Duke University

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Duke University
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{{short description|Private university in Durham, North Carolina, United States}}{{Use mdy dates|date=September 2019}}{{Featured article}}

| motto = Eruditio et Religio (Latin)PUBLISHER=DUKE DIVINITY SCHOOL URL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=JULY 2, 2011, | established = 1838Private university>PrivateUnited Methodist ChurchHTTP://LIBRARY.DUKE.EDU/UARCHIVES/HISTORY/DUKE-UMCHH-BASIC.HTMLQUOTE=DUKE UNIVERSITY HAS HISTORICAL, FORMAL, ON-GOING, AND SYMBOLIC TIES WITH METHODISM, BUT IS AN INDEPENDENT AND NON-SECTARIAN INSTITUTION ... DUKE WOULD NOT BE THE INSTITUTION IT IS TODAY WITHOUT ITS TIES TO THE METHODIST CHURCH. HOWEVER, THE METHODIST CHURCH DOES NOT OWN OR DIRECT THE UNIVERSITY. DUKE IS AND HAS DEVELOPED AS A PRIVATE NONPROFIT CORPORATION WHICH IS OWNED AND GOVERNED BY AN AUTONOMOUS AND SELF-PERPETUATING BOARD OF TRUSTEESYEAR=2002URL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=JUNE 12, 2010, {edih}PUBLISHER=NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUSINESS OFFICERS AND COMMONFUND INSTITUTE ACCESS-DATE=MAY 21, 2019, (The university is also the primary beneficiary (32%) of the independent $3.69 billion Duke Endowment)HTTPS://DUKEENDOWMENT.ORG/ABOUT/ABOUT-THE-ENDOWMENT >TITLE=ABOUT THE DUKE ENDOWMENT ACCESSDATE=MAY 21, 2019, DATE=NOVEMBER 15, 2016, May 22, 2017, DATE=DECEMBER 3, 2016, July 1, 2017, | students = 15,892 (Fall 2018)| undergrad = 6,994 (Fall 2018)| postgrad = 8,898 (Fall 2018)| faculty = 3,774 (September 2018)8,664 Campus Employees|39,525 Total University & Health System Employees (as of September 2018) }}Durham, North Carolina>Durham| state = North Carolina| country = United States3647820type:edu_region:US-NC|display=inline,title}}Suburban area>Suburban/Urban area{{convert>8691km2abbr=on}}{{nowrap{{nowrap{{nowrap{{nowrap|Trinity College (1859–1924)}}}}Duke blue, whiteTHE ORIGIN OF DUKE BLUEPUBLISHER=DUKE UNIVERSITY ARCHIVESPUBLISHER=DUKE UNIVERSITY#001A57}} {{color box|#FFFFFF}}Duke Blue Devils>Blue DevilsNCAA Division I NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision>FBS –}}| logo = Duke University logo.svg| logo_size = 150}}Duke University is a private research university in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892.WEB,weblink Duke University: A Brief Narrative History, King, William E, Duke University Archives, May 23, 2011, In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James Buchanan Duke established The Duke Endowment and the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke.Duke's campus spans over {{convert|8600|acre|ha|abbr=off}} on three contiguous sub-campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort. The West Campus—designed largely by architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture with the {{convert|210|ft|abbr=off|sp=us|adj=on}} Duke Chapel at the campus' center and highest point of elevation, is adjacent to the Medical Center. East Campus, {{convert|1.5|mi|km|abbr=off|sp=us}} away, home to all first-years, contains Georgian-style architecture. The university administers two concurrent schools in Asia, Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore (established in 2005) and Duke Kunshan University in Kunshan, China (established in 2013).{{as of|2019||df=}}, 15 Nobel laureates and 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the university. Duke alumni also include 46 Rhodes Scholars and 25 Churchill Scholars.WEB,weblink Colleges and Universities with U.S. Rhodes Scholarship Winners {{!, The Rhodes Scholarships||access-date=May 31, 2019}} The university has produced the fifth-highest number of Rhodes, Marshall, Truman, Goldwater, and Udall Scholars of any American university between 1986 and 2015.Top Scholar Rankings: 1986–2015 {{Webarchive|url= |date=September 5, 2015 }} . Kansas State University, 2015. Retrieved September 16, 2015.



File:Wdukebuild.jpg|thumb|alt=Early 20th-century black-and-white photo of three-story building|One of the first buildings on the original Durham campus (East Campus), the Washington Duke Building ("Old Main"), was destroyed by a fire in 1911]]Duke started in 1838 as Brown's Schoolhouse, a private subscription school founded in Randolph County in the present-day town of Trinity.WEB,weblink A Chronology of Significant Events in Duke University's History, Duke University Archives, May 23, 2011, Organized by the Union Institute Society, a group of Methodists and Quakers, Brown's Schoolhouse became the Union Institute Academy in 1841 when North Carolina issued a charter. The academy was renamed Normal College in 1851 and then Trinity College in 1859 because of support from the Methodist Church. In 1892, Trinity College moved to Durham, largely due to generosity from Julian S. Carr and Washington Duke, powerful and respected Methodists who had grown wealthy through the tobacco and electrical industries. Carr donated land in 1892 for the original Durham campus, which is now known as East Campus. At the same time, Washington Duke gave the school $85,000 for an initial endowment and construction costs—later augmenting his generosity with three separate $100,000 contributions in 1896, 1899, and 1900—with the stipulation that the college "open its doors to women, placing them on an equal footing with men."JOURNAL,weblink Pyatt, Tim, November–December 2006, Retrospective: Selections from University Archives, Duke Magazine, Duke Office of Alumni Affairs, 92, 6, May 23, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 15, 2011, In 1924 Washington Duke's son, James B. Duke, established The Duke Endowment with a $40 million trust fund. Income from the fund was to be distributed to hospitals, orphanages, the Methodist Church, and four colleges (including Trinity College). William Preston Few, the president of Trinity at the time, insisted that the institution be renamed Duke University to honor the family's generosity and to distinguish it from the myriad other colleges and universities carrying the "Trinity" name. At first, James B. Duke thought the name change would come off as self-serving, but eventually he accepted Few's proposal as a memorial to his father. Money from the endowment allowed the University to grow quickly. Duke's original campus, East Campus, was rebuilt from 1925 to 1927 with Georgian-style buildings. By 1930, the majority of the Collegiate Gothic-style buildings on the campus one mile (1.6 km) west were completed, and construction on West Campus culminated with the completion of Duke Chapel in 1935.Duke University Chapel – History {{Webarchive|url= |date=May 2, 2012 }} . Friends of Duke Chapel. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
File:JamesDukeStatueAndChapel1.jpg|left|thumb|alt=Statue of James B. Duke in foreground with Duke Chapel behind|James B. Duke established the Duke Endowment, which provides funds to numerous institutions, including Duke University]]
In 1878, Trinity (in Randolph County) awarded A.B. degrees to three sisters—Mary, Persis, and Theresa Giles—who had studied both with private tutors and in classes with men. With the relocation of the college in 1892, the Board of Trustees voted to again allow women to be formally admitted to classes as day students. At the time of Washington Duke's donation in 1896, which carried the requirement that women be placed "on an equal footing with men" at the college, four women were enrolled; three of the four were faculty members' children. In 1903 Washington Duke wrote to the Board of Trustees withdrawing the provision, noting that it had been the only limitation he had ever put on a donation to the college. A woman's residential dormitory was built in 1897 and named the Mary Duke Building, after Washington Duke's daughter. By 1904, fifty-four women were enrolled in the college. In 1930, the Woman's College was established as a coordinate to the men's undergraduate college, which had been established and named Trinity College in 1924.WEB, King, William, E., Washington Duke and the Education of Women, University Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, 1997,weblink March 24, 2015,

Expansion and growth

Engineering, which had been taught at Duke since 1903, became a separate school in 1939. In athletics, Duke hosted and competed in the only Rose Bowl ever played outside California in Wallace Wade Stadium in 1942. During World War II, Duke was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a navy commission.WEB,weblink Navy V-12 Program, Durham, North Carolina: Duke University, September 28, 2011, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 5, 2011, In 1963 the Board of Trustees officially desegregated the undergraduate college.WEB,weblink Slavery and Segregation, Duke Human Rights Center, Marianne Twu, 2010, January 8, 2016, Duke enrolled its first black graduate students in 1961.WEB,weblink Celebrating the Past, Charting the Future: Commemorating 50 Years of Black Students at Duke University, en-US, July 27, 2019, The school did not admit Black undergraduates until September 1963. The teaching staff remained all-White until 1966.WEB, The Road to Desegregation,weblink Duke University, January 28, 2019, Increased activism on campus during the 1960s prompted Martin Luther King Jr. to speak at the University in November 1964 on the progress of the Civil Rights Movement. Following Douglas Knight's resignation from the office of university president, Terry Sanford, the former governor of North Carolina, was elected president of the university in 1969, propelling The Fuqua School of Business' opening, the William R. Perkins library completion, and the founding of the Institute of Policy Sciences and Public Affairs (now the Sanford School of Public Policy). The separate Woman's College merged back with Trinity as the liberal arts college for both men and women in 1972. Beginning in the 1970s, Duke administrators began a long-term effort to strengthen Duke's reputation both nationally and internationally. Interdisciplinary work was emphasized, as was recruiting minority faculty and students. During this time it also became the birthplace of the first Physician Assistant degree program in the United States.Duke Annual Report 2000/2001-Interdisciplinary {{Webarchive|url= |date=July 24, 2012 }} . Duke University Annual Report, 2001. Retrieved January 12, 2011.Rogalski, Jim. weblink" title="">Breaking the Barrier: A History of African-Americans at Duke University School of Medicine. Inside DUMC, February 20, 2006. Retrieved January 12, 2011.Mock, Geoffrey. weblink" title="">Duke's Black Faculty Initiative Reaches Goal Early. Duke University Office of News and Communication, November 21, 2002. Retrieved January 12, 2011. Duke University Hospital was finished in 1980 and the student union building was fully constructed two years later. In 1986 the men's soccer team captured Duke's first National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championship, and the men's basketball team followed shortly thereafter with championships in 1991 and 1992, then again in 2001, 2010, and 2015.

