health insurance was unconstitutional. On June 28, 2012, the Supreme Court ruled by a 5–4 vote in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius that the mandate was constitutional under the U.S. Congress's taxing authority.NEWS, Robert, Barnes,weblink Supreme Court upholds Obama health care overhaul by 5–4 vote, approving insurance requirement, June 28, 2012, The Washington Post, Associated Press, June 29, 2012, In Burwell v. Hobby Lobby the Court ruled that "closely-held" for-profit corporations could be exempt on religious grounds under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act from regulations adopted under the ACA that would have required them to pay for insurance that covered certain contraceptives. In June 2015, the Court ruled 6–3 in King v. Burwell that subsidies to help individuals and families purchase health insurance were authorized for those doing so on both the federal exchange and state exchanges, not only those purchasing plans "established by the State", as the statute reads.WEB,weblink Supreme Court Upholds Obamacare Subsidies, Kimberly Leonard, US News & World Report, November 25, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 16, 2016,

Energy policy

Prior to June 2014, Obama offered substantial support for a broadly-based "All of the above" approach to domestic energy policy, which Obama has maintained since his first term and which he last confirmed at his State of the Union speech in January 2014 to a mixed reception by both parties. In June 2014, Obama made indications that his administration would consider a shift towards an energy policy more closely tuned to the manufacturing industry and its impact on the domestic economy.NEWS, James P. O'Toole, Tracie Mauriello, Deborah Todd, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 17, 2014, Obama speaks in Pittsburgh about tech, jobs,weblink Obama's approach of selectively combining regulation and incentive to various issues in the domestic energy policy, such as coal mining and oil fracking, has received mixed commentary for not being as responsive to the needs of the domestic manufacturing sector as needed, following claims that the domestic manufacturing sector utilizes as much as a third of the nation's available energy resources.Obama domestic energy policy. Bloomberg News. June 17, 2014.WEB,weblink Manufacturing Balks at Obama's U.S. Energy Policy: Video, Bloomberg News, June 17, 2014, July 17, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 4, 2014, mdy-all,

Gun control

File:Barack Obama visiting victims of 2012 Aurora shooting.jpg|thumb|Obama visits an Aurora shooting victim at University of Colorado HospitalUniversity of Colorado HospitalOn January 16, 2013, one month after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, Obama signed 23 executive orders and outlined a series of sweeping proposals regarding gun control.NEWS,weblink BBC News, US gun debate: Obama unveils gun control proposals, Mark, Mardell, January 16, 2013, January 16, 2013, He urged Congress to reintroduce an expired ban on military-style assault weapons, such as those used in several recent mass shootings, impose limits on ammunition magazines to 10 rounds, introduce background checks on all gun sales, pass a ban on possession and sale of armor-piercing bullets, introduce harsher penalties for gun-traffickers, especially unlicensed dealers who buy arms for criminals and approving the appointment of the head of the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives for the first time since 2006.NEWS, What's in Obama's Gun Control Proposal,weblink The New York Times, January 16, 2013, February 12, 2013, On January 5, 2016, Obama announced new executive actions extending background check requirements to more gun sellers."Obama announces gun control executive action (full transcript)" CNN. January 5, 2016. January 7, 2016. In a 2016 editorial in the New York Times, Obama compared the struggle for what he termed "common-sense gun reform" to women's suffrage and other civil rights movements in American history.Obama, Barack. "Barack Obama: Guns Are Our Shared Responsibility" The New York Times. January 7, 2016. January 7, 2016.

2010 midterm elections

Obama called the November 2, 2010 election, where the Democratic Party lost 63 seats in, and control of, the House of Representatives,NEWS, Paul Harris, Ewen MacAskill,weblink US midterm election results herald new political era as Republicans take House, The Guardian, London, November 3, 2010, December 22, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink December 14, 2010, "humbling" and a "shellacking".NEWS,weblink Obama calls midterm elections a 'shellacking' for Democrats, The Christian Science Monitor, November 4, 2010, December 22, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink November 24, 2010, He said that the results came because not enough Americans had felt the effects of the economic recovery.WEB, All Things Considered,weblink See Obama's first paragraph of his transcript, NPR, November 3, 2010, December 22, 2010,

Cybersecurity and Internet policy

On November 10, 2014, President Obama recommended the Federal Communications Commission reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality.NEWS, Wyatt, Edward, Obama Asks F.C.C. to Adopt Tough Net Neutrality Rules,weblink November 10, 2014, The New York Times, November 15, 2014, NEWS, NYT Editorial Board, Why the F.C.C. Should Heed President Obama on Internet Regulation,weblink November 14, 2014, The New York Times, November 15, 2014, On February 12, 2013, President Obama signed {{Executive Order|13636}}, "Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity."PRESS RELEASE, Cybersecurity â€“ Executive Order 13636,weblink April 30, 2015,

Government mass surveillance

In 2005 and 2006, Obama criticized certain aspects of the Patriot Act for infringing too much on civil liberties and sought as Senator to strengthen civil liberties protections.NEWS, Lee, Timothy B., The Washington Post,weblink Sen. Obama warned about Patriot Act abuses. President Obama proved him right., August 2, 2013, 2019-08-08, WEB,weblink He fought to improve it, then voted for it, @politifact, en, 2019-08-12, In 2006, he voted to reauthorize a revised version of the Patriot Act, saying the law was not ideal but that the revised version had strengthened civil liberties. In 2011, he signed a four-year renewal of the Patriot Act.NEWS,weblink NBC News, Obama, in Europe, signs Patriot Act extension, 2011-05-27, 2019-08-08,
Following the 2013 global surveillance disclosures by whistleblower Edward Snowden, Obama condemned the leak as unpatriotic,NEWS, CNN,weblink Fact-checking Obama's claims about Snowden, August 13, 2013, 2019-08-08, Wolf, Z. Byron, but called for increased restrictions on the NSA to address violations of privacy.
NEWS,weblink Obama's NSA overhaul may require phone carriers to store more data, April 3, 2014, Reuters, 2019-08-08, Hosenball, Mark, Washington, D.C., Washington, NEWS, Ackerman, Spencer, 2014-01-17, Obama to overhaul NSA's bulk storage of Americans' telephone data,weblink The Guardian, 2019-08-12,
The changes which Obama ordered have been described as "modest" however.
NEWS, Sanger, David E., 2015-02-03, President Tweaks the Rules on Data Collection,weblink New York Times, U.S.,

Foreign policy

File:P06409PS-0571 (3594694537).jpg|June 4, 2009 − after his speech A New Beginning at Cairo University, U.S. President Obama participates in an roundtable interview in 2009 with among others Jamal Khashoggi, Bambang Harymurti and thumb|rightIn February and March 2009, Vice President Joe Biden and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton made separate overseas trips to announce a "new era" in U.S. foreign relations with Russia and Europe, using the terms "break" and "reset" to signal major changes from the policies of the preceding administration. Obama attempted to reach out to Arab leaders by granting his first interview to an Arab satellite TV network, Al Arabiya.NEWS, Obama reaches out to Muslim world on TV, MSNBC,weblink June 15, 2009, January 27, 2009, On March 19, Obama continued his outreach to the Muslim world, releasing a New Year's video message to the people and government of Iran.NEWS,weblink Barack Obama's address to Iran: Full text of Barack Obama's videotaped message to the people and leaders of Iran as they celebrate their New Year's holiday, Nowruz, March 20, 2013, July 14, 2013, The Guardian, London, NEWS, Karen, DeYoung, Nation U.S. to Join Talks on Iran's Nuclear Program, April 9, 2009, The Washington Post,weblink June 15, 2009, In April, Obama gave a speech in Ankara, Turkey, which was well received by many Arab governments.NEWS, Obama speech draws praise in Mideast, The Guardian, London,weblink June 15, 2009, January 23, 2008, On June 4, 2009, Obama delivered a speech at Cairo University in Egypt calling for "A New Beginning" in relations between the Islamic world and the United States and promoting Middle East peace.File:Barack Obama foreign trips.svg|thumb|left|International trips made by President Barack Obama during his terms in office]]File:Merkel an Obama Presidential Medal of Freedom.jpg|thumb|Obama with German Chancellor Angela MerkelAngela MerkelOn June 26, 2009, Obama responded to the Iranian government's actions towards protesters following Iran's 2009 presidential election by saying: "The violence perpetrated against them is outrageous. We see it and we condemn it."NEWS,weblink Obama dismisses Ahmadinejad apology request, The Washington Times, June 26, 2009, July 2, 2015, Joseph, Weber, Stephen, Dinan, While in Moscow on July 7, he responded to Vice President Biden's comment on a possible Israeli military strike on Iran by saying: "We have said directly to the Israelis that it is important to try and resolve this in an international setting in a way that does not create major conflict in the Middle East."NEWS,weblink Obama: No green light for Israel to attack Iran, CNN, July 7, 2009, January 4, 2013, On September 24, 2009, Obama became the first sitting U.S. President to preside over a meeting of the United Nations Security Council.WEB, Rajghatta, Chidanand, September 24, 2009,weblink Barack 'No Bomb' Obama pushes for world without nukes, The Times of India, July 2, 2015, In March 2010, Obama took a public stance against plans by the government of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to continue building Jewish housing projects in predominantly Arab neighborhoods of East Jerusalem.WEB,weblink Israel Refuses to Halt Construction in East Jerusalem, Voice of America, March 25, 2010, July 2, 2015, Robert, Berger, NEWS,weblink Israel Confirms New Building in East Jerusalem, The New York Times, March 24, 2010, Isabel, Kershner, April 26, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink March 29, 2010, live, During the same month, an agreement was reached with the administration of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev to replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty with a new pact reducing the number of long-range nuclear weapons in the arsenals of both countries by about a third.Baker, Peter (March 26, 2010)."Obama Seals Arms Control Deal With Russia". The New York Times. Obama and Medvedev signed the New START treaty in April 2010, and the U.S. Senate ratified it in December 2010.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Peter, Baker, Senate Passes Arms Control Treaty With Russia, 71–26, December 22, 2010, File:Barack Obama and Matteo Renzi October 2016, 1.jpg|thumb|Obama meets with Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi at the White HouseWhite HouseIn December 2011, Obama instructed agencies to consider LGBT rights when issuing financial aid to foreign countries.NEWS, McVeigh, Karen,weblink Gay rights must be criterion for US aid allocations, instructs Obama, The Guardian, London, December 6, 2011, January 4, 2013, In August 2013, he criticized Russia's law that discriminates against gays,NEWS,weblink Obama criticizes Russia's new anti-gay law in Leno interview, Parsons, Christi, August 7, 2013, Los Angeles Times, August 27, 2014, but he stopped short of advocating a boycott of the upcoming 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.NEWS,weblink Obama Opposes Olympic Boycott, Criticizes Russian Anti-Gay Law, Johnson, Luke, August 9, 2013, HuffPost, August 27, 2014, In December 2014, Obama announced that he intended to normalize relationships between Cuba and the United States.WEB,weblink In Miami, a mixed and muted response to historic change in Cuba policy, The Washington Post, December 18, 2014, December 18, 2014, Achenbach, Joel, The countries' respective "interests sections" in one another's capitals were upgraded to embassies on July 20, 2015.In March 2015, Obama declared that he had authorized U.S. forces to provide logistical and intelligence support to the Saudis in their military intervention in Yemen, establishing a "Joint Planning Cell" with Saudi Arabia.WEB,weblink Saudi Arabia launces air attacks in Yemen, The Washington Post, March 25, 2015, NEWS, Yemen conflict: US 'could be implicated in war crimes',weblink BBC News, October 10, 2016, In 2016, the Obama administration proposed a series of arms deals with Saudi Arabia worth $115 billion.NEWS, Bayoumy, Yara, Obama administration arms sales offers to Saudi top $115 billion:…, Reuters, September 7, 2016,weblink Obama halted the sale of guided munition technology to Saudi Arabia after Saudi warplanes targeted a funeral in Yemen's capital Sanaa, killing more than 140 people."America 'agrees to stop selling some arms' to Saudi Arabia". The Independent. December 13, 2016.Before leaving office, Obama said German Chancellor Angela Merkel had been his "closest international partner" throughout his tenure as president.WEB,weblink Obama: Merkel was my closest ally, November 15, 2016, The Local,

