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C-SPAN
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{{short description|American cable and satellite television network}}{{Use mdy dates|date=March 2018}}{{good article}}







factoids
| terr serv 1 = WCSP-FM/HD(C-SPAN Radio)| terr chan 1 = 90.1 FM / HD Radio (Washington, D.C. / Baltimore)| terr serv 2 = Selective TV, Inc.(Alexandria, Minnesota)| terr chan 2 = K50DB-D 50.3| sat serv 1 = DirecTV| sat chan 1 = 350: C-SPAN (SD)351: C-SPAN2 (SD)| sat serv 2 = Dish Network| sat chan 2 = 210: C-SPAN (SD)211: C-SPAN2 (SD)C band (IEEE)>C-BandAMC10 at 135.0°W
  • 201: C-SPAN
  • 202: C-SPAN2
  • 203: C-SPAN3101: C-SPAN (SD)102: C-SPAN2 (SD)103: C-SPAN3 (SD)
  • 501: Radio (SD)WEB,weblink AMC 10 at 135.0°W, June 21, 2013, lyngsat.com, LyngSat, June 24, 2013,
AMC11 at 131.0°W
  • 7: C-SPAN (Analog) (SD)
}}| cable serv 1 = Verizon FiOS| cable chan 1 = 109: C-SPAN (SD)110: C-SPAN2 (SD)111: C-SPAN3 (SD)| cable serv 2 = Wave Broadband| cable chan 2 = 16 (C-SPAN)99 (C-SPAN2)| cable serv 3 = Available on most other U.S. cable systems| cable chan 3 = Consult your local cable provider for channel availability| iptv serv 1 = AT&T U-verse| iptv chan 1 = 230: C-SPAN (SD)231: C-SPAN2 (SD)232: C-SPAN3 (SD)| iptv serv 2 = Google Fiber| iptv chan 2 = 131: C-SPAN132: C-SPAN2133: C-SPAN3| iptv serv 3 = Cable One| iptv chan 3 = 78 (SD)| sat radio serv 1 = XM| sat radio chan 1 = 120| online serv 1 = Available to current cable/satellite subscribers| online chan 1 = C-SPAN Liveand on demand}}Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network (C-SPAN; {{IPAc-en|ˈ|s|iː|ˌ|s|p|æ|n}}) is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a nonprofit public service. It televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as other public affairs programming. The C-SPAN network includes the television channels C-SPAN, C-SPAN2, and C-SPAN3, the radio station WCSP-FM, and a group of websites which provide streaming media and archives of C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's television channels are available to approximately 100 million cable and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D.C. and is available throughout the U.S. on SiriusXM via Internet streaming, and globally through apps for iOS, BlackBerry, and Android devices.The network televises U.S. political events, particularly live and "gavel-to-gavel" coverage of the U.S. Congress, as well as occasional proceedings of the Canadian, Australian and British Parliaments (including the weekly Prime Minister's Questions) and other major events worldwide. Its coverage of political and policy events is unmoderated, providing the audience with unfiltered information about politics and government. Non-political coverage includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction books, and interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated with public policy. C-SPAN is a private, non-profit organization funded by its cable and satellite affiliates, and it does not have advertisements on any of its networks, radio stations, or websites, nor does it solicit donations or pledges. The network operates independently, and neither the cable industry nor Congress has control of its programming content.

History

File:Brian_Lamb.jpg|thumb|right|Brian LambBrian Lamb

Development

Brian Lamb, C-SPAN's chairman and former chief executive officer, conceived C-SPAN in 1975 while working as the Washington, D.C. bureau chief of the cable industry trade magazine Cablevision.BOOK, Peer Participation and Software: What Mozilla Has to Teach Government, MIT Press, 2010, David R., Booth, 81, 978-0-262-51461-3, It was a time of rapid growth in the number of cable television channels available in the United States, and Lamb envisioned a cable-industry financed nonprofit network for televising sessions of the U.S. Congress and other public affairs event and policy discussions.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20130205063150weblink">weblink yes, February 5, 2013, C-SPAN: The Other Washington Monument, April 20, 2010, tvnewscheck.com, News Check Media, November 30, 2010, BOOK, Legislative Television As Political Advertising: A Public Choice Approach, iUniverse, Franklin G., Mixon, 2003, 978-0-595-27086-6, 2, Lamb shared his idea with several cable executives, who helped him launch the network. Among them were Bob Rosencrans, who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979,WEB,weblink Original Cable Guy, college.columbia.edu, Columbia College, Columbia University, Columbia College,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080829153957weblink">weblink August 29, 2008, August 5, 2008, and John D. Evans, who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed for the distribution of the C-SPAN signal.NEWS,weblink C-SPAN chief says network has 'extended the gallery', Paddock, Travis, April 8, 1998, The University Record, October 8, 2012, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, BOOK, The C-SPAN Revolution, Frantzich, Stephen E., John Sullivan, University of Oklahoma Press, 1996, 0-8061-2870-4, 30, According to a report from commentator Jeff Greenfield on Nightline in 1980,WEB,weblink Election Process Highlights {{!, C-SPAN.org|website=www.c-span.org|language=en-us|access-date=2019-04-16}} C-SPAN was launched to provide televised coverage of U.S. political events in its entirety, thus helping viewers maintaining a thorough view of politics and especially presidential campaigns, unlike television newscasts which "does not really inform us about what the candidates mean to do with the power they ask of us."C-SPAN was launched on March 19, 1979,NEWS, Lamb opened government with C-SPAN, Journal & Courier, Lafayette, Indiana, 6A,weblink November 3, 2007, May 22, 2013, in time for the first televised session made available by the House of Representatives, beginning with a speech by then-Tennessee representative Al Gore.BOOK, The C-SPAN Revolution, Stephen E., Frantzich, John Sullivan, University of Oklahoma Press, 1996, 23, 0-8061-2870-4, Upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for C-SPAN,NEWS, Confessions of a C-SPAN Junkie, Ruth Marcus (journalist), Ruth Marcus, The Washington Post, A31,weblink March 18, 2004, May 22, 2013, and the network had just three employees.NEWS, Power Player of the Week Brian Lamb, Chris Wallace, Fox News Network,weblink August 15, 2004, May 22, 2013, C-SPAN began full-time operations in September 14, 1982. The second C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2, 1986 when the U.S. Senate permitted itself to be televised. It began full-time operations in January 5, 1987.NEWS, C-SPAN has taken viewers on tour of history, government for 20 years, Shirley, Ragsdale, Argus Leader, 10C,weblink Sioux Falls, South Dakota, March 14, 1999, May 22, 2013, C-SPAN3, the most recent expansion channel, began full-time operations on January 22, 2001, and shows live/taped public policy and government-related events on weekdays, with historical programming being shown on weeknights and weekends. It has also sometimes served as an overflow channel for live programming conflicts on C-SPAN and C-SPAN2. C-SPAN3 is the successor of a digital channel called C-SPAN Extra, which was launched in the Washington D.C. area in 1997, and televised live and recorded political events from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time Monday through Friday.NEWS,weblink Time Warner Gives Lift to C-SPAN3, Moss, Linda, February 19, 2001, Multichannel News, May 22, 2013, C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9, 1997, covering similar events as the television networks and often simulcasting their programming.NEWS, Rosty to be Released from Custody Today,weblink A.B. Stoddard, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, Washington, D.C., October 15, 1997, May 22, 2013, The station broadcasts on WCSP (90.1 FM) in Washington, D.C., is also available on XM Satellite Radio channel 120 and is streamed live at c-span.org. It was formerly available on Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006.NEWS, Radio Deal Could Face Technical Difficulties; XM, Sirius Systems Already Strained, Charles, Babington, The Washington Post,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140808122035weblink">weblink yes, August 8, 2014, March 19, 2007, May 22, 2013, Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channel's 33rd anniversary, and gave executive control of the network to his two lieutenants, Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain.On January 12, 2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT America for approximately 10 minutes.NEWS, Bromwich, Jonah Engel, C-Span Online Broadcast Interrupted by Russian Network,weblink The New York Times, January 12, 2017, C-SPAN announced that they were troubleshooting the incident and were "operating under the assumption that it was an internal routing issue."TWEET, cspan, C-SPAN, 819652454237278208, January 12, 2017, This afternoon the online feed for C-SPAN was briefly interrupted by RT programming.,

