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bias
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{{other uses}}{{short description|Inclination to present or hold a partial perspective}}File:Man In The Moon2.png|thumb|Interpretations of the random patterns of craters on the moon. A common example of a perceptual bias caused by pareidoliapareidoliaBias is disproportionate weight in favor of or against an idea or thing, usually in a way that is closed-minded, prejudicial, or unfair. Biases can be innate or learned. People may develop biases for or against an individual, a group, or a belief.JOURNAL, Steinbock, Bonnie, Speciesism and the Idea of Equality, Philosophy, 1978, 204, 247–256, 10.1017/S0031819100016582,weblink 53, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141205205839weblink">weblink 2014-12-05, In science and engineering, a bias is a systematic error. Statistical bias results from an unfair sampling of a population, or from an estimation process that does not give accurate results on average.

Etymology

The word probably derives from Old Provençal into Old French biais, "sideways, askance, against the grain". Whence comes French biais, "a slant, a slope, an oblique".WEB,weblink Online Etymology Dictionary, Bias, 26 Aug 2018, It seems to have entered English via the game of bowls, where it referred to balls made with a greater weight on one side. Which expanded to the figurative use, "a one-sided tendency of the mind", and, at first especially in law, "undue propensity or prejudice".

Types of bias

Cognitive biases

A cognitive bias is a repeating or basic misstep in thinking, assessing, recollecting, or other cognitive processes.JOURNAL, Definition of Cognitive Bias, Chegg,weblink 1 September 2015, live,weblink" title="archive.is/20160509015823weblink">weblink 9 May 2016, That is, a pattern of deviation from standards in judgment, whereby inferences may be created unreasonably.BOOK, Haselton, M. G., Nettle, D., Andrews, P. W., yes, The evolution of cognitive bias., 2005, Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc, In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, 724–746, People create their own "subjective social reality" from their own perceptions,BOOK, Bless, H., Fiedler, K., Strack, F., yes, Social cognition: How individuals construct social reality., 2004, Hove and New York: Psychology Press, 2, their view of the world may dictate their behaviour.BOOK, Bless, H., Fiedler, K., Strack, F., yes, Social cognition: How individuals construct social reality, 2004, Hove and New York: Psychology Press, Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality.JOURNAL, Kahneman, D., Tversky, A., 1972, Subjective probability: A judgment of representativeness, Cognitive Psychology, 3, 3, 430–454, 10.1016/0010-0285(72)90016-3, Baron, J. (2007). Thinking and Deciding (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Ariely, D. (2008). Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions. New York, NY: HarperCollins. However some cognitive biases are taken to be adaptive, and thus may lead to success in the appropriate situation.For instance: JOURNAL, Gigerenzer, G., Goldstein, D. G., yes, Reasoning the fast and frugal way: Models of bounded rationality., Psychological Review, 1996, 103, 650–669, 10.1037/0033-295X.103.4.650, 8888650, 4,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170922235244weblink">weblink 2017-09-22, 10.1.1.174.4404, Furthermore, cognitive biases may allow speedier choices when speed is more valuable than precision.JOURNAL, Tversky, A., Kahneman, D., yes, Judgement under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases., Science, 1974, 185, 1124–1131, 10.1126/science.185.4157.1124, 17835457, 4157,weblink Other cognitive biases are a "by-product" of human processing limitations,BOOK, Haselton, M. G., Nettle, D., Andrews, P. W., yes, The evolution of cognitive bias, 2005, Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc., In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, 724–746, coming about because of an absence of appropriate mental mechanisms, or just from human limitations in information processing.BOOK, Bless, H., Fiedler, K., Strack, F., yes, Social cognition: How individuals construct social reality., 2004, Hove and New York: Psychology Press.,

Anchoring

Anchoring is a psychological heuristic that describes the propensity to rely on the first piece of information encountered when making decisions.WEB, Anchoring bias in decision-making, Science Daily,weblink September 29, 2015, live,weblink September 29, 2015, JOURNAL, Anchoring Definition, Investopedia,weblink September 29, 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171023052312weblink">weblink October 23, 2017, According to this heuristic, individuals begin with an implicitly suggested reference point (the "anchor") and make adjustments to it to reach their estimate. For example, the initial price offered for a used car sets the standard for the rest of the negotiations, so that prices lower than the initial price seem more reasonable even if they are still higher than what the car is worth.JOURNAL, Tversky, A., Kahneman, D., Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, Science, 185, 4157, 1974, 1124–1131, 10.1126/science.185.4157.1124,weblink 17835457, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140817144047weblink">weblink 2014-08-17, Edward Teach, "Avoiding Decision Traps {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130614061542weblink |date=2013-06-14 }}", CFO (1 June 2004). Retrieved 29 May 2007.

Apophenia

{{See also|Hindsight bias}}Apophenia, also known as patternicity,JOURNAL, Shermer, Michael, Patternicity: Finding Meaningful Patterns in Meaningless Noise, Scientific American, 299, 6, 48, 10.1038/scientificamerican1208-48, 19143444, 2008, NEWS, GrrlScientist,weblink Michael Shermer: The pattern behind self-deception, Guardian, 29 September 2010, 2011-06-29, London, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150926040551weblink">weblink 26 September 2015, or agenticity,WEB,weblink Why Do We Need a Belief in God with Michael Shermer, 2011-08-19, live,weblink 2016-03-14, is the human tendency to perceive meaningful patterns within random data. Apophenia is well documented as a rationalization for gambling. Gamblers may imagine that they see patterns in the numbers which appear in lotteries, card games, or roulette wheels.WEB,weblink Apophenia & Illusory Correlation « Paul Xavier Waterstone, Waterstone.wordpress.com, 2007-05-24, 2011-06-29, One manifestation of this is known as the "gambler's fallacy".Pareidolia is the visual or auditory form of apophenia. It has been suggested that pareidolia combined with hierophany may have helped ancient societies organize chaos and make the world intelligible.WEB,weblink Bustamante, Patricio, Yao, Fay, Bustamante, Daniela, 2010, The worship to the mountains: a study of the creation myths of the chinese culture, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924092744weblink">weblink 2015-09-24, WEB, Bustamante, Patricio, Yao, Fay, Bustamante, Daniela, 2010, Search for meanings: from pleistocene art to the worship of the mountains in early China. Methodological tools for Mimesis,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304093315weblink">weblink 2016-03-04,

