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Tennessee
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{{about|the U.S. state|the river|Tennessee River|other uses}}{{redirect|TENN|the Japanese MC|Tenn (MC)}}{{Use mdy dates|date=July 2019}}







factoids
| LargestCity = capitalWORK=STATISTICAL ATLASURL-STATUS=LIVE, List of demonyms for U.S. states and territories>TennesseanList of demonyms for U.S. states and territories (archaic)List of demonyms for U.S. states and territories>Volunteer (historical significance)Nashville metropolitan area>Greater NashvilleBill Lee (Tennessee politician) (Republican Party (United States)>R)}}Randy McNally (R)}}Tennessee General Assembly>General AssemblyTennessee Senate>SenateTennessee House of Representatives>House of RepresentativesLamar Alexander (R)}}{{nowrap|Marsha Blackburn (R)}}| Representative = 7 Republicans 2 Democrats| postal_code = TN| TradAbbreviation = Tenn.| area_rank = 36th| area_total_sq_mi = 42,143| area_total_km2 = 109,247| area_land_sq_mi = 41,217| area_land_km2 = 106,846| area_water_sq_mi = 926| area_water_km2 = 2,401| area_water_percent = 2.2| population_rank = 16thLAST=FOLMER DATE=AUGUST 6, 2019, | population_density_rank = 20th| 2010DensityUS = 159.4| 2010Density = 61.5PUBLISHER=THE HENRY J. KAISER FAMILY FOUNDATION ACCESSDATE=APRIL 16, 2019, | IncomeRank = 42nd| AdmittanceOrder = 16th| AdmittanceDate = June 1, 1796Eastern Time Zone>Eastern| utc_offset1 = -05:00Eastern Daylight Time>EDT| utc_offset1_DST = -04:00| timezone1_location = East TennesseeCentral Time Zone (North America)>Central| utc_offset2 = -06:00Central Daylight Time>CDT| utc_offset2_DST = -05:00Middle Tennessee>Middle and West| Latitude = 34° 59′ N to 36° 41′ N| Longitude = 81° 39′ W to 90° 19′ W| width_mi = 120| width_km = 195| length_mi = 440| length_km = 710Clingmans DomeHTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 24, 2011 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20111015012701/HTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML, October 15, 2011, Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.| elevation_max_ft = 6,643| elevation_max_m = 2025| elevation_ft = 900| elevation_m = 270Mississippi River at {{nobreak>Mississippi border}}| elevation_min_ft = 178| elevation_min_m = 54| iso_code = US-TN| ElectoralVotes = 11| website = www.tennessee.gov}}







factoids
Tennessee ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Tennessee.ogg|ˌ|t|ɛ|n|ə|ˈ|s|iː}},WEB,weblink Definition of 'Tennessee', Webster's New World College Dictionary, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Collinsdictionary.com, 4th, 2010, July 2, 2018, WEB,weblink Tennessee, Oxford Advanced American Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 2018, July 2, 2018, {{IPAc-en|local|ˈ|t|ɛ|n|ə|s|i}};EPD, 18, Tennessee, 488,weblink ) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 36th largest and the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by eight states, with Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, and Missouri to the northwest. The Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, and the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560 and a 2017 metro population of 1,903,045. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017.WEB,weblink City and Town Population Totals: 2010-2017, 2017 Population Estimates, United States Census Bureau, Population Division, February 6, 2019,weblink September 22, 2018, dead, The state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact generally regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians.John Finger, Tennessee Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 2001), pp. 46–47. What is now Tennessee was initially part of North Carolina, and later part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861. Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war.WEB,weblink Tennessee's Civil War Heritage Trail, The University of Southern Mississippi, November 25, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100326035703weblink">weblink March 26, 2010, Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, and more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting. This sharply reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge. This city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II. After the war, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory became a key center for nuclear research. In 2016, the element tennessine was named for the state.NEWS,weblink IUPAC Announces the Names of the Elements 113, 115, 117, and 118, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, November 30, 2016, July 2, 2019, Tennessee's major industries include agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism. Poultry, soybeans, and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products,WEB,weblink Tennessee Agriculture 2010: Growing the Future, Tennessee Department of Agriculture, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110411141058weblink">weblink April 11, 2011, dead, and major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, and electrical equipment.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Industry, Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, James, Fickle, 2002, November 25, 2009, The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, and a section of the Appalachian Trail roughly follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border.WEB,weblink Great Smoky Mountains National Park, National Park Service, November 25, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091202145003weblink">weblink December 2, 2009, dead, Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium and Chattanooga Choo-Choo Hotel in Chattanooga; Dollywood in Pigeon Forge; Ripley's Aquarium of the Smokies and Ober Gatlinburg in Gatlinburg; the Parthenon, the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, and Ryman Auditorium in Nashville; the Jack Daniel's Distillery in Lynchburg; Elvis Presley's Graceland residence and tomb, the Memphis Zoo, the National Civil Rights Museum in Memphis; and Bristol Motor Speedway in Bristol.