Recent history

Duke's growth and academic focus have contributed to continuing the university's reputation as an academic and research powerhouse.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, May 16, 2011, The Top American Research Universities, Center for Measuring University Performance, PDF, 2010, February 25, 2011, In April 2005, the Duke-NUS Medical School opened in Singapore. It is a collaboration between Duke and the National University of Singapore.WEB,weblink Duke-NUS History {{!, Duke-NUS Medical School||language=en|access-date=November 19, 2018}}Among academic achievements at Duke, three students were named Rhodes Scholars in both 2002 and 2006, a number surpassed only by Harvard in 2002 and the United States Military Academy in 2006.Engineering Student Is One of Three Duke Rhodes Scholarship Winners {{Webarchive|url= |date=October 8, 2011 }} . Duke Engineering News. Retrieved August 22, 2011.The Rhodes Scholarships – Past Scholars. The Rhodes Trust. Retrieved August 22, 2011. Overall, Duke has produced 49 Rhodes ScholarsDuke Today. November 18, 2018 through 2018, including 27 between 1990 and 2018.File:LevineScienceResearchCtr.jpg|thumb|alt=Photo of Levine Science Research Center on campus of Duke University|The (Levine Science Research Center]] is the largest single-site interdisciplinary research facility of any American universityAcademic, Cultural and Research Centers {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 4, 2011 }} . Duke University Admissions. Retrieved April 3, 2011.)In 2006, three men's lacrosse team members were falsely accused of rape, which garnered significant media attention. On April 11, 2007, North Carolina Attorney General Roy Cooper dropped all charges and declared the three players innocent. Cooper stated that the charged players were victims of a "tragic rush to accuse." The District Attorney, Michael Nifong, was subsequently disbarred.In 2013, Duke Kunshan University opened in Kunshan, China.WEB,weblink Milestones of Duke Kunshan University {{!, Duke Kunshan University||language=en|access-date=November 19, 2018}}Duke Forward, a seven-year fundraising campaign, raised $3.85 billionWEB,weblink Duke Today, through June 30, 2017. The record giving by more than 315,000 donors and foundations will enrich the student experience in and out of the classroom, invest in faculty and support research and initiatives.In 2014, Duke removed the name of white-supremacist leader, Charles B. Aycock, from an undergraduate dormatory.WEB,weblink This Duke dorm is no longer named after a white supremacist former governor, Phillip, Abby, June 17, 2014, Washington Post, It is now known as the East Residence Hall.On August 19, 2017, following the violent clashes at the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, the statue of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee was removed from the entrance to the Duke University Chapel, after having been vandalized by protesters.NEWS,weblink Duke University Removes Robert E. Lee Statue From Chapel Entrance,, August 24, 2017, en, WEB,weblink Duke University removes damaged Robert E. Lee statue, Washington Post, August 24, 2017, dead,weblink August 25, 2017, NEWS,weblink Duke University removes contentious Confederate statue after vandalism, August 19, 2017, Reuters, August 24, 2017, NEWS,weblink Robert E. Lee statue removed at Duke, Associated Press, August 19, 2017, New York Post, August 24, 2017, Civil rights protesters confess to defacing Confederate statues. New York Post. Retrieved August 24, 2017.Duke is the second-largestWEB,weblink North Carolina's Largest Private Employers, July 31, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink March 8, 2016, dead, private employer in North Carolina with more than 39,000 employedweblink as of fall 2018 and is consistently ranked among the top places to work by multiple publications, including ForbesWEB,weblink America's Best Employers, February 13, 2018, and The Chronicle of Higher Education.WEB,weblink Great Colleges To Work For 2015, July 19, 2015, February 13, 2018, In 2019, Duke paid $112.5 Million to settle False Claims Act allegations related to scientific research misconduct. A researcher at the school was faking research in order to win grants and then pocketing the money, a whistle blower informed Duke but appropriate action was not taken in a timely fashion.WEB,weblink Duke University Agrees to Pay U.S. $112.5 Million to Settle False Claims Act Allegations Related to Scientific Research Misconduct, March 25, 2019,, Duke University pays $112.5 million in fake research case sparked by whistleblower, Reuters March 25, 2019 In response to the misconduct settlement, Duke established an advisory panel of academics from Caltech, Stanford and Rockefeller University. Based on the recommendations of this panel, the Duke Office of Scientific Integrity (DOSI) was established under the leadership of Lawrence Carin, an engineering professor who is one of the world's leading experts on machine learning and artificial intelligence WEB,weblink Duke Today, The establishment of this office brings Duke's research practices in line with those at peer institutions like Johns Hopkins University WEB,weblink Duke Chronicle,


File:Duke Chapel 4 16 05.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=Complete photo of Duke Chapel on a sunny day|Duke ChapelDuke ChapelDuke University currently owns 254 buildings on {{convert|8691|acre|km2}} of land, which includes the {{convert|7044|acre|km2}} Duke Forest.WEB,weblink Duke at a Glance, Duke University's Office of News & Communications, January 25, 2017, The campus is divided into four main areas: West, East, and Central campuses and the Medical Center, which are all connected via a free bus service. On the Atlantic coast in Beaufort, Duke owns {{convert|15|acre|m2}} as part of its marine lab. One of the major public attractions on the main campus is the {{convert|55|acre|m2|adj=on}} Sarah P. Duke Gardens, established in the 1930s.Duke students often refer to the campus as "the Gothic Wonderland", a nickname referring to the Collegiate Gothic architecture of West Campus.WEB,weblink Duke University: Office of the University Architect Collegiate Gothic Style, Duke Office of the University Architect, February 25, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 4, 2011, NEWS, Rubin, Brad, October 17, 1993,weblink Campus Correspondence : Separate by Choice: Racial Segregation at Duke, LA Times, NEWS, Williams, Ryan, August 29, 2018, Dear Duke administration: Do better, The Chronicle,weblink Much of the campus was designed by Julian Abele, one of the first prominent African-American architects and the chief designer in the offices of architect Horace Trumbauer.Julian Abele, Architect. Duke University Archives. Retrieved June 21, 2011. The residential quadrangles are of an early and somewhat unadorned design, while the buildings in the academic quadrangles show influences of the more elaborate late French and Italian styles. The freshmen campus, known as East Campus, is composed of buildings in the Georgian architecture style. In 2011, Travel+Leisure listed Duke among the most beautiful college campuses in the United States."America's most beautiful college campuses", Travel+Leisure (September, 2011)The stone used for West Campus has seven primary colors and seventeen shades of color. The university supervisor of planning and construction wrote that the stone has "an older, more attractive antique effect" and a "warmer and softer coloring than the Princeton stone" that gave the university an "artistic look." James B. Duke initially suggested the use of stone from a quarry in Princeton, New Jersey, but later amended the plans to purchase a local quarry in Hillsborough to reduce costs.King, William E. DukeStone. Duke University Historical Notes. Retrieved January 12, 2011. Duke Chapel stands at the center of West Campus on the highest ridge. Constructed from 1930 to 1935, the chapel seats 1,600 people and, at {{convert|210|ft}} is one of the tallest buildings in Durham County.weblink" title="">Duke Chapel Durham. NBC17 News. Retrieved July 4, 2011.A number of construction projects were in progress during 2015, including renovations to Duke Chapel, Wallace Wade Stadium (football) and Cameron Indoor Stadium (basketball).NEWS, Ramkumar, Amrith, Wallace Wade renovations on track as Cameron Indoor addition begins,weblink August 11, 2016, The Chronicle (Duke University), The Chronicle, June 15, 2015, In early 2014, the Nicholas School of the Environment opened a new home, Environmental Hall,WEB,weblink Environment Hall – Nicholas School, August 11, 2016, dead,weblink October 11, 2016, a five-story, glass-and-concrete building that incorporates the highest sustainable features and technologies, and meets or exceeds the criteria for LEED platinum certification. The School of Nursing in April 2014 opened a new 45,000-square-foot addition to the Christine Siegler Pearson Building.WEB,weblink Dedication Ceremony for the New Wing of the Christine Siegler Pearson Building, March 26, 2014, August 11, 2016, In summer 2014, a number of construction projects were completed.WEB, Rubenstein Library Renovation,weblink, August 11, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink July 6, 2016, The project is part of the final phase of renovations to Duke's West Campus libraries that have transformed one of the university's oldest and most recognizable buildings into a state-of-the-art research facility. The David M. Rubenstein Rare Book and Manuscript Library reopened in August 2015 after about $60 million in renovations to the sections of the building built in 1928 and 1948. The renovations include more space, technology upgrades and new exhibits.In 2013, construction projects included transforming buildings like Gross Hall and Baldwin Auditorium, plus new construction such as the Events Pavilion. About 125,000 square feet was updated at Gross Hall, including new lighting and windows and a skylight.WEB,weblink Construction Highlights Duke's Summer, August 11, 2016, Baldwin's upgrades include a larger stage, more efficient air conditioning for performers and audience and enhanced acoustics that will allow for the space to be "tuned" to each individual performance.WEB,weblink New Awards for Historic Baldwin Auditorium, August 11, 2016, The 25,000-square-foot Events Pavilion opened to students in 2013 and serves as temporary dining space while the West Campus Union undergoes major renovations, expected to be completed in the spring of 2016.From February 2001 to November 2005, Duke spent $835 million on 34 major construction projects as part of a five-year strategic plan, "Building on Excellence."Mueller, Jared. Campus reaps benefits of facilities boom. The Chronicle, November 1, 2005. Retrieved January 12, 2011. Completed projects since 2002 include major additions to the business, law, nursing, and divinity schools, a new library, the Nasher Museum of Art, a football training facility, two residential buildings, an engineering complex, a public policy building, an eye institute, two genetic research buildings, a student plaza, the French Family Science Center, and two new medical-research buildings.Dagger, Jacob. Stones, Bricks, and Mortar: Building for Success {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 19, 2012 }}. Duke Magazine, March–April 2006. Retrieved January 12, 2011.In early 2012, the Duke Cancer Center opened next to Duke Hospital in Durham.NEWS, Muoio, Danielle, Spector, Julian, Cancer Center opens this week,weblink August 11, 2016, The Chronicle (Duke University), The Chronicle, February 23, 2012, The patient care facility consolidates nearly all of Duke's outpatient clinical care services.(File:PerkinsLibrary.jpg|left|thumb|alt=A building's Gothic-style exterior and grass lawn in foreground|The Gothic Reading Room of Perkins Library)

West, East, and Central Campuses

See main article, Duke University West CampusWest Campus, considered the main campus of the University, houses the sophomores and juniors, along with some seniors. Most of the academic and administrative centers are located there. Main West Campus, with Duke Chapel at its center, contains the majority of residential quads to the south, while the main academic quad, library, and Medical Center are to the north. The campus, spanning {{convert|720|acre|km²}}, includes Science Drive, which is the location of science and engineering buildings. The residential quads on West Campus are Craven Quad, Crowell Quad, Edens Quad, Few Quad, Keohane Quad, Kilgo Quad, and Wannamaker Quad.WEB,weblink Duke University West Campus Quads, Most of the campus eateries and sports facilities—including the historic basketball stadium, Cameron Indoor Stadium—are on West Campus.Cameron Indoor Stadium. Duke University. Retrieved June 21, 2011. {{webarchive |url= |date=January 13, 2009}}File:DukeWest360.jpg|center|upright=2.75|thumb|alt=Panoramic photo of a row of three-story Gothic style building exteriors|The main West Campus is dominated by Neo-Gothic architecture. Shown here are typical residence halls.]]East Campus, the original location of Duke after it moved to Durham, functions as a first-year campus, housing the university's freshmen dormitories as well as the home of several academic departments. Since the 1995–96 academic year, all freshmen—and only freshmen, except for upperclassmen serving as Resident Assistants—have lived on East Campus, an effort to build class unity. The campus encompasses {{convert|97|acre|m2}} and is {{convert|1.5|mi}} from West Campus. African and African American Studies, Art History, History, Cultural Anthropology, Literature, Music, Philosophy, and Women's Studies are housed on East. Programs such as dance, drama, education, film, and the University Writing Program reside on East. The self-sufficient East Campus contains the freshmen residence halls, a dining hall, coffee shop, post office, Lilly Library, Baldwin Auditorium, a theater, Brodie Gym, tennis courts, several disc golf baskets, and a walking track as well as several academic buildings. The East Campus dorms are Alspaugh, Basset, Bell Tower, Blackwell, Brown, East House (formerly known as Aycock), Epworth, Gilbert-Addoms, Giles, Jarvis, Pegram, Randolph, Southgate, Trinity, and Wilson.WEB,weblink Duke University East Campus Quads, Separated from downtown by a short walk, the area was the site of the Women's College from 1930 to 1972.WEB,weblink East Campus: History of East Campus, Duke University Libraries, June 21, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 5, 2011, File:EastCampusPanorama.jpg|upright=2.75|center|thumb|alt=Panoramic photo of Georgian style buildings lining a grass lawn with a domed auditorium in the background|East Campus, home to all Duke freshmen, features Georgian style architecture. Baldwin Auditorium can be seen on the right side.]]Central Campus, consisting of {{convert|122|acre|km²}} between East and West campuses, houses around 1,000 sophomores, juniors, and seniors, as well as around 200 professional students in double or quadruple apartments.WEB,weblink Duke University Central Campus, Duke University, However, the housing of undergraduates on Central Campus will end after the 2018-2019 school year.WEB,weblink The days of Central Campus student housing at Duke University are drawing to close, heraldsun, en, March 8, 2019, There are 26 specific houses, accommodating 22 selective living groups (sororities and fraternities), 3 independent houses and 1 administrative house. Central Campus is home to the Nasher Museum of Art, the Freeman Center for Jewish Life, the Center for Muslim Life, the Duke Police Department, the Duke Office of Disability Management, a Ronald McDonald House, and administrative departments such as Duke Residence Life and Housing Services. Central Campus has several recreation and social facilities such as basketball courts, a sand volleyball court, a turf field, barbecue grills and picnic shelters, a general gathering building called "Devil's Den", a restaurant known as "Devil's Bistro", a convenience store called Uncle Harry's, and the Mill Village. The Mill Village consists of a gym and group study rooms.Central Campus {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 19, 2012 }}. Duke Student Affairs. Retrieved May 3, 2011.