Attribution bias

An attribution bias can happen when individuals assess or attempt to discover explanations behind their own and others' behaviors.Heider, F. (1958). "The psychology of interpersonal relations", New York: Wiley, 322 p.Kelley, H.H. (1967). Attribution theory in social psychology. In D. Levine (Ed.) Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Lincoln: University of Nebraska PressJOURNAL, Abramson, L.Y., Seligman, M.E., Teasdale, J.D., 1978, Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 1, 49–74, 10.1037/0021-843X.87.1.49, 649856, People make attributions about the causes of their own and others' behaviors; but these attributions don't necessarily precisely reflect reality. Rather than operating as objective perceivers, individuals are inclined to perceptual slips that prompt biased understandings of their social world.JOURNAL, Funder, D.C., 1987, Errors and mistakes: Evaluating the accuracy of social judgment,weblink Psychological Bulletin, 101, 1, 75–90, 10.1037/0033-2909.101.1.75, 3562704, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080516210858weblink">weblink 2008-05-16, Nisbett, R.E. & Ross, L. (1980). Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. When judging others we tend to assume their actions are the result of internal factors such as personality, whereas we tend to assume our own actions arise because of the necessity of external circumstances. There are a wide range of sorts of attribution biases, such as the ultimate attribution error, fundamental attribution error, actor-observer bias, and self-serving bias.Examples of attribution bias:WEB,weblink Rewind: Watch the Media Spend Two Years Hyping a Now-Debunked Story, grabien.com, 29 March 2019,

Confirmation bias

File:Fred Barnard07.jpg|thumb|right|upright|alt=A drawing of a man sitting on a stool at a writing desk|Confirmation bias has been described as an internal "(Wikt:yes man|yes man)", echoing back a person's beliefs like Charles Dickens' character Uriah HeepUriah HeepConfirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses while giving disproportionately less attention to information that contradicts it.BOOK, Plous, Scott, The Psychology of Judgment and Decision Making, 233, 1993, The effect is stronger for emotionally charged issues and for deeply entrenched beliefs. People also tend to interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing position. Biased search, interpretation and memory have been invoked to explain attitude polarization (when a disagreement becomes more extreme even though the different parties are exposed to the same evidence), belief perseverance (when beliefs persist after the evidence for them is shown to be false), the irrational primacy effect (a greater reliance on information encountered early in a series) and illusory correlation (when people falsely perceive an association between two events or situations). Confirmation biases contribute to overconfidence in personal beliefs and can maintain or strengthen beliefs in the face of contrary evidence. Poor decisions due to these biases have been found in political and organizational contexts.JOURNAL, Nickerson, Raymond S., Confirmation Bias: A Ubiquitous Phenomenon in Many Guises, Review of General Psychology, June 1998, 2, 2, 175–220, 10.1037/1089-2680.2.2.175, Tuchman, Barbara (1984). The March of Folly: From Troy to Vietnam. New York: Knopf.

Framing

{{anchor|Cultural bias}} Framing involves the social construction of social phenomena by mass media sources, political or social movements, political leaders, and so on. It is an influence over how people organize, perceive, and communicate about reality.JOURNAL, Druckman, J.N., 2001, The Implications of Framing Effects for Citizen Competence, Political Behavior, 23, 3, 225–256, 10.1023/A:1015006907312, It can be positive or negative, depending on the audience and what kind of information is being presented. For political purposes, framing often presents facts in such a way that implicates a problem that is in need of a solution. Members of political parties attempt to frame issues in a way that makes a solution favoring their own political leaning appear as the most appropriate course of action for the situation at hand.JOURNAL, van der Pas, D., Making Hay While the Sun Shines: Do Parties Only Respond to Media Attention When The Framing is Right?, Journal of Press/Politics, 2014, 19, 1, 42–65, 10.1177/1940161213508207, As understood in social theory, framing is a schema of interpretation, a collection of anecdotes and stereotypes, that individuals rely on to understand and respond to events.Goffman, E. (1974). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. People use filters to make sense of the world, the choices they then make are influenced by their creation of a frame.Cultural bias is the related phenomenon of interpreting and judging phenomena by standards inherent to one's own culture. Numerous such biases exist, concerning cultural norms for color, location of body parts, mate selection, concepts of justice, linguistic and logical validity, acceptability of evidence, and taboos. Ordinary people may tend to imagine other people as basically the same, not significantly more or less valuable, probably attached emotionally to different groups and different land.