Anniversaries

(File:Logo of C-SPAN.svg|file|thumb|left|250px|C-SPAN's logo from 1991, to the day before its 40th anniversary on March 18, 2019. The logo has taken different design cues, coloring, and been rendered in 3-D in various times, depending on logo design trends over the years and decades.){{external media| float = left|250px| video1 = Remarks by Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) and House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy on the House floor on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of C-SPAN, March 26, 2019}} C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the network.NEWS, C-SPAN, America's Town Hall; Looking Back on the Decade That Brought Government Home, Tom Shales, The Washington Post,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131105213910weblink">weblink yes, November 5, 2013, April 3, 1989, May 22, 2013, The 15th anniversary was commemorated in an unconventional manner as the network facilitated a series of re-enactments of the seven historic Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which were televised from August to October 1994, and have been rebroadcast from time to time ever since.NEWS, Historic debates will mark 15 years of C-SPAN, Ann, Hodges, The Houston Chronicle, 4,weblink March 19, 1994, May 22, 2013, Five years later, the series (American presidents: Life Portraits), which won a Peabody Award, served as a year-long observation of C-SPAN's 20th anniversary.WEB, American Presidents: Life Portraits,weblink C-SPAN, March 7, 2016, 59th Annual Peabody Awards, May 2000.File:C-SPAN Robert Byrd.jpg|thumb|right|Sen. Robert Byrd (right), C-SPAN's founder Brian LambBrian LambIn 2004, C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes.NEWS, Win like a lamb; C-SPAN remains a reliable source thanks to founder's fair approach, Aaron, Barnhart, Kansas City Star, F1,weblink May 3, 2003, May 22, 2013, On the anniversary date, C-SPAN repeated the first televised hour of floor debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with journalists who had appeared on C-SPAN during its early years.NEWS, C-SPAN By the Numbers, The Washington Post,weblink March 14, 2004, May 22, 2013, Also included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind.WEB,weblink C-SPAN 25th Anniversary Essay Winner, c-span.org, C-SPAN, February 27, 2004, To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005, C-SPAN had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 pm. Eastern Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 pm. Eastern Time on Saturday, October 8. The network also had a viewer essay contest, the winner of which was invited to co-host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPAN's Capitol Hill studios.WEB,weblink C-SPAN's 24-Hour Call-In Marathon, c-span.org, C-SPAN, June 4, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110819231444weblink">weblink August 19, 2011, yes, mdy-all,

Scope and limitations of coverage

C-SPAN continues to expand its coverage of government proceedings, with a history of requests to government officials for greater access, especially to the U.S. Supreme Court.NEWS, C-SPAN seeks to air Supreme Court healthcare arguments, David G. Savage,weblink Los Angeles Times, November 15, 2011, October 7, 2013, In December 2009, Lamb wrote to leaders in the House and Senate, requesting that negotiations for health care reform be televised by C-SPAN.WEB,weblink C-SPAN Challenges Congress to Open Health Care Talks to TV Coverage, January 5, 2010, foxnews.com, Fox News Channel, Fox News, November 22, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101118140658weblink">weblink November 18, 2010, yes, mdy-all, Committee meetings on health care were broadcast subsequently by C-SPAN and may be viewed on the C-SPAN website.WEB,weblink Mini-Health Insurance Policies, December 1, 2010, c-span.org, C-SPAN, March 22, 2011, In November 2010, Lamb wrote to incoming House Speaker John Boehner requesting changes to restrictions on cameras in the House.WEB,weblink More Cameras in the House?, Patrick, O'Connor, November 15, 2010, Washington Wire, The Wall Street Journal, November 30, 2010, In particular, C-SPAN asked to add some of its own robotically operated cameras to the existing government-controlled cameras in the House chamber. In February 2011, Boehner denied the request.NEWS, C-SPAN denied cameras in the House of Representatives, again, Rachel, Weiner, The Washington Post, February 4, 2011,weblink February 8, 2011, A previous request to Speaker Designate Nancy Pelosi in 2006, to add C-SPAN's cameras in the House chamber to record floor proceedings, was also denied. Although C-SPAN uses the congressional chamber feed cables, the cameras are owned and controlled by each respective body of Congress.WEB,weblink C-SPAN letter to Nancy Pelosi, Brian, Lamb, PDF, December 14, 2006, October 12, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081001185036weblink">weblink October 1, 2008, Requests by C-SPAN for camera access to non-government events such as the annual dinner by the Gridiron Club have also been denied.WEB,weblinkfirst=Mikedate=March 19, 2010 publisher=Politico, January 27, 2010, On June 22 and into June 23, 2016, C-SPAN took video footage of the House floor from individual House representatives via streaming services Periscope and Facebook Live during a sit-in by House Democrats asking for a vote on gun control measures after the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting. This needed to be done because—as the sit-in was done out of formal session and while the House was in official recess—the existing House cameras could not be utilized for coverage of the event by rule.NEWS,weblink Why You Can't See the House Sit-In on C-SPAN, Akin, Stephanie, June 22, 2016, Roll Call, June 23, 2016, NEWS,weblink C-SPAN cameras couldn't show Democrats' gun control sit-in – so Democrats did it themselves, Phillips, Amber, June 23, 2016, The Washington Post, June 23, 2016, Although the use of electronic devices to create the Periscope feeds by House Democrats violated House rules that prohibit their use on the floor,WEB,weblink House Democrats' Gun-Control Sit-In Turns into Chaotic Showdown With Republicans, Herszenhorn, David, June 23, 2016, The New York Times, June 24, 2016, C-SPAN did not state why it chose to broadcast those feeds. The network ran disclaimers on-air and on their official social media feeds noting the restrictions.WEB,weblink @cspan: C-SPAN has no control over the U.S. House TV cameras., June 22, 2016, Tweet, C-SPAN Twitter account, June 23, 2016,