Other key places

(File:2008-07-24 Lily pond at Duke Gardens 3.jpg|thumb|alt=A Lilly pond and stoned walkway with various trees in the background|The Sarah P. Duke Gardens attract more than 300,000 visitors each year)Duke Forest, established in 1931, consists of {{convert|7044|acre|km2}} in six divisions, just west of West Campus. The largest private research forest in North Carolina and one of the largest in the nation,75 Years of Duke Forest. Duke Today, October 6, 2006. Retrieved July 18, 2011. the Duke Forest demonstrates a variety of forest stand types and silvicultural treatments. Duke Forest is used extensively for research and includes the Aquatic Research Facility, Forest Carbon Transfer and Storage (FACTS-I) research facility, two permanent towers suitable for micrometeorological studies, and other areas designated for animal behavior and ecosystem study.Duke Forest {{Webarchive|url= |date=August 6, 2010 }}. Duke Forest. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
More than {{convert|30|mi|km}} of trails are open to the public for hiking, cycling, and horseback riding.
Duke University Admissions: Duke Forest {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 4, 2011 }} . Duke Admissions. Retrieved May 3, 2011.The Duke Lemur Center, located inside the Duke Forest, is the world's largest sanctuary for rare and endangered strepsirrhine primates.Duke's Secret in the Forest {{Webarchive|url= |date=November 1, 2012 }} . The Herald-Sun, 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2011.
Founded in 1966, the Duke Lemur Center spans {{convert|85|acres}} and contains nearly 300 animals of 25 different species of lemurs, galagos and lorises.Lillard, Margaret. Duke lemur center has new research focus. The Associated Press, June 4, 2006. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
(File:MedicalCenter.jpg|left|thumb|alt=Gothic-style four-story exterior of a building with castle-like turrets|Entrance to the Medical Center from West Campus)The Sarah P. Duke Gardens, established in the early 1930s, is situated between West Campus and the apartments of Central Campus. The gardens occupy {{convert|55|acre}}, divided into four major sections:weblink" title="">The Sarah P. Duke Gardens History. Duke Gardens. Retrieved July 5, 2011. the original Terraces and their surroundings; the H.L. Blomquist Garden of Native Plants, devoted to flora of the Southeastern United States; the W.L. Culberson Asiatic Arboretum, housing plants of Eastern Asia, as well as disjunct species found in Eastern Asia and Eastern North America; and the Doris Duke Center Gardens. There are {{convert|5|mi|km|spell=in}} of allées and paths throughout the gardens.Duke University Medical Center, bordering Duke's West Campus northern boundary, combines one of the top-rated hospitalsDuke University Medical Center. U.S. News & World Report, 2011. Retrieved July 18, 2011. and one of the top-ranked medical schoolsBest Medical Schools: Research {{webarchive |url= |date=April 15, 2012 }}. U.S. News & World Report, 2011. Retrieved July 18, 2011. in the U.S. Founded in 1930, the Medical Center occupies 8 million square feet (700,000 m²) in 99 buildings on {{convert|210|acre}}.DukeMedNews {{webarchive|url= |date=March 4, 2010}}. DukeMed News, July 30, 2010. Retrieved July 30, 2011.File:Pilkey Lab, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, NC.jpg|left|thumb|The Orrin Pilkey research laboratory at the Duke University Marine Lab in Beaufort, North Carolina]]Duke University Marine Laboratory, located in the town of Beaufort, North Carolina, is also technically part of Duke's campus. The marine lab is situated on Pivers Island on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, {{convert|150|yd|m}} across the channel from Beaufort. Duke's interest in the area began in the early 1930s and the first buildings were erected in 1938.Duke University Marine Lab. Duke Marine Lab. Retrieved June 21, 2011. The resident faculty represent the disciplines of oceanography, marine biology, marine biomedicine, marine biotechnology, and coastal marine policy and management. The Marine Laboratory is a member of the National Association of Marine Laboratories. In May 2014, the newly built Orrin H. Pilkey Marine Research Laboratory was dedicated.WEB,weblink Marine Lab's Newest Research Building Showcases Sustainable Coastal Design., Duke University, May 12, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 6, 2014,

Singapore and China

{{multiple image| align = right| direction = vertical| width =| image1 = Duke-NUS Medical School Logo.jpg| height1 = 150| width1 = 150| caption1 = The logo of the Duke-NUS Medical School| image2 = DKU Logo whitebackdrop.jpg| height2 = 150| width2 = 150| caption2 = The logo of Duke Kunshan University}}In April 2005, Duke and the National University of Singapore signed a formal agreement under which the two institutions would partner to establish the Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore. Duke-NUS is intended to complement the National University of Singapore's existing undergraduate medical school, and had its first entering class in 2007.Duke University Partners with National University of Singapore to Establish New Medical School {{webarchive|url=|date=September 28, 2011}}. Duke Medicine News and Communications. Retrieved August 15, 2011. The curriculum is based on that of the Duke University School of Medicine. 60% of matriculates are from Singapore and 40% are from over 20 countries. The school is part of the National University of Singapore system, but distinct in that it is overseen by a Governing Board, including a Duke representative who has veto power over any academic decision made by the Board.In 2013, Duke Kunshan University (abbreviated "DKU"), a partnership between Duke University, Wuhan University, and the city of Kunshan, was established in Kunshan, China. The university runs graduate programs and an undergraduate liberal arts college. Students are awarded degrees from both Duke Kunshan University and Duke University upon graduation and become members of Duke and DKU's alumni organizations.WEB,weblink About {{!, Duke Kunshan University||language=en|access-date=November 19, 2018}} DKU conducted research projects on climate change, health-care policy and tuberculosis prevention and control.NEWS, Oleniacz, Laura, Duke Kunshan University campus in China nears opening,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink deadnewspaper=The Herald-Sun (Durham, North Carolina) >accessdate=April 6, 2015, August 8, 2014,

Administration and organization {|class"toccolours" style"float:right; margin-left:1em; font-size:90%; line-height:1.4em; width:280px;"

! colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | School foundingSchool >| Year foundedTrinity College of Arts and Sciences >| 1838Duke University School of Law >| 1868Graduate School of Duke University >| 1926Duke Divinity School >| 1926Duke University School of Medicine >| 1930Duke University School of Nursing >| 1931Nicholas School of the Environment >| 1938Edmund T. Pratt Jr. School of Engineering>Pratt School of Engineering 1939Fuqua School of Business>| 1969Sanford School of Public Policy>| 1971Duke-NUS Medical School >| 2007Duke Kunshan University>| 2013Duke University has 12 schools and institutes, three of which host undergraduate programs: Trinity College of Arts and Sciences, Pratt School of Engineering, and Duke Kunshan University.WEB,weblink Undergraduate Degree - Duke Kunshan University, Duke Kunshan University, en-US, November 19, 2018, The university has "historical, formal, ongoing, and symbolic ties" with the United Methodist Church, but is a nonsectarian and independent institution.WEB,weblink Duke University's Relation to the Methodist Church: the basics, Duke University has historical, formal, on-going, and symbolic ties with Methodism, but is an independent and non-sectarian institution., Duke University, 2002, March 27, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 12, 2010, BOOK,weblink Separated brethren: a review of Protestant, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox & other religions in the United States, Our Sunday Visitor, 2002, 978-1-931709-05-7, WEB,weblink Duke University, International Association of Methodist-related Schools, Colleges, and Universities (IAMSCU), June 30, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 6, 2007, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, July 1, 2012, United Methodist schools score high in rankings, The United Methodist Church, June 30, 2007, Duke's endowment had a market value of $7.9 billion in the fiscal year that ended June 30, 2017. The University's special academic facilities include an art museum, several language labs, the Duke Forest, the Duke Herbarium, a lemur center, a phytotron, a free electron laser, a nuclear magnetic resonance machine, a nuclear lab, and a marine lab. Duke is a leading participant in the National Lambda Rail Network and runs a program for gifted children known as the Talent Identification Program."UCAR joins National Lambda Rail". SCD News. Retrieved June 12, 2011.Duke Tip Academy {{Webarchive|url= |date=May 23, 2011 }} . Duke TIP. Retrieved July 4, 2011.(File:BostockLibrary.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Four-story tower on left with an arched walkway in the center and pedestrian bridge connecting the tower to three-story Gothic building|Entrance to Bostock Library, which opened in the fall of 2005)



Admission to Duke is defined by U.S. News & World Report as "most selective." Duke received 41,600 applications for the Class of 2023, an 11% increase in applications comparable to that of peer institutions like Harvard and Yale,WEB,weblink Duke Breaks its Record for Number of Applications Received, Duke Chronicle, February 22, 2018, with an overall acceptance rate of 7%.WEB,weblink Duke University admits record-low 5.7 percent of regular decision applicants, The Chronicle, March 29, 2019, The yield rate (the percentage of accepted students who choose to attend) for the Class of 2023 was 54%. The Class of 2022 had an ACT range of 33-35 and an SAT range of 1490-1560.WEB,weblink Data,, PDF, May 21, 2019, (Test score ranges account for the 25th-75th percentile of accepted students.)From 2001 to 2011, Duke has had the sixth highest number of Fulbright, Rhodes, Truman, and Goldwater scholarships in the nation among private universities.Recently Elected U.S. Rhodes Scholars. The Rhodes Trust. Retrieved January 12, 2011.WEB,weblink Duke Gates Scholar 2007, The Gates Cambridge Scholarship, July 4, 2011, weblink" title="">Twenty-two Duke Graduates, Grad Students Receive Fulbright Scholarships. Duke News & Communications, September 26, 2005. Retrieved January 12, 2011.Dunning, Denise. Trinity Juniors receive Truman scholarships. {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 5, 2011 }} The Chronicle, March 22, 1996. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
The University practices need-blind admissions and meets 100% of admitted students' demonstrated need. About 50 percent of all Duke students receive some form of financial aid, which includes need-based aid, athletic aid, and merit aid. The average need-based grant for the 2015–16 academic year was nearly $45,074.
Roughly 60 merit-based full tuition scholarships are offered, including the Angier B. Duke Memorial Scholarship awarded for academic excellence, the Benjamin N. Duke Scholarship awarded for community service, and the Robertson Scholars Leadership Program, a joint scholarship and leadership development program granting full student privileges at both Duke and UNC-Chapel Hill. Other scholarships are geared toward students in North Carolina, African-American students, children of alumni, and high-achieving students requiring financial aid.Financial Aid Statistics {{Webarchive|url= |date=May 6, 2011 }} . Duke Financial Aid. Retrieved May 3, 2011.(File:Divinitychapelduke.jpg|left|thumb|alt=Cathedral-sized arched and intricate windows on chapel are displayed prominently in the foreground with larger soaring chapel peaking out at the top|Part of the Divinity School addition, Goodson Chapel)

Graduate profile

In 2009, the School of Medicine received 5,166 applicationsMedical School: Duke University. {{webarchive |url= |date=October 4, 2011 }} Duke University Health System. Retrieved August 25, 2011. and accepted approximately 4% of them,Duke University School of Medicine. Top Medical Schools in U.S.A., 2011. Retrieved August 25, 2011. while the average GPA and MCAT scores for accepted students from 2002 through 2009 were 3.74 and 34, respectively.weblink" title="">Education: Duke University School of Medicine. Duke School of Medicine, 2010. Retrieved August 25, 2011.weblink" title="">Duke University School of Medicine. Admission Hub, 2007. Retrieved July 9, 2011. The School of Law accepted approximately 13% of its applicants for the Class of 2014, while enrolling students had a median GPA of 3.75 and median LSAT of 170.Duke Law: Class Profiles, Duke Law Admissions, 2009. Retrieved July 24, 2011.The University's graduate and professional schools include the Graduate School, the Pratt School of Engineering, the Nicholas School of the Environment, the School of Medicine, the Duke-NUS Medical School, the School of Nursing, the Fuqua School of Business, the School of Law, the Divinity School, and the Sanford School of Public Policy.Duke homepage – Schools tab, Duke University. Retrieved June 12, 2011.