Halo effect and horn effect

The halo effect and the horn effect are when an observer's overall impression of a person, organization, brand, or product influences their feelings about specifics of that entity's character or properties.WEB, Long-Crowell, Erin, The Halo Effect: Definition, Advantages & Disadvantages, Psychology 104: Social Psychology, study.com,weblink September 30, 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151001041235weblink">weblink October 1, 2015, WEB, Halo Effect, Investopedia,weblink September 30, 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171106034111weblink">weblink November 6, 2017, JOURNAL, Thorndike, EL, A constant error in psychological ratings, Journal of Applied Psychology, 1920, 4, 1, 25–29, 10.1037/h0071663, The name halo effect is based on the concept of the saint's halo, and is a specific type of confirmation bias, wherein positive sentiments in one area cause questionable or unknown characteristics to be seen positively. If the observer likes one aspect of something, they will have a positive predisposition toward everything about it.JOURNAL, Horns and halo effect, The Free Dictionary,weblink September 30, 2015, JOURNAL, Nisbett, Richard E, Wilson, Timothy D, 1977, The halo effect: Evidence for unconscious alteration of judgments, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 4, 250–56, 1939-1315, 10.1037/0022-3514.35.4.250, NEWS, Glennie, Jonathan, Hugo Chávez's reverse-halo effect,weblink The Guardian, 3 May 2011, live,weblink 16 August 2017, JOURNAL, Ostrove, Nancy, Sigall, Harold, Beautiful but Dangerous: Effects of Offender Attractiveness and Nature of the Crime on Juridic Judgment, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975, 31, 3, 410–14,weblink 10.1037/h0076472, live,weblink 2016-07-01, A person's appearance has been found to produce a halo effect.JOURNAL, 10.1023/A:1023582629538, Weight Halo Effects: Individual Differences in Perceived Life Success as a Function of Women's Race and Weight, 2003, Wade, T Joel, DiMaria, Cristina, Sex Roles, 48, 9/10, 461–465, The halo effect is also present in the field of brand marketing, affecting perception of companies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).NEWS, Apple shares surfs on big profits,weblink 18 January 2012, BBC News, 13 January 2005, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061118053436weblink">weblink 18 November 2006, JOURNAL, Chandon, Pierre, Brian, Wansink, The Biasing Health Halos of Fast-Food Restaurant Health Claims: Lower Calorie Estimate and Higher Side-Dish Consumption Intentions, Journal of Consumer Research, 2007, 34, 3, 301–14, 10.1086/519499, 10.1.1.173.2288, NEWS, Jeffray, Nathan, Interview: Gerald Steinberg,weblink The Jewish Chronicle, 24 June 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100701192611weblink">weblink 1 July 2010, NEWS, Balanson, Naftali, The 'halo effect' shields NGOs from media scrutiny,weblink The Jerusalem Post, 8 October 2008, WEB,weblink Jones, Nancy, Corporate Donors, Ronald House Durham, 26 November 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131203013311weblink">weblink 3 December 2013, JOURNAL, Coombs, Timothy W, Holladay, Sherry J, Unpacking the halo effect: reputation and crisis management, Journal of Communication Management, 2006, 10, 2, 123–37, 10.1108/13632540610664698, JOURNAL, Klein, Jill, Niraj, Dawar, Evaluations in a Product-Harm Crisis, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 2004, 21, 3, 203–17, 10.1016/j.ijresmar.2003.12.003, The opposite of the halo is the horn effect, when "individuals believe (that negative) traits are inter-connected."WEB,weblink Mental Model: Horns Effect and Halo Effect, www.joshuakennon.com, en-US, 2017-09-08, The term horn effect refers to Devil's horns.{{Citation needed|reason=Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not a reliable source|date=August 2018}} It works in a negative direction: if the observer dislikes one aspect of something, they will have a negative predisposition towards other aspects.WEB,weblink The Halo and Horns Effects [Rating Errors], 2010-05-01, Right Attitudes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170823114921weblink">weblink 2017-08-23, live, 2017-09-08, Both of these bias effects often clash with phrases such as "words mean something"JOURNAL, 23691741, 77, 4, Words mean something, 2013, Conn Med, 245–6, Deren, MM, JOURNAL, 27509646, 80, 6, The Destruction of Clinical Medicine and What is Needed for its Resurrection, 2016, Conn Med, 369–73, Rosenberg, M, and "Your words have a history."Rep. Hank Johnson, Your Words Have a History, WEB,weblink Rep. Hank Johnson, Your Words Have a History, 2017-08-14, live,weblink 2017-08-14,

Self-serving bias

Self-serving bias is the tendency for cognitive or perceptual processes to be distorted by the individual's need to maintain and enhance self-esteem.Myers, D.G. (2015). Exploring Social Psychology, 7th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Education. It is the propensity to credit accomplishment to our own capacities and endeavors, yet attribute failure to outside factors,JOURNAL, Campbell, W.K., Sedikides, C., 1999, Self-threat magnifies the self-serving bias: A meta-analytic integration, Review of General Psychology, 3, 23–43, 10.1037/1089-2680.3.1.23, to dismiss the legitimacy of negative criticism, concentrate on positive qualities and accomplishments yet disregard flaws and failures. Studies have demonstrated that this bias can affect behavior in the workplace,JOURNAL, Pal, G.C., Is there a universal self-serving attribution bias?, Psychological Studies, 2007, 52, 1, 85–89, in interpersonal relationships,JOURNAL, Campbell, W. Keith, Sedikides, Constantine, Reeder, Glenn D., Elliot, Andrew J., Among friends? An examination of friendship and the self-serving bias, British Journal of Social Psychology, 2000, 39, 2, 229–239, 10.1348/014466600164444, 10.1.1.559.7984, playing sports,JOURNAL, De Michele, P., Gansneder, B., Solomon, G., Success and failure attributions of wrestlers: Further Evidence of the Self-Serving Bias, Journal of Sport Behavior, 1998, 21, 3, 242, and in consumer decisions.JOURNAL, Moon, Youngme, Don't Blame the Computer: When Self-Disclosure Moderates the Self-Serving Bias, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2003, 13, 1, 125–137, 10.1207/153276603768344843,

Status quo bias

Status quo bias is an emotional bias; a preference for the current state of affairs. The current baseline (or status quo) is taken as a reference point, and any change from that baseline is perceived as a loss.Status quo bias should be distinguished from a rational preference for the status quo ante, as when the current state of affairs is objectively superior to the available alternatives, or when imperfect information is a significant problem. A large body of evidence, however, shows that status quo bias frequently affects human decision-making.JOURNAL, Samuelson, William, Zeckhauser, Richard, 1988, Status quo bias in decision making, Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, en, 1, 1, 7–59, 10.1007/bf00055564, 0895-5646, 10.1.1.632.3193,

Conflicts of interest

A conflict of interest is when a person or association has intersecting interests (financial, personal, etc.) which could potentially corrupt. The potential conflict is autonomous of actual improper actions, it can be found and intentionally defused before corruption, or the appearance of corruption, happens. "A conflict of interest is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgement or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest."BOOK, Bernard, Lo, Marilyn J., Field, Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice, National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2009, 978-0-309-13188-9, It exists if the circumstances are sensibly accepted to present a hazard that choices made may be unduly affected by auxiliary interests.JOURNAL, Cain, D.M., Detsky, A.S., 2008, Everyone's a Little Bit Biased (Even Physicians), JAMA, 299, 24, 2893–289, 10.1001/jama.299.24.2893, 18577735,

Bribery

Bribery is the giving of money, goods or other forms of recompense to in order to influence the recipient's behavior.DICTIONARY, What is BRIBERY?, Black's Law Dictionary,weblink September 30, 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151001204535weblink">weblink October 1, 2015, 2011-11-04, Bribes can include money (including tips), goods, rights in action, property, privilege, emolument, gifts, perks, skimming, return favors, discounts, sweetheart deals, kickbacks, funding, donations, campaign contributions, sponsorships, stock options, secret commissions, or promotions.See generally T. Markus Funk, "Don't Pay for the Misdeeds of Others: Intro to Avoiding Third-Party FCPA Liability," 6 BNA White Collar Crime Report 33 (January 14, 2011) {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140316152342weblink |date=March 16, 2014 }} (discussing bribery in the context of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act). Expectations of when a monetary transaction is appropriate can differ from place to place. Political campaign contributions in the form of cash are considered criminal acts of bribery in some countries, while in the United States they are legal provided they adhere to election law. Tipping, is considered bribery in some societies, but not others.