War in Iraq

On February 27, 2009, Obama announced that combat operations in Iraq would end within 18 months. His remarks were made to a group of Marines preparing for deployment to Afghanistan. Obama said, "Let me say this as plainly as I can: by August 31, 2010, our combat mission in Iraq will end."NEWS, Associated Press, Ben, Feller,weblink Obama sets firm withdrawal timetable for Iraq, The Gazette (Colorado Springs), The Gazette, February 27, 2009, March 3, 2009, The Obama administration scheduled the withdrawal of combat troops to be completed by August 2010, decreasing troop's levels from 142,000 while leaving a transitional force of about 50,000 in Iraq until the end of 2011. On August 19, 2010, the last U.S. combat brigade exited Iraq. Remaining troops transitioned from combat operations to counter-terrorism and the training, equipping, and advising of Iraqi security forces.WEB, Jones, Athena, February 27, 2009,weblink Obama announces Iraq plan, MSNBC, July 2, 2015, NEWS, Sykes, Hugh,weblink Last US combat brigade exits Iraq, BBC News, August 19, 2010, December 25, 2012, On August 31, 2010, Obama announced that the United States combat mission in Iraq was over.NEWS,weblink London, The Guardian, Barack Obama ends the war in Iraq. 'Now it's time to turn the page', Ewen, MacAskill, September 1, 2010, On October 21, 2011 President Obama announced that all U.S. troops would leave Iraq in time to be "home for the holidays".NEWS,weblink All U.S. troops out of Iraq by end of year, MSNBC, October 21, 2011, December 25, 2012, File:David Cameron and Barack Obama at the G20 Summit in Toronto.jpg|thumb|Meeting with UK Prime Minister David Cameron during the alt=US President Barack Obama and British Prime Minister David Cameron trade bottles of beer to settle a bet they made on the U.S. vs. England World Cup Soccer game (which ended in a tie), during a bilateral meeting at the G20 Summit in Toronto, Canada, Saturday, June 26, 2010.In June 2014, following the capture of Mosul by ISIS, Obama sent 275 troops to provide support and security for U.S. personnel and the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad. ISIS continued to gain ground and to commit widespread massacres and ethnic cleansing.NEWS,weblink Obama Is Sending 275 US Troops To Iraq,, June 19, 2014, NEWS,weblink New U.N. rights boss warns of 'house of blood' in Iraq, Syria, July 11, 2015, Nebehay, Stephanie, Reuters, September 8, 2014, In August 2014, during the Sinjar massacre, Obama ordered a campaign of U.S. airstrikes against ISIS.WEB,weblink DoD Authorizes War on Terror Award for Inherent Resolve Ops, October 31, 2014,, November 22, 2014, By the end of 2014, 3,100 American ground troops were committed to the conflictNEWS,weblink Islamic State: Coalition 'pledges more troops' for Iraq, BBC News, August 23, 2015, December 8, 2014, and 16,000 sorties were flown over the battlefield, primarily by U.S. Air Force and Navy pilots.WEB,weblink A-10 Performing 11 Percent of Anti-ISIS Sorties, Aaron Mehta, January 19, 2015, Defense News, August 23, 2015, In early 2015, with the addition of the "Panther Brigade" of the 82nd Airborne Division the number of U.S. ground troops in Iraq surged to 4,400,WEB,weblink 1,000 soldiers from the 82nd Airborne headed to Iraq, Stars and Stripes, August 23, 2015, and by July American-led coalition air forces counted 44,000 sorties over the battlefield.WEB,weblink Stealthy Jet Ensures Other War-Fighting Aircraft Survive, US News & World Report, August 23, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 13, 2015,

War in Afghanistan

Early in his presidency, Obama moved to bolster U.S. troop strength in Afghanistan.NEWS, NewsHour with Jim Lehrer,weblink Obama Calls for U.S. Military to Renew Focus on Afghanistan, PBS, July 15, 2008, April 18, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink March 27, 2010, He announced an increase in U.S. troop levels to 17,000 military personnel in February 2009 to "stabilize a deteriorating situation in Afghanistan", an area he said had not received the "strategic attention, direction and resources it urgently requires".NEWS, Amanda, Hodge, Obama launches Afghanistan Surge, February 19, 2009, The Australian, Sydney,weblink He replaced the military commander in Afghanistan, General David D. McKiernan, with former Special Forces commander Lt. Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal in May 2009, indicating that McChrystal's Special Forces experience would facilitate the use of counterinsurgency tactics in the war. On December 1, 2009, Obama announced the deployment of an additional 30,000 military personnel to Afghanistan and proposed to begin troop withdrawals 18 months from that date;Associated Press. (December 1, 2009). "Obama details Afghan war plan, troop increases" MSNBC. this took place in July 2011. David Petraeus replaced McChrystal in June 2010, after McChrystal's staff criticized White House personnel in a magazine article.NEWS,weblink Gates says he agrees with Obama decision on McChrystal, CNN, June 24, 2010, September 18, 2010, In February 2013, Obama said the U.S. military would reduce the troop level in Afghanistan from 68,000 to 34,000 U.S. troops by February 2014.NEWS, Chandrasekaran, Rajiv, Obama wants to cut troop level in Afghanistan in half over next year,weblink February 14, 2013, The Washington Post, February 12, 2013, In October 2015, the White House announced a plan to keep U.S. Forces in Afghanistan indefinitely in light of the deteriorating security situation.NEWS,weblink US troops in Afghanistan: Taliban resurgence sees rethink, BBC News, October 15, 2015, October 15, 2015, Marcus, Jonathan,


File:Barack Obama welcomes Shimon Peres in the Oval Office.jpg|thumb|Obama meeting with Israeli President Shimon Peres in the alt=President Barack Obama, at left, shakes hands with Israeli President Shimon Peres, at right, in the Oval Office on Tuesday, May 5, 2009. Standing at right looking on is U.S. Vice President Joe Biden.In 2011, the United States vetoed a Security Council resolution condemning Israeli settlements, with the United States being the only nation to do so.WEB,weblink United States vetoes Security Council resolution on Israeli settlements, February 18, 2011, UN News Service Section, September 13, 2014, Obama supports the two-state solution to the Arab–Israeli conflict based on the 1967 borders with land swaps.Levy, Elior (May 22, 2011). "PA challenges Netanyahu to accept 1967 lines." Ynetnews. Retrieved May 22, 2011.In June 2011, Obama said the bond between the United States and Israel is "unbreakable".WEB, Johnston, Nicholas,weblink Obama Says U.S. Connection With Israel Is 'Unbreakable', Bloomberg, June 20, 2011, October 26, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink June 23, 2013, During the initial years of the Obama administration, the U.S. increased military cooperation with Israel, including increased military aid, re-establishment of the U.S.-Israeli Joint Political Military Group and the Defense Policy Advisory Group, and an increase in visits among high-level military officials of both countries.Levinson, Charles (August 14, 2010)."U.S., Israel Build Military Cooperation". The Wall Street Journal (New York). Retrieved March 1, 2011. The Obama administration asked Congress to allocate money toward funding the Iron Dome program in response to the waves of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel.NEWS, Kampeas, Ron, October 26, 2012,weblink For Obama campaign, trying to put to rest persistent questions about 'kishkes', Jewish Journal, In 2013, Jeffrey Goldberg reported that, in Obama's view, "with each new settlement announcement, Netanyahu is moving his country down a path toward near-total isolation."NEWS, Goldberg, Jeffrey, Obama: 'Israel Doesn't Know What Its Best Interests Are',weblink January 23, 2013, Bloomberg, January 14, 2013, In 2014, Obama likened the Zionist movement to the Civil Rights Movement in the United States. He said both movements seek to bring justice and equal rights to historically persecuted peoples. He explained, "To me, being pro-Israel and pro-Jewish is part and parcel with the values that I've been fighting for since I was politically conscious and started getting involved in politics."Goldberg, Jeffrey. "After the Iran Deal: Obama, Netanyahu, and the Future of the Jewish State." The Atlantic. September 13, 2015. September 13, 2015. Obama expressed support for Israel's right to defend itself during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict.NEWS, Obama reaffirms Israel's right to defend itself, Herb, Keinon,weblink July 19, 2014, The Times of Israel, In 2015, Obama was harshly criticized by Israel for advocating and signing the Iran Nuclear Deal; Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who had advocated the U.S. congress to oppose it, said the deal was "dangerous" and "bad".NEWS, Netanyahu: Iran nuclear deal makes world much more dangerous, Israel not bound by it, Haaretz, July 14, 2015,weblink January 3, 2018, On December 23, 2016, under the Obama Administration, the United States abstained from United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334, which condemned Israeli settlement building in the occupied Palestinian territories as a violation of international law, effectively allowing it to pass.NEWS, Collinson, Stephen, Wright, David, Labott, Elise, US Abstains as UN Demands End to Israeli Settlements,weblink December 24, 2016, CNN, January 7, 2017, Netanyahu strongly criticized the Obama Administration's actions,NEWS, Barak, Ravid, Netanyahu on UN Settlement Vote: Israel Will Not Turn the Other Cheek,weblink December 26, 2016, Haaretz, January 7, 2017, NEWS, Israel-Palestinians: Netanyahu Condemns John Kerry Speech,weblink December 29, 2016, BBC, January 7, 2017, BBC News, and the Israeli government withdrew its annual dues from the organization, which totaled $6 million, on January 6, 2017.WEB, Israel Halts $6 million to UN to Protest UN Settlements Vote,weblink January 6, 2017, Fox News (from the Associated Press), January 7, 2017, On January 5, 2017, the United States House of Representatives voted 342–80 to condemn the UN Resolution.WEB, House Overwhelmingly Votes to Condemn UN Resolution on Israel Settlements,weblink January 5, 2017, Fox News Channel, January 7, 2017, WEB, Cortellessa, Eric, US House Passes Motion Repudiating UN Resolution on Israel,weblink January 6, 2017, The Times of Israel, January 17, 2017,