Expansion and technology

Since the late 1990s, C-SPAN has significantly expanded its online presence. In January 1997, C-SPAN began real-time streaming of C-SPAN and C-SPAN2 on its website, the first time that Congress had been live streamed online. To cover the Democratic and Republican conventions and the presidential debates of 2008, C-SPAN created two standalone websites: the Convention Hub and the Debate Hub.WEB,weblink Don't like Twitter's Election Site? C-SPAN Has a Way Cooler Alternative (Really!), Adam, Ostrow, September 26, 2008, mashable.com, Mashable, January 27, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100808142229weblink">weblink August 8, 2010, In addition to real-time streams of C-SPAN's television networks online, c-span.org features further live programming such as committee hearings and speeches that are broadcast later in the day, after the House and Senate have left.WEB,weblink Viewer FAQs, c-span.org, C-SPAN, September 27, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130925045216weblink">weblink September 25, 2013, C-SPAN began promoting audience interaction early in its history, by the regular incorporation of viewer telephone calls in its programming. It has since expanded into social media. In March 2009, viewers began submitting questions live via Twitter to guests on C-SPAN's morning call-in show Washington Journal.WEB,weblinkfirst=Jasondate=May 21, 2009 The Huffington Post >publisher= Facebook page to which it added occasional live streaming in January 2011. The live stream is intended to show selected well-publicized events of Congress.HTTP://TECHLAND.TIME.COM/2011/01/05/C-SPAN-GOES-SOCIAL-STREAMS-112TH-CONGRESS-LIVE-ON-FACEBOOK/ FIRST=SAMANTHADATE=JANUARY 5, 2011 PUBLISHER=TIME (MAGAZINE) >ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 28, 2011, In June 2010, C-SPAN joined with the website Foursquare (social network) to provide users of the application with access to geotagged C-SPAN content at various locations in Washington, D.C.HTTP://WWW.BRANDCHANNEL.COM/HOME/POST/2010/06/22/FOURSQUARE-CSPAN-DIGITAL-BUS.ASPX FIRST=SHEILADATE=JUNE 22, 2010 PUBLISHER=BRANDCHANNEL, November 22, 2010, In 2010, C-SPAN began a transition to high definition telecasts, planned to take place over an 18-month period. The network provided C-SPAN and C-SPAN2 in high definition on June 1, 2010, and C-SPAN3 in July 2010.WEB,weblink Cable Show Draws News of HD Channel Launches, May 18, 2010, multichannel.com, NewBay Media, December 3, 2010, As part of the network's 40th anniversary, C-SPAN instituted the first logo change in the network's history on March 18, 2019.

Programming

Senate and House of Representatives

The C-SPAN network's core programming is live coverage of the U.S. House and Senate, with the C-SPAN channel emphasizing the United States House of Representatives. Between 1979 and May 2011, the network televised more than 24,246 hours of floor action. C-SPAN2, the first of the C-SPAN spin-off networks, provides uninterrupted live coverage of the United States Senate. With coverage of the House and Senate, viewers can track legislation as it moves through both bodies of Congress. Important debates in Congress that C-SPAN has covered live include the Persian Gulf conflict during 1991, and the House impeachment vote and Senate trial of President Bill Clinton in 1998 and 1999. When the House or Senate are not in session, C-SPAN channels broadcast other public affairs programming and recordings of previous events.PRESS RELEASE, C-SPAN2 to be Added to PRIMESTAR's Channel Lineup, C-SPAN, December 4, 1996,