Undergraduate curriculum

File:Westduke.jpg|right|thumb|alt=Gray stone building with large Doric columns and grassy foreground, framed by trees|The West Duke Building on East Campus replaced the destroyed Washington Duke Building]]Duke offers 46 arts and sciences majors, four engineering majors, 52 Minors (including two in engineering) and Program II, which allows students to design their own interdisciplinary major in arts & sciences, and IDEAS, which allows students to design their own engineering major.Majors, Minors & Schools. Duke Admissions, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012. Twenty-four certificate programs also are available. Students pursue a major and can pursue a combination of a total of up to three including minors, certificates, and/or a second major. Eighty-five percent of undergraduates enroll in the Trinity College of Arts and Sciences, while the rest are in the Pratt School of Engineering.About Pratt. Pratt School of Engineering. Retrieved January 12, 2011.Trinity's curriculum operates under the revised version of "Curriculum 2000." It ensures that students are exposed to a variety of 5 "areas of knowledge" and 6 "modes of inquiry." List of Duke Curricular Requirements, Retrieved April 25, 2019. The curriculum aims to help students develop critical faculties and judgment by learning how to access, synthesize, and communicate knowledge effectively. The intent is to assist students in acquiring perspective on current and historical events, conducting research and solving problems, and developing tenacity and a capacity for hard and sustained work.Curriculum 2000: Index of the Report {{Webarchive|url= |date=June 10, 2007 }} . Duke University. Retrieved June 12, 2011.
Freshmen can elect to participate in the FOCUS Program, which allows students to engage in an interdisciplinary exploration of a specific topic in a small group setting in their first semesters.
Focus: Introduction: What is Focus? {{Webarchive|url= |date=April 20, 2009 }}. Duke University. Retrieved June 12, 2011.Pratt's curriculum is narrower in scope but still accommodates double majors in a variety of disciplines. The school emphasizes undergraduate research—opportunities for hands-on experiences arise through internships, fellowship programs, and the structured curriculum. More than 27 percent of Pratt undergraduates study abroad,Degrees Offered at Pratt {{Webarchive|url= |date=April 4, 2008 }}. Pratt School of Engineering. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
small compared to about half of Trinity undergraduates, but much larger than the recent national average for engineering students (3.2%).WEB,weblink Engineers face curricular challenges in study abroad, The Chronicle. Retrieved February 23, 2011.Loftus, Margaret. A Broader Perspective. American Society for Engineering Education, January 2006. Retrieved January 12, 2011.

Libraries and museums

Duke Libraries includes the Perkins, Bostock, and Rubenstein Libraries on West Campus, the Lilly and Music Libraries on East Campus, the Pearse Memorial Library at the Duke Marine Lab, and the separately administered libraries serving the schools of business, divinity, law and medicine.Duke's art collections are housed at the Nasher Museum of Art on Central Campus. The museum was designed by Rafael Viñoly and is named for Duke alumnus and art collector Raymond Nasher. The museum opened in 2005 at a cost of over $23 million and contains over 13,000 works of art, including works by William Cordova, Marlene Dumas, Olafur Eliasson, David Hammons, Barkley L. Hendricks, Christian Marclay, Kerry James Marshall, Alma Thomas, Hank Willis Thomas, Bob Thompson, Kara Walker, Andy Warhol, Carrie Mae Weems, Ai Weiwei, Fred Wilson, and Lynette Yiadom Boakye.Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University. Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University. Retrieved June 21, 2011.


(File:CIEMAS2.jpg|thumb|alt=A four-story brick and stone building alongside pedestrian path|The Fitzpatrick Center is home to many of Duke's engineering programs|257x257px)Duke's research expenditures in the 2015 fiscal year were $1.037 billion, the seventh largest in the nation.WEB,weblink Rankings by total R&D expenditures, National Science Foundation, February 16, 2017,weblink January 13, 2017, dead, In the 2013 fiscal year, Duke University Medical Center received $270 million in funding from the National Institutes of Health (exclusive of contracts and Economic Stimulus Program awards).Duke's faculty is among the most productive in the nation. Throughout the school's history, Duke researchers have made breakthroughs, including the biomedical engineering department's development of the world's first real-time, three-dimensional ultrasound diagnostic system and the first engineered blood vessels and stents.Research Duke BME. Pratt School of Engineering. Retrieved January 12, 2011. In 2015, Paul Modrich shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In 2012, Robert Lefkowitz along with Brian Kobilka, who is also a former affiliate, shared the Nobel Prize in chemistry for their work on cell surface receptors.WEB, Robert Lefkowitz Shares Nobel Prize in Chemistry,weblink Duke Today, September 2, 2015, Duke has pioneered studies involving nonlinear dynamics, chaos, and complex systems in physics.In May 2006 Duke researchers mapped the final human chromosome, which made world news as the Human Genome Project was finally complete."Final genome 'chapter' published". BBC News. Retrieved January 12, 2011. Reports of Duke researchers' involvement in new AIDS vaccine research surfaced in June 2006."AIDS Vaccine Research Offers New Insights On Survival". Medical News Today, June 13, 2006. Retrieved January 12, 2011. The biology department combines two historically strong programs in botany and zoology, while one of the divinity school's leading theologians is Stanley Hauerwas, whom Time named "America's Best Theologian" in 2001.Elshtain, Jean Bethke. An Honored Prophet: Stanley Hauerwas: "America's Best Theologian". Touchstone Journal. Retrieved July 4, 2011. The graduate program in literature boasts several internationally renowned figures, including Fredric Jameson,Fredric Jameson, William A. Lane Professor of Comparative Literature and Romance Studies. Duke University. Retrieved June 12, 2011. Michael Hardt,Vulliamy, Ed. The Observer Profile: Michael Hardt. The Observer, July 15, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2011. and Rey Chow, while philosophers Robert Brandon and Lakatos Award-winner Alexander Rosenberg contribute to Duke's ranking as the nation's best program in philosophy of biology, according to the Philosophical Gourmet Report.weblink" title="">Philosophical Gourmet Report: Breakdown: Philosophy of Biology. Philosophical Gourmet Report. Retrieved July 4, 2011.The Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index ranked Duke's faculty first in the nation in the fields of Oncology and Cancer Biology, Biomedical Engineering and Applied Economics. The Public Policy, Statistics, Chemistry, Environmental Science, Medicine and Molecular Genetics departments (among others) all ranked in the top five. Several other departments including Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Nursing ranked in the top ten.WEB,weblink Chronicle, Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 3, 2014,

Reputation and rankings


{{col-break}}{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="float:right" "text-align:center"! colspan=4 style="{{CollegePrimaryStyle|Duke Blue Devils|color=white}}" |National Program RankingsMAGAZINE, Duke University – U.S. News Best Grad School Rankings, U.S. News & World Report, July 28, 2019,weblink ! Program! Ranking| 10| 10| 32| 11| 25| 46| weblink| 24| 13| 18| 10| 16| 31| 13| 2| 2| 3| 10| 1| 28| 7| 17| 25| 15| 12{{col-break}}{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="float:right" "text-align:center"! colspan=4 style="{{CollegePrimaryStyle|Duke Blue Devils|color=white}}" |Global Program RankingsMAGAZINE, Duke University – U.S. News Best Global University Rankings, U.S. News & World Report, July 28, 2019,weblink ! Program! Ranking| 30| 22| 146| 9| 186| 16| 158| 8| 138| 24| 124| 53| 7| 31| 26| 17| 64| 16| 10| 16{{col-end}}(File:OldChem.jpg|right|thumb|upright|alt=A four-story Gothic building with three entrance archways and historic balconies with evergreen trees at base and stairwells leading to each entrance|Built in 1932, Old Chemistry has scientific symbols carved above the main doorway)

Undergraduate rankings

In the past thirty years, U.S. News & World Report has placed Duke as high as 3rd and as low as 10th.weblink" title="">Duke Places Eighth in U.S. News Ranking. Duke University News & Communications, August 18, 2006. Retrieved January 12, 2011. Duke University is ranked in the top 10 in the following college ranking publications: Niche (6th), WEB, 2020 Best Colleges in America,weblink Niche, September 17, 2019, U.S. News & World Report (10th), USA Today (3rd),WEB, UPenn named best college nationwide for 2015,weblink USA Today College, September 2, 2015, Washington Monthly (6th),WEB, UPenn named best college nationwide for 2015,weblink Kiplinger (4th),WEB,weblink Kiplinger's Best College Values, April 9, 2017, The Wall Street Journal "Student Outcomes" (1st), The Wall Street Journal (7th),NEWS, College Rankings,weblink The Wall Street Journal, 2016, September 30, 2016, Forbes (10th), Forbes (9th most billionaires), The Washington Post (7th),WEB, Here's a New College Ranking, Based Entirely on Other College Rankings,weblink The Washington Post, Princeton Review (5th dream colleges),NEWS,weblink 2015 College Hopes & Worries Survey Report, The Princeton Review, March 21, 2016, CollegeFactual (3rd)NEWS,weblink Best College: Nationwide, College Factual, and Business Insider (7th).WEB,weblink The top 25 colleges in America, Business Insider, August 18, 2015, In 2014, Duke was ranked 1st in the United States for majors in psychology,WEB, Top colleges for a major in economics,weblink USA Today College, September 2, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink September 6, 2015, dead, mdy-all, WEB, The 10 best U.S. colleges for a major in psychology,weblink USA Today College, September 2, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink August 21, 2015, dead, mdy-all, and 10th overall for computer science and engineering.WEB, The 50 best computer-science and engineering schools in America,weblink September 2, 2015, In 2014 and 2018, Duke was ranked 1st in the United States for majors in economics.WEB,weblink Duke Reclaims Title as Best School in U.S. for Economics {{!, Duke Economics Department||language=en|access-date=September 14, 2018}} In 2016, The Washington Post ranked Duke 7th overall based on the accumulated weighted average of the rankings from U.S. News & World Report, Washington Monthly, Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education, Times Higher Education (global), Money and Forbes.In 2016–17, Duke was ranked 19th in the world by U.S. News & World Report, 17th in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 14th in the world by Newsweek.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 23, 2012, Top 100 Global Universities, PDF, July 4, 2011, dead, QS World University Rankings ranked Duke 21st in the world for its 2017–18 rankings. Duke was ranked 25th best globally by the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) in 2016, focusing on quality of scientific research and the number of Nobel Prizes. The university also ranks 22nd in the world on the alternative Academic Ranking of World Universities which excludes Nobel Prize and Fields Medal indicators.WEB,weblink Academic Ranking of World Universities – 2014, ShanghaiRanking Consultancy, The 2010 report by the Center for Measuring University Performance puts Duke at 6th in the nation.The 2011 Global Employability Ranking as published by The New York Times surveyed hundreds of chief executives and chairmen from around the world and asked them to select the best universities from which they recruited. Duke placed 13th in the world and 9th in the country.What Business Leaders Says. The New York Times, October 20, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2011.Gauging the Value of Your M.B.A.. The New York Times, October 19, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2011. Duke also ranked 18th in the world and 8th in the country on Times Higher Education{{'}}s global employability ranking in 2015.MAGAZINE,weblink Global Employability University Ranking 2015 results, Times Higher Education, November 6, 2015, August 18, 2016, In 2013, Duke enrolled 139 National Merit Scholars, the 6th university in rank by number.WEB,weblink National Merit Scholarship Corporation Annual Report, National Merit Scholarship Corporation, Duke ranks 5th among national universities to have produced Rhodes, Marshall, Truman, Goldwater, and Udall Scholars. {{as of|2012}}, Duke graduates have received 25 Churchill Scholarships to the University of Cambridge. Only graduates of Princeton and Harvard have received more Churchill awards.WEB,weblink Churchill Scholars, The Winston Churchill Foundation of the United States, September 30, 2016, Kiplinger{{'}}s 50 Best Values in Private Universities 2013–14 ranks Duke at 5th best overall after taking financial aid into consideration.Kiplinger's Sortable Rankings of Private College Values. Kiplinger. Retrieved July 6, 2011.According to a study by Forbes, Duke ranks 11th among universities that have produced billionaires and 1st among universities in the South.NEWS,weblink The-Billionaire-Universities, May 30, 2008, Yahoo! Finance,weblink" title="">weblink June 29, 2011, dead, February 25, 2011, NEWS,weblink In Pictures: Billionaire Universities, Forbes, July 6, 2011, A survey by the Journal of Blacks in Higher Education in 2002 ranked Duke as the #1 university in the country in regard to the integration of African American students and faculty.Ranking America's Leading Universities on Their Success in Integrating African Americans {{Webarchive|url= |date=July 1, 2006 }} . The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
According to a poll of recruiters conducted by The Wall Street Journal, Duke ranks 2nd in terms of producing the best graduates who have received either a marketing or liberal arts degree. In a corporate study carried out by The New York Times, Duke's graduates were shown to be among the most valued in the world,NEWS,weblink Global Companies Rank Universities,, October 25, 2012, August 16, 2013, and Forbes magazine ranked Duke 7th in the world on its list of 'power factories' in 2012.HTTPS://WWW.FORBES.COM/SITES/DAVIDEWALT/2012/12/05/POWER-FACTORIES/ > WORK=FORBES
Thomson Reuters' list of the world's most innovative universities in 2015. The ranking graded universities based on patent volume and research output among other factors.HTTPS://WWW.REUTERS.COM/ARTICLE/2015/09/15/IDUSL1N11K16Q20150915PUBLISHER=THOMSON REUTERS, In 2015, NPR ranked Duke first on its list of "schools that make financial sense".HTTPS://WWW.NPR.ORG/SECTIONS/MONEY/2015/09/18/440973097/OBAMA-WONT-RATE-COLLEGES-SO-WE-DID >TITLE=OBAMA WON'T RATE COLLEGES, SO WE DID DATE= SEPTEMBER 15, 2015, Time (magazine) magazine ranked Duke third on its list of the "Best 50 Colleges for African Americans". The ranking was based on representation, affordability and post-graduate earnings.HTTP://TIME.COM/MONEY/4282512/BEST-COLLEGES-ESSENCE-MONEY-AFRICAN-AMERICANS/ TITLE=BEST 50 COLLEGES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS Forbes ranked Duke sixth on its list of "Expensive Schools Worth Every Penny".HTTPS://WWW.FORBES.COM/PICTURES/GEKG45EELG/6-DUKE-UNIVERSITY/ TITLE=EXPENSIVE SCHOOLS WORTH EVERY PENNY, April 17, 2016, Duke has also been recognized as the third-best university employer in the country, behind Stanford University and Harvard University.WEB,weblink America's Best Large Employers, Forbes, en, April 19, 2019,