File:Vladimir Putin and Barack Obama (2015-09-29) 04.jpg|thumb|President Obama meets with Russian President Vladimir PutinVladimir PutinIn February 2011, protests in Libya began against long-time dictator Muammar Gaddafi as part of the Arab Spring. They soon turned violent. In March, as forces loyal to Gaddafi advanced on rebels across Libya, calls for a no-fly zone came from around the world, including Europe, the Arab League, and a resolutionWEB,weblink Floor Statement by Senator McCain Introducing the Senate Resolution Calling for a No-Fly Zone in Libya,, March 14, 2011, March 28, 2011, passed unanimously by the U.S. Senate.NEWS,weblink Senate Passes Resolution Calling for No-Fly Zone Over Libya, National Journal, March 1, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 11, 2011, In response to the unanimous passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 on March 17, Gaddafi—who had previously vowed to "show no mercy" to the rebels of BenghaziNEWS, Winnett, Robert,weblink Libya: UN approves no-fly zone as British troops prepare for action, The Daily Telegraph, London, March 17, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink April 28, 2011, —announced an immediate cessation of military activities,NEWS,weblink Shackle, Samira, Libya declares ceasefire, New Statesman blog, London, March 18, 2011, July 16, 2011, yet reports came in that his forces continued shelling Misrata. The next day, on Obama's orders, the U.S. military took part in air strikes to destroy the Libyan government's air defense capabilities to protect civilians and enforce a no-fly-zone,NEWS,weblink Obama: US to Transfer Lead Role in Libya, RTT Newswire, March 22, 2011, including the use of Tomahawk missiles, B-2 Spirits, and fighter jets.NEWS,weblink Obama says US efforts in Libya have saved lives, control of operation can be turned over soon, Ventura County Star, Associated Press, March 22, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 28, 2011, NEWS, Pannell, Ian,weblink Gaddafi 'not targeted' by allied strikes, BBC News, March 21, 2011, July 3, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink June 23, 2011, NEWS,weblink F-15 fighter jet crashes in Libya, The Guardian, London, March 22, 2011, March 23, 2011, Sam, Jones,weblink" title="">weblink March 22, 2011, live, Six days later, on March 25, by unanimous vote of all its 28 members, NATO took over leadership of the effort, dubbed Operation Unified Protector.WEB,weblink NATO No-Fly Zone over Libya Operation UNIFIED PROTECTOR, NATO, March 25, 2011, Some RepresentativesNEWS,weblink Is Obama's Libya offensive constitutional?, CBS News, March 22, 2011, March 22, 2011, Brian, Montopoli, questioned whether Obama had the constitutional authority to order military action in addition to questioning its cost, structure and aftermath.NEWS, Obama's Libya Policy Makes Strange Bedfellows of Congressional Critics,weblink HuffPost, March 26, 2011, March 21, 2011, Sam, Stein,weblink" title="">weblink March 23, 2011, live, NEWS, Obama juggles Libya promises, realities,weblink CNN, March 26, 2011, March 25, 2011,

Syrian Civil War

{{See also|Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War#United States}}On August 18, 2011, several months after the start of the Syrian Civil War, Obama issued a written statement that said: "The time has come for President Assad to step aside."NEWS, Assad must go, Obama says,weblink November 23, 2015, The Washington Post, August 18, 2011, "President Obama: 'The future of Syria must be determined by its people, but President Bashar al-Assad is standing in their way.{{'"}} White House website, August 18, 2011. This stance was reaffirmed in November 2015.NEWS,weblink Obama Says Syrian Leader Bashar al-Assad Must Go, Nelson, Colleen, In 2012, Obama authorized multiple programs run by the CIA and the Pentagon to train anti-Assad rebels.NEWS,weblink Hosenball, Mark, Obama authorizes secret support for Syrian rebels, February 19, 2016, Reuters, August 2, 2012, The Pentagon-run program was later found to have failed and was formally abandoned in October 2015.NEWS,weblink Obama Administration Ends Effort to Train Syrians to Combat ISIS, Michael D. Shear, Helene Cooper, Eric Schmitt, February 20, 2016, NEWS,weblink U.S. pulls plug on Syria rebel training effort; will focus on weapons supply, Phil Stewart, Kate Holton, February 20, 2016, Reuters, October 9, 2015, In the wake of a chemical weapons attack in Syria, formally blamed by the Obama administration on the Assad government, Obama chose not to enforce the "red line" he had pledgedWEB,weblink Obama 'red line' erased as Bashar Assad's chemical weapons use goes unchecked by U.S. military, The Washington Times, May 17, 2015, November 23, 2015, and, rather than authorize the promised military action against Assad, went along with the Russia-brokered deal that led to Assad giving up chemical weapons; however attacks with chlorine gas continued.NEWS,weblink U.S. and Russia Reach Deal to Destroy Syria's Chemical Arms, Gordon, Michael, February 19, 2016, NEWS,weblink Syria Got Rid of Its Chemical Weapons – But Reports of Attacks Continue, Boghani, Priyanka, February 19, 2016, In 2014, Obama authorized an air campaign aimed primarily at ISIL, but repeatedly promised the U.S. would not deploy ground troops in Syria.NEWS,weblink Obama outlines plan to target IS fighters, Al Jazeera, September 11, 2014, September 24, 2014, NEWS,weblink 16 times Obama said there would be no boots on the ground in Syria, Gregory Korte, October 31, 2015,

Death of Osama bin Laden

File:President Obama on Death of Osama bin Laden.ogv|thumb|President Obama's address (9:28)Also available: (:File:050111 Osama Bin Laden Death Statement audioonly.ogg|Audio only); {{Cws |title=Full text |link=Remarks by the President on Osama bin Laden |nobullet=yes}}]]File:Obama and Biden await updates on bin Laden.jpg|left|thumb|Obama and members of the national security team receive an update on Operation Neptune's Spear in the White House Situation Room, May 1, 2011. See also: Situation RoomSituation RoomStarting with information received from Central Intelligence Agency operatives in July 2010, the CIA developed intelligence over the next several months that determined what they believed to be the hideout of Osama bin Laden. He was living in seclusion in a large compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, a suburban area {{convert|35|mi|km}} from Islamabad.NEWS,weblink Clues Gradually Led to the Location of Osama bin Laden, Mazzetti, Mark, Helene Cooper, Peter Baker, May 3, 2011, The New York Times, May 4, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 3, 2011, live, CIA head Leon Panetta reported this intelligence to President Obama in March 2011. Meeting with his national security advisers over the course of the next six weeks, Obama rejected a plan to bomb the compound, and authorized a "surgical raid" to be conducted by United States Navy SEALs. The operation took place on May 1, 2011, and resulted in the shooting death of bin Laden and the seizure of papers, computer drives and disks from the compound.WEB,weblink Osama bin Laden is killed by U.S. forces in Pakistan, The Washington Post, September 13, 2014, May 2, 2011, Philip, Rucker, Scott, Wilson, Anne E., Kornblut, WEB,weblink Official offers details of bin Laden raid, Newsday, September 13, 2014, May 2, 2011, DNA testing was one of five methods used to positively identify bin Laden's corpse,NEWS,weblink Osama bin Laden Killed by U.S. Forces in Pakistan, Schabner, Dean, Karen Travers, May 1, 2011, ABC News, May 3, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 4, 2011, which was buried at sea several hours later.NEWS,weblink Bin Laden Is Dead, Obama Says, Baker, Peter, Helene Cooper, Mark Mazzetti, May 2, 2011, The New York Times, May 3, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 5, 2011, dead, Within minutes of the President's announcement from Washington, DC, late in the evening on May 1, there were spontaneous celebrations around the country as crowds gathered outside the White House, and at New York City's Ground Zero and Times Square.NEWS, Walsh, Declan, Richard Adams, Ewen MacAskill,weblink Osama bin Laden is dead, Obama announces, May 2, 2011, The Guardian, London, May 3, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 3, 2011, live, Reaction to the announcement was positive across party lines, including from former presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush.NEWS,weblink Death of Bin Laden May Strengthen Obama's Hand in Domestic, Foreign Policy, Dorning, Mike, May 2, 2011, Bloomberg News, May 4, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 3, 2011, {{clear}}

Iran nuclear talks

(File:Barack Obama talks with Benjamin Netanyahu (8637772147).jpg|thumb|Obama talks with Benjamin Netanyahu, March 2013.)In November 2013, the Obama administration opened negotiations with Iran to prevent it from acquiring nuclear weapons, which included an interim agreement. Negotiations took two years with numerous delays, with a deal being announced July 14, 2015. The deal, titled the "Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action", saw the removal of sanctions in exchange for measures that would prevent Iran from producing nuclear weapons. While Obama hailed the agreement as being a step towards a more hopeful world, the deal drew strong criticism from Republican and conservative quarters, and from Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu.NEWS, Iran deal reached, Obama hails step toward 'more hopeful world',weblink July 14, 2015, July 14, 2015, Reuters, NEWS, Iran, World Powers Prepare to Sign Nuclear Accord,weblink July 14, 2015, July 14, 2015, Wall Street Journal, Solomon, Jay, Norman, Laurence, Lee, Carol E., WEB, Landmark deal reached on Iran nuclear program,weblink July 14, 2015, July 14, 2015, In addition, the transfer of $1.7 billion in cash to Iran shortly after the deal was announced was criticized by the republican party. The Obama administration said that the payment in cash was because of the "effectiveness of U.S. and international sanctions"weblink In order to advance the deal, the Obama administration shielded Hezbollah from the Drug Enforcement Administration's Project Cassandra investigation regarding drug smuggling and from the Central Intelligence Agency.Obama Administration Reportedly Shielded Hezbollah From DEA and CIA to Save Iran Nuclear Deal, Haaretz, December 18, 2017"A Global Threat Emerges", Politico, December 18, 2017