Public affairs

The public affairs coverage on the C-SPAN networks other than the House and Senate floor debates is wide-ranging. C-SPAN is considered a useful source of information for journalists, lobbyists, educators and government officials as well as casual viewers interested in politics, due to its unedited coverage of political events. C-SPAN has been described by media observers as a "window into the world of Washington politics" and it characterizes its own mission as being "to provide public access to the political process".WEB,weblink About C-SPAN, c-span.org, C-SPAN, January 25, 2011, The networks cover U.S. political campaigns, including the Republican, Democratic, and Libertarian presidential nominating conventions in their entirety. Coverage of presidential campaign events are provided during the duration of the campaign, both by a weekly television program, Road to the White House, and at its dedicated politics website.WEB,weblink C-SPAN Politics, c-span.org, C-SPAN, December 6, 2010, C-SPAN also covers midterm elections.WEB,weblink C-SPAN Reaches Debate Milestone, Betsy, Rothstein, October 20, 2010, mediabistro.com, Mediabistro.com, June 19, 2013, File:C-SPAN 112th Congress Roll Call.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.15|C-SPAN broadcasts the beginning of the 112th Congress on January 5, 2011]]All three channels televise events such as congressional hearings, White House press briefings and presidential speeches, as well as other government meetings including Federal Communications Commission hearings and Pentagon press conferences.WEB,weblink The Democratizer, Nick Gillespie, December 2010, reason.com, Reason (magazine), Reason, November 22, 2010, Other U.S. political coverage includes State of the Union speeches, and presidential press conferences. According to the results of a survey after the 1992 presidential election, 85% of C-SPAN viewers voted in that election.NEWS, Feasting on C-SPAN; Diet of Public Affairs TV Puts Political Junkies Inside Beltway, Blaine, Harden, The Washington Post,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131105213902weblink">weblink yes, November 5, 2013, May 9, 1996, May 22, 2013, The results of a similar survey in 2013 found that 89% of C-SPAN viewers voted in the 2012 presidential election. In addition to this political coverage, the network broadcasts press conferences and meetings of various news media and nonprofit organizations, including those at the National Press Club, public policy seminars and the White House Correspondents' Dinner. While C-SPAN does not have video access to the Supreme Court, the network has used the Court's audio recordings accompanied by still photographs of the justices and lawyers to cover the Court in session on significant cases, and has covered individual Supreme Court justices' speaking engagements.WEB,weblink C-SPAN's Supreme Court Broadcasts: Do You Have the Right to Burn the Flag?, Andrew, Cohen, October 8, 2010, politicsdaily.com, AOL, October 11, 2010, Occasionally, proceedings of the Parliament of Australia, Parliament of Canada, Parliament of the United Kingdom (usually Prime Minister's Questions and the State Opening of Parliament) and other governments are shown on C-SPAN when they discuss matters of importance to viewers in the U.S.PRESS RELEASE, BBC Parliament Goes Live on Digital Satellite, M2 Presswire, November 25, 1998, WEB,weblink Australian Parliament, c-span.org, C-SPAN, July 16, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131020024547weblink">weblink October 20, 2013, yes, mdy-all, Similarly, the networks will sometimes broadcast news reports from around the world when major events occur – for instance, C-SPAN broadcast CBC Television coverage of the September 11 attacks. C-SPAN also covers lying in state in the Capitol Rotunda and funerals of former presidentsNEWS, Networks planning coverage of Nixon funeral, Ben, Kubasik,weblink The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, Washington, April 26, 1994, June 19, 2013, NEWS, Television did its job as window on America's farewell to Reagan, Preston, Turegano, The San Diego Union-Tribune, D-6,weblink June 14, 2004, May 22, 2013, and other notable individuals.NEWS, Lady Bird Johnson, former first lady, remembered at Texas funeral attended by 1,800, Kelley, Shannon, Associated Press,weblink July 14, 2007, May 22, 2013, In 2005, C-SPAN covered Hurricane Katrina through NBC affiliate WDSU in New Orleans, as well as coverage of Hurricane Ike via CBS affiliate KHOU in Houston.NEWS, Coverage of Gustav tops politics on Day 1, John, Timpane, The Philadelphia Inquirer,weblink September 2, 2008, May 22, 2013, C-SPAN also carries CBC coverage during events that affect Canadians, such as the Canadian federal elections,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120112105321weblink">weblink January 12, 2012, Election night 2008, Connect2Canada.com, Connect2Canada, December 7, 2010, the death and state funeral of Pierre Trudeau,VIDEO, October 3, 2000, Former Prime Minister Trudeau Funeral,weblink C-SPAN, October 18, 2013, and the 2003 North America blackout.VIDEO, August 14, 2003, Northeastern Electricity Failures,weblink C-SPAN, October 18, 2013, VIDEO, September 3, 2003, Northeast Power Outages, Day 1,weblink C-SPAN, October 18, 2013, During early 2011, C-SPAN carried broadcasts by Al Jazeera to cover the events in Egypt, Tunisia, and other Arab nations.WEB,weblink Moammar Qadhafi Address, March 2, 2011, c-spanvideo.org, C-SPAN, March 15, 2011, Additionally, C-SPAN simulcasts NASA Space Shuttle mission launches and landings live, using video footage and audio sourced from NASA TV.NEWS, E-Vision launches C-Span channel on its cable network, Al Bawaba,weblink Amman, Jordan, June 11, 2009, May 22, 2013, With its public affairs programming, C-SPAN intends to offer different viewpoints by allowing time for multiple opinions to be discussed on a given topic. For example, in 2004 C-SPAN intended to televise a speech by Holocaust historian Deborah Lipstadt adjacent to a speech by Holocaust denier David Irving, who had unsuccessfully sued Lipstadt for libel in the United Kingdom four years earlier; C-SPAN was criticized for its use of the word "balance" to describe the plan to cover both Lipstadt and Irving.WEB, C-SPAN's David Irving contretemps,weblink April 13, 2005, adl.org, Anti-Defamation League, July 29, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090801105915weblink">weblink August 1, 2009, NEWS, C-SPAN's Balance of the Absurd, Richard, Cohen,weblink The Washington Post, March 15, 2005, June 11, 2013, When Lipstadt ended media access to her speech, C-SPAN canceled coverage of both.WEB, Lipstadt/Irving Libel Trial,weblink c-spanvideo.org, C-SPAN, March 22, 2011, The network strives for neutrality and a lack of bias; in all programming when on-camera hosts are present their role is simply to facilitate and explain proceedings to the viewer. Due to this policy, C-SPAN hosts do not state their names on television.

C-SPAN and C-SPAN2 flagship programs

While many hours of programming on C-SPAN are dedicated to coverage of the House, the network's daily programming begins with the political phone-in and interview program Washington Journal from 7:00 to 10:00 a.m. Eastern Time.WEB,weblink C-SPAN Milestones, c-span.org, C-SPAN, October 8, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110717175854weblink">weblink July 17, 2011, yes, mdy-all, Washington Journal premiered on January 4, 1995 and has been broadcast every morning since then, with guests including elected officials, government administrators, and journalists. The program covers current events, with guests answering questions on topics presented by the hosts, as well as questions from members of the general public.NEWS, Accuracy in media; Left-Winger's "Truth' Exposed As Make-Believe, Reed Irvine, Chattanooga Free Press, A11,weblink May 10, 1998, May 22, 2013, On weeknights C-SPAN2 dedicates its schedule to Politics and Public Policy Today (9:00 p.m. – midnight for the East Coast primetime, replayed immediately for the West Coast primetime), which is a block of recordings of the day's noteworthy events in rapid succession. On the weekend schedule, C-SPAN's main programs are: America and the Courts, which is shown each Saturday at 7:00 p.m. Eastern Time,WEB,weblink America and the Courts, c-span.org, C-SPAN, March 22, 2011, Newsmakers, a Sunday morning interview program with newsworthy guests;NEWS, TV highlights for October 23, 2010, Emily, Yahr, The Washington Post, October 23, 2010,weblink October 26, 2010, Q&A, a Sunday evening interview program hosted by Brian Lamb, with guests including journalists, politicians, authors, and other public figures;NEWS, New Show, Familiar Format For C-SPAN, John, McArdle, Roll Call, Washington, D.C., December 6, 2004,weblink September 28, 2010, and The Communicators, which features interviews with journalists, government officials, and businesspeople involved with the communications industry and related legislation.WEB,weblink The Communicators, c-span.org, C-SPAN, January 27, 2011, On weekends C-SPAN2 dedicates its schedule to Book TV, which is 48 hours of programming about non-fiction books, book events, and authors. Book TV was launched in September 1998. Booknotes was originally broadcast from 1989 to 2004,NEWS, 'Booknotes' Afterword, The Boston Globe,weblink August 19, 2004, May 22, 2013, as a one-hour one-on-one interview of a non-fiction author.NEWS, Books on TV, and a Host Who Listens, Ellen Emry Heltzel, The Oregonian, F07,weblink Portland, Oregon, August 17, 1997, May 22, 2013, Repeats of the interviews remain a regular part of the Book TV schedule with the title Encore Booknotes.NEWS, C-SPAN's 'Booknotes' nearing end,weblink April 26, 2015, Cincinnati Enquirer, August 12, 2004, Other Book TV programs feature political and historical books and biographies of public figures. These include In Depth, a live, monthly, three-hour interview with a single author, and After Words,NEWS, Editorial, The Sun Herald, C12,weblink Biloxi, Mississippi, September 14, 2003, May 22, 2013, an author interview program featuring guest hosts interviewing authors on topics with which both are familiar.NEWS, BookTV Eyes More Original Programming, Jim, Milliot,weblink Publishers Weekly, January 10, 2005, May 15, 2013, After Words was developed as a new type of author interview program after the end of production of Booknotes. Weekend programming on Book TV also includes coverage of book events such as panel discussions, book fairs,NEWS, C-SPAN2's 'Book TV' Wins Honor For Its Work, Jessica, Estepa, Roll Call, Washington, D.C., July 15, 2010,weblink February 8, 2011, book signings, readings by authors and tours of bookstores around the U.S.