Favoritism

Favoritism, sometimes known as in-group favoritism, or in-group bias, refers to a pattern of favoring members of one's in-group over out-group members. This can be expressed in evaluation of others, in allocation of resources, and in many other ways.Aronson, E., Wilson, T. D., & Akert, R. (2010). Social psychology. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.JOURNAL, Taylor, Donald M., Doria, Janet R., April 1981, Self-serving and group-serving bias in attribution, Journal of Social Psychology, 113, 2, 201–211, 0022-4545, 10.1080/00224545.1981.9924371, This has been researched by psychologists, especially social psychologists, and linked to group conflict and prejudice. Cronyism is favoritism of long-standing friends, especially by appointing them to positions of authority, regardless of their qualifications.WEB, Cronyism,weblink The Free Dictionary, October 1, 2015, Nepotism is favoritism granted to relatives.WEB, Nepotism, The Free Dictionary,weblink September 24, 2015, "Nepotism." {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160125235043weblink |date=2016-01-25 }} Dictionary.com. Retrieved 20 June 2013.WEB, In Praise of Nepotism: A Natural History, Adam Bellow Booknotes interview transcript,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100926013727weblink">weblink 26 September 2010, 10 September 2013, WEB, Article Nepotism, New Catholic Dictionary,weblink 2007-07-12, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070224025607weblink">weblink February 24, 2007,

Lobbying

File:Tabakslobby.jpg|thumb|Box offered by tobacco lobbyists to Dutch Member of the European Parliament Kartika LiotardKartika LiotardLobbying is the attempt to influence choices made by administrators, frequently lawmakers or individuals from administrative agencies.WEB,weblink lobbying, Merriam-Webster Dictionary.Com, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150917052337weblink">weblink 2015-09-17, NEWS,weblink lobbying, BBC News, 1 October 2008, 24 March 2010, London, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090103102647weblink">weblink 3 January 2009, WEB,weblink lobbyist, Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2006, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151002030958weblink">weblink 2015-10-02, Lobbyists may be among a legislator's constituencies, or not; they may engage in lobbying as a business, or not. Lobbying is often spoken of with contempt, the implication is that people with inordinate socioeconomic power are corrupting the law in order to serve their own interests. When people who have a duty to act on behalf of others, such as elected officials with a duty to serve their constituents' interests or more broadly the common good, stand to benefit by shaping the law to serve the interests of some private parties, there is a conflict of interest. This can lead to all sides in a debate looking to sway the issue by means of lobbyists.

Regulatory issues

Self-regulation is the process whereby an organization monitors its own adherence to legal, ethical, or safety standards, rather than have an outside, independent agency such as a third party entity monitor and enforce those standards.JOURNAL, Self-regulation dictionary definition,weblink yourdictionary.com, October 2, 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151005144250weblink">weblink October 5, 2015, Self-regulation of any group can create a conflict of interest. If any organization, such as a corporation or government bureaucracy, is asked to eliminate unethical behavior within their own group, it may be in their interest in the short run to eliminate the appearance of unethical behavior, rather than the behavior itself.Regulatory capture is a form of political corruption that can occur when a regulatory agency, created to act in the public interest, instead advances the commercial or political concerns of special interest groups that dominate the industry or sector it is charged with regulating.JOURNAL, Regulatory Capture Definition,weblink Investopedia, October 2, 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151003140220weblink">weblink October 3, 2015, NEWS,weblink Regulatory Capture 101, 2014-10-06, Wall Street Journal, 2017-09-08, en-US, 0099-9660, live,weblink 2017-09-03, Regulatory capture occurs because groups or individuals with a high-stakes interest in the outcome of policy or regulatory decisions can be expected to focus their resources and energies in attempting to gain the policy outcomes they prefer, while members of the public, each with only a tiny individual stake in the outcome, will ignore it altogether.Timothy B. Lee, "Entangling the Web" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110511175150weblink |date=2011-05-11 }} The New York Times (August 3, 2006). Retrieved April 1, 2011 Regulatory capture is a risk to which a regulatory agency is exposed by its very nature.Gary Adams, Sharon Hayes, Stuart Weierter and John Boyd, "Regulatory Capture: Managing the Risk" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110720083041weblink |date=2011-07-20 }} ICE Australia, International Conferences and Events (PDF) (October 24, 2007). Retrieved April 14, 2011Hamilton, Alexander (2013), Small is beautiful, at least in high-income democracies: the distribution of policy-making responsibility, electoral accountability, and incentives for rent extraction WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2013-05-24, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131005005009weblink">weblink 2013-10-05, , World Bank.

Shilling

Shilling is deliberately giving spectators the feeling that one is an energetic autonomous client of a vendor for whom one is working. The effectiveness of shilling relies on crowd psychology to encourage other onlookers or audience members to purchase the goods or services (or accept the ideas being marketed). Shilling is illegal in some places, but legal in others.COURT,weblink FTC v. Greeting Cards of America, Inc. et al - USA, S.D. Fla., 2004, An example of shilling is paid reviews that give the impression of being autonomous opinions.

Statistical biases

Statistical bias is a systematic tendency in the process of data collection, which results in lopsided, misleading results. This can occur in any of a number of ways, in the way the sample is selected, or in the way data are collected.WEB, Rumsey, Deborah J., Deborah J. Rumsey,weblink HOW TO IDENTIFY STATISTICAL BIAS, Dummies.com, 2018-08-24, live,weblink 2018-02-14, It is a property of a statistical technique or of its results whereby the expected value of the results differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated.

Forecast bias

A forecast bias is when there are consistent differences between results and the forecasts of those quantities; that is: forecasts may have an overall tendency to be too high or too low.

Observer-expectancy effect

The observer-expectancy effect is when a researcher's expectations cause them to subconsciously influence the people participating in an experiment. It is usually controlled using a double-blind system, and was an important reason for the development of double-blind experiments.