Relations with Cuba

File:Handshake between the President and Cuban President Raúl Castro.jpg|thumb|President Obama meeting with Cuban President Raúl CastroRaúl CastroSince the spring of 2013, secret meetings were conducted between the United States and Cuba in the neutral locations of Canada and Vatican City.NEWS, Warren, Strobel, Secret talks in Canada, Vatican City led to Cuba breakthrough,weblink Reuters, December 21, 2014, The Vatican first became involved in 2013 when Pope Francis advised the U.S. and Cuba to exchange prisoners as a gesture of goodwill.WEB, Morello, Carol, DeYoung, Karen, Secret U.S.-Cuba diplomacy ended in landmark deal on prisoners, future ties,weblink The Washington Post, December 21, 2014, On December 10, 2013, Cuban President Raúl Castro, in a significant public moment, greeted and shook hands with Obama at the Nelson Mandela memorial service in Johannesburg.NEWS, Roberts, Dan, Luscombe, Richard, Obama shakes hands with Raúl Castro for first time at Mandela memorial, The Guardian, December 10, 2013,weblink February 15, 2017, In December 2014, after the secret meetings, it was announced that Obama, with Pope Francis as an intermediary, had negotiated a restoration of relations with Cuba, after nearly sixty years of détente.NEWS, Barbie Latza, Nadeau,weblink The Pope's Diplomatic Miracle: Ending the U.S.–Cuba Cold War, The Daily Beast, December 17, 2014, December 18, 2014, Popularly dubbed the Cuban Thaw, The New Republic deemed the Cuban Thaw to be "Obama's finest foreign policy achievement."The New Republic, The Cuban Thaw Is Obama's Finest Foreign Policy Achievement to Date, by Joel Gillin, April 13, 2015. On July 1, 2015, President Barack Obama announced that formal diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States would resume, and embassies would be opened in Washington and Havana.NEWS, Obama announces re-establishment of U.S.-Cuba diplomatic ties,weblink CNN, July 1, 2015, The countries' respective "interests sections" in one another's capitals were upgraded to embassies on July 20 and August 13, 2015, respectively.NEWS,weblink United States and Cuba reestablish diplomatic relations, Mimi, Whitefield, The Miami Herald, July 20, 2015, July 19, 2015, Obama visited Havana, Cuba for two days in March 2016, becoming the first sitting U.S. President to arrive since Calvin Coolidge in 1928.NEWS, Julie Hirschfeld Davis, Damien Cave, March 21, 2016, Obama Arrives in Cuba, Heralding New Era After Decades of Hostility, The New York Times, A1,weblink


Obama spoke in front of the African Union in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on July 29, 2015, the first sitting U.S. president to do so. He gave a speech encouraging the world to increase economic ties via investments and trade with the continent, and lauded the progress made in education, infrastructure, and economy. He also criticized the lack of democracy and leaders who refuse to step aside, discrimination against minorities (LGBT people, religious groups and ethnicities), and corruption. He suggested an intensified democratization and free trade, to significantly improve the quality of life for Africans.NEWS, Lee, Carol E., Obama Becomes First U.S. President to Address African Union,weblink Wall Street Journal, July 29, 2015, July 28, 2015, WEB, Remarks by President Obama to the People of Africa,weblink The White House, July 29, 2015, July 28, 2015, During his July 2015 trip, Obama also was the first U.S. president ever to visit Kenya, which is the homeland of his father.WEB, Ferris, Sarah, Obama: Proud to be first U.S. president to visit Kenya,weblink The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, July 30, 2015, July 25, 2015,

Hiroshima speech

On May 27, 2016, Obama became the first sitting American president to visit Hiroshima, Japan, 71 years after the U.S. atomic bombing of Hiroshima that ended World War II. Accompanied by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, Obama paid tribute to the victims of the bombing at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum.NEWS,weblink President Obama visits Hiroshima, BBC News, June 19, 2016,


{{See also|Russia–United States relations#Obama's tenure (2009–17)}}File:Vladimir Putin and Barack Obama (2015-09-29) 01.jpg|thumb|Obama meets Russian President Vladimir PutinVladimir PutinAfter Russia's invasion of Crimea in 2014, military intervention in Syria in 2015, and the interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election,NEWS,weblink Financial Times, US election: The Russia factor: Officials say Moscow's interference is unprecedented. Has the Kremlin achieved its goal?, November 4, 2016, Obama's Russia policy was widely seen as a failure.NEWS, Thomas L., Friedman,weblink The New York Times, Let's Get Putin's Attention, October 5, 2016, George Robertson, a former UK defense secretary and NATO secretary-general, said Obama had "allowed Putin to jump back on the world stage and test the resolve of the West", adding that the legacy of this disaster would last.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Europeans View Obama's Exit With a Mix of Admiration and Regret, November 6, 2016,

Cultural and political image

{{See also|International reactions to the 2008 United States presidential election|International reactions to the 2012 United States presidential election}}Obama's family history, upbringing, and Ivy League education differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.NEWS, Wallace-Wells, Benjamin, The Great Black Hope: What's Riding on Barack Obama?, November 2004, Washington Monthly,weblink April 7, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink May 13, 2008, dead, See also: NEWS, Janny, Scott, A Member of a New Generation, Obama Walks a Fine Line, December 28, 2007,weblink International Herald Tribune, April 7, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink January 17, 2008, Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."NEWS, Les, Payne, In One Country, a Dual Audience, paid archive, August 19, 2007,weblink Newsday, New York, April 7, 2008, Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."NEWS, Mike, Dorning, Obama Reaches Across Decades to JFK, paid archive, October 4, 2007,weblink Chicago Tribune, April 7, 2008, See also: NEWS, Toby, Harnden, Barack Obama is JFK Heir, Says Kennedy Aide, October 15, 2007,weblink The Daily Telegraph, London, April 7, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink May 15, 2008, live, Obama is frequently referred to as an exceptional orator. During his pre-inauguration transition period and continuing into his presidency, Obama delivered a series of weekly Internet video addresses.WEB,weblink YouTube â€“ ChangeDotGov's Channel, YouTube, April 18, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink February 20, 2010, In his speeches as president, Obama did not make more overt references to race relations than his predecessors,Dyson, Michael Eric. (2016). The Black Presidency: Barack Obama and the Politics of Race in America. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 275. {{ISBN|978-0544387669}}.WEB,weblink Governing with Words, Gillion, Daniel Q., 2016, Cambridge Core, en, 2019-06-05, but according to one study, he implemented stronger policy action on behalf of African-Americans than any president since the Nixon era.JOURNAL, Butler, Bennett, Mendelberg, Tali, Haines, Pavielle E., 2019, "I'm Not the President of Black America": Rhetorical versus Policy Representation,weblink Perspectives on Politics, en, 1–21, 10.1017/S1537592719000963, 1537-5927, (File:Gallup Poll-Approval Rating-Barack Obama.svg|thumb|left|Presidential approval ratings)According to the Gallup Organization, Obama began his presidency with a 68% approval ratingWEB,weblink Obama Starts With 68% Job Approval,, January 24, 2009, June 19, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink June 16, 2011, before gradually declining for the rest of the year, and eventually bottoming out at 41% in August 2010,NEWS,weblink Obama hits low point in Gallup Poll â€“ 41%, USA Today, April 15, 2011, June 19, 2011, a trend similar to Ronald Reagan's and Bill Clinton's first years in office.WEB, Jon Terbush,weblink Approval By Numbers: How Obama Compares To Past Presidents,, December 9, 2010, June 19, 2011, He experienced a small poll bounce shortly after the death of Osama bin Laden on May 2, 2011. This bounce lasted until around June 2011, when his approval numbers dropped back to where they were previously.NEWS, Oliphant, James, May 11, 2011,weblink Bin Laden bounce? New poll shows jump in Obama approval, Los Angeles Times, June 7, 2011, WEB, Balz, Dan, Cohen, John, June 6, 2011,weblink Obama loses bin Laden bounce; Romney on the move among GOP contenders, The Washington Post, Nash Holdings LLC, June 7, 2011, His approval ratings rebounded around the same time as his reelection in 2012, with polls showing an average job approval of 52% shortly after his second inauguration.WEB,weblink Presidential Job Approval Center,, June 23, 2015, Despite approval ratings dropping to 39% in late-2013 due to the ACA roll-out, they climbed to 50% in January 2015 according to Gallup.WEB,weblink Gallup Daily: Obama Job Approval, January 22, 2015, March 23, 2015, Gallup Polling, Polls showed strong support for Obama in other countries both before and during his presidency.NEWS,weblink World wants Obama as president: poll, Reuters, September 9, 2008, ABC News, WEB, Wike, Richard, Poushter, Jacob, Zainulbhai, Hani, As Obama Years Draw to Close, President and U.S. Seen Favorably in Europe and Asia,weblink Global Attitudes & Trends, Pew Research Center, February 23, 2017, June 29, 2016, In a February 2009 poll conducted in Western Europe and the U.S. by Harris Interactive for France 24 and the International Herald Tribune, Obama was rated as the most respected world leader, as well as the most powerful.NEWS,weblink Poll shows Obama atop list of most respected, Freed, John C., February 6, 2009, The New York Times, January 22, 2012, In a similar poll conducted by Harris in May 2009, Obama was rated as the most popular world leader, as well as the one figure most people would pin their hopes on for pulling the world out of the economic downturn.NEWS,weblink Obama Most Popular Leader, Poll Finds, May 29, 2009, The New York Times, January 22, 2012, NEWS, Obama remains a popular symbol of hope,weblink June 2, 2009, France 24,weblink" title="">weblink May 13, 2011, January 22, 2012, File:G8 leaders watching football.jpg|thumb|G8 leaders watching the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final|alt=Prime Minister David Cameron of the United Kingdom, President Barack Obama, Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany, José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission, President François Hollande of France and others react emotionally while watching the overtime shootout of the Chelsea vs. Bayern Munich Champions League final, in the Laurel Cabin conference room during the G8 Summit at Camp David, Maryland, May 19, 2012. Cameron raises his arms triumphantly as the Chelsea team wins their first Champions League title in the overtime shootout.]]Obama won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of Dreams from My Father in February 2006 and for The Audacity of Hope in February 2008.NEWS, Goodman, Dean, February 10, 2008, Obama or Clinton? Grammys go for Obama, Reuters,weblink November 24, 2008,weblink December 19, 2008, live, His concession speech after the New Hampshire primary was set to music by independent artists as the music video "Yes We Can", which was viewed 10 million times on YouTube in its first monthNEWS,weblink Celebrities join YouTube revolution, Strange, Hannah, March 5, 2008, The Times, London, December 18, 2008, {{subscription required}} and received a Daytime Emmy Award.NEWS,weblink Emmys give knuckle bump to; more videos on the way, Wappler, Margaret, June 20, 2008, Los Angeles Times blogs, January 26, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink May 16, 2011, In December 2008 and in 2012, Time magazine named Obama as its Person of the Year.JOURNAL, Scherer, Michael,weblink 2012 Person of the Year: Barack Obama, the President, Time, December 19, 2012, December 19, 2012, The 2008 awarding was for his historic candidacy and election, which Time described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments".NEWS, Von Drehle, David, Why History Can't Wait,weblink Time, December 16, 2008, December 17, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 17, 2008, live, On May 25, 2011, Obama became the first President of the United States to address both houses of the UK Parliament in Westminster Hall, London. This was only the fifth occurrence since the start of the 20th century of a head of state's being extended this invitation, following Charles de Gaulle in 1960, Nelson Mandela in 1996, Queen Elizabeth II in 2002 and Pope Benedict XVI in 2010.WEB, Barack Obama,weblink Full transcript – Speech to UK Parliament, New Statesman, May 25, 2011, June 14, 2014, WEB,weblink 20th century to the present day, Parliament of the United Kingdom, April 21, 2010, June 14, 2014, On October 9, 2009, the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that Obama had won the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples".WEB,weblink The Nobel Peace Prize 2009, Nobel Foundation, October 9, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink October 10, 2009, live, Obama accepted this award in Oslo, Norway on December 10, 2009, with "deep gratitude and great humility."NEWS,weblink Obama: 'Peace requires responsibility', CNN, December 10, 2009, May 21, 2011, The award drew a mixture of praise and criticism from world leaders and media figures.NEWS, Philp, Catherine, Barack Obama's peace prize starts a fight, London, The Times, October 10, 2009,weblink October 10, 2009, {{subscription required}}NEWS, Sharon, Otterman, World Reaction to a Nobel Surprise, The New York Times, October 9, 2009,weblink October 9, 2009, NEWS,weblink Obama Peace Prize win has Americans asking why?, Reuters, October 9, 2009, October 9, 2009, WEB,weblink Obama: Nobel Peace Prize 'a call to action' â€“ Politics â€“ White House, MSNBC, September 13, 2014, Obama's peace prize was called a "stunning surprise" by The New York Times.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Surprise Nobel for Obama Stirs Praise and Doubts, Steven Erlanger, October 10, 2009, May 20, 2010, Obama is the fourth U.S. president to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and the third to become a Nobel laureate while in office.NEWS,weblink Obama's win unique among presidents, CNN, October 9, 2009, Obama's Nobel Prize has been viewed skeptically in subsequent years, especially after the director of the Nobel Institute, Geir Lundestad, said Obama's Peace Prize did not have the desired effect.WEB, Taylor, Adam, Obama's Nobel peace prize didn't have the desired effect, former Nobel official reveals,weblink The Washington Post, February 4, 2016,