Etymology

(File:Tanasi-monument-cherokee-tennessee.jpg|thumb|right|Monument near the old site of Tanasi in Monroe County)The earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi (or "Tanase") in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee. The town was located on a river of the same name (now known as the Little Tennessee River), and appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.Charles Hudson, The Juan Pardo Expeditions: Explorations of the Carolinas and Tennessee, 1566–1568 (Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 2005), 36–40.The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest it is a Cherokee modification of an earlier Yuchi word. It has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend".WEB,weblink Tennessee State Library and Archives FAQ, Web.archive.org, July 31, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041023191026weblink">weblink October 23, 2004, WEB,weblink Tennessee's Name Dates Back To 1567 Spanish Explorer Captain Juan Pardo, Tngenweb.org, January 1, 2005, July 31, 2010, According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost.Mooney, pg. 534The modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "(:File:Draught of the Cherokee Country.jpg|Draught of the Cherokee Country)" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee. (Tennessee County was the predecessor to current-day Montgomery County and Robertson County.) When a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state.

Nickname

Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee, especially during the Battle of New Orleans.WEB,weblink Brief History of Tennessee in the War of 1812, Tennessee State Library and Archives, April 30, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060427081440weblink">weblink April 27, 2006, Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname; according to The Columbia Encyclopedia,WEB,weblink Tennessee, state, United States, The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th, 2007, 2001,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080706170436weblink">weblink July 6, 2008, the name refers to volunteers for the Mexican–American War. This explanation is more likely, because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone, largely in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and then Texas politician, Sam Houston.WEB,weblink Why the Volunteer State, Tennessee Online History Magazine, April 3, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160413134345weblink">weblink April 13, 2016, dead,

Geography

{{See also|List of counties in Tennessee|Geology of Tennessee}}(File:National-atlas-tennessee.PNG|thumb|right|Map of Tennessee)Tennessee borders eight other states: Kentucky and Virginia to the north; North Carolina to the east; Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi on the south; Arkansas and Missouri on the Mississippi River to the west. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states. The state is trisected by the Tennessee River.The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at {{convert|6643|ft|m}}.WEB,weblink Elevations and Distances in the United States, U.S. Geological Survey, April 29, 2005, December 16, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080116113632weblink">weblink January 16, 2008, Clingmans Dome, which lies on Tennessee's eastern border, is the highest point on the Appalachian Trail, and is the third highest peak in the United States east of the Mississippi River. The state line between Tennessee and North Carolina crosses the summit. The state's lowest point is the Mississippi River at the Mississippi state line: {{convert|178|ft|m}}. The geographical center of the state is located in Murfreesboro.The state of Tennessee is geographically, culturally, economically, and legally divided into three Grand Divisions: East Tennessee, Middle Tennessee, and West Tennessee. The state constitution allows no more than two justices of the five-member Tennessee Supreme Court to be from one Grand Division and a similar rule applies to certain commissions and boards.Tennessee features six principal physiographic regions: the Blue Ridge, the Appalachian Ridge and Valley Region, the Cumberland Plateau, the Highland Rim, the Nashville Basin, and the Gulf Coastal Plain. Tennessee is home to the most caves in the United States, with over 10,000 documented caves to date.WEB,weblink Tennessee Caves, The Nature Conservancy, March 31, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304105021weblink">weblink March 4, 2016, dead,