Graduate school rankings

Duke has been named the top universities for graduate outcomes several years in a row, having tied with Harvard University and Yale University.WEB,weblink WSJ rankings place Duke in No. 1 spot for graduate outcomes, The Chronicle, April 19, 2019, WEB,weblink Duke ties with Harvard and Yale in Wall Street Journal student outcomes ranking, The Chronicle, April 19, 2019, In U.S. News & World Report{{'}}s "America's Best Graduate Schools 2018", Duke's medical school ranked tied for 7th in researchBest Medical Schools 2017: Research. {{webarchive|url= |date=April 22, 2014 }} U.S. News & World Report. and 34th in primary care.MAGAZINE,weblink Best Medical Schools 2018: Primary Care, U.S. News & World Report, April 5, 2017, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 21, 2010, The School of Law was ranked 10th in the 2018 rankings by the same publication,Best Law Schools 2017. U.S. News & World Report. with Duke's nursing school ranked 1stBest Nursing Schools 2018. U.S. News & World Report. while the Sanford School of Public Policy ranked 5th in Public Policy Analysis for 2019.Best Public Policy Analysis Programs 2019. U.S. News & World Report.Among business schools in the United States, the Fuqua School of Business is ranked tied for 10th overall by U.S. News & World Report for 2020, while BusinessWeek ranked its full-time MBA program 1st in the nation in 2014.America's Best Graduate Schools 2018. U.S. News & World Report.The Complete 2014 Business Schools Ranking {{webarchive |url= |date=November 24, 2014 }}. Bloomberg Businessweek. The graduate program for the Pratt School of Engineering was ranked 30th in the U.S. by U.S. News & World Report in its 2017 rankings.Best Engineering Schools 2017. U.S. News & World Report.Times Higher Education ranked the mathematics department tenth in the world in 2011.THE – Top institutions in Mathematics. Times Higher Education, 2011. Retrieved June 16, 2011. Duke's graduate level specialties that are ranked among the top ten in the nation include areas in the following departments: biological sciences, medicine, nursing, engineering, law, business, English, history, physics, statistics, public affairs, physician assistant (ranked #1), clinical psychology, political science, and sociology.Duke University: Overall Rankings. U.S. News & World Report, 2011. Retrieved August 3, 2011. In 2007, Duke was ranked 22nd in the world by Wuhan University's Research Center for Chinese Science Evaluation. The ranking was based on journal article publication counts and citation frequencies in over 11,000 academic journals from around the world. A 2012 study conducted by academic analytics ranks Duke fourth in the nation (behind only Harvard, Stanford, and MIT) in terms of faculty productivity.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 19, 2012, Duke faculty more productive than peers, according to study, The Herald-Sun, November 27, 2012, In 2013, Duke Law ranked 6th in Forbes magazine's ranking of law schools whose graduates earn the highest starting salaries.NEWS,weblink Forbes, Jacquelyn, Smith, The 25 Law Schools Whose Grads Earn The Most, In 2013, Duke's Fuqua School of Business was ranked 6th in terms of graduate starting salaries by U.S. News & World Report. In the same year, a ranking compiled by the University of Texas at Dallas ranked Fuqua 5th in the world based on the research productivity of its faculty. The MEM (Masters in Engineering Management) program has been ranked 3rd in the world by EduniversalRanked N°3 – Master of Engineering Management (MEM) – Duke University. Retrieved on July 29, 2013. In 2013, Forbes ranked Duke 4th in the nation in terms of return on investment (ROI). The ranking used alumni giving as a criterion to determine which private colleges offer the best returns.Duke University – In Photos: The Grateful Grads Index: The Top 50 ROI Colleges. Forbes. Retrieved on July 29, 2013. In 2018, Above the Law ranked Duke Law 3rd in the nation in its ranking of law schools based on employment outcomes.The ATL Top 50 Law School Rankings 2018 " Above the Law: A Legal Web Site – News, Commentary, and Opinions on Law Firms, Lawyers, Law Schools, Law Suits, Judges, and Courts + Career Resources. Retrieved on July 1, 2018. In 2013, Business Insider ranked Duke's Fuqua School of Business 5th in the world based on an extensive survey of hiring professionals.Best Business Schools In The World. Business Insider (July 17, 2013). Retrieved on July 29, 2013. In the same year, Forbes magazine ranked Fuqua 8th in the country based on return on investment. In 2014, Duke was named the 20th best global research university according to rankings published by U.S. News & World Report and the University Ranking by Academic Performance published by Middle East Technical University. The U.S. News ranking was based on 10 indicators that measure academic research performance and global reputations.MAGAZINE,weblink Best Global Universities Ranking – 2014, U.S. News & World Report, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 27, 2015, The University Ranking by Academic Performance uses citation data obtained from Thomson Reuters' Web of Science to rank universities based on research output.WEB,weblink 2014–2015 World Ranking (1–250), 2014, November 8, 2015, University Ranking by Academic Performance,

Student life

"Uni analyzes impact of new housing model on diversity", The Chronicle, November 8, 2010. Retrieved July 5, 2011.">

Student body {| style"text-align:center; float:right; font-size:85%; margin-left:2em; margin:10px;" class"wikitable"|+ Demographics of student body in fall 2018Love, Maggie. "Uni analyzes impact of new housing model on diversity", The Chronicle, November 8, 2010. Retrieved July 5, 2011.

! !! Undergraduate !! Graduate !! U.S. CensusSee Demographics of the United States for references.! African American| 12.2%! Asian American| 4.7%! Non-HispanicWhite American| 63.7%! Hispanic American| 16.4%! International| N/A! Other/Unknown| 3.0%Duke's student body consists of 6,994 undergraduates and 8,898 graduate and professional students (as of fall 2018).

Residential life

File:UnionEast2.jpg|left|thumb|alt=A large Georgian-style building exterior with six Ionic Columns and red brick with large arched windows|East Campus' Union building, home to the freshman dining hall also known as Marketplace]]Duke requires its students to live on campus for the first three years of undergraduate life, except for a small percentage of second-semester juniors who are exempted by a lottery system.RLHS: Housing {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 19, 2012 }}. Duke Residence Life and Housing Services. Retrieved May 3, 2011.
This requirement is justified by the administration as an effort to help students connect more closely with one another and sustain a sense of belonging within the Duke community.
RLHS: Mission {{Webarchive|url= |date=October 11, 2010 }}. Duke Residence Life and Housing Services. Retrieved May 3, 2011.
Thus, 85% of undergraduates live on campus.Campus Life. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved January 12, 2011. {{webarchive |url= |date=April 12, 2008 }} All freshmen are housed in one of 14 residences on East Campus. These buildings range in occupancy size from 50 (Epworth—the oldest residence hall, built in 1892 as "the Inn") to 250 residents (Trinity).
Epworth {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 19, 2012 }}. Duke Residence Life and Housing Services. Retrieved May 3, 2011.Gilbert-Addoms {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 19, 2012 }}. Duke Residence Life and Housing Services. Retrieved May 3, 2011.
Most of these are in the Georgian style typical of the East Campus architecture. Although the newer residence halls differ in style, they still relate to East's Georgian heritage. Learning communities connect the residential component of East Campus with students of similar academic and social interests.
RLHS: Communities {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 19, 2012 }}. Duke Residence Life and Housing Services. Retrieved May 3, 2011.
Similarly, students in FOCUS, a first-year program that features courses clustered around a specific theme, live together in the same residence hall as other students in their cluster.
About FOCUS {{Webarchive|url= |date=August 2, 2012 }}. Duke University. Retrieved August 1, 2011.Sophomores, juniors and seniors can choose to reside on either West or Central campuses, although the majority of undergraduate seniors choose to live off campus.Kyle, Nicole. Admins detail housing reshuffling. The Chronicle, March 18, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2011.Bishop, Eric. Record number of seniors to leave campus housing. The Chronicle, July 19, 2005. Retrieved July 7, 2011. West Campus contains six quadrangles—the four along "Main" West were built in 1930s, while two newer ones have since been added. Central Campus provided housing for over 1,000 students in apartment buildings, until 2019.Central Campus {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 19, 2012 }} . Duke Residence Life and Housing Services. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
All housing on West and Central is organized into about 80 "houses"—sections of residence halls or clusters of apartments—to which students can return each year. House residents create their house identities. There are houses of unaffiliated students, as well as wellness houses and living-learning communities that adopt a theme such as the arts or foreign languages. There are also numerous "selective living groups" on campus for students wanting self-selected living arrangements. SLGs are residential groups similar to fraternities or sororities, except they are generally co-ed and unaffiliated with any national organization. Many of them also revolve around a particular interest such as entrepreneurship, civic engagement or African-American or Asian culture. Fifteen fraternities and nine sororities also are housed on campus, primarily on Central. Most of the non-fraternity selective living groups are coeducational.
Living Groups on Campus {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 19, 2012 }} . Duke Residence Life and Housing Services. Retrieved July 7, 2011.