Post-presidency (2017–present)

File:58th Presidential Inaugural Ceremony 170120-D-BP749-1327.jpg|thumb|Obama, with Joe Biden and Donald Trump at the latter's inauguration on January 20, 2017]]Obama's presidency ended at noon on January 20, 2017, immediately following the inauguration of his Republican successor, Donald Trump. After the inauguration, Obama lifted off on Executive One, circled the White House, and flew to Joint Base Andrews.NEWS, Korte, Gregory,weblink Inside Barack Obama's final hours in the White House, USA Today, January 20, 2017, The family currently rents a house in Kalorama, Washington, D.C.NEWS,weblink Peek inside Obama's post-presidential pad, Kosinski, Michelle, Daniella Diaz, May 27, 2016, CNN, January 22, 2017, On March 2, 2017, the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum awarded the annual Profile in Courage Award to Obama "for his enduring commitment to democratic ideals and elevating the standard of political courage."WEB, Former President Barack H. Obama Announced as Recipient of 2017 John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award,weblink John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum, April 8, 2017,weblink April 8, 2017, March 2, 2017, In his first public appearance out of office, Obama appeared at a seminar at the University of Chicago on April 24. The seminar was aimed at the engagement with a new generation as well as an appeal for their participation in politics.NEWS,weblink Obama Steps Back into Public Life, Trying to Avoid One Word: Trump, April 24, 2017, The New York Times, Michael D., Shear, On May 4, three days ahead of the French presidential election, Obama publicly endorsed Emmanuel Macron: "He appeals to people's hopes and not their fears, and I enjoyed speaking to Emmanuel recently to hear about his independent movement and his vision for the future of France."NEWS,weblink Obama endorses Macron in French election, May 4, 2017, Politico, Macron went on to win the election.While in Berlin on May 25, Obama made a joint public appearance with Chancellor Angela Merkel where he stressed inclusion and for leaders to question themselves, Obama having been formally invited to Berlin while still in office as part of an effort to boost Merkel's re-election campaign.NEWS,weblink Obama in Berlin: 'We can't hide behind a wall', Edward-Isaac, Dovere, Politico, May 25, 2017, Obama traveled to Kensington Palace in England and met with Prince Harry on May 27, 2017; Obama tweeted afterward that the two discussed their foundations and offering condolences in the wake of the Manchester Arena bombing that occurred five days prior.NEWS,weblink Obama visits Prince Harry at Kensington Palace, Brooke, Seipel, May 27, 2017, The Hill, After President Trump announced his withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement on June 1, Obama released a statement disagreeing with the choice: "But even in the absence of American leadership; even as this administration joins a small handful of nations that reject the future; I'm confident that our states, cities, and businesses will step up and do even more to lead the way, and help protect for future generations the one planet we've got."NEWS,weblink Obama pans Trump withdrawal from climate deal, MJ, Lee, June 1, 2017, CNN, File:Obama Macri October 2017.jpg|thumb|Obama playing golf with the President of Argentina Mauricio MacriMauricio MacriAfter Senate Republicans revealed the Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017, their discussion draft of a health care bill to replace the Affordable Care Act, on June 22, Obama released a Facebook post calling the bill "a massive transfer of wealth from middle-class and poor families to the richest people in America."NEWS,weblink Obama slams 'fundamental meanness' of Senate healthcare bill, June 22, 2017, Max, Greenwood, The Hill, On September 19, while delivering the keynote address at Goalkeepers, Obama admitted his frustration with Republicans backing "a bill that will raise costs, reduce coverage, and roll back protections for older Americans and people with pre-existing conditions".NEWS,weblink Barack Obama Criticizes '50th or 60th' Attempt to Repeal the Affordable Care Act, September 20, 2017, Alana, Abramson, Time, After Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced the termination of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program on September 5, Obama released a Facebook post rebuking the decision.NEWS,weblink Obama slams Trump for rescinding DACA, calls move 'cruel', Kevin, Liptak, CNN, September 5, 2017, Two days later, he partnered with former presidents Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush to work with One America Appeal to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma in the Gulf Coast and Texas communities.NEWS,weblink Former presidents fundraise for Irma disaster relief, Shelbourne, Mallory, September 10, 2017, The Hill, September 11, 2017, Obama hosted the inaugural summit of the Obama Foundation in Chicago on October 31. Obama intends for the foundation to be the central focus of his post-presidency and part of his ambitions for his subsequent activities following his presidency to be more consequential than his time in office.NEWS,weblink Obama, opening his foundation's first summit, calls for fixing civic culture, Politico, October 31, 2017, Obama has also been working on a Presidential memoir, in a reported $65 million deal with Penguin Random House.MAGAZINE,weblink Where Is Barack Obama?, Gabriel, Debenedetti, New York (magazine), New York, June 24, 2018, Obama went on an international trip from November 28 to December 2, 2017, and visited China, India and France. In China, he delivered remarks at the Global Alliance of SMEs Summit in Shanghai and met with Chinese President Xi Jinping in Beijing.NEWS, Haas, Benjamin, Obama and Xi: all smiles as 'veteran cadres' reunite in Beijing,weblink The Guardian, December 3, 2017, December 1, 2017, WEB, Zheng, Sarah, Obama to meet Xi in Beijing during three-day Asia trip,weblink South China Morning Post, December 3, 2017, en, November 29, 2017, He then went to India, where he spoke at the Hindustan Times Leadership Summit before meeting with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi over lunch. In addition, he held a town hall for young leaders, organized by the Obama Foundation.WEB, Nandy, Sumana, In New Delhi, Barack Obama's Message To Future Leaders: Highlights,weblink, December 3, 2017, WEB, Barack Obama to PM Narendra Modi: 'India should not be split on sectarian lines',weblink The Indian Express, December 3, 2017, December 2, 2017, He also met with the Dalai Lama while in New Delhi.WEB, Carter, Brandon, Obama meets with Dalai Lama during trip abroad,weblink TheHill, December 3, 2017, December 1, 2017, He ended his five-day trip in France where he met with French President Emmanuel Macron, former President Francois Hollande and Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo and then spoke at an invitation-only event, touching on climate issues.NEWS, Obama laments lack of U.S. climate leadership in Paris,weblink Reuters, December 3, 2017, 2017, Barack and Michelle Obama signed a deal on May 22, 2018 to produce docu-series, documentaries and features for Netflix under the Obama's newly formed production company, Higher Ground Productions. On the deal, Michelle said "I have always believed in the power of storytelling to inspire us, to make us think differently about the world around us, and to help us open our minds and hearts to others".WEB, Obamas Sign Deal With Netflix, Form 'Higher Ground Productions',weblink, September 17, 2018, en, WEB, Harris, Hunter, The Obamas Will Produce Movies and Shows for Netflix,weblink Vulture, September 17, 2018, en, May 21, 2018, A package that contained a pipe bomb was sent to Obama's home in Washington, D.C, on October 24, 2018. The package was intercepted by the Secret Service during routine mail screenings. Similar packages were sent to several other Democratic leaders, mostly those who voiced strong objections to the policies of Donald Trump and to CNN. Debbie Wasserman Schultz was addressed as the sender of the package. On October 26, 2018, Cesar Sayoc was arrested and faces five federal charges in Manhattan carrying a combined maximum sentence of 48 years behind bars in relation to the pipe bombs.NEWS, Kennedy, Merrit, Apparent 'Pipe Bombs' Mailed To Clinton, Obama And CNN,weblink October 25, 2018, NPR, October 24, 2018, NEWS, "Potentially destructive devices" sent to Clinton, Obama, CNN prompt massive response,weblink October 25, 2018, CBS News, October 24, 2018,