C-SPAN3

The weekday programming on C-SPAN3 (from the morning (anywhere from 6:00-8:30 a.m.) to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time) features uninterrupted live public affairs events, in particular political events from Washington, D.C. Each weekend since January 8, 2011, the network has broadcast 48 hours of programming dedicated to the history of the United States, under the umbrella title American History TV.WEB,weblink Turn to C-SPAN for American History, Jenny, Williams, January 7, 2011, wired.com, Wired (website), Wired, January 17, 2011, WEB, C-SPAN Launching History Programming Block, Alex, Weprin,weblink January 6, 2011, mediabistro.com, WebMediaBrands, May 15, 2013, The programming covers the history of the U.S. from the founding of the nation through the late 20th century. Programs include American Artifacts, which is dedicated to exploring museums, archives and historical sites, and Lectures in History, featuring major university history professors giving lectures on U.S. history.WEB,weblink American History TV – New from C-SPAN, Gerald D. Swick, January 18, 2011, historynet.com, Weider History Group, November 22, 2010, In 2009, C-SPAN3 aired an eight-installment series of interviews from the Robert J. Dole Institute of Politics at the University of Kansas, which featured historian Richard Norton Smith and Vice President Walter Mondale, among other interviewees.PRESS RELEASE, C-SPAN3 to Air Dole Institute Interviews with Bob Dole, Walter Mondale,weblink The University of Kansas, November 20, 2009, May 22, 2013,

Special programming

C-SPAN has occasionally produced spinoff programs from Booknotes focusing on specific topics. In 1994, Booknotes collaborated with Lincoln scholar Harold Holzer to produce re-creations of the seven Lincoln–Douglas debates.NEWS, Americans Speak Up on Talk TV, Michael, Rust, Insight on the News,weblink February 9, 1998, May 22, 2013, Several years later, (The Alexis de Tocqueville Tour: Exploring Democracy in America|a similar series) retraced the journey of Alexis de Tocqueville described in Democracy in America.NEWS, After Many Million Pages, 'Booknotes' Ends Its Run, Frank J. Prial,weblink The New York Times, December 4, 2004, May 15, 2013, Another special series was (American Writers: A Journey Through History|American Writers), a 38-week tour of the U.S. based on the works of 40 famous American writers.During 2008 and 2009, as part of programming specially commissioned for the 200th anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln, C-SPAN produced a series titled Lincoln 200 Years, which featured episodes on a variety of topics relating to the life of Lincoln including his career, his homes and his opinions of slavery.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120715180934weblink">weblink yes, July 15, 2012, Lincoln 200 Years, c-span.org, C-SPAN, February 23, 2011, NEWS, Run up to Lincoln's Thursday 200th Birthday celebration: C-SPAN Lincoln specials, Lynn Sweet,weblink Chicago Sun-Times, February 6, 2009, February 24, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111017005049weblink">weblink October 17, 2011, The network has also produced special feature documentaries of American institutions and historical landmarks, exploring their history to the present day. These programs include: The Capitol emphasizing the history, art, and architecture of the U.S. Capitol Building;WEB,weblink The Capitol, c-span.org, C-SPAN, February 23, 2011, The White House, featuring film footage inside the White House and exploring the history of the building and its occupants;NEWS, With Each Tale, 'House' Extends Inviting Lines, Philip, Kennicott,weblink The Washington Post, December 13, 2008, February 22, 2011, The Supreme Court, focusing on the history and personalities of the court;WEB,weblink The Supreme Court: Home to America's Highest Court, c-span.org, C-SPAN, February 23, 2011, and Inside Blair House, an examination of the president's guest house.WEB,weblink Blair House: The President's Guest House, c-span.org, C-SPAN, February 23, 2011, In 2013, C-SPAN introduced a new program, (First Ladies: Influence & Image). 35 episodes profiling the First Ladies are planned for the series,NEWS, C-SPAN begins 35-episode series on first ladies, David, Bauder,weblink Associated Press, February 15, 2013, February 20, 2013, which was created with support from the White House Historical Association.NEWS, C-SPAN views first ladies as political powerhosues, Patrick, Gavin,weblink Politico, February 14, 2013, February 20, 2013,

Radio broadcasts

In addition to the three television networks, C-SPAN also broadcasts via C-SPAN Radio, which is carried on their owned-and-operated station WCSP (90.1 FM) in the Washington, D.C. area with all three cable network feeds airing via HD Radio subchannels, and nationwide on XM Satellite Radio. Its programming is also livestreamed at c-span.org and is available via apps for iPhone, BlackBerry and Android devices.WEB,weblink How to Listen to C-SPAN Radio, c-span.org, C-SPAN, June 20, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120104200941weblink">weblink January 4, 2012, NEWS, The most popular iPhone news applications, The Independent, March 23, 2010,weblink October 11, 2010, C-SPAN Radio has a selective policy regarding its broadcast content, rather than duplicating the television network programming, although it does offer some audio simulcasts of programs such as Washington Journal.NEWS, New station features processes of government; Radio: WCSP-FM (90.1) serves up large doses of public policy as it's happening, but more selectively than C-SPAN., Chris, Kaltenbach, The Baltimore Sun,weblink February 22, 1998, May 22, 2013, Unique programming on the radio station includes oral histories, and some committee meetings and press conferences not shown on television due to programming commitments. The station also compiles the Sunday morning talk shows for a same-day rebroadcast without commercials, in rapid succession.