East Tennessee

File:Map of East Tennessee counties.png|thumb|left|Map of Tennessee highlighting East TennesseeEast TennesseeThe Blue Ridge area lies on the eastern edge of Tennessee, which borders North Carolina. This region of Tennessee is characterized by the high mountains and rugged terrain of the western Blue Ridge Mountains, which are subdivided into several subranges, namely the Great Smoky Mountains, the Bald Mountains, the Unicoi Mountains, the Unaka Mountains and Roan Highlands, and the Iron Mountains.The average elevation of the Blue Ridge area is {{convert|5000|ft|m}} above sea level. Clingmans Dome, the state's highest point, is located in this region. The Blue Ridge area was never more than sparsely populated, and today much of it is protected by the Cherokee National Forest, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and several federal wilderness areas and state parks.File:Greene-county-bald-mtns-tn1.jpg|thumb|right|Bald MountainsBald MountainsStretching west from the Blue Ridge for approximately {{convert|55|mi|km}} is the Ridge and Valley region, in which numerous tributaries join to form the Tennessee River in the Tennessee Valley. This area of Tennessee is covered by fertile valleys separated by wooded ridges, such as Bays Mountain and Clinch Mountain. The western section of the Tennessee Valley, where the depressions become broader and the ridges become lower, is called the Great Valley. In this valley are numerous towns and two of the region's three urban areas, Knoxville, the third largest city in the state, and Chattanooga, the fourth largest city in the state. The third urban area, the Tri-Cities, comprising Bristol, Johnson City, and Kingsport and their environs, is located to the northeast of Knoxville.The Cumberland Plateau rises to the west of the Tennessee Valley; this area is covered with flat-topped mountains separated by sharp valleys. The elevation of the Cumberland Plateau ranges from {{convert|1,500|to about|2,000|ft}} above sea level.East Tennessee has several important transportation links with Middle and West Tennessee, as well as the rest of the nation and the world, including several major airports and interstates. Knoxville's McGhee Tyson Airport (TYS) and Chattanooga's Chattanooga Metropolitan Airport (CHA), as well as the Tri-Cities' Tri-Cities Regional Airport (TRI), provide air service to numerous destinations. I-24, I-81, I-40, I-75, and I-26 along with numerous state highways and other important roads, traverse the Grand Division and connect Chattanooga, Knoxville, and the Tri-Cities, along with other cities and towns such as Cleveland, Athens, and Sevierville.

Middle Tennessee

File:Map of Middle Tennessee counties.png|thumb|left|Map of Tennessee highlighting Middle TennesseeMiddle TennesseeWest of the Cumberland Plateau is the Highland Rim, an elevated plain that surrounds the Nashville Basin. The northern section of the Highland Rim, known for its high tobacco production, is sometimes called the Pennyroyal Plateau; it is located primarily in Southwestern Kentucky. The Nashville Basin is characterized by rich, fertile farm country and great diversity of natural wildlife.Middle Tennessee was a common destination of settlers crossing the Appalachians from Virginia in the late 18th century and early 19th century. An important trading route called the Natchez Trace, created and used for many generations by American Indians, connected Middle Tennessee to the lower Mississippi River town of Natchez. The route of the Natchez Trace was used as the basis for a scenic highway called the Natchez Trace Parkway.Some of the last remaining large American chestnut trees grow in this region. They are being used to help breed blight-resistant trees.Middle Tennessee is one of the primary state population and transportation centers along with the heart of state government. Nashville (the capital), Clarksville, and Murfreesboro are its largest cities. Fifty percent of the US population is within {{convert|600|mi|km}} of Nashville.WEB,weblink What's Happening in Nashville, Vanderbilt.edu, August 7, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080118201839weblink">weblink January 18, 2008, Interstates I-24, I-40, I-65, and I-840 service the Division, with the first three meeting in Nashville.

West Tennessee

File:Map of West Tennessee counties.png|thumb|left|Map of Tennessee highlighting West TennesseeWest TennesseeWest of the Highland Rim and Nashville Basin is the Gulf Coastal Plain, which includes the Mississippi embayment. The Gulf Coastal Plain is, in terms of area, the predominant land region in Tennessee. It is part of the large geographic land area that begins at the Gulf of Mexico and extends north into southern Illinois. In Tennessee, the Gulf Coastal Plain is divided into three sections that extend from the Tennessee River in the east to the Mississippi River in the west.The easternmost section, about {{convert|10|mi|km}} in width, consists of hilly land that runs along the western bank of the Tennessee River. To the west of this narrow strip of land is a wide area of rolling hills and streams that stretches all the way to the Mississippi River; this area is called the Tennessee Bottoms or bottom land. In Memphis, the Tennessee Bottoms end in steep bluffs overlooking the river. To the west of the Tennessee Bottoms is the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, less than {{convert|300|ft|m}} above sea level. This area of lowlands, flood plains, and swamp land is sometimes referred to as the Delta region. Memphis is the economic center of West Tennessee.Most of West Tennessee remained Indian land until the Chickasaw Cession of 1818, when the Chickasaw ceded their land between the Tennessee River and the Mississippi River. The portion of the Chickasaw Cession that lies in Kentucky is known today as the Jackson Purchase.