(File:Job Growth by U.S. President - v1.png|thumb|right|upright=1.7|Job growth during the presidency of Obama compared to predecessors, as measured as cumulative percentage change from month after inauguration to end of his term)Obama's most significant legacy is generally considered to be the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), provisions of which went into effect from 2010 to 2020. Many attempts by Senate Republicans to repeal the PPACA, including a "skinny repeal", have thus far failed.NEWS,weblink Obama Legacy Will Be Recovery from Recession, Affordable Care Act, January 20, 2017, ABC News, March 15, 2017, Together with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act amendment, it represents the U.S. healthcare system's most significant regulatory overhaul and expansion of coverage since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965.JOURNAL, Oberlander, Jonathan, Long Time Coming: Why Health Reform Finally Passed, Health Affairs, June 1, 2010, 29, 6, 1112–1116, 10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0447, 20530339, en, 0278-2715, JOURNAL, Blumenthal, David, Abrams, Melinda, Nuzum, Rachel, The Affordable Care Act at 5 Years, New England Journal of Medicine, June 18, 2015, 372, 25, 2451–2458, 10.1056/NEJMhpr1503614, 25946142, 0028-4793, BOOK, Cohen, Alan B., Colby, David C., Wailoo, Keith A., Zelizer, Julian E., Medicare and Medicaid at 50: America's Entitlement Programs in the Age of Affordable Care, June 1, 2015, Oxford University Press, 978-0190231569,weblink en, NEWS, Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, Pear, Robert, Obama Signs Health Care Overhaul into Law,weblink The New York Times, March 23, 2010, Many commentators credit Obama with averting a threatened depression and pulling the economy back from the Great Recession. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Obama administration created 11.3 million jobs from the month after his first inauguration to the end of his term.NEWS, Long, Heather, Final tally: Obama created 11.3 million jobs,weblink CNN, January 6, 2017, In 2010, Obama signed into effect the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. Passed as a response to the financial crisis of 2007–08, it brought the most significant changes to financial regulation in the United States since the regulatory reform that followed the Great Depression under Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt.NEWS,weblink Barack Obama's Legacy: Dodd-Frank Wall Street reform, CBS News, March 15, 2017, In 2009, Obama signed into law the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which contained in it the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, the first addition to existing federal hate crime law in the United States since Democratic President Bill Clinton signed into law the Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996. The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act expanded existing federal hate crime laws in the United States to apply to crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability, and dropped the prerequisite that the victim be engaging in a federally protected activity.As president, Obama advanced LGBT rights.Crary, David (January 4, 2017), "LGBT activists view Obama as staunch champion of their cause", Associated Press. In 2010, he signed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act, which brought an end to "don't ask, don't tell" policy in the U.S. armed forces that banned open service from LGB people; the law went into effect the following year.Bumiller, Elisabeth (July 22, 2011), Obama Ends 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell' Policy, The New York Times. In 2016, his administration brought an end to the ban on transgender people serving openly in the U.S. armed forces.NEWS, Pentagon Says Transgender Troops Can Now Serve Openly,weblink June 30, 2016, Merrit Kennedy, NPR, A Gallup poll, taken in the final days of Obama's term, showed that 68% of Americans believed the U.S. had made progress in the situation for gays and lesbians during Obama's eight years in office.Michael Smith & Frank Newport, Americans Assess Progress Under Obama, The Gallup Organization (January 9, 2017).Obama substantially escalated the use of drone strikes against suspected militants and terrorists associated with al-Qaeda and the Taliban.NEWS, Zenko, Micah, January 12, 2016, Obama's Embrace of Drone Strikes Will Be a Lasting Legacy,weblink The New York Times, March 2, 2019, WEB,weblink Targeted Killings, Council on Foreign Relations, In 2016, the last year of his presidency, the US dropped 26,171 bombs on seven different countries.NEWS, Grandin, Greg, January 15, 2017, Why Did the US Drop 26,171 Bombs on the World Last Year?,weblink The Nation, Greg Grandin, January 11, 2018, NEWS, Agerholm, Harriet, January 19, 2017, Map shows where President Barack Obama dropped his 20,000 bombs,weblink The Independent, January 11, 2018, Obama left about 8,400 US troops in Afghanistan, 5,262 in Iraq, 503 in Syria, 133 in Pakistan, 106 in Somalia, seven in Yemen, and two in Libya at the end of his presidency.NEWS, Parsons, Christi, Hennigan, W. J., President Obama, who hoped to sow peace, instead led the nation in war,weblink Los Angeles Times, January 13, 2017, WEB,weblink DoD Personnel, Workforce Reports & Publications,, According to Pew Research Center and United States Bureau of Justice Statistics, from December 31, 2009, to December 31, 2015, inmates sentenced in US federal custody declined by five percent. This is the largest decline in sentenced inmates in US federal custody since Democratic President Jimmy Carter. By contrast, the federal prison population increased significantly under presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush.WEB, Gramlich, John, Federal prison population fell during Obama's term, reversing recent trend,weblink Pew Research Center, January 5, 2017, Obama left office in January 2017 with a 60% approval rating.NEWS,weblink Obama leaving office at 60% approval rating, United Press International, February 26, 2017, en, NEWS,weblink Obama approval hits 60% as end of term approaches, Director, Jennifer Agiesta, CNN, February 26, 2017, CNN, A 2018 survey of historians by the American Political Science Association ranked Obama the 8th-greatest American President.NEWS,weblink How Does Trump Stack Up Against the Best — and Worst — Presidents?, The New York Times, Rottinghaus, Brandon, Justin S. Vaughn, February 19, 2018, February 19, 2018, Obama gained 10 spots from the same survey in 2015 from the Brookings Institution that ranked Obama the 18th-greatest American President.WEB,weblink Measuring Obama against the great presidents, Rottinghaus, Brandon, Justin S. Vaughn, February 13, 2015, Brookings,

Presidential library

The Barack Obama Presidential Center is Obama's planned presidential library. It will be hosted by the University of Chicago and located in Jackson Park on the South Side of Chicago.WEB,weblink Obama Foundation FAQs, Barack Obama Foundation,



  • 2006: The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream (read by the author), Random House Audio, {{ISBN|978-0739366417}}