Online availability

(File:C-SPAN Video Library.jpg|right|thumb|upright=1.35|Home page of the C-SPAN Video Library)C-SPAN archival video is available through the C-SPAN Video Library, maintained at the Purdue Research Park in West Lafayette, Indiana.WEB,weblink About C-SPAN Video Library, c-span.org, C-SPAN, June 4, 2011, Unveiled in August 2007, the C-SPAN Video Library contains all of the network's programming since 1987, totaling more than 160,000 hours at its completion of digitization and public debut in March 2010.WEB,weblink ACC Awards Golden Beacon To C-SPAN's Video Library, Mike, Reynolds, September 16, 2010, multichannel.com, NewBay Media, September 27, 2010, NEWS, Early races for Congress may give forecast for November; C-SPAN presents, Chris, Cillizza, The Washington Post, March 15, 2010,weblink September 27, 2010, Older C-SPAN programming continues to be added to the library, dating back to the beginning of the network in 1979,NEWS, C-SPAN Puts Full Archives on the Web, Brian, Stelter, The New York Times, March 15, 2010,weblink September 27, 2010, and some limited earlier footage from the National Archives, such as film clips of Richard Nixon's 1972 trip to China, is available as well.WEB,weblink Changing the way we view history, Chuck, Raasch, March 25, 2010, gannettonline.com, Gannett Company, Gannett News Service Multimedia, September 27, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110711072211weblink">weblink July 11, 2011, Most of the recordings before 1987 (when the C-SPAN Archive was established) were not saved, except for approximately 10,000 hours of video which are slated to be made available online. {{as of|2019|April|df=}}, the C-SPAN Video Library held over 249,000 hours of programming, and they have been viewed over 246,6 million times. Described by media commentators as a major educational service and a valuable resource for researchers of politics and history,WEB,weblink C-SPAN Online Archives Will Redefine Social Studies Education in America, Frances, Martel, March 16, 2010, mediaite.com, Mediaite, September 27, 2010, WEB,weblink C-SPAN Digital Archives, Brian Williams, September 24, 2010, msnbc.msn.com, NBCNews.com, September 27, 2010, the C-SPAN Video Library has also had a major role in media and opposition research in several U.S. political campaigns.NEWS, C-SPAN's blasts from the past, Howard Kurtz, The Washington Post, September 23, 2010,weblink September 27, 2010, It won a Peabody Award in 2010 "for creating an enduring archive of the history of American policymaking, and for providing it as a free, user-friendly public service."70th Annual Peabody Awards, May 2011.Prior to the initiation of the C-SPAN Video Library, websites such as Metavid and voterwatch.org hosted House and Senate video records, however C-SPAN contested Metavid's usage of C-SPAN copyrighted footage. The result was Metavid's removal of portions of the archive produced with C-SPAN's cameras, while preserving its archive of government-produced content.WEB,weblink Democratizing the Archive: An Open Interface for Mediation, Metavid, October 12, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080605053154weblink">weblink June 5, 2008, yes, C-SPAN also engaged in actions to stop parties from making unauthorized uses of its content online, including its video of House and Senate proceedings. Most notably, in May 2006, C-SPAN requested the removal of Stephen Colbert's performance at the White House Correspondents' Association Dinner from YouTube.NEWS, C-SPAN Asks Sites to Pull Colbert,weblink Associated Press, May 8, 2006, June 11, 2013, After concerns by some webloggers,WEB,weblink Why was Colbert press corps video removed from YouTube?, boingboing.net, Boing Boing, Xeni Jardin, May 4, 2006, October 12, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080709004329weblink">weblink July 9, 2008, yes, mdy-all, C-SPAN gave permission for Google Video to host the full event.NEWS,weblink July 5, 2006, A Comedian's Riff on Bush Prompts an E-Spat, Noam, Cohen, May 8, 2006, The New York Times, On March 7, 2007 C-SPAN liberalized its copyright policy for current, future, and past coverage of any official events sponsored by Congress and any federal agency and now allows for attributed non-commercial copying, sharing, and posting of C-SPAN video on the Internet,NEWS, C-SPAN alters copyright over Pelosi flap, Kaise, Hunt,weblink Associated Press, March 7, 2007, June 11, 2013, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120710020305weblink">weblink yes, July 10, 2012, C-SPAN Takes Lead in Making Video of Congressional Hearings, White House and Other Federal Events More Widely Available to Online Community, c-span.org, C-SPAN, March 7, 2007, March 22, 2011, excluding re-syndication of live video streams. The new policy did not affect the public's right to use the public domain video coverage of the floor proceedings of the U.S. House and Senate.WEB,weblink Copyright Policy for Educators, c-span.org, C-SPAN, March 22, 2011, The video coverage of the floor proceedings of the U.S. House of Representatives and of the U.S. Senate is public domain material and is not subject to this license, and as such, may also be used for educational purposes., In 2008, C-SPAN's online political coverage was expanded just prior to the elections, with the introduction of three special pages on the C-SPAN website: the C-SPAN Convention Hubs and C-SPAN Debate Hub, which offered video of major events as well as discussion from weblogs and social media about the major party conventions and candidate debates.WEB,weblink C-SPAN Engages New Media Strategies for Innovative Online Convention Coverage, August 12, 2008, nms.com, New Media Strategies, December 2, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110810070530weblink">weblink August 10, 2011, WEB,weblink EXCLUSIVE: C-SPAN Launches Gadget-Fueled 'Debate Hub' as Social, Political Destination, Andrew, Nusca, September 25, 2008, zdnet.com, ZDNet, December 3, 2010, C-SPAN brought back the Convention Hub for the 2012 presidential election.NEWS, C-SPAN's Online Hub Provides Raw Convention Coverage, Alex, Fitzpatrick,weblink Mashable, August 23, 2012, June 19, 2013, In addition to the programming available in the C-SPAN Video Library, all C-SPAN programming is available as a live feed streamed on its website in Flash Video format.WEB,weblink Solving Video Problems, c-span.org, C-SPAN, December 3, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101221043614weblink">weblink December 21, 2010, On July 29, 2014, C-SPAN announced that it would begin restricting access to the live feeds of the main channel, C-SPAN2 and C-SPAN3 to subscribers of cable or satellite providers later that summer, citing concerns with the slow shift in viewing habits from cable television to the internet due to its reliance on carriage fees from cable and satellite providers. However, it will continue to allow all government meetings, hearings and conferences to be streamed live online and via archived on the C-SPAN Video Library without requiring an authenticated login by a provider; live audio feeds of all three channels are also available for free through the network's mobile app. The decision drew some criticism from public interest and government transparency advocates, citing the fact that C-SPAN was designed as a public service.NEWS, C-SPAN to require TV subscription for some programs,weblink Adam, Ganucheau, USA Today, July 29, 2014, August 4, 2014, NEWS, C-SPAN limiting access to its online channels,weblink Julian, Hattem, July 29, 2014, August 4, 2014,