Public lands

File:Clifftops4-7-07.jpg|thumb|View from atop Mount Le Conte in the Great Smoky Mountains National ParkGreat Smoky Mountains National ParkAreas under the control and management of the National Park Service include the following: Fifty-four state parks, covering some {{convert|132,000|acre|km2}} as well as parts of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Cherokee National Forest, and Cumberland Gap National Historical Park are in Tennessee. Sportsmen and visitors are attracted to Reelfoot Lake, originally formed by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes; stumps and other remains of a once dense forest, together with the lotus bed covering the shallow waters, give the lake an eerie beauty.{{See also|List of Tennessee state parks}}

Climate

(File:Tennessee Köppen.svg|thumb|A map of Köppen climate types in Tennessee)File:Roadway in David Crockett State Park (Autumn 2008 - Horizontal Image).jpg|thumb|Autumn in Tennessee; roadway to Lindsey Lake in David Crockett State Park, located a half mile west of Lawrenceburg ]]Most of the state has a humid subtropical climate, with the exception of some of the higher elevations in the Appalachians, which are classified as having a mountain temperate or humid continental climate due to cooler temperatures.WEB,weblink World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification, PDF, December 19, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090114202025weblink">weblink January 14, 2009, The Gulf of Mexico is the dominant factor in the climate of Tennessee, with winds from the south being responsible for most of the state's annual precipitation. Generally, the state has hot summers and mild to cool winters with generous precipitation throughout the year, with highest average monthly precipitation generally in the winter and spring months, between December and April. The driest months, on average, are August to October. On average the state receives {{convert|50|in|cm}} of precipitation annually. Snowfall ranges from {{convert|5|in|cm}} in West Tennessee to over {{convert|80|in|cm}} in the highest mountains in East Tennessee.WEB,weblink A look at Tennessee Agriculture, PDF, Agclassroom.org, November 1, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160614025708weblink">weblink June 14, 2016, NEWS,weblink The Snowiest Places in Each State, The Weather Channel, Nick, Wiltgen, October 27, 2016, July 2, 2019, Summers in the state are generally hot and humid, with most of the state averaging a high of around {{convert|90|F|C|0}} during the summer months. Winters tend to be mild to cool, increasing in coolness at higher elevations. Generally, for areas outside the highest mountains, the average overnight lows are near freezing for most of the state. The highest recorded temperature is {{convert|113|F|C}} at Perryville on August 9, 1930, while the lowest recorded temperature is {{convert|-32|F|C}} at Mountain City on December 30, 1917.While the state is far enough from the coast to avoid any direct impact from a hurricane, the location of the state makes it likely to be impacted from the remnants of tropical cyclones which weaken over land and can cause significant rainfall, such as Tropical Storm Chris in 1982 and Hurricane Opal in 1995.{{Tropical Cyclone Rainfall in the Southeastern United States}} The state averages around 50 days of thunderstorms per year, some of which can be severe with large hail and damaging winds. Tornadoes are possible throughout the state, with West and Middle Tennessee the most vulnerable. Occasionally, strong or violent tornadoes occur, such as the devastating April 2011 tornadoes that killed 20 people in North Georgia and Southeast Tennessee.WEB,weblink US Thunderstorm distribution, src.noaa.gov, November 1, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061015060809weblink">weblink October 15, 2006, On average, the state has 15 tornadoes per year.WEB,weblink Mean Annual Average Number of Tornadoes 1953–2004, ncdc.noaa.gov, November 1, 2006, Tornadoes in Tennessee can be severe, and Tennessee leads the nation in the percentage of total tornadoes which have fatalities.WEB,weblink Top ten list, tornadoproject.com, November 1, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120204033709weblink">weblink February 4, 2012, Winter storms are an occasional problem, such as the infamous Blizzard of 1993, although ice storms are a more likely occurrence. Fog is a persistent problem in parts of the state, especially in East Tennessee.{| class="wikitable" "text-align:center;font-size:90%;"|Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Tennessee Cities (F)HTTP://WWW.WEATHER.COM/ >TITLE=NATIONAL AND LOCAL WEATHER FORECAST, HURRICANE, RADAR AND REPORT DATE=, July 31, 2010, ! style="background:#e5afaa; height:17px;"| City! style="background:#e5afaa;"| Jan! style="background:#e5afaa;"| Feb! style="background:#e5afaa;"| Mar! style="background:#e5afaa;"| Apr! style="background:#e5afaa;"| May! style="background:#e5afaa;"| Jun! style="background:#e5afaa;"| Jul! style="background:#e5afaa;"| Aug! style="background:#e5afaa;"| Sep! style="background:#e5afaa;"| Oct! style="background:#e5afaa;"| Nov! style="background:#e5afaa;"| Dec! style="background:#c5dfe1; height:16px;"| Bristol 44/25 49/27 57/34 66/41 74/51 81/60 85/64 84/62 79/56 68/43 58/35 48/27! style="background:#f8f3ca; height:16px;"| Chattanooga 49/30 54/33 63/40 72/47 79/56 86/65 90/69 89/68 82/62 72/48 61/40 52/33! style="background:#c5dfe1; color:#000; height:16px;"| Knoxville 47/30 52/33 61/40 71/48 78/57 85/65 88/69 87/68 81/62 71/50 60/41 50/34! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000; height:16px;"| Memphis 49/31 55/36 63/44 72/52 80/61 89/69 92/73 91/71 85/64 75/52 62/43 52/34! style="background:#c5dfe1; height:16px;"| Nashville 46/28 52/31 61/39 70/47 78/57 85/65 90/70 89/69 82/61 71/49 59/40 49/32