See also

{{Wikipedia books|Barack Obama}}




Notes and references


{{Reflist|30em|refs=WEB, April 27, 2011, Certificate of Live Birth: Barack Hussein Obama II, August 4, 1961, 7:24 pm, Honolulu, Department of Health, State of Hawaii, The White House,weblink March 11, 2017,weblink March 3, 2017,
  • WEB, 2009, American President: Barack Obama, Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia,weblink January 23, 2009, Religion: Christian,weblink" title="">weblink January 23, 2009, dead,
  • WEB, The Truth about Barack's Faith, Obama for America,weblink July 1, 2012, January 5, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink
  • NEWS, Miller, Lisa, July 18, 2008, Finding his faith, Newsweek,weblink February 4, 2010, He is now a Christian, having been baptized in the early 1990s at Trinity United Church of Christ in Chicago.,weblink" title="">weblink February 6, 2010, live,
  • NEWS, Barakat, Matthew, Associated Press, November 17, 2008, Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized; D.C. churches have started extending invitations to Obama and his family, MSNBC,weblink January 20, 2009, The United Church of Christ, the denomination from which Obama resigned when he left Wright's church, issued a written invitation to join a UCC denomination in Washington and resume his connections to the church.,weblink" title="">weblink January 24, 2009, live,
  • WEB, January 20, 2009, Barack Obama, long time UCC member, inaugurated forty-fourth U.S. President, United Church of Christ,weblink January 21, 2009, Barack Obama, who spent more than 20 years as a UCC member, is the forty-fourth President of the United States.,weblink" title="">weblink January 25, 2009, live,
  • NEWS, Sullivan, Amy, June 29, 2009, The Obama's find a church home â€“ away from home, Time,weblink February 5, 2010, instead of joining a congregation in Washington, D.C., he will follow in George W. Bush's footsteps and make his primary place of worship Evergreen Chapel, the nondenominational church at Camp David.,
  • NEWS, Kornblut, Anne E., February 4, 2010, Obama's spirituality is largely private, but it's influential, advisers say, The Washington Post, A6,weblink February 5, 2010, Obama prays privately ... And when he takes his family to Camp David on the weekends, a Navy chaplain ministers to them, with the daughters attending a form of Sunday school there.,
NEWS, Gordon, Larry, January 29, 2007, Occidental recalls 'Barry' Obama, Los Angeles Times, B1,weblink May 12, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink May 24, 2010,
  • NEWS, Possley, Maurice, March 30, 2007, Activism blossomed in college, Chicago Tribune, 20,weblink May 12, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink October 9, 2010, live,
  • NEWS, Kovaleski, Serge F., February 9, 2008, Old friends say drugs played bit part in Obama's young life, The New York Times, A1,weblink May 12, 2010,
  • NEWS, Rohter, Larry, April 10, 2008, Obama says real-life experience trumps rivals' foreign policy credits, The New York Times, A18,weblink May 12, 2010,
  • NEWS, Goldman, Adam, Robert Tanner, Associated Press, May 15, 2008, Old friends recall Obama's years in LA, NYC, USA Today,weblink May 12, 2010,
  • NEWS, Helman, Scott, August 25, 2008, Small college awakened future senator to service (subscription archive), Boston Globe, 1A,weblink May 12, 2010,
  • NEWS, Jackson, Brooks, June 5, 2009, More 'birther' nonsense: Obama's 1981 Pakistan trip,,weblink May 12, 2010,
  • BOOK, Remnick, David, 2010, The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 98–112, 978-1400043606, The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama,
  • Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 92–112.
  • Mendell (2007), pp. 55–62.
WEB,weblink Obama joins list of seven presidents with Harvard degrees, November 6, 2008,, October 23, 2017, NEWS, Adams, Richard, May 9, 2007, Barack Obama, The Guardian, London,weblink October 26, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink October 13, 2008, live, MAGAZINE, Merriner, James L., June 2008, The friends of O, Chicago, 57, 6, 74–79, 97–99, 0362-4595,weblink January 30, 2010,
  • NEWS, Zengerle, Jason, July 30, 2008, Con law; What the University of Chicago right thinks of Obama, The New Republic, 239, 1, 7–8,weblink January 30, 2010,
  • NEWS, Kantor, Jodi, July 30, 2008, Teaching law, testing ideas, Obama stood slightly apart, The New York Times, A1,weblink January 30, 2010,
  • NEWS, Gray, Steven, September 10, 2008, Taking professor Obama's class, Time,weblink January 30, 2010,
  • NEWS, Starr, Alexandra, September 21, 2008, Case study, The New York Times Magazine, 76,weblink January 30, 2010,
  • NEWS, Hundley, Tom, March 22, 2009, Ivory tower of power, Chicago Tribune Magazine, 6,weblink January 30, 2010,
BOOK, White, Jesse, 2000, Illinois Blue Book, 2000, Millennium ed, 83, Springfield, IL, Illinois Secretary of State,weblink April 16, 2004,weblink" title="">weblink 43923973, June 6, 2008,
  • NEWS, Jarrett, Vernon, August 11, 1992, 'Project Vote' brings power to the people, Chicago Sun-Times, 23, paid archive,weblink June 6, 2008,
  • NEWS, Reynolds, Gretchen, January 1993, Vote of confidence, Chicago Magazine, 42, 1, 53–54, 0362-4595,weblink June 6, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink May 14, 2008, live,
  • NEWS, Anderson, Veronica, October 3, 1993, 40 under Forty: Barack Obama, Director, Illinois Project Vote, Crain's Chicago Business, 16, 39, 43, 0149-6956,
NEWS, Robinson, Mike, Associated Press, February 20, 2007, Obama got start in civil rights practice, Boston Globe,weblink June 15, 2008,
  • NEWS, Pallasch, Abdon M., December 17, 2007, As lawyer, Obama was strong, silent type; He was 'smart, innovative, relentless,' and he mostly let other lawyers do the talking, Chicago Sun-Times, 4,weblink June 15, 2008, {{subscription required}}
  • NEWS, Morain, Dan, April 6, 2008, Obama's law days effective but brief, Los Angeles Times, A14,weblink February 14, 2010,
  • NEWS, June 27, 1993, Document, Chicago Tribune, 9 (Business),weblink June 15, 2008,weblink December 4, 2013, dead, {{subscription required}}
  • NEWS, July 5, 1993, Business appointments, Chicago-Sun-Times, 40,weblink June 15, 2008, {{subscription required}}
  • NEWS, Ripley, Amanda, November 3, 2004, Obama's ascent, Time,weblink February 13, 2010,
  • WEB, 2008, About us,weblink Miner, Barnhill & Galland â€“ Chicago, Illinois, June 15, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink July 20, 2008, dead,
  • NEWS, Reardon, Patrick T., June 25, 2008, Obama's Chicago, Chicago Tribune, 1 (Tempo),weblink February 13, 2010,
  • Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 438–439.
  • Mendell (2007), pp. 104–106.
WEB,weblink Federal Elections 2000: U.S. House Results â€“ Illinois, Federal Election Commission, April 24, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink March 28, 2008, live,
  • NEWS,weblink Obama's Loss May Have Aided White House Bid, Gonyea, Dan, September 19, 2007, NPR,weblink" title="">weblink February 18, 2011,
  • NEWS, Janny, Scott, A Streetwise Veteran Schooled Young Obama, September 9, 2007,weblink The New York Times, April 20, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink March 21, 2008, live,
  • NEWS, Edward, McClelland, How Obama Learned to Be a Natural, February 12, 2007,weblink Salon, April 20, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink March 8, 2008, live,
  • NEWS, Richard, Wolffe, Daren Briscoe, Across the Divide, July 16, 2007, Newsweek,weblink April 20, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink April 18, 2008, live,
  • NEWS, Scott, Helman, Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb, October 12, 2007,weblink Boston Globe, April 20, 2008,
  • NEWS,weblink Obama learned from failed Congress run, USA Today, Wills, Christopher, October 24, 2007, November 15, 2010,
WEB, Office of the Press Secretary, October 2, 2002, President, House leadership agree on Iraq resolution, The White House,weblink February 18, 2008,
  • NEWS, Tackett, Michael, October 3, 2002, Bush, House OK Iraq deal; Congress marches with Bush, Chicago Tribune, 1,weblink February 3, 2008, {{subscription required}}
NEWS, Glauber, Bill, October 3, 2003, War protesters gentler, but passion still burns, Chicago Tribune, 1,weblink February 3, 2008, {{subscription required}}
  • NEWS, Strausberg, Chinta, October 3, 2002, War with Iraq undermines U.N, Chicago Defender, 1,weblink Photo caption: Left Photo: Sen. Barack Obama along with Rev. Jesse Jackson spoke to nearly 3,000 anti-war protestors (below) during a rally at Federal Plaza Wednesday., October 28, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink October 14, 2009, dead, mdy-all,
  • WEB, Katz, Marilyn, October 2, 2007, Five years since our first action, Chicagoans Against War & Injustice,weblink February 18, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink July 21, 2011,
  • NEWS, Greg Bryant, Jane B. Vaughn, October 3, 2002, 300 attend rally against Iraq war, Daily Herald, 8,weblink October 28, 2008, {{subscription required}}
  • Mendell (2007), pp. 172–177.
WEB, Obama, Barack, October 2, 2002, Remarks of Illinois State Sen. Barack Obama against going to war with Iraq,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink January 30, 2008, Barack Obama, February 3, 2008,
  • NEWS, McCormick, John, October 3, 2007, Obama marks '02 war speech; Contender highlights his early opposition in effort to distinguish him from his rivals, Chicago Tribune, 7,weblink The top strategist for Sen. Barack Obama has just 14 seconds of video of what is one of the most pivotal moments of the presidential candidate's political career. The video, obtained from a Chicago TV station, is of Obama's 2002 speech in opposition to the impending Iraq invasion., October 28, 2008, {{Subscription required}}
  • NEWS, Pallasch, Abdon M., October 3, 2007, Obama touts anti-war cred; Kicks off tour 5 years after speech critical of going to Iraq, Chicago Sun-Times, 26,weblink October 28, 2008, {{subscription required}}
NEWS, Ritter, Jim, March 17, 2003, Chicago Sun-Times, 3, Anti-war rally here draws thousands,weblink February 3, 2008, {{subscription required}}
  • PRESS RELEASE, Office of the Press Secretary, March 16, 2003, President Bush: Monday 'moment of truth' for world on Iraq, The White House,weblink February 18, 2008,
NEWS, Mendell, David, March 17, 2004, Obama routs Democratic foes; Ryan tops crowded GOP field; Hynes, Hull fall far short across state, Chicago Tribune, 1,weblink March 1, 2009,
  • NEWS, Davey, Monica, March 18, 2004, As quickly as overnight, a Democratic star is born, The New York Times, A20,weblink March 1, 2009,
  • NEWS, Howlett, Debbie, March 19, 2004, Dems see a rising star in Illinois Senate candidate, USA Today, A04,weblink March 1, 2009,
  • NEWS, Scheiber, Noam, May 31, 2004, Race against history. Barack Obama's miraculous campaign, The New Republic, 230, 20, 21–22, 24–26 (cover story),weblink March 24, 2009,
  • NEWS, Finnegan, William, May 31, 2004, The Candidate. How far can Barack Obama go?, The New Yorker, 20, 14, 32–38,weblink March 24, 2009,
  • NEWS, Dionne Jr., E.J., June 25, 2004, In Illinois, a star prepares, The Washington Post, A29,weblink March 24, 2009,
  • NEWS, Scott, Janny, May 18, 2008, The story of Obama, written by Obama, The New York Times, A1,weblink January 9, 2010,
  • Mendell (2007), pp. 235–259.
NEWS, August 2, 2004, Star Power. Showtime: Some are on the rise; others have long been fixtures in the firmament. A galaxy of bright Democratic lights, Newsweek, 48–51,weblink November 15, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 18, 2008, live,
  • NEWS, Samuel, Terence, August 2, 2004, A shining star named Obama. How a most unlikely politician became a darling of the Democrats, U.S. News & World Report, 25,weblink November 15, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 6, 2008, dead,
  • NEWS, Lizza, Ryan, September 2004, Why is Barack Obama generating more excitement among Democrats than John Kerry?, The Atlantic Monthly, 30, 33,weblink November 15, 2008,
  • NEWS, Davey, Monica, July 26, 2004, A surprise Senate contender reaches his biggest stage yet, The New York Times, A1,weblink November 25, 2010,
  • NEWS, Leibovich, Mark, July 27, 2004, The other man of the hour, The Washington Post, C1,weblink November 15, 2008,
  • NEWS, Milligan, Susan, July 27, 2004, In Obama, Democrats see their future, Boston Globe, B8,weblink November 15, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 18, 2008, live,
  • NEWS, Seelye, Katharine Q., July 28, 2004, Illinois Senate nominee speaks of encompassing unity, The New York Times, A1,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink June 24, 2006,
  • NEWS, Broder, David S., July 28, 2004, Democrats focus on healing divisions; Addressing convention, newcomers set themes, The Washington Post, A1,weblink November 15, 2008,
  • NEWS, Jonathan Bing, Pamela McClintock, July 29, 2004, Auds resist charms of Dem stars, Variety, 1,weblink November 15, 2008,
  • Mendell (2007), pp. 272–285.
NEWS, 2005, America Votes 2004: U.S. Senate / Illinois, CNN,weblink April 13, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink April 16, 2008, live,
  • NEWS, Slevin, Peter, November 13, 2007, For Obama, a handsome payoff in political gambles, The Washington Post, A3,weblink April 13, 2008,
  • NEWS, John Chase, David Mendell, November 3, 2004, Obama scores a record landslide, Chicago Tribune, 1,weblink April 3, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 13, 2011, mdy-all,
  • NEWS, Fornek, Scott, November 3, 2004, Obama takes Senate seat in a landslide, Chicago Sun-Times, 6,weblink April 3, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink May 10, 2013, dead, mdy-all,
  • NEWS, Tom, Curry, What Obama's Senate Votes Reveal, February 21, 2008,weblink MSNBC, June 25, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink May 13, 2008, live,
  • NEWS,weblink Obama: Most Liberal Senator In 2007, National Journal, January 31, 2008, June 25, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink June 27, 2008, dead,
NEWS,weblink Obama resigns Senate seat, thanks Illinois, March 10, 2009, November 16, 2008, Reuters, Mason, Jeff,
  • NEWS,weblink Obama to Resign Senate Seat on Sunday, November 22, 2008, November 13, 2008, Time, Sidoti, Liz,weblink" title="">weblink November 22, 2008, dead,
PRESS RELEASE, Obama, Schiff Provision to Create Nuclear Threat Reduction Plan Approved, December 20, 2007,weblink Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office,weblink" title="">weblink December 18, 2008, NEWS, Christina, Larson, Hoosier Daddy: What Rising Democratic Star Barack Obama Can Learn from an Old Lion of the GOP, September 2006,weblink Washington Monthly, April 27, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink April 30, 2008, dead,
  • NEWS, Chuck, Goudie, Obama Meets with Arafat's Successor, January 12, 2006,weblink WLS-TV, Chicago, April 27, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink November 3, 2014, dead,
  • NEWS, Obama Slates Kenya for Fraud, August 28, 2006,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink June 5, 2008, News24, Cape Town, April 27, 2008, dead,
  • NEWS, Chris, Wamalwa, Envoy Hits at Obama Over Graft Remark, September 2, 2006,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink October 10, 2007, The Standard (Nairobi), April 27, 2008,
  • NEWS, Vincent, Moracha, Mangoa Mosota, Leaders Support Obama on Graft Claims, September 4, 2006,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink October 7, 2007, The Standard, Nairobi,
NEWS,weblink The Five Mistakes Clinton Made, Tumulty, Karen, Karen Tumulty, Time, May 8, 2008, November 11, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 11, 2008, live,
  • NEWS,weblink The Long Road to a Clinton Exit, Peter Baker, Jim Rutenberg, The New York Times, June 8, 2008, November 29, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 9, 2008, live,
NEWS, Baldwin, Tom, Hillary Clinton: 'Barack is my candidate',weblink The Times, London, August 27, 2008, August 27, 2008, {{subscription required}}
  • NEWS,weblink Obama Wins Nomination as Biden and Bill Clinton Rally the Party, The New York Times, Nagourney, Adam, August 27, 2008, August 27, 2008,
NEWS, Obama accepts Democrat nomination,weblink BBC News, August 29, 2008, August 29, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink August 28, 2008, live,
  • NEWS,weblink Soaring speech from Obama, plus some specifics, The Christian Science Monitor, Marks, Alexandra, August 29, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink March 14, 2010,
NEWS, Jim, Malone, Obama Fundraising Suggests Close Race for Party Nomination, July 2, 2007,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink September 14, 2007, Voice of America,
  • NEWS, Jeanne, Cummings, Small Donors Rewrite Fundraising Handbook, September 26, 2007,weblink Politico, January 14, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink February 1, 2008, dead,
  • NEWS, Emily, Cadei, Obama Outshines Other Candidates in January Fundraising, February 21, 2008,weblink CQ Politics,weblink" title="">weblink June 13, 2008,
PRESS RELEASE,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 6, 2008, Commission on Presidential Debates Announces Sites, Dates, Formats and Candidate Selection Criteria for 2008 General Election, Commission on Presidential Debates, November 19, 2007, NEWS, MSNBC, February 20, 2009, November 4, 2008,weblink Barack Obama elected 44th president, Johnson, Alex,weblink" title="">weblink February 20, 2009, live,
  • NEWS,weblink CNN Electoral Map Calculator â€“ Election Center 2008, CNN, 2008, December 14, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 12, 2008, live,
NEWS,weblink Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget, Stimulus Watch, April 9, 2011,
  • NEWS,weblink Obama's remarks on signing the stimulus plan, February 17, 2009, CNN, February 17, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink February 20, 2009, live,
NEWS, U.S. Expands Plan to Buy Banks' Troubled Assets, March 23, 2009, The New York Times,weblink Edmund L., Andrews, Eric, Dash, April 12, 2010,
  • NEWS, Wall Street soars 7% on bank plan debut, March 23, 2009, Reuters,weblink
NEWS, Biden vows break with Bush era foreign policy,weblink January 31, 2013, Ross, Colvin, Noah, Barkin,, Toronto, February 7, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink November 6, 2012, dead,
  • NEWS, Kim, Ghattas, Clinton's gaffes and gains on tour,weblink June 15, 2009, BBC News, March 8, 2009,
NEWS,weblink Obama in Egypt reaches out to Muslim world, June 4, 2009, CNN, January 30, 2011,
  • NEWS, Jeff, Zeleny, Alan, Cowell,weblink Addressing Muslims, Obama Pushes Mideast Peace, The New York Times, June 4, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink March 31, 2011,
  • WEB,weblink The President in the Middle East, June 3, 2009, Jesse, Lee, The White House, June 4, 2009,weblink July 2, 2009, live,
NEWS,weblink Top U.S. Commander in Afghanistan Is Fired, May 12, 2009, The Washington Post,
  • NEWS,weblink New U.S. Commander Brings Counterinsurgency Experience to Afghanistan, May 13, 2009, Fox News Channel, May 30, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink February 16, 2012, dead, mdy-all,
NEWS,weblink Obama: Oratory and originality, Holmes, Stephanie, November 30, 2008, December 11, 2008, The Age, Melbourne,weblink" title="">weblink December 18, 2008, live,
  • NEWS,weblink How to Inspire People Like Obama Does, Gallo, Carmine, March 3, 2008, February 21, 2009, Bloomberg BusinessWeek,weblink" title="">weblink February 26, 2009, live,
  • NEWS,weblink New emotion dubbed 'elevation', December 11, 2008, Toronto Star, December 11, 2008, Diana, Zlomislic,weblink" title="">weblink December 12, 2008, live,
  • NEWS, Obama Is America's Third Greatest Presidential Orator in Modern Era,weblink January 25, 2011, Richard, Greene, HuffPost, July 2, 2011,
WEB, Obama's Indonesian Redux,weblink Zimmer, Benjamin, 2009, March 12, 2009, Language Log,weblink" title="">weblink March 3, 2009, live,
  • NEWS,weblink Obama: Saya Kangen Nasi Goreng, Bakso, dan Rambutan, Kompas, November 26, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 3, 2008, id,
NEWS,weblink Obama says he regrets land deal with fundraiser, The Washington Post, December 17, 2006, June 10, 2008, Slevin, Peter,
  • NEWS,weblink Rezko found guilty in corruption case, June 24, 2008, June 4, 2008, Associated Press, MSNBC, Robinson, Mike,weblink" title="">weblink June 7, 2008, live,
Obama (2006), pp. 202–208. Portions excerpted in: NEWS, Barack, Obama, My Spiritual Journey, October 16, 2006,weblink Time, April 28, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink April 30, 2008, live,
  • WEB,weblink 'Call to Renewal' Keynote Address, June 16, 2008, Obama, Barack, June 28, 2006, Barack Obama: U.S. Senator for Illinois,weblink" title="">weblink January 4, 2009,
NEWS, Garrett, Major, Obama, Barack, March 14, 2008, Obama talks to Major Garrett on 'Hannity & Colmes', RealClearPolitics,weblink November 10, 2012, Major Garrett, Fox News correspondent: So the first question, how long have you been a member in good standing of that church? Sen. Barack Obama (D-IL), presidential candidate: You know, I've been a member since 1991 or '92. And â€“ but I have known Trinity even before then when I was a community organizer on the South Side, helping steel workers find jobs ... Garrett: As a member in good standing, were you a regular attendee of Sunday services? Obama: You know, I won't say that I was a perfect attendee. I was regular in spurts, because there was times when, for example, our child had just been born, our first child. And so we didn't go as regularly then.,
  • NEWS, Associated Press, April 29, 2008, Obama strongly denounces former pastor, MSNBC,weblink November 10, 2012, I have been a member of Trinity United Church of Christ since 1992, and have known Reverend Wright for 20 years. The person I saw yesterday was not the person [whom] I met 20 years ago.,
  • NEWS, Miller, Lisa, July 11, 2008, Finding his faith, Newsweek,weblink November 10, 2012, He is now a Christian, having been baptized in the early 1990s at Trinity United Church of Christ in Chicago.,weblink" title="">weblink July 20, 2013, dead,
  • BOOK, Remnick, David, 2010, The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, [ 177], 978-1400043606, In late October 1987, his third year as an organizer, Obama went with Kellman to a conference on the black church and social justice at the Harvard Divinity School., The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama,
  • Maraniss (2012), p. 557: It would take time for Obama to join and become fully engaged in Wright's church, a place where he would be baptized and married; that would not happen until later, during his second time around in Chicago, but the process started then, in October 1987 ... Jerry Kellman: "He wasn't a member of the church during those first three years, but he was drawn to Jeremiah."
  • BOOK, Baker, Peter, Peter Baker (author), 2017, Obama: The Call of History, New York, The New York Times/Callaway, 978-0935112900, 1002264033,