Reporting bias & social desirability bias

In epidemiology and empirical research, reporting bias is defined as "selective revealing or suppression of information" of undesirable behavior by subjectsBOOK, Porta, Miquel, A Dictionary of Epidemiology,weblink 27 March 2013, 5 June 2008, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-157844-1, 275, live,weblink 16 December 2016, or researchers.Green S, Higgins S, editors: Glossary. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 4.2.5. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100309033953weblink |date=2010-03-09 }}JOURNAL, McGauran, N, Wieseler, B, Kreis, J, Schüler, YB, Kölsch, H, Kaiser, T, 2010, Reporting bias in medical research - a narrative review,weblink Trials, 11, 37, 10.1186/1745-6215-11-37, 20388211, 2867979, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160108110151weblink">weblink 2016-01-08, It refers to a tendency to under-report unexpected or undesirable experimental results, while being more trusting of expected or desirable results. This can propagate, as each instance reinforces the status quo, and later experimenters justify their own reporting bias by observing that previous experimenters reported different results.Social desirability bias is a bias within social science research where survey respondents can tend to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed positively by others.JOURNAL, Social Desirability Bias, psychologyconcepts.com,weblink September 1, 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150831110944weblink">weblink August 31, 2015, It can take the form of over-reporting laudable behavior, or under-reporting undesirable behavior. This bias interferes with the interpretation of average tendencies as well as individual differences. The inclination represents a major issue with self-report questionnaires; of special concern are self-reports of abilities, personalities, sexual behavior, and drug use.

Selection bias

File:Simple random sampling.PNG|thumb|Sampling is supposed to collect of a representative sample of a population.]]Selection bias is the, conscious or unconscious, bias introduced into a study by the way individuals, groups or data are selected for analysis, if such a way means that true randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed.Dictionary of Cancer Terms → selection bias. Retrieved on September 23, 2009. This results in a sample that may be significantly different from the overall population.

Prejudices

Bias and prejudice are usually considered to be closely related."bias ...; prejudice", The New Merriam–Webster Dictionary, {{ISBN|0877799008}} Prejudice is prejudgment, or forming an opinion before becoming aware of the relevant facts of a case. The word is often used to refer to preconceived, usually unfavorable, judgments toward people or a person because of gender, political opinion, social class, age, disability, religion, sexuality, race/ethnicity, language, nationality, or other personal characteristics. Prejudice can also refer to unfounded beliefsWilliam James wrote: "A great many people think they are thinking when they are merely rearranging their prejudices." Quotable Quotes – Courtesy of The Freeman Institute and may include "any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence".JOURNAL, Rosnow, Ralph L., Poultry and Prejudice, Psychologist Today, March 1972, 5, 10, 53–6,

Classism

Classism is discrimination on the basis of social class. It includes attitudes that benefit the upper class at the expense of the lower class, or vice versa.BOOK, Kadi, Joanna, Thinking Class, South End Press, 1996, U.S., 978-0-89608-548-0,

Lookism

Lookism is stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination on the basis of physical attractiveness, or more generally to people whose appearance matches cultural preferences.JOURNAL, Lookism, The Free Dictionary,weblink September 30, 2015, Bartleby.com {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150930073526weblink |date=2015-09-30 }} — "Lookism {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081205050857weblink |date=December 5, 2008 }}". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.Farrell, Warren (2005). Why Men Earn More: The Startling Truth About the Pay Gap -- And What Women Can Do About It. AMACOM, {{ISBN|0814472109}} p. 193 Many people make automatic judgments of others based on their physical appearance that influence how they respond to those people.JOURNAL, Eagly, Alice, Ashmore, Richard, Makhijani, Mona G., Longo, Laura C., 1991, What is beautiful is good, but., Psychological Bulletin, 110, 109–128, 10.1037/0033-2909.110.1.109, JOURNAL, Rhodes, Gillian, Simmons, Leigh, Peters, Marianne, 2005, Attractiveness and Sexual Behavior: Does Attractiveness Enhance Mating Success?, Evolution and Human Behavior, 26, 2, 186–201, 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2004.08.014,

Racism

Racism consists of ideologies based on a desire to dominate or a belief in the inferiority of another race.WEB,weblink Oxford English Dictionary, Racism, 24 Aug 2015, Prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one's own race is superior:, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150829065706weblink">weblink 2015-08-29, JOURNAL, SCHMID, W. THOMAS, The Definition of Racism, Journal of Applied Philosophy, April 1996, 13, 1, 31–40, 10.1111/j.1468-5930.1996.tb00147.x, It may also hold that members of different races should be treated differently.Racism {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120911222636weblink |date=2012-09-11 }} Oxford Dictionaries"Racism" in R. Schefer. 2008 Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity and Society. SAGE. p. 1113BOOK, Newman, D. M., Sociology : exploring the architecture of everyday life, SAGE, Los Angeles, 2012, 9th, 978-1-4129-8729-5, 405, racism: Belief that humans are subdivided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and that can be ranked as superior or inferior.,