Major cities

{{See also|List of municipalities in Tennessee|List of largest cities and towns in Tennessee by population}}The capital and largest city is Nashville, though Knoxville, Kingston, and Murfreesboro have all served as state capitals in the past. Nashville's 13-county metropolitan area has been the state's largest since c. 1990. Memphis was the largest city in the state until being surpassed by Nashville in 2018. Chattanooga and Knoxville, both in the eastern part of the state near the Great Smoky Mountains, each has approximately one-third of the population of Memphis or Nashville. The city of Clarksville is a fifth significant population center, {{convert|45|mi|km}} northwest of Nashville. Murfreesboro is the sixth-largest city in Tennessee, consisting of 136,372 residents.{{Largest cities| name = Largest cities| country = TennesseeDATE=FEBRUARY 6, 2019 ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 6, 2019, | list_by_pop = | class = nav| div_name = | div_link = Counties of Tennessee{{!}}County| city_1 = Nashville, Tennessee{{!}}Nashville| div_1 = Davidson County, Tennessee{{!}}Davidson| pop_1 = 667,560| img_1 = Nashville (2).jpg| city_2 = Memphis, Tennessee{{!}}Memphis| div_2 = Shelby County, Tennessee{{!}}Shelby| pop_2 = 652,236| img_2 = Memphis skyline from the air.jpg| city_3 = Knoxville, Tennessee{{!}}Knoxville| div_3 = Knox County, Tennessee{{!}}Knox| pop_3 = 187,347| img_3 = Knoxville TN skyline.jpg| city_4 = Chattanooga, Tennessee{{!}}Chattanooga| div_4 = Hamilton County, Tennessee{{!}}Hamilton| pop_4 = 179,139| img_4 = Downtown chattanooga.JPG| city_5 = Clarksville, Tennessee{{!}}Clarksville| div_5 = Montgomery County, Tennessee{{!}}Montgomery| pop_5 = 153,205| img_5 = | city_6 = Murfreesboro, Tennessee{{!}}Murfreesboro| div_6 = Rutherford County, Tennessee{{!}}Rutherford| pop_6 = 136,372| img_6 = | city_7 = Franklin, Tennessee{{!}}Franklin| div_7 = Williamson County, Tennessee{{!}}Williamson| pop_7 = 78,321| img_7 = | city_8 = Jackson, Tennessee{{!}}Jackson| div_8 = Madison County, Tennessee{{!}}Madison| pop_8 = 66,847| img_8 = | city_9 = Johnson City, Tennessee{{!}}Johnson City| div_9 = Washington County, Tennessee{{!}}Washington| pop_9 = 66,391| img_9 = | city_10 = Bartlett, Tennessee{{!}}Bartlett| div_10 = Shelby County, Tennessee{{!}}Shelby| pop_10 = 59,102| img_10 = }}