Greek and social life

(File:More kville.JPG|right|thumb|alt=A large group of individuals gather in a parking lot alongside a tent campground with lightposts|Cameron Crazies gathering in K-ville)About 30% of undergraduate men and about 40% of undergraduate women at Duke are members of fraternities and sororities. Most of the 17 Interfraternity Council recognized fraternity chapters live in sections within the residence halls. Starting in 2012, the nine (now ten) Panhellenic Association sorority chapters decided to live in houses (clusters of apartments) on Central Campus. Not all sorority members live with their chapters, though, as membership exceeds house space. Eight National Pan-Hellenic Council (historically African American) fraternities and sororities also hold chapters at Duke.National Pan-Hellenic Council {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 19, 2012 }}. Duke University. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
The first historically African American Greek letter organization at Duke University was the Omega Psi Phi, Omega Zeta chapter, founded on April 12, 1974. In addition, there are seven other fraternities and sororities that are a part of the Inter-Greek Council, the multicultural Greek umbrella organization.
Inter-Greek Council {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 19, 2012 }}. Duke University. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
Duke also has Selective Living Groups, or SLGs, on campus for students seeking informal residential communities often built around themes. SLGs are residential groups similar to fraternities or sororities, except they are generally co-ed and unaffiliated with any national organizations.
Current Living Groups. {{Webarchive|url= |date=February 26, 2014 }} Duke University Student Affairs. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
Fraternity chapters and SLGs frequently host social events in their residential sections, which are often open to non-members.
Fraternity Housing Sections {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 19, 2012 }}, Duke Office of Fraternity & Sorority Life. Retrieved July 4, 2011.In the late 1990s, a new keg policy was put into effect that requires all student groups to purchase kegs through Duke Dining Services. According to administrators, the rule change was intended as a way to ensure compliance with alcohol consumption laws as well as to increase on-campus safety.Moulton, Jessica (March 17, 1996). "weblink" title="">Keg prices reduced by $10; bartenders remain expensive". The Chronicle. Retrieved January 12, 2011. Some students saw the administration's increasingly strict policies as an attempt to alter social life at Duke.DeLuca, Jerry and Vrettos, Christopher. Honestly, the administration wants no kegs {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 1, 2013 }}. The Chronicle. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
As a result, off-campus parties at rented houses became more frequent in subsequent years as a way to avoid Duke policies. Many of these houses were situated in the midst of family neighborhoods, prompting residents to complain about excessive noise and other violations. Police have responded by breaking up parties at several houses, handing out citations, and occasionally arresting party-goers.Mueller, Jared. Buchanan Blues. The Chronicle, April 29, 2006. Retrieved January 12, 2011. In the mid-to-late 2000s, the administration made a concerted effort to help students re-establish a robust, on-campus social life and has worked with numerous student groups, especially the Duke University Union, to feature a wide array of events and activities. In March 2006, the university purchased 15 houses in the Trinity Park area that Duke students had typically rented and subsequently sold them to individual families in an effort to encourage renovations to the properties and to reduce off-campus partying in the midst of residential neighborhoods.Eaglin, Adam. Duke to sell 5 off-East houses. The Chronicle, June 1, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2011.NEWS, Englander, Dan, University buys off-East houses,weblink April 9, 2017, The Chronicle (Duke University), The Chronicle, February 28, 2006,
Duke athletics, particularly men's basketball, traditionally serves as a significant component of student life. Duke's students have been recognized as some of the most creative and original fans in all of collegiate athletics.Cameron's Craziest. ESPN, 2002. Retrieved January 12, 2011. Students, often referred to as Cameron Crazies, show their support of the men's basketball team by "tenting" for home games against key Atlantic Coast Conference opponents, especially rival University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC).Nathan, Vignesh. K-Ville Bills: One Student's Plan to Better Tenting {{Webarchive|url= |date=October 13, 2011 }} . Towerview Magazine, February 9, 2011.
Because tickets to all varsity sports are free to students, they line up for hours before each game, often spending the night on the sidewalk. For a mid-February game against UNC, some of the most eager students might even begin tenting before spring classes begin.McCartney, Ryan. DSG presents a revised draft of tenting policy. The Chronicle, October 26, 2005. Retrieved August 1, 2011. The total number of participating tents is capped at 100 (each tent can have up to 12 occupants), though interest is such that it could exceed that number if space permitted.Brill, Bill. Duke basketball: 100 seasons: a legacy of achievement, p. 97. Sports Publishing L.L.C, 2004. Retrieved August 25, 2011. Tenting involves setting up and inhabiting a tent on the grass near Cameron Indoor Stadium, an area known as Krzyzewskiville, or K-Ville for short. There are different categories of tenting based on the length of time and number of people who must be in the tent. At night, K-Ville often turns into the scene of a party or occasional concert. The men's basketball coach, Mike Krzyzewski, occasionally buys pizza for the inhabitants of the tent village.
Kville {{Webarchive|url= |date=July 28, 2012 }} . Duke Student Government. Retrieved January 12, 2011.


Student organizations

File: New buildings 002.jpg|thumb|left|alt=A Gothic-style exterior showcases Cathedral-like windows with the intricate framework and dark, colorful stone, with bushes and grass in the foreground|Duke's West Campus Union building has restaurants, offices, and some administrative departments. The Chronicle's editorial office, the Mary Lou Williams Center for Black Culture, and the Center for LGBTLGBTMore than 400 student clubs and organizations operate on Duke's campus.Duke Student Organizations {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 19, 2012 }}. Duke Student Affairs. Retrieved July 4, 2011.
These include numerous student government, special interest, and service organizations.
Non-profit organization. {{Webarchive|url= |date=July 19, 2009 }} , Duke University Office of Student Activities and Facilities, July 1, 2009. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
Duke Student Government (DSG) charters and provides most of the funding for other student groups and represents students' interests when dealing with the administration.weblink" title="">Duke Student Government. Duke Student Government. Retrieved January 12, 2011. The Duke University Union (DUU) is the school's primary programming organization, serving a center of social, cultural, intellectual and recreational life.
About DUU. {{Webarchive|url= |date=August 15, 2011 }} Duke University Union. Retrieved August 22, 2011.
There are a number of student-run businesses operating on campus, including Campus Enterprises, which offer students real-world business experience. Cultural groups are provided funding directly from the university via the Multicultural Center as well as other institutional funding sources. One of the most popular activities on campus is competing in sports. Duke has 37 weblink" title="">sports clubs, and several intramural teams that are officially recognized. Performance groups such as Hoof 'n' Horn, the country's second-oldest student-run musical theater organization, a cappella groups, student bands, and theater organizations are also prominent on campus.Hoof 'n' Horn. Duke Hoof 'n' Horn. Retrieved July 4, 2011. As of the 2016–2017 school year, there are seven a cappella groups recognized by the Duke University A Cappella Council: Deja Blue, Lady Blue, Out of the Blue, the Pitchforks, Rhythm & Blue, Something Borrowed Something Blue, and Speak of the Devil.Duke A Cappella Council. Duke University A Cappella Council. Retrieved April 17, 2017. The Duke University mock trial team won the national championship in 2012.WEB,weblink National Championship Final Round Results, American Mock Trial Association, September 30, 2016, The Duke University Student Dining Advisory Committee provides guidance to the administration on issues regarding student dining, life, and restaurant choices.
Cultural groups on campus include the Asian Students Association, Blue Devils United (the student lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender group), Black Student Alliance, Diya (South Asian Association), Jewish Life at Duke, Mi Gente (Latino Student Association), International Association/International Council, Muslim Student Association, Native American Student Coalition, Newman Catholic Student Center, Languages Dorm, and Students of the Caribbean.DukeGroups directory {{Webarchive|url= |date=July 1, 2011 }} . Duke University. Retrieved July 4, 2011.

Civic engagement

File:VonderHeydenPavillion.jpg|thumb|alt=A glass building with a metal blue devil on top and arched details in the interior|The von der Heyden Pavilion is a popular place among students for gathering and studying]]More than 75 percent of Duke students pursue service-learning opportunities in Durham and around the world through DukeEngage and other programs that advance the university's mission of "knowledge in service to society." Launched in 2007, DukeEngage provides full funding for select Duke undergraduates who wish to pursue an immersive summer of service in partnership with a U.S. or international community. As of summer 2013, more than 2,400 Duke students had volunteered through DukeEngage in 75 nations on six continents. Duke students have created more than 30 service organizations in Durham and the surrounding area. Examples include a weeklong camp for children of cancer patients (Camp Kesem) and a group that promotes awareness about sexual health, rape prevention, alcohol and drug use, and eating disorders (Healthy Devils). The Duke-Durham Neighborhood Partnership, started by the Office of Community Affairs in 1996, attempts to address major concerns of local residents and schools by leveraging university resources.Duke University Community Engagement. Duke Office of Durham & Regional Affairs. Retrieved August 1, 2011. Another community project, "Scholarship with a Civic Mission", is a joint program between the Hart Leadership Program and the Kenan Institute for Ethics.Research Service Learning – Scholarship with a Civic Mission {{Webarchive|url= |date=August 23, 2011 }} . Duke University. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
Another program includes Project CHILD, a tutoring program involving 80 first-year volunteers; and an after-school program for at-risk students in Durham that was started with $2.25 million grant from the Kellogg Foundation in 2002.
Civic Engagement Directory. {{Webarchive|url= |date=August 10, 2013 }} Duke University Division of Student Affairs. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
Two prominent civic engagement pre-orientation programs also exist for incoming freshmen: Project CHANGE and Project BUILD. Project CHANGE is a free weeklong program co-sponsored by the Kenan Institute for Ethics and the Duke Women's Center with the focus on ethical leadership and social change in the Durham community; students are challenged in a variety of ways and work closely with local non-profits.
Kenan Institute for Ethics – Project Change {{Webarchive|url= |date=June 27, 2012 }} . Kenan Institute for Ethics. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
Project BUILD is a freshman volunteering group that dedicates 3,300 hours of service to a variety of projects such as schools, Habitat for Humanity, food banks, substance rehabilitation centers, homeless shelters. Some courses at Duke incorporate service as part of the curriculum to augment material learned in class such as in psychology or education courses (known as service learning courses).Dean, Ashley. Duke Students Mix Service With Academics. The New York Times, November 11, 2005. Retrieved January 12, 2011.

Student media

{{See also|The Chronicle (Duke University)|Cable 13|WXDU}}The Chronicle, Duke's independent undergraduate daily newspaper, has been continually published since 1905 and now, along with its website, has a readership of about 70,000.The Chronicle: About Us {{Webarchive|url= |date=February 18, 2012 }}. The Chronicle. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
Its editors are responsible for selecting the term "Blue Devil". The newspaper won Best in Show in the tabloid division at the 2005 Associated Collegiate Press National College Media Convention.
The Chronicle heralded at conference {{Webarchive|url= |date=August 16, 2011 }} . The Chronicle, October 31, 2005. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
Cable 13, established in 1976, is Duke's student-run television station. It is a popular activity for students interested in film production and media.Cable 13 {{Webarchive|url= |date=May 5, 2006 }}. Cable 13. Retrieved January 12, 2011. WXDU, licensed in 1983, is the university's nationally recognized, noncommercial FM radio station, operated by student and community volunteers.WXDU Durham, 88.7 fm: Station. WXDU. Retrieved July 4, 2011.weblink" title="">Raleigh-Durham Radio Waves. RDU Radio Waves. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
The Rival DukeWEB,weblink The Rival at Duke – Home,, February 13, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink July 11, 2018, dead, is an online-only, student run publication. The three sections, campus, culture, and current, feature opinion and commentary.