Sexism

Sexism is discrimination based on a person's sex or gender. Sexism can affect any gender, but it is particularly documented as affecting women and girls.There is a clear and broad consensus among academic scholars in multiple fields that sexism refers primarily to discrimination against women, and primarily affects women. See, for example:
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, New Oxford American Dictionary, Sexism, 3, 2010, Oxford University Press, 9780199891535, Defines sexism as "prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex."
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Sexism, Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Academic Edition, 2015, Defines sexism as "prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls." Notes that "sexism in a society is most commonly applied against women and girls. It functions to maintain patriarchy, or male domination, through ideological and material practices of individuals, collectives, and institutions that oppress women and girls on the basis of sex or gender."
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Cudd, Ann E., Jones, Leslie E., Sexism, A Companion to Applied Ethics, 2005, Blackwell, London, Notes that "'Sexism' refers to a historically and globally pervasive form of oppression against women."
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Masequesmay, Gina, O'Brien, Jodi, Sexism, Encyclopedia of Gender and Society, 2008, SAGE, Notes that "sexism usually refers to prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls." Also states that "sexism is an ideology or practices that maintain patriarchy or male domination."
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Hornsby, Jennifer, Honderich, Ted, Sexism, The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, 2, 2005, Oxford, Defines sexism as "thought or practice which may permeate language and which assume's women's inferiority to men."
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Sexism, Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 2006, Harper Collins, Defines sexism as "any devaluation or denigration of women or men, but particularly women, which is embodied in institutions and social relationships."
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Sexism, Palgrave MacMillan Dictionary of Political Thought, 2007, Palgrave MacMillan, Notes that "either sex may be the object of sexist attitudes... however, it is commonly held that, in developed societies, women have been the usual victims."
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Sexism, The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Love, Courtship, and Sexuality through History, Volume 6: The Modern World, 2007, Greenwood, "Sexism is any act, attitude, or institutional configuration that systematically subordinates or devalues women. Built upon the belief that men and women are constitutionally different, sexism takes these differences as indications that men are inherently superior to women, which then is used to justify the nearly universal dominance of men in social and familial relationships, as well as politics, religion, language, law, and economics."
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Foster, Carly Hayden, Kurlan, George Thomas, The Encyclopedia of Political Science, Sexism, 2011, CQ Press, 9781608712434, Notes that "both men and women can experience sexism, but sexism against women is more pervasive."
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Johnson, Allan G., Sexism, The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology, 2000, Blackwell, Suggests that "the key test of whether something is sexist... lies in its consequences: if it supports male privilege, then it is by definition sexist. I specify 'male privilege' because in every known society where gender inequality exists, males are privileged over females."
  • BOOK, Lorber, Judith, 2011, Gender Inequality: Feminist Theories and Politics, Oxford University Press, 5, Notes that "although we speak of gender inequality, it is usually women who are disadvantaged relative to similarly situated men."
  • BOOK, Wortman, Camille B., Loftus, Elizabeth S., Weaver, Charles A, Psychology, McGraw-Hill, 1999, "As throughout history, today women are the primary victims of sexism, prejudice directed at one sex, even in the United States."


It has been linked to stereotypes and gender roles,BOOK, Matsumoto, David, The Handbook of Culture and Psychology, Oxford University Press, 2001, 197, 978-0-19-513181-9, Nakdimen KA The American Journal of Psychiatry [1984, 141(4):499-503] and may include the belief that one sex or gender is intrinsically superior to another.Doob, Christopher B. 2013. Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Contextual biases

Biases in academia

{{See also|Statistical bias}}

Academic bias

Academic bias is the bias or perceived bias of scholars allowing their beliefs to shape their research and the scientific community. Claims of bias are often linked to claims by conservatives of pervasive bias against political conservatives and religious Christians.{{citation|last=Hibbing|first=John D|year=2014|title=Differences in negativity bias underlie variations in political ideology|journal=Behavioral and Brain Sciences|volume=37|issue=3|pages=297–350|issn=1939-1323|doi=10.1017/S0140525X13001192|pmid=24970428|hdl=1911/77132|url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1069&context=poliscifacpub}} Some have argued that these claims are based upon anecdotal evidence which would not reliably indicate systematic bias,{{citation|last=Ames|first=Barry|first2=David C|last2=Barker|first3=Chris W|last3=Bonneau|first4=Christopher J|last4=Carman|year=2005|title=Hide the Republicans, the Christians, and the Women: A Response to "Politics and Professional Advancement Among College Faculty"|journal=The Forum|volume=3|issue=2|issn=1540-8884|doi=10.2202/1540-8884.1075}}{{citation|last=Lee |first=John |date=November 2006 |title=The "Faculty Bias" Studies: Science or Propaganda |publisher=American Federation of Teachers |url=http://www.aft.org/pdfs/highered/facultybiasstudies1106.pdf |accessdate=2014-01-24 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131217043411weblink |archivedate=2013-12-17 }}{{citation|last=Giroux|first=Henry A.|year=2006|title=Academic Freedom Under Fire: The Case for Critical Pedagogy|journal=College Literature|volume=33|issue=4|pages=1–42|issn=1542-4286|doi=10.1353/lit.2006.0051}} and have suggested that this divide is due to self-selection of conservatives choosing not to pursue academic careers.{{citation|last=Gross|first=Neil|title=Why Are Professors Liberal and Why Do Conservatives Care?|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5-VLm9EcghoC|date=9 April 2013|publisher=Harvard University Press|location=Cambridge|isbn=978-0-674-07448-4|accessdate=2014-01-24|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140627000945weblink|archivedate=27 June 2014}}There is some evidence that perception of classroom bias may be rooted in issues of sexuality, race, class and sex as much or more than in religion.{{citation|last=Boysen|first=Guy A|first2=David L|last2=Vogel|first3=Marissa A|last3=Cope|first4=Asale|last4=Hubbard|year=2009|title=Incidents Of Bias in College Classrooms: Instructor and Student Perceptions|journal=Journal of Diversity in Higher Education|volume=2|issue=4|pages=219–231|issn=1938-8934|doi=10.1037/a0017538}}JOURNAL, Brady, K. L., Eisler, R. M., 1995, Gender Bias in the College Classroom: A Critical Review of the Literature and Implications for Future Research, Journal of Research and Development in Education, 29, 1, 9–19,

Experimenter bias

In science research, experimenter bias occurs when experimenter expectancies regarding study results bias the research outcome.JOURNAL, Sackett, D. L., Bias in analytic research, Journal of Chronic Diseases, 1979, 32, 1–2, 51–63, 10.1016/0021-9681(79)90012-2, 447779, Examples of experimenter bias include conscious or unconscious influences on subject behavior including creation of demand characteristics that influence subjects, and altered or selective recording of experimental results themselves.BOOK, Barry H. Kantowitz, Henry L. Roediger, III, David G. Elmes, Experimental Psychology,weblink 7 September 2013, 2009, Cengage Learning, 978-0-495-59533-5, 371, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140101061647weblink">weblink 1 January 2014,