History

Early history

{{Further|Province of Carolina|Province of North-Carolina|Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War}}File:Castalian Springs Braden style Warrior gorget HRoe 2012.jpg|thumb|right|Mississippian-period shell gorget, Castalian Springs, Sumner County ]]File:Ftloudouninterior.jpg|thumb|right|Reconstruction of Fort Loudon, the first British settlement in Tennessee]]The area now known as Tennessee was first inhabited by Paleo-Indians nearly 12,000 years ago.WEB,weblink Archaeology & the Native Peoples of Tennessee, The University of Tennessee Knoxville,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120702205050weblink">weblink July 2, 2012, The names of the cultural groups that inhabited the area between first settlement and the time of European contact are unknown, but several distinct cultural phases have been named by archaeologists, including Archaic (8000–1000 BC), Woodland (1000 BC–1000 AD), and Mississippian (1000–1600 AD), whose chiefdoms were the cultural predecessors of the Muscogee people who inhabited the Tennessee River Valley before Cherokee migration into the river's headwaters.The first recorded European excursions into what is now called Tennessee were three expeditions led by Spanish explorers, namely Hernando de Soto in 1540, Tristan de Luna in 1559, and Juan Pardo in 1567. Pardo recorded the name "Tanasqui" from a local Indian village, which evolved to the state's current name. At that time, Tennessee was inhabited by tribes of Muscogee and Yuchi people. Possibly because of European diseases devastating the Indian tribes, which would have left a population vacuum, and also from expanding European settlement in the north, the Cherokee moved south from the area now called Virginia. As European colonists spread into the area, the Indian populations were forcibly displaced to the south and west, including all Muscogee and Yuchi peoples, the Chickasaw and Choctaw, and ultimately, the Cherokee in 1838.The first British settlement in what is now Tennessee was built in 1756 by settlers from the colony of South Carolina at Fort Loudoun, near present-day Vonore. Fort Loudoun became the westernmost British outpost to that date. The fort was designed by John William Gerard de Brahm and constructed by forces under British Captain Raymond Demeré. After its completion, Captain Raymond Demeré relinquished command on August 14, 1757, to his brother, Captain Paul Demeré. Hostilities erupted between the British and the neighboring Overhill Cherokees, and a siege of Fort Loudoun ended with its surrender on August 7, 1760. The following morning, Captain Paul Demeré and a number of his men were killed in an ambush nearby, and most of the rest of the garrison was taken prisoner.Stanley Folmsbee, Robert Corlew, and Enoch Mitchell, Tennessee: A Short History (Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, 1969), p. 45.In the 1760s, long hunters from Virginia explored much of East and Middle Tennessee, and the first permanent European settlers began arriving late in the decade. The majority of 18th century settlers were English or of primarily English descent but nearly 20% of them were also Scotch-Irish.Robert E. Corlew, Tennessee: A Short History (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1981), page 106 These settlers formed the Watauga Association, a community built on lands leased from the Cherokee peoples.During the American Revolutionary War, Fort Watauga at Sycamore Shoals (in present-day Elizabethton) was attacked (1776) by Dragging Canoe and his warring faction of Cherokee who were aligned with the British Loyalists. These renegade Cherokee were referred to by settlers as the Chickamauga. They opposed North Carolina's annexation of the Washington District and the concurrent settling of the Transylvania Colony further north and west. The lives of many settlers were spared from the initial warrior attacks through the warnings of Dragging Canoe's cousin, Nancy Ward. The frontier fort on the banks of the Watauga River later served as a 1780 staging area for the Overmountain Men in preparation to trek over the Appalachian Mountains, to engage, and to later defeat the British Army at the Battle of Kings Mountain in South Carolina.Three counties of the Washington District (now part of Tennessee) broke off from North Carolina in 1784 and formed the State of Franklin. Efforts to obtain admission to the Union failed, and the counties (now numbering eight) had re-joined North Carolina by 1789. North Carolina ceded the area to the federal government in 1790, after which it was organized into the Southwest Territory. In an effort to encourage settlers to move west into the new territory, in 1787 the mother state of North Carolina ordered a road to be cut to take settlers into the Cumberland Settlements—from the south end of Clinch Mountain (in East Tennessee) to French Lick (Nashville). The Trace was called the "North Carolina Road" or "Avery's Trace", and sometimes "The Wilderness Road" (although it should not be confused with Daniel Boone's "Wilderness Road" through the Cumberland Gap).

Statehood (1796)

Tennessee was admitted to the Union on June 1, 1796 as the 16th state. It was the first state created from territory under the jurisdiction of the United States federal government. Apart from the former Thirteen Colonies only Vermont and Kentucky predate Tennessee's statehood, and neither was ever a federal territory.BOOK, Hubbard, Bill, Jr., American Boundaries: the Nation, the States, the Rectangular Survey, 2009, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-35591-7, 55, The Constitution of the State of Tennessee, Article I, Section 31, states that the beginning point for identifying the boundary is the extreme height of the Stone Mountain, at the place where the line of Virginia intersects it, and basically runs the extreme heights of mountain chains through the Appalachian Mountains separating North Carolina from Tennessee past the Indian towns of Cowee and Old Chota, thence along the main ridge of the said mountain (Unicoi Mountain) to the southern boundary of the state; all the territory, lands and waters lying west of said line are included in the boundaries and limits of the newly formed state of Tennessee. Part of the provision also stated that the limits and jurisdiction of the state would include future land acquisition, referencing possible land trade with other states, or the acquisition of territory from west of the Mississippi River.During the administration of U.S. President Martin Van Buren, nearly 17,000 Cherokees—along with approximately 2,000 black slaves owned by Cherokees—were uprooted from their homes between 1838 and 1839 and were forced by the U.S. military to march from "emigration depots" in Eastern Tennessee (such as Fort Cass) toward the more distant Indian Territory west of Arkansas (now the state of Oklahoma).Carter (III), Samuel (1976). Cherokee sunset: A nation betrayed: a narrative of travail and triumph, persecution and exile. New York: Doubleday, p. 232. During this relocation an estimated 4,000 Cherokees died along the way west.BOOK, Satz, Ronald, Tennessee's Indian Peoples, University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee, 978-0-87049-285-3, 1979, In the Cherokee language, the event is called Nunna daul Isunyi—"the Trail Where We Cried". The Cherokees were not the only American Indians forced to emigrate as a result of the Indian removal efforts of the United States, and so the phrase "Trail of Tears" is sometimes used to refer to similar events endured by other American Indian peoples, especially among the "Five Civilized Tribes". The phrase originated as a description of the earlier emigration of the Choctaw nation.

Civil War and Reconstruction

In February 1861, secessionists in Tennessee's state government—led by Governor Isham Harris—sought voter approval for a convention to sever ties with the United States, but Tennessee voters rejected the referendum by a 54–46% margin. The strongest opposition to secession came from East Tennessee (which later tried to form a separate Union-aligned state). Following the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter in April and Lincoln's call for troops from Tennessee and other states in response, Governor Isham Harris began military mobilization, submitted an ordinance of secession to the General Assembly, and made direct overtures to the Confederate government. The Tennessee legislature ratified an agreement to enter a military league with the Confederate States on May 7, 1861. On June 8, 1861, with people in Middle Tennessee having significantly changed their position, voters approved a second referendum calling for secession, becoming the last state to do so.Many major battles of the American Civil War were fought in Tennessee—most of them Union victories. Ulysses S. Grant and the U.S. Navy captured control of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers in February 1862. They held off the Confederate counterattack at Shiloh in April. Memphis fell to the Union in June, following a naval battle on the Mississippi River in front of the city. The Capture of Memphis and Nashville gave the Union control of the western and middle sections. This control was confirmed at the Battle of Murfreesboro in early January 1863 and by the subsequent Tullahoma Campaign.File:Kurz and Allison - Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864.jpg|thumb|right|The Battle of FranklinBattle of FranklinDespite the strength of Unionist sentiment in East Tennessee (with the exception of Sullivan County, which was heavily pro-Confederate), Confederates held the area. The Confederates, led by General James Longstreet, did attack General Burnside's Fort Sanders at Knoxville and lost. It was a big blow to East Tennessee Confederate momentum, but Longstreet won the Battle of Bean's Station a few weeks later. The Confederates besieged Chattanooga during the Chattanooga Campaign in early fall 1863, but were driven off by Grant in November. Many of the Confederate defeats can be attributed to the poor strategic vision of General Braxton Bragg, who led the Army of Tennessee from Perryville, Kentucky to another Confederate defeat at Chattanooga.The last major battles came when the Confederates invaded Middle Tennessee in November 1864 and were checked at Franklin, then completely dispersed by George Thomas at Nashville in December. Meanwhile, the civilian Andrew Johnson was appointed military governor of the state by President Abraham Lincoln.When the Emancipation Proclamation was announced, Tennessee was largely held by Union forces. Thus, Tennessee was not among the states enumerated in the Proclamation, and the Proclamation did not free any slaves there. Nonetheless, enslaved African Americans escaped to Union lines to gain freedom without waiting for official action. Old and young, men, women and children camped near Union troops. Thousands of former slaves ended up fighting on the Union side, nearly 200,000 in total across the South.Tennessee's legislature approved an amendment to the state constitution prohibiting slavery on February 22, 1865.WEB,weblink Chronology of Emancipation during the Civil War, University of Maryland: Department of History, Voters in the state approved the amendment in March.WEB,weblink This Honorable Body: African American Legislators in 19th Century Tennessee, Tennessee State Library and Archives, It also ratified the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (abolishing slavery in every state) on April 7, 1865.In 1864, Andrew Johnson (a War Democrat from Tennessee) was elected Vice President under Abraham Lincoln. He became President after Lincoln's assassination in 1865. Under Johnson's lenient re-admission policy, Tennessee was the first of the seceding states to have its elected members readmitted to the U.S. Congress, on July 24, 1866. Because Tennessee had ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, it was the only one of the formerly secessionist states that did not have a military governor during the Reconstruction period.After the formal end of Reconstruction, the struggle over power in Southern society continued. Through violence and intimidation against freedmen and their allies, White Democrats regained political power in Tennessee and other states across the South in the late 1870s and 1880s. Over the next decade, the state legislature passed increasingly restrictive laws to control African Americans. In 1889 the General Assembly passed four laws described as electoral reform, with the cumulative effect of essentially disfranchising most African Americans in rural areas and small towns, as well as many poor Whites. Legislation included implementation of a poll tax, timing of registration, and recording requirements. Tens of thousands of taxpaying citizens were without representation for decades into the 20th century.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Disfranchising Laws, Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, Connie L., Lester, July 3, 2018, July 3, 2018, Disfranchising legislation accompanied Jim Crow laws passed in the late 19th century, which imposed segregation in the state. In 1900, African Americans made up nearly 24% of the state's population, and numbered 480,430 citizens who lived mostly in the central and western parts of the state.WEB,weblink Historical Census Browser, 1900 Federal Census, University of Virginia,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070823030234weblink">weblink August 23, 2007, In 1897, Tennessee celebrated its centennial of statehood (though one year late of the 1896 anniversary) with a great exposition in Nashville. A full-scale replica of the Parthenon was constructed for the celebration, located in what is now Nashville's Centennial Park.