Organization and operations

(File:C-SPAN Leadership.jpg|left|thumb|Founder Brian Lamb in 2012 flanked by co-CEOs Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain)







factoids
". District of Columbia Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs. Accessed on January 22, 2016.c-span.org}}}}C-SPAN is operated by the National Cable Satellite Corporation, a nonprofit organization, the board of directors of which consists primarily of representatives of the largest cable companies.WEB,weblink Company/Corporate Information, c-span.org, C-SPAN, March 22, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110717181144weblink">weblink July 17, 2011, yes, mdy-all, Early chairmen of C-SPAN include Bob Rosencrans, John Saeman, Ed Allen and Gene Schneider.WEB,weblink The Board, c-span.org, C-SPAN, December 7, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110717181318weblink">weblink July 17, 2011, yes, mdy-all, C-SPAN does not sell commercials or solicit donations on air; instead, it receives nearly all of its funding from subscriber fees charged to cable and direct-broadcast satellite (DBS) operators. {{as of|2012}}, C-SPAN received 6¢ of each subscriber's cable bill for an annual budget of $60 million.NEWS, C-SPAN founder Brian Lamb starts new chapter in his life, Emmanuel, Touhey,weblink The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, April 10, 2012, June 11, 2013, As the network is an independent entity, neither the cable industry nor Congress controls the content of its programming.{{As of|2013|1}}, the network has 282 employees.WEB,weblink Company & Mission Statement, January 22, 2013, c-span.org, C-SPAN, January 25, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130124201338weblink">weblink January 24, 2013, C-SPAN is led by co-CEOs Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. Founder and former CEO Brian Lamb serves as the executive chairman of the board of directors.NEWS, C-Span Founder to Step Down as Chief Executive, Brian, Stelter,weblink The New York Times, March 18, 2012, February 13, 2013, The majority of C-SPAN's employees are based at C-SPAN's headquarters located on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., however in 2003 television studios were opened in New York City and Denver, Colorado. These studios use digital equipment that can be controlled from Washington.C-SPAN also maintains archives in West Lafayette, Indiana at the Purdue Research Park under the direction of Dr. Robert X. Browning.

Availability

The C-SPAN networks are available in more than 100 million households {{As of|2010|lc=y}}, not including access to the C-SPAN websites.NEWS, C-SPAN: TV's Political Insider in Washington, Linda M. Harrington, The Chicago Tribune,weblink October 31, 1993, May 22, 2013, WEB,weblink Brian Lamb: C-SPAN Now Reaches 100 Million Homes, Paul, Bedard, June 22, 2010, usnews.com, U.S. News & World Report, November 22, 2010, More than 7,000 telephone callers have participated with discussion on Washington Journal {{As of|2009|3|18|lc=y |df=US}}.NEWS, C-SPAN Marks 30 Years of Riveting Television, Tricia, Miller, Roll Call, Washington, D.C., March 18, 2009,weblink February 8, 2011, There are no official viewing statistics for C-SPAN because the network, which has no commercials or underwriting advertisements, does not use the Nielsen ratings. However, there have been a number of surveys providing estimates:
  • A 1994 survey found that 8.6% of the U.S. population regularly watched C-SPAN.
  • In 2004 this figure increased to 12% of the U.S. population, according to a Pew Research Center survey, while 31% of the population was categorized as occasional viewers. More than 28 million people said they watched C-SPAN programming each week.
  • A March 2009 Hart Research survey found that 20% of homes with cable television watch C-SPAN at least once a week, for an estimated 39 million Americans.WEB,weblink Marking 30 years. Covering Washington like no other., March 19, 2009, c-span.org, C-SPAN, March 22, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110819230432weblink">weblink August 19, 2011, yes, mdy-all,
  • A 2010 poll conducted by C-SPAN and Penn Schoen Berland estimates that 79 million adults in the U.S. watched C-SPAN at some time from 2009 to 2010.WEB,weblink American Voters Suggest How to Make Congress More Accessible, November 17, 2010, c-span.org, C-SPAN, November 22, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101128122005weblink">weblink November 28, 2010,
  • In January 2013, Hart Research conducted another survey which showed that 47 million adults, or 24% of adults with access to cable television, watch C-SPAN weekly.NEWS, Exclusive: C-SPAN Study Finds Almost Quarter of Cable/Satellite Subs Watch Weekly Audience is up 4% since last Hart Research survey, John, Eggerton,weblink Broadcasting & Cable, March 19, 2013, March 22, 2013, NEWS, C-SPAN the emerging hipster network: its audience 'trends young', Jennifer, Harper,weblink The Washington Times, March 19, 2013, March 22, 2013, Of the 47 million regular C-SPAN viewers, 51% are male and 49% female; 26% are liberal, 31% conservative, and 39% moderate. About half are college graduates. 28% of 18-to-49-year-olds report watching at least once a week, as do 19% of 50- to 64-year-olds, and 22% of those over age 65.
  • In February 2017, Ipsos Audience conducted another survey which showed that 70 million adults, or 36% of adults with access to cable television, watch C-SPAN on a given six-month period. Of the 70 million regular C-SPAN viewers, 52% are male and 48% female; 25% are West viewers, 22% Midwest, 20% Northeast and 33% South. 28% identified themselves as liberal, 27% conservative, and 36% moderate. 51% of all viewers are 18-44 years old.

Public and media opinion

A 2009 C-SPAN survey of viewers found that the network's most-valued attribute was its balanced programming. The survey's respondents were a mixed group, with 31% describing themselves as "liberal," while 28% described themselves as "conservative", and the survey found that C-SPAN viewers are an equal mixture of men and women of all age groups.C-SPAN's public service nature has been praised as an enduring contribution to national knowledge.NEWS, Washington's longest-running reality show, Peter, Osnos, Peter Osnos, The Daily Beast, March 31, 2009,weblink February 8, 2011, In 1987, Andrew Rosenthal wrote for The New York Times about C-SPAN's influence in political elections, arguing that C-SPAN's "blanket coverage" had expanded television journalism "into areas once shielded from general view".NEWS, C-SPAN's Spotlight Brings Quiet Corners of Campaigning into View, Andrew, Rosenthal,weblink The New York Times, October 22, 1987, June 11, 2013, The network has received positive media coverage for providing public access to proceedings such as the Goldman Sachs Senate hearings,WEB,weblink Goldman Sachs hearings: C-SPAN delivers again, David, Zurawik, April 27, 2010, baltimoresun.com, Z on TV, The Baltimore Sun, December 14, 2010, and the U.S. 2010 Healthcare Summit,WEB,weblink C-SPAN: Where Health Care (and Everything Else) Gets Debated Daily, Tim, Heffernan, February 25, 2010, esquire.com, The Daily Endorsement, Hearst Corporation, Hearst Communications, December 14, 2010, while its everyday programming has been credited with providing the media and the general public with an intimate knowledge of U.S. political proceedings and people.WEB,weblink Randi Rhodes, December 18, 2005, qanda.org, C-SPAN, December 13, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110720131511weblink">weblink July 20, 2011, WEB,weblink Happy Birthday, C-SPAN!, David Corn, March 11, 2004, thenation.com, The Nation, Capital Games, December 14, 2010, The ability of C-SPAN to provide this service without federal funding, advertising or soliciting viewer contributions has been remarked by local newspapers and online news services, with the Daily Beast terming C-SPAN's $55 million annual budget (in 2009), "an astounding bargain."NEWS, It's a fittingly quiet birthday for C-SPAN, John, Rash, Minneapolis Star Tribune, March 20, 2009,weblinkThe Washington Post noted that C-SPAN's programming has been copied by television networks worldwide and credits the network with providing information about foreign politics to American viewers.C-SPAN GAUGED 25 YEARS AFTER START T.R. REID >URL=HTTPS://NEWS.GOOGLE.COM/NEWSPAPERS?NID=875&DAT=20040321&ID=I249AAAAIBAJ&SJID=7CGMAAAAIBAJ&PG=2777,5936560 NEWSPAPER=THE WASHINGTON POST DATE=MARCH 18, 2004 ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 14, 2010, According to The New York Times, C-SPAN's mission to record official events in Washington, D.C. makes it "one of a kind", particularly in the creation of the C-SPAN Video Library, which received significant press coverage.Despite its stated commitment to providing politically balanced programming, C-SPAN and its shows such as Washington Journal, Booknotes, Q & A, and After Words have been accused by some liberal organizations of having a conservative bias.WEB,weblink Tilting Rightward: C-SPAN's Coverage of Think Tanks, Juan, Montecino, Mark Weisbrot, December 2007, cepr.net, Center for Economic and Policy Research, May 22, 2013, In 2005, the media criticism organization Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) released a study of C-SPAN's morning telephone call-in show Washington Journal, showing that Republicans were favored as guests over Democrats by a two-to-one margin during a six-month period that year, and that people of color are underrepresented.WEB,weblink C-SPAN Slanting Right, December 19, 2005, fair.org, Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, June 5, 2013, A 2007 survey released by the think tank Center for Economic and Policy Research reported that C-SPAN covered conservative think tanks more than left-of-center think tanks.NEWS, Tanks numbers, Jennifer, Harper,weblink The Washington Times, December 20, 2007, June 11, 2013,