Funding bias

Funding bias refers to the tendency of a scientific study to support the interests of the study's financial sponsor. This phenomenon is recognized sufficiently that researchers undertake studies to examine bias in past published studies.JOURNAL, Krimsky, Sheldon, Sheldon Krimsky, 2012, Do Financial Conflicts of Interest Bias Research? An Inquiry into the "Funding Effect" Hypothesis,weblink Science, Technology & Human Values, 38, 4, 566–587, 10.1177/0162243912456271, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121017165144weblink">weblink 2012-10-17, 2015-09-23, It can be caused by any or all of: a conscious or subconscious sense of obligation of researchers towards their employers,BOOK, Cialdini, Robert B, Influence: Science and Practice (5th ed), Prentice Hall, 2008-08-08, 978-0-205-60999-4,weblink misconduct or malpractice,NEWS, David Michaels, It's Not the Answers That Are Biased, It's the Questions,weblink The Washington Post, 2008-07-15, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171009011219weblink">weblink 2017-10-09, publication bias,WEB, Wilmshurst, Peter, Dishonesty in Medical Research,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130521050439weblink">weblink 2013-05-21, JOURNAL, Joel, Lexchin, Bero, Lisa A, Benjamin, Djulbegovic, Otavio, Clark, Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review,weblink BMJ, 2003-05-31, 326, 12775614, 7400, 1167–1170, 156458, 10.1136/bmj.326.7400.1167, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100206035012weblink">weblink 2010-02-06, WEB, Anders Sandberg, Anders Sandberg, Supping with the Devil,weblink OvercomingBias, 2007-01-14, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150923171357weblink">weblink 2015-09-23, or reporting bias.WEB, Types of Bias,weblink Cochrane Bias Methods Group, 2009-06-19, 2010-08-04, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100723051446weblink">weblink 2010-07-23,

Full text on net bias

Full text on net (or FUTON) bias is a tendency of scholars to cite academic journals with open access—that is, journals that make their full text available on the internet without charge—in their own writing as compared with toll access publications. Scholars can more easily discover and access articles that have their full text on the internet, which increases authors' likelihood of reading, quoting, and citing these articles, this may increase the impact factor of open access journals relative to journals without open access.JOURNAL, Murali, N. S., Murali, H. R., Auethavekiat, P., Erwin, P. J., Mandrekar, J. N., Manek, N. J., Ghosh, A. K., Impact of FUTON and NAA bias on visibility of research, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 79, 8, 1001–1006, 2004, 15301326,weblink 10.4065/79.8.1001, JOURNAL, Ghosh, A. K., Murali, N. S., Online access to nephrology journals: The FUTON bias, Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation, 18, 9, 1943; author reply 1943, 2003, 12937253,weblink 10.1093/ndt/gfg247, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151016063823weblink">weblink 2015-10-16, JOURNAL, Mueller, P. S., Murali, N. S., Cha, S. S., Erwin, P. J., Ghosh, A. K., The effect of online status on the impact factors of general internal medicine journals, The Netherlands Journal of Medicine, 64, 2, 39–44, 2006, 16517987,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110719153236weblink">weblink 2011-07-19, JOURNAL, Krieger, M. M., Richter, R. R., Austin, T. M., 10.3163/1536-5050.96.4.010, An exploratory analysis of PubMed's free full-text limit on citation retrieval for clinical questions, Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA, 96, 4, 351–355, 2008, 18974812, 2568849, JOURNAL, Gilman, Isaac, Opening up the Evidence: Evidence-Based Practice and Open Access, 2009, Faculty Scholarship (PUL),weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110221233556weblink">weblink 2011-02-21, The related bias, no abstract available bias (NAA bias) is scholars' tendency to cite journal articles that have an abstract available online more readily than articles that do not.JOURNAL, Wentz, R., Visibility of research: FUTON bias, 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11264-5, The Lancet, 360, 9341, 1256, 2002, 12401287,

Publication bias

Publication bias is a type of bias with regard to what academic research is likely to be published because of a tendency of researchers, and journal editors, to prefer some outcomes rather than others e.g. results showing a significant finding, leads to a problematic bias in the published literature.JOURNAL, Song, F., Parekh, S., Hooper, L., Loke, Y. K., Ryder, J., Sutton, A. J., Hing, C., Kwok, C. S., Pang, C., Harvey, I., Dissemination and publication of research findings: An updated review of related biases, Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England), 14, 8, iii, iix–xi, iix–193, 2010, 10.3310/hta14080, 20181324, This can propagate further as literature reviews of claims about support for a hypothesis will themselves be biased if the original literature is contaminated by publication bias.H. Rothstein, A. J. Sutton and M. Borenstein. (2005). Publication bias in meta-analysis: prevention, assessment and adjustments. Wiley. Chichester, England; Hoboken, NJ. Studies with significant results often do not appear to be superior to studies with a null result with respect to quality of design.JOURNAL, Easterbrook, P. J., Berlin, J. A., Gopalan, R., Matthews, D. R., Publication bias in clinical research, Lancet (journal), Lancet, 1991, 337, 8746, 867–872, 10.1016/0140-6736(91)90201-Y, 1672966, However, statistically significant results have been shown to be three times more likely to be published compared to papers with null results.JOURNAL, Dickersin, K., Chan, S., Chalmers, T. C., Publication bias and clinical trials, Controlled Clinical Trials, 1987, 8, 4, 343–353, 10.1016/0197-2456(87)90155-3, etal, 3442991,

Biases in law enforcement

Driving while black

Driving while black refers to the racial profiling of African American drivers. The phrase implies that a motorist might be pulled over by a police officer, questioned, and searched, because of a racial bias.WEB, Harris, D., 1999,weblink The stories, the statistics, and the law: Why 'Driving While Black' matters, 84 Minnesota Law Review, 265–326, May 7, 2007, JOURNAL,weblink Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Black Man, Gates, Henry L., 1995-10-16, The New Yorker, 2017-03-14,

Racial profiling

Racial profiling, or ethnic profiling, is the act of suspecting or targeting a person of a certain race on the basis of racially observed characteristics or behavior, rather than on individual suspicion.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Profiling, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary, Eleventh Edition,weblink JOURNAL, Warren, Patricia Y., Farrell, Amy, 2009, The Environmental Context of Racial Profiling, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 623, 52–63, 40375886, 10.1177/0002716208330485, Racial profiling is commonly referred to regarding its use by law enforcement, and its leading to discrimination against minorities.