20th century

File:"A group of several hundred workers at Norris Dam construction camp site during noon hour." - NARA - 532734.jpg|thumb|A group of workers at Norris Dam construction camp site. The TVA was formed as part of Roosevelt's New DealNew DealOn August 18, 1920, Tennessee became the thirty-sixth and final state necessary to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which provided women the right to vote. Disfranchising voter registration requirements continued to keep most African Americans and many poor whites, both men and women, off the voter rolls.The need to create work for the unemployed during the Great Depression, a desire for rural electrification, the need to control annual spring flooding and improve shipping capacity on the Tennessee River were all factors that drove the federal creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1933. Through the power of the TVA projects, Tennessee quickly became the nation's largest public utility supplier.During World War II, the availability of abundant TVA electrical power led the Manhattan Project to locate one of the principal sites for production and isolation of weapons-grade fissile material in East Tennessee. The planned community of Oak Ridge was built from scratch to provide accommodations for the facilities and workers. These sites are now Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 National Security Complex, and the East Tennessee Technology Park.Despite recognized effects of limiting voting by poor whites, successive legislatures expanded the reach of the disfranchising laws until they covered the state. Political scientist V. O. Key, Jr. argued in 1949 that:...the size of the poll tax did not inhibit voting as much as the inconvenience of paying it. County officers regulated the vote by providing opportunities to pay the tax (as they did in Knoxville), or conversely by making payment as difficult as possible. Such manipulation of the tax, and therefore the vote, created an opportunity for the rise of urban bosses and political machines. Urban politicians bought large blocks of poll tax receipts and distributed them to blacks and whites, who then voted as instructed.In 1953 state legislators amended the state constitution, removing the poll tax. In many areas both blacks and poor whites still faced subjectively applied barriers to voter registration that did not end until after passage of national civil rights legislation, including the Voting Rights Act of 1965.Tennessee celebrated its bicentennial in 1996. With a yearlong statewide celebration entitled "Tennessee 200", it opened a new state park (Bicentennial Mall) at the foot of Capitol Hill in Nashville.The state has had major disasters, such as the Great Train Wreck of 1918, one of the worst train accidents in U.S. history,BOOK, Allen R., Coggins, Tennessee Tragedies: Natural, Technological, and Societal Disasters in the Volunteer State,weblink November 23, 2012, January 15, 2012, Univ. of Tennessee Press, 978-1-57233-829-6, 158, and the Sultana explosion on the Mississippi River near Memphis, the deadliest maritime disaster in U.S. history.BOOK, Peter N., Stearns, Jan, Lewis, An Emotional History of the United States,weblink 1998, NYU Press, 978-0-8147-8088-6, 157,

21st century

In 2002, businessman Phil Bredesen was elected to become the 48th governor in January 2003. Also in 2002, Tennessee amended the state constitution to allow for the establishment of a lottery. Tennessee's Bob Corker was the only freshman Republican elected to the United States Senate in the 2006 midterm elections. The state constitution was amended to reject same-sex marriage. In January 2007, Ron Ramsey became the first Republican elected as Speaker of the State Senate since Reconstruction, as a result of the realignment of the Democratic and Republican parties in the South since the late 20th century, with Republicans now elected by conservative voters, who previously had supported Democrats.In 2010, during the 2010 midterm elections, Bill Haslam was elected to succeed Bredesen, who was term-limited, to become the 49th Governor of Tennessee in January 2011. In April and May 2010, flooding in Middle Tennessee devastated Nashville and other parts of Middle Tennessee. In 2011, parts of East Tennessee, including Hamilton County and Apison in Bradley County, were devastated by the April 2011 tornado outbreak.

Demographics

{{US Census population|1790= 35691|1800= 105602|1810= 261727|1820= 422823|1830= 681904|1840= 829210|1850= 1002717|1860= 1109801|1870= 1258520|1880= 1542359|1890= 1767518|1900= 2020616|1910= 2184789|1920= 2337885|1930= 2616556|1940= 2915841|1950= 3291718|1960= 3567089|1970= 3923687|1980= 4591120|1990= 4877185|2000= 5689283|2010= 6346105|estimate= 6895418|estyear= 2019|align-fn=centerTITLE=RESIDENT POPULATION DATA – 2010 CENSUS ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 23, 2012 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20131019160532/HTTP://2010.CENSUS.GOV/2010CENSUS/DATA/APPORTIONMENT-POP-TEXT.