Duke Alumni Association

Duke Alumni Association (DAA) is an alumni association automatically available to all Duke graduates. Benefits include alumni events, a global network of regional DAA alumni chapters, educational and travel opportunities and communications such as The Blue Note, social media and Duke Magazine. It provides access to the Duke Lemur Center, Nasher Museum of Art, Duke Rec Centers and other campus facilities.WEB,weblink Alumni Benefits, Duke Alumni Association, November 13, 2017,

Duke Magazine

Duke Magazine, an alumni magazine, is the university's flagship vehicle for stories about the Duke community.WEB,weblink History and Mission, Duke Alumni Association, Duke magazine, November 13, 2017, It has been published five-six times a year by the Office of Alumni Affairs since 2002.WEB,weblink Archives, Duke Alumni Association, Duke magazine, November 13, 2017,


{{See also|Carolina–Duke rivalry}}Teams for then Trinity College were known originally as the Trinity Eleven, the Blue and White or the Methodists. William H. Lander, as editor-in-chief, and Mike Bradshaw, as managing editor, of the Trinity Chronicle began the academic year 1922-23 referring to the athletic teams as the Blue Devils. The Chronicle staff continued its use and through repetition, Blue Devils eventually caught on.The Duke University Athletic Association chairs 27 sports and more than 650 student-athletes. The Blue Devils are members of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I level, the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) and Atlantic Coast Conference. Men's sports include baseball, basketball, cross country, fencing, football, golf, lacrosse, soccer, swimming & diving, tennis, track & field, and wrestling; women's sports include basketball, cross country, fencing, field hockey, golf, lacrosse, rowing, soccer, softball, swimming & diving, tennis, track & field, and volleyball.WEB,weblink Duke University Blue Devils {{!, Official Athletics Site –||language=en|access-date=September 8, 2017}}(File: Duke Blue Devil mascot cropped.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.7|alt=Duke Blue Devils mascot leans against sign with tents in background|Duke Blue Devils mascot. This is an older design; an updated mascot was introduced in 2008.)Duke's teams have won 16 NCAA team national championships—the women's golf team has won six (1999, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2014), the men's basketball team has won five (1991, 1992, 2001, 2010, and 2015), the men's lacrosse team has won three (2010, 2013, and 2014), and the men's soccer (1986) and women's tennis (2009) teams have won one each.WEB,weblink Duke National Championships, Duke University, May 27, 2014, Duke consistently ranks among the top in the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (NACDA) Directors' Cup, an overall measure of an institution's athletic success. For Division I in 2015, Duke finished 20th overall and fifth in the ACC. The Blue Devils have finished within the top 10 six times since the inception of the Cup in 1993–94. Also, Athletic Director Kevin White earned multiple awards in 2014, including the National Football Foundation's John L. Toner Award.WEB,weblink Duke AD Kevin White Named 2014 Recipient of NFF John L. Toner Award > National Football Foundation > NewsDetail, Foundation, National Football,, en-US, September 8, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink September 9, 2017, dead, On the academic front, nine Duke varsity athletics programs registered a perfect 1,000 score in the NCAA's multi-year Academic Progress Report (APR) released in April 2016.WEB,weblink Nine Duke Teams Post Perfect APR Scores, February 13, 2018,

Men's basketball

(File: Cameron Indoor Stadium interior.jpg|thumb|alt=Interior of basketball stadium showcasing court, rafters, and empty stands|Duke's Cameron Indoor Stadium)Duke's men's basketball team is one of the nation's most successful basketball programs.All-Time Winningest Teams. NCAA, 2009. Retrieved June 28, 2011.Beard, Aaron. Duke: Lakers, Krzyzewski discussing coaching vacancy. Associated Press, July 2, 2004. Retrieved May 24, 2011. The team's success has been particularly outstanding over the past 30 years under coach Mike Krzyzewski (often simply called "Coach K"). The Blue Devils are the only team to win five national championships since the NCAA Tournament field was expanded to 64 teams in 1985, 11 Final Fours in the past 25 years, and eight of nine ACC tournament championships from 1999 to 2006. Duke's 2017 NCAA tournament appearance ended in an upset to the University of South Carolina. Coach K has also coached the USA men's national basketball team since 2006 and led the team to Olympic golds in 2008, 2012, and 2016. His teams also won World Championship gold in 2010 and 2014. Overall, 32 Duke playersWEB,weblink Duke Players in the NBA – RealGM,, February 13, 2018, have been selected in the first round of the NBA Draft in the Coach K era. More than 50 Duke players have been selected in the NBA Draft.


The Blue Devils have won seven ACC Football Championships, have had ten players honored as ACC Player of the Year (the most in the ACC),JOURNAL, ACC Champions, 2007 Atlantic Coast Conference Media Guide, Atlantic Coast Conference, 2007,weblink PDF, 93, January 13, 2011, and have had three Pro Football Hall of Famers come through the program (second in the ACC to only Miami's four). The Blue Devils have produced 11 College Football Hall of Famers, which is tied for the 2nd most in the ACC. Duke has also won 18 total conference championships (7 ACC, 9 Southern Conference, and 1 Big Five Conference). That total is tied with Clemson for the highest in the ACC.Colleges – Pro Football Hall of Fame. Pro Football Hall of Fame, 2011. Retrieved July 4, 2011.The most famous Duke football season came in 1938,Young, Jim. The 1938 Iron Dukes: A Lasting Legacy {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 19, 2012 }}. Duke Magazine, July/August 2003. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
when Wallace Wade coached the "Iron Dukes" that shut out all regular season opponents; only three teams in history can claim such a feat.Iron Dukes: Providing Scholarship Support for the Duke Student-Athlete. Iron Dukes. Retrieved June 21, 2011. That same year, Duke made their first Rose Bowl appearance, where they lost 7–3 when USC scored a touchdown in the final minute of the game. Wade's Blue Devils lost another Rose Bowl to Oregon State in 1942, this one held at Duke's home stadium due to the attack on Pearl Harbor, which resulted in the fear that a large gathering on the West Coast might be in range of Japanese aircraft carriers.King, William E. The 1942 Durham Rose Bowl. Duke University Archives. Retrieved January 12, 2011. The football program proved successful in the 1950s and 1960s, winning six of the first ten ACC football championships from 1953 to 1962 under coach Bill Murray; the Blue Devils would not win the ACC championship again until 1989 under coach Steve Spurrier.Duke Blue Devils. Retrieved June 12, 2011.
David Cutcliffe was brought in prior to the 2008 season, and amassed more wins in his first season than the previous three years combined. The 2009 team won 5 of 12 games, and was eliminated from bowl contention in the next-to-last game of the season.Wiseman, Steve. Dilweg: Duke kept looking for next Spurrier {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 21, 2012 }} . The Herald-Sun, July 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
Mike MacIntyre, the defensive coordinator, was named 2009 Assistant Coach of the Year by the American Football Coaches Association (AFCA).WEB,weblink MacIntyre Named National Assistant Coach of the Year,, November 18, 2009, March 26, 2011,
While the football team has struggled at times on the field, the graduation rate of its players is consistently among the highest among Division I FBS schools. Duke's high graduation rates have earned it more AFCA Academic Achievement Awards than any other institution.Notre Dame Receives 2007 American Football Coaches Association's Academic Achievement Award {{Webarchive|url= |date=January 19, 2012 }}. Notre Dame Athletics, 2007. Retrieved August 10, 2011.In 2012, the Duke football team made its first bowl game appearance since 1994WEB,weblink Great catch lifts Duke to bowl eligibility for first time since 1994, USA TODAY, en, 2019-09-20, with a win over arch-rival North Carolina, a bowl which they would lose to the Cincinnati Bearcats in the by a score of 48-34WEB,weblink Late fumble costs Duke as Cincinnati wins Belk Bowl, USA TODAY, en, 2019-09-20, .2013 marked the beginning of the Blue Devils' recent but relative success, having a breakout 10-2, 6-2 (ACC)WEB,weblink 2013 Duke Blue Devils Schedule Stats, ESPN, en, 2019-09-20, season while claiming the title of Coastal Division ChampionsWEB,weblink ACC Coastal Division Champs! Duke Beats UNC 27-25, Duke University, en, 2019-09-20, . Duke would go on to play the Florida State Seminoles in the ACC Championship game where they would lose to the national champions 45-7WEB,weblink Duke vs. Florida State - Game Summary - December 7, 2013 - ESPN,, en, 2019-09-20, . Duke received an invite to the Chick-fil-a Peach Bowl that same year in which they took on the Texas A&M Aggies led by college football legend Johnny Manziel, losing by a score of 52-48WEB,weblink Duke vs. Texas A&M - Game Summary - December 31, 2013 - ESPN,, en, 2019-09-20, .For the 2014 season, Duke finished 9–3, 5–3 (ACC) and earned a trip to the Sun Bowl,WEB,weblink Arizona State the superior Devils, February 13, 2018, where the Blue Devils lost to the Pac-12's Arizona State 36–31. In 2015, the Detroit Lions drafted Duke offensive guard Laken TomlinsonWEB,weblink 2015 NFL Draft Profile: Laken Tomlinson,, February 13, 2018, and the Washington Redskins drafted wide receiver Jamison Crowder.WEB,weblink 2015 NFL Draft Profile: Jamison Crowder,, February 13, 2018, In 2019, Duke quarterback Daniel Jones was drafted 6th overall by the New York GiantsWEB,weblink NFL Draft & Combine Profile - Daniel Jones,, en-US, 2019-09-20, .

Track and field

In 2003 Norm Ogilvie was promoted to Director of Track and Field, and has led athletes to over 60 individual ACC championships, and 81 All-America selections, along with most of the track and field records being broken during his tenure.WEB,weblink Norm Ogilvie Bio,, April 18, 2016, A new facility, the Morris Williams Track and Field Stadium, opened in 2015.WEB,weblink Morris Williams Track & Field Stadium Opens Monday,, January 16, 2015,

Notable people

Duke's active alumni base of more than 145,000 devote themselves to the university through organizations and events such as the annual Reunion Weekend and Homecoming.Duke University Alumni. Duke University. Retrieved July 29, 2011. There are 75 Duke clubs in the U.S. and 38 such international clubs.Duke Regional Networks. Duke Alumni Association. Retrieved July 4, 2011. For the 2008–09 fiscal year, Duke tied for third in alumni giving rate among U.S. colleges and universities according to U.S. News & World Report.Alumni Giving Rates. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved July 29, 2011. {{webarchive |url= |date=February 13, 2013 }} Based on statistics compiled by PayScale in 2011, Duke alumni rank seventh in mid-career median salary among all U.S. colleges and universities.Top US Colleges – Graduate Salary Statistics. PayScale. Retrieved July 29, 2011. A number of alumni have made significant contributions in the fields of government, law, science, academia, business, arts, journalism, and athletics, among others.


Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United States graduated with a law degree in 1937.Richard M. Nixon {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 12, 2011 }} . The White House. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
Former U.S. Senator and Secretary of Transportation Elizabeth Dole,Liddy Dole – U.S. Congress. The Washington Post, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2011. 33rd President of Chile Ricardo Lagos,
Ricardo Lagos Biography {{Webarchive|url= |date=August 11, 2010 }}. A&E Biography. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
former U.S. Secretary of Commerce Juanita M. Kreps,
Women's Studies: The Portraits Project {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 4, 2011 }} . Women's Studies. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
congressman and three-time presidential candidate Ron Paul,
Ron Paul Biography {{Webarchive|url= |date=September 16, 2011 }}. A&E Biography. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
U.S. Secretary of Veterans Affairs and former Chief of Staff of the United States Army Eric Shinseki,
Eric K. Shinseki – Office of Public and Intergovernmental Affairs {{Webarchive|url= |date=September 15, 2014 }} , U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
and the first United States Chief Performance Officer Jeffrey Zients
OMB Leadership Bios – Jeffrey Zients {{Webarchive|url= |date=July 23, 2011 }} . The White House. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Martin Dempsey are among the most notable alumni with involvement in politics and government. Sheikha Al-Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani serves as the Chairperson of Qatar Museums Authority.WEB,weblink Sheikha Mayassa Tops Art Power List for $1 Billion Spend, October 23, 2013,, Kevin Martin was Chairman of the FCC.FCC Chairman Kevin J. Martin – Biography. Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved July 25, 2011. Rex Adams serves as the Chairman of PBS.
Rex D. Adams Profile. {{Webarchive|url= |date=February 15, 2012 }} Forbes. Retrieved July 25, 2011.