Victim blaming

Victim blaming occurs when the victim of a wrongful act is held at fault for the harm that befell them.WEB, Victim Blaming,weblink Canadian Resource Centre for Victims of Crime, 2018-08-31, The study of victimology seeks to mitigate the perception of victims as responsible.JOURNAL, 10.1177/0886260511403752, 21602202, Is Knowledge Power? The Effects of a Victimology Course on Victim Blaming, 2011, Fox, K. A., Cook, C. L., Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26, 17, 3407–3427,

Biases in media

{{Anchor|Media bias}}Media bias is the bias or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media in the selection of events, the stories that are reported, and how they are covered. The term generally implies a pervasive or widespread bias violating the standards of journalism, rather than the perspective of an individual journalist or article.Strategic Maneuvering and Media Bias in Political News Magazine Opinion Articles, Stefano Mario Rivolta, 7 June 2011 The level of media bias in different nations is debated. There are also watchdog groups that report on media bias.Practical limitations to media neutrality include the inability of journalists to report all available stories and facts, the requirement that selected facts be linked into a coherent narrative, government influence including overt and covert censorship,"10 Most Censored Countries" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151016063824weblink |date=2015-10-16 }}, Committee to Protect Journalists, 2 May 2006 the influence of the owners of the news source, concentration of media ownership, the selection of staff, the preferences of an intended audience, and pressure from advertisers.Bias has been a feature of the mass media since its birth with the invention of the printing press. The expense of early printing equipment restricted media production to a limited number of people. Historians have found that publishers often served the interests of powerful social groups.Ann Heinrichs, The Printing Press (Inventions That Shaped the World), p. 53, Franklin Watts, 2005, {{ISBN|0-531-16722-4}}, {{ISBN|978-0-531-16722-9}}

Agenda setting

Agenda setting describes the capacity of the media to focus on particular stories, if a news item is covered frequently and prominently, the audience will regard the issue as more important. That is, its salience will increase.JOURNAL, McCombs, M, Reynolds, A, News influence on our pictures of the world, Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research, 2002,

Gatekeeping

Gatekeeping is the way in which information and news are filtered to the public, by each person or corporation along the way. It is the "process of culling and crafting countless bits of information into the limited number of messages that reach people every day, and it is the center of the media's role in modern public life. [...] This process determines not only which information is selected, but also what the content and nature of the messages, such as news, will be."BOOK, Shoemaker, Pamela J., Gatekeeping Theory, 2009, Routledge, New York, 978-0415981392, Vos, Tim P.,

Sensationalism

Sensationalism is when events and topics in news stories and pieces are overhyped to present skewed impressions of events, which may cause a misrepresentation of the truth of a story.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120205021104weblink">"Issue Area: Sensationalism." Fairness and Accuracy In Reporting. Accessed June 2011. Sensationalism may involve reporting about insignificant matters and events, or the presentation of newsworthy topics in a trivial or tabloid manner contrary to the standards of professional journalism.BOOK, Stephens, Mitchell, Mitchell Stephens (academic), A History of News, Oxford University Press, New York, 978-0-19-518991-9, 2007, BOOK, Thompson, John, John Thompson (sociologist), Hugh, Mackay, Tim, O'Sullivan, The Media Reader: Continuity and Transformation, Sage Publications Ltd, June 22, 1999, The Media and Modernity, 978-0-7619-6250-2,

Other contexts

Educational bias

Bias in education refers to real or perceived bias in the educational system. The content of school textbooks is often the issue of debate, as their target audience is young people, and the term "whitewashing" is used to refer to selective removal of critical or damaging evidence or comment.WEB, Sadker, David, Seven Forms of Bias in Instructional Materials, sadker.org,weblink 3 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151021055904weblink">weblink 21 October 2015, WEB, Strauss, Valerie, Proposed Texas textbooks are inaccurate, biased and politicized, new report finds, washingtonpost.com, Washington Post, 12 September 2014,weblink 3 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150908172705weblink">weblink 8 September 2015, WEB, Czitrom, Daniel, Texas school board whitewashes history, cnn.com, CNN, 22 March 2010,weblink 3 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150328170047weblink">weblink 28 March 2015, Religious bias in textbooks is observed in countries where religion plays a dominant role. There can be many forms of educational bias. Some overlooked aspects, occurring especially with the pedagogical circles of public and private schools—sources that are unrelated to fiduciary or mercantile impoverishment which may be unduly magnified—include teacher bias as well as a general bias against women who are going into STEM research.WEB,weblink How to Get Your Ex Boyfriend Back - Tips to Win Back His Love and Get Him Back, www.americanmentalhealthfundation.org, en-US, 2017-09-08, "Crisis Counseling with Children," Van Ornum and Murdock, 1990, NY: Crossroad/Continuum.

Inductive bias

Inductive bias occurs within the field of machine learning. In machine learning one seeks to develop algorithms that are able to learn to anticipate a particular output. To accomplish this, the learning algorithm is given training cases that show the expected connection. Then the learner is tested with new examples. Without further assumptions, this problem cannot be solved exactly as unknown situations may not be predictable.JOURNAL, DesJardins, M., Gordon, D. F., Evaluation and selection of biases in machine learning, Machine Learning Journal, 5, 1–17, 1995,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090116042751weblink">weblink 2009-01-16, The inductive bias of the learning algorithm is the set of assumptions that the learner uses to predict outputs given inputs that it has not encountered.JOURNAL, Mitchell, T. M., The need for biases in learning generalizations, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA, Rutgers University, CBM-TR 5-110, 1980, 10.1.1.19.5466, It may bias the learner towards the correct solution, the incorrect, or be correct some of the time. A classical example of an inductive bias is Occam's Razor, which assumes that the simplest consistent hypothesis is the best.

Insider trading

Insider trading is the trading of a public company's stock or other securities (such as bonds or stock options) by individuals with access to non-public information about the company. In various countries, trading based on insider information is illegal because it is seen as unfair to other investors who do not have access to the information as the investor with insider information could potentially make far larger profits that a typical investor could not make.

Match fixing

In organized sports, match fixing occurs when a match is played to a completely or partially pre-determined result, violating the rules of the game and often the law.JOURNAL, match-fixing, Oxford University Press, Oxford dictionaries,weblink September 23, 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150831115837weblink">weblink August 31, 2015, There is a variety of reasons for this, but the most common is in exchange for a payoff from gamblers. Players might also intentionally perform poorly to get an advantage in the future (such as a better draft pick, or an easier opponent in a playoff), or to rig a handicap system. Match-fixing generally refers to fixing the final result of the game. Another form of match-fixing, known as spot-fixing, involves fixing small events within a match which can be gambled upon, but which are unlikely to prove decisive in determining the final result of the game.

See also

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References

{{reflist|30em}}

External links

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