  • BOOK, Jacobs, Sally H., 2011, The Other Barack: The Bold and Reckless Life of President Obama's Father, New York, PublicAffairs, 978-1586487935, harv, The Other Barack: The Bold and Reckless Life of President Obama's Father,
  • BOOK, Maraniss, David, 2012, Barack Obama: The Story, New York, Simon & Schuster, 978-1439160404, harv, Barack Obama: The Story, David Maraniss,
  • BOOK, Mendell, David, 2007, Obama: From Promise to Power, New York, Amistad/HarperCollins, 978-0-06-085820-9, harv, Obama: From Promise to Power, David Mendell,
  • BOOK, Obama, Barack, 1st pub. 1995, 2004, Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance, New York, Three Rivers Press, 978-1400082773, harv, Dreams from My Father,
  • BOOK, Obama, Barack, 2006, The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream, New York, Crown Publishing Group, 978-0307237699, harv, The Audacity of Hope,
  • BOOK, Scott, Janny, 2011, A Singular Woman: The Untold Story of Barack Obama's Mother, New York, Riverhead Books, 978-1594487972, A Singular Woman: The Untold Story of Barack Obama's Mother,

Further reading

  • MAGAZINE, Graff, Garrett M., November 1, 2006, The Legend of Barack Obama,weblink Washingtonian, January 14, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 14, 2008,
  • BOOK, Koltun, Dave, Ahuja, Sunil, Dewhirst, Robert, 2005, The Road to Congress 2004, The 2004 Illinois Senate Race: Obama Wins Open Seat and Becomes National Political "Star", Hauppauge, New York, Nova Science Publishers, 978-1-59454-360-9, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Lizza, Ryan, September 2007, Above the Fray,weblink GQ, October 27, 2010,
  • MAGAZINE, Larissa MacFarquhar, May 7, 2007, The Conciliator: Where is Barack Obama Coming From?,weblink The New Yorker, January 14, 2008, Larissa MacFarquhar,
  • BOOK, McClelland, Edward, 2010, Young Mr. Obama: Chicago and the Making of a Black President, New York, Bloomsbury Press, 978-1608190607,
  • NEWS, Zutter, Hank De, December 8, 1995, What Makes Obama Run?,weblink Chicago Reader, April 25, 2015,

External links

{{Library resources box|by=yes|onlinebooks=yes|viaf=52010985}}



  • Column archive at The Huffington Post
  • {{Britannica|973560}}
  • Obama B. (United States Health Care Reform: Progress to Date and Next Steps). JAMA. Published online July 11, 2016. {{DOI|10.1001/jama.2016.9797}}.
  • Teague Beckwith, Ryan (March 23, 2017). "weblink" title="">Read Barack Obama's Statement on the Anniversary of Obamacare". Time magazine. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017. See also: Taylor, Jessica (March 23, 2017). "weblink" title="">Obama: 'America Is Stronger Because Of The Affordable Care Act'". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  • Obama B. "The President's Role in Advancing Criminal Justice Reform". Harvard Law Review. Published January 5, 2017.
  • {{Curlie|Regional/North_America/United_States/Government/Executive_Branch/President/POTUS_Barack_Obama}}
  • {{CongBio|O000167}}
  • {{C-SPAN|Barack Obama}}
  • {{ChicagoTribuneKeyword}}
  • Collected news and commentary at the Tampa Bay Times{{'}}s
  • Collected news and commentary at The Washington Post{{'}}s Fact Checker blog
  • "weblink" title="">Barack Obama is officially one of the most consequential presidents in American history" by Vox author Dylan Matthews on March 24, 2017. Archived from the original on March 24, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2017. The article describes the successes and failures of Barack Obama's domestic and foreign policy as well as provides articles for further reading in this context.
  • SERIAL, Making Obama,weblink 2018, Making, 2, WBEZ, "Former President Barack Obama—along with key advisers, mentors, and rivals—tells the story of his climb from Chicago to the national stage."
  • {{Gutenberg author | id=Obama,+Barack | name=Barack Obama}}
  • {{Internet Archive author | name=Barack Obama}}
  • {{Librivox author |id=11252}}
  • {{IMDb name}}
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