Must-carry

In 1992, Congress passed must-carry regulations, which required cable carriers to allocate spectrum to local broadcasters. This affected the availability of C-SPAN in some areas, in particular C-SPAN2, as some providers chose to discontinue carriage of the channel altogether.NEWS, C-SPAN Cut in 95 Cities Around the Country For Total Loss of About Four Million Viewers Brian Lamb Says Competition for Air Time May Lead Network to Liven Up Its Format, Alice A. Love, Roll Call,weblink Washington, D.C., August 8, 1994, May 22, 2013, NEWS, Federal Law Forced Paragon into Programming Changes, The Oregonian, B08, Portland, Oregon,weblink January 24, 1995, May 22, 2013, Between 1993 and 1994, cable systems in 95 U.S. cities dropped or reduced broadcasts of C-SPAN and C-SPAN2, following the implementation of the must-carry regulations. Viewers protested these decisions, especially when the changes coincided with matters of local interest occurring in the House or Senate.NEWS, Some of U.S. Want Our C-SPAN2, Bayard H. Morrison, Orlando Sentinel,weblink April 8, 2001, May 22, 2013, Some communities, such as Eugene, Oregon and Alexandria, Virginia, were successful in restoring C-SPAN availability. C-SPAN availability was later restored as technological developments that resulted in the expansion of channel capacity on cable providers allowed for mandatory stations and the C-SPAN networks both to be broadcast.

Other services

(File:C-SPAN Bus 2012.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|C-SPAN Digital Bus, which tours the U.S. educating the public about C-SPAN resources)C-SPAN offers a number of public services related to the network's public affairs programming. C-SPAN Classroom, a free membership service for teachers, began in July 1987 and offers help using C-SPAN resources for classes or research. The C-SPAN School Bus, introduced in November 1993, traveled around the U.S. educating the public about government and politics using C-SPAN resources, and served as a mobile television studio. The bus also recorded video footage of the places that it visited.NEWS, C-SPAN Carries Political Lessons Across Highways, Jim, Schlosse, News & Record, Guilford County, North Carolina, B1,weblink March 9, 1995, May 22, 2013, A second bus was introduced in 1996. The two original buses were retired in 2010,WEB, C – SPAN Launches New C – SPAN Digital Bus and C – SPAN Local Content Vehicle,weblink C-SPAN, September 3, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130610000414weblink">weblink June 10, 2013, and the C-SPAN Digital Bus was inaugurated, introducing the public to C-SPAN's enhanced digital products. C-SPAN has also equipped six Local Content Vehicles (LCVs) to travel the country and record unique political and historical stories, with each vehicle containing production and web-based technologies to produce on-the-spot content.NEWS, How C-SPAN Manages A Cross-Country Fleet, Joanne, Tucker,weblink Business Fleet, July 2013, October 7, 2013, WEB,weblink C-SPAN Rolls Out Second Fleet of Tricked Out Vehicles, Betsy, Rothstein, March 12, 2013, mediabistro.com, Mediabistro.com, October 7, 2013, C-SPAN has published ten books based on its programming; these contain original material and text taken from interview transcripts. The first C-SPAN book, C-SPAN: America's Town Hall, was published in 1988. Other C-SPAN books include: Gavel to Gavel: A C-SPAN Guide to Congress;BOOK, Gavel to Gavel: A C-SPAN Guide to Congress, C-SPAN, 1999, Johns Hopkins University Press, 0-8018-6111-X,weblink October 16, 2013, Who's Buried in Grant's Tomb?, a guide to the grave sites of U.S. presidents;BOOK, Who's Buried in Grant's Tomb?, Brian, Lamb, Brian Lamb, C-SPAN staff, 2010, PublicAffairs, 1-58648-869-4,weblink Abraham Lincoln - Great American Historians On Our Sixteenth President, a collection of essays based on C-SPAN interviews with American historians;BOOK, Abraham Lincoln: Great American Historians on Our Sixteenth President, Lamb, Brian, Brian Lamb, Swain, Susan, 2010, PublicAffairs, 1-58648-774-4,weblink and The Supreme Court, which features biographies and interviews with past Supreme Court judges together with commentary from legal experts.BOOK, The Supreme Court: A C-SPAN Book, Featuring the Justices in their Own Words, Lamb, Brian, Brian Lamb, Swain, Susan, Farkas, Mark, 2011, PublicAffairs, 978-1-58648-835-2,weblink Five books have been drawn from the former Booknotes program: Booknotes: Life Stories;NEWS, The Last Author of One Last Book For One Final Hour, Tony, Biffle, The Sun Herald, Biloxi, Mississippi, B11,weblink December 5, 2004, May 22, 2013, Booknotes: On American Character;BOOK, Booknotes: On American Character, Brian, Lamb, Brian Lamb, 2005, PublicAffairs, 1-58648-342-0,weblink October 16, 2013, Booknotes: Stories from American History;BOOK, Booknotes: Stories from American History, Brian, Lamb, Brian Lamb, 2001, PublicAffairs, 1-58648-083-9,weblink October 16, 2013, Booknotes: America's Finest Authors on Reading, Writing and the Power of Ideas, the latter a compilation of short monologues taken from the transcripts of Lamb's interviews; and a companion book to the series on Tocqueville, Traveling Tocqueville's America: A Tour Book.BOOK, Traveling Tocqueville's America: A Tour Book, C-SPAN, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 0-8018-5966-2,

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

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