Academia and research

Duke affiliates who have won the Nobel Prize in Physics include Hans Dehmelt for his development of the ion trap technique,Hans G. Dehmelt – Autobiography. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved July 25, 2011. Robert Richardson for his discovery of superfluidity in helium-3,Robert C. Richardson – Autobiography {{Webarchive|url= |date=August 5, 2011 }}. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved July 25, 2011. and Charles Townes for his work on quantum electronics.Charles Townes – Biography. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved July 25, 2011. Other alumni in research and academia include Turing Award winners Fred Brooks,Faculty Biography: Frederick P. Brooks Jr.. University of North Carolina. Retrieved July 29, 2011. Edmund M. ClarkeWEB, Edmund Clarke,weblink, December 23, 2015, and John Cocke,Fellow Awards: John Cocke {{Webarchive|url= |date=May 9, 2013 }} . Computer History Museum. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
Templeton Prize winning physicist and religion scholar Ian Barbour,Online NewsHour: Ian Barbour Biography. PBS NewsHour, May 28, 1999. Retrieved July 29, 2011. {{webarchive |url= |date=December 28, 2013 }} MacArthur Award recipient Paul Farmer,Paul Farmer, MD, PhD. Harvard University. Retrieved July 29, 2011. and former Dean of the Graduate School at Princeton Theodore Ziolkowski.
Theodore Joseph Ziolkowski {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 31, 2014 }}. John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation. Retrieved July 29, 2011.Duke professor Robert J. Lefkowitz shared the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Professor Paul Modrich shared the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and Ingrid Daubechies, currently a James B. Duke professor of mathematics, served as the first woman president of the International Mathematical Union and is known for pioneering work on Wavelets.


Prominent journalists include talk show host Charlie Rose,Charlie Rose: TV & Radio Anchors. Bloomberg. Retrieved July 26, 2011. The Washington Post sports writer John Feinstein,John Feinstein: NPR. NPR. Retrieved July 26, 2011. {{webarchive |url= |date=September 5, 2011 }} Chief Washington Correspondent for CNBC and The Wall Street Journal writer John Harwood,John Harwood: CNBC Chief Washington Correspondent. CNBC TV Profiles. Retrieved July 26, 2011. CBS News President Sean McManus,Sean McManus: Executive Profile and Biography. Bloomberg. Retrieved July 25, 2011. chief legal correspondent for Good Morning America Dan Abrams,Dan Abrams. The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 26, 2011.'Good Morning America' Legal Analyst Dan Abrams' Biography. ABC News. Retrieved July 26, 2011. and CNN anchor and senior correspondent for The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer Judy Woodruff.Judy Woodruff PBS News Hour. Retrieved July 26, 2011. {{webarchive |url= |date=January 30, 2014 }} Basketball analysts and commentators include Jay Bilas,Jay Bilas. {{Webarchive|url= |date=August 2, 2011 }} ESPN MediaZone. Retrieved July 26, 2011CBS Sports TV Team: Jay Bilas. Retrieved July 26, 2011. {{webarchive |url= |date=October 23, 2014 }} Mike Gminski,CBS Sports TV Team: Mike Gminski. Retrieved July 26, 2011. {{webarchive |url= |date=July 18, 2014 }} Jim Spanarkel,CBS Sports TV Team: Jim Spanarkel. Retrieved July 26, 2011. {{webarchive |url= |date=July 18, 2014 }} and Jay Williams.Jay Williams. {{Webarchive|url= |date=June 16, 2012 }} ESPN MediaZone. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
Magazine editors include Rik Kirkland of Fortune
Former FORTUNE magazine managing editor to deliver Birmingham-Southern Commencement address. {{Webarchive|url= |date=September 27, 2011 }} Birmingham–Southern College Office of Communications. Retrieved July 26, 2011
and Clay Felker, founder of New York Magazine.
In Memoriam: Clay Felker. {{Webarchive|url= |date=October 11, 2011 }} UC Berkeley. Retrieved July 26, 2011.


In the area of literature, William Styron won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1968 for his novel The Confessions of Nat Turner and is well known for his 1979 novel Sophie's Choice.William Styron Biography {{Webarchive|url= |date=November 18, 2009 }}. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
Anne Tyler also received the Pulitzer Prize for her 1988 novel Breathing Lessons.
Short Bio: Anne Tyler {{Webarchive|url= |date=January 27, 2012 }}. St. Charles Library, 2004. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
Additionally, Elizabeth A. Fenn won the Pulitzer Prize for History in 2015. Other acclaimed writers include John W. Campbell and Reynolds Price.
In the visual arts realm, Annabeth GishAnnabeth Gish: Biography. Retrieved July 29, 2011. (actress in the X-Files and The West Wing), Ken Jeong{{IMDb name|id=0421822|name=Ken Jeong|section=bio|accessdate=July 29, 2011}} (actor in The Hangover and Community), RettaWEB, Fernando, Dillon, Interview: Retta Sirleaf,weblink The Chronicle, October 14, 2015, (actress and comedian), Jared Harris (actor in Mad Men), Randall Wallace{{IMDb name|id=0908824|name=Randall Wallace|section=bio|accessdate=April 13, 2016}} (screenwriter, producer, and director, Braveheart, Pearl Harbor, We Were Soldiers), Mike PosnerMithcell, Gail. Duke Grad Mike Posner Heats Up The Charts., June 25, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2011. (singer, songwriter, and producer, "Cooler Than Me", "Please Don't Go", "I Took A Pill in Ibiza"), David HudginsSchool of Letters lecture: David Hudgins {{Webarchive|url= |date=July 22, 2014 }}. Sewanee Today. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
(television writer and producer, Everwood, Friday Night Lights) and Robert Yeoman (cinematographer, The Grand Budapest Hotel) headline the list.


The current or recent president, CEO, or chairman of each of the following Fortune 500 companies is a Duke alumnus: Apple (Tim Cook),Wolf, Alan. Apple's new CEO has ties to Duke University {{Webarchive|url= |date=October 17, 2011 }}. The Charlotte Observer, August 25, 2011. Retrieved August 25, 2011.
Bear Stearns (Alan Schwartz), BB&T (John A. Allison IV),John Allison: Executive Profile and Biography. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved July 25, 2011. Chesapeake Energy (Aubrey McClendon),Aubrey McClendon: Executive Profile and Biography. Bloomberg. Retrieved July 25, 2011. Cisco Systems (John Chambers), General Motors (Rick Wagoner),weblink" title="">Rick Wagoner. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 25, 2011. Ingersoll Rand (Michael Lamach), JPMorgan Chase (Steven Black),Steven Black: Executive Profile and Biography. Bloomberg. Retrieved July 29, 2011. Kaplan (Andrew S. Rosen), Medtronic (William A. Hawkins),William Hawkins: Executive Profile and Biography. Bloomberg. Retrieved July 25, 2011. Morgan Stanley and Credit Suisse First Boston (John J. Mack),John J. Mack Biography. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved July 25, 2011. Norfolk Southern (David R. Goode),David R. Goode. {{Webarchive|url= |date=August 11, 2018 }} Forbes. Retrieved July 25, 2011. Northwest Airlines (Gary L. Wilson),
Gary L. Wilson {{Webarchive|url= |date=April 15, 2012 }} . Forbes. Retrieved July 25, 2011. Karl M. von der Heyden. {{Webarchive|url= |date=February 10, 2012 }} Forbes. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
Procter & Gamble (David S. Taylor),David S. Taylor "Bloomberg." Retrieved August 16, 2015. Pfizer (Edmund T. Pratt, Jr.),
Pfizer Gallery of Leaders. {{Webarchive|url= |date=January 4, 2009 }} Pfizer. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
The Bank of New York Mellon (Gerald Hassell),Gerald Hassell: Executive Profile and Compensation. Bloomberg. Retrieved October 17, 2011. Wachovia (Robert K. Steel),weblink" title="">Robert Steel. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 25, 2011. Volkswagen (Jonathan Browning).
Companies founded by Duke alumni include, the nation's wealthiest charitable foundationThe Nation's 10 Wealthiest Foundations {{Webarchive|url= |date=October 16, 2009 }}. The Chronicle of Philanthropy, March 4, 2004. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
at $31.9 billion:Foundation Fact Sheet {{Webarchive|url= |date=May 31, 2012 }}. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved July 4, 2011. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (Melinda Gates),Melinda Gates: Executive Profile and Biography. Bloomberg. Retrieved July 25, 2011. The Carlyle Group (David Rubenstein), Boston Scientific (Peter Nicholas),Peter Nicholas, The World's Richest People. Forbes. Retrieved July 25, 2011. The Pritzker Group, principal owner of Hyatt Hotels and TransUnion (J. B. Pritzker), PIMCO (William Gross), and 1-800-Flowers (Granville Semmes).
Recent notable startups founded by Duke alumni include Box (Dylan Smith), Yext (Howard Lerman), Mint (Aaron Patzer), Coinbase (Fred Ehrsam), Plaid (Zach Perret), Duolingo (Luis Von Ahn), Airtable (Howie Liu), and Neuralink (Max Hodak).


Management and ownership of professional athletic franchises include Adam Silver (NBA commissioner), John P. AngelosAngelos' son moves up to No. 3. The Baltimore Sun, March 1, 1999. Retrieved July 29, 2011. (Executive Vice President of the Baltimore Orioles), Aubrey McClendonAubrey McClendon {{webarchive |url= |date=July 29, 2011 }}. Forbes. Retrieved July 29, 2011. (former part owner of the Oklahoma City Thunder), John Canning, Jr.John Canning: Executive Profile and Biography. Businessweek. Retrieved July 29, 2011. (co-owner of Milwaukee Brewers), Danny FerryMason, Stuart. Former Cavs general manager Danny Ferry to San Antonio. Mega Sports News, August 28, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2011. (former general manager of the Cleveland Cavaliers), Stephen PagliucaStephen Pagliuca – Managing Partner & Alternate Governor. Retrieved July 29, 2011. (co-owner of Boston Celtics), and Jeffrey VinikOwners and Front Office – Tampa Bay Lightning. and Lightning Hockey LP. Retrieved July 29, 2011. (owner of the Tampa Bay Lightning).Several athletes have become stars at the professional level, especially in basketball's NBA. Art Heyman, Shane Battier, Corey Maggette, Elton Brand, Carlos Boozer, Luol Deng, Christian Laettner, Bobby Hurley, Grant Hill, J. J. Redick and NBA Champion Kyrie Irving are among the most famous.NBA & ABA Players who Attended Duke University. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved July 29, 2011. Offensive linesman Lennie Friedman played for four National Football League teams, and Ed Newman was an All-Pro offensive lineman.WEB,weblink Lennie Friedman,, WEB,weblink Edward K. Newman,, Men's basketball coach Mike Krzyzewski led the US men's team to three gold medalsWEB,weblink Duke Olympians, February 13, 2018, (2008, 2012, 2016), and Abigail Johnston won a silver medal in synchronized diving at the 2012 Summer Olympics while an undergraduate at Duke and competed in the 2016 Summer Olympics while attending Duke Medical School.NEWS,weblink How Abby Johnston Manages Olympic Training – And Med School, ESPN, August 15, 2016, Ibtihaj Muhammad was the first woman to compete at the Olympic Games while wearing a hijab and became the first female Muslim-American athlete to earn an Olympic medal at the 2016 Summer Olympics.WEB,weblink Muhammad out - but media won't let hijab-wearing American go quietly, August 8, 2016, The Independent, en, June 12, 2019,

See also



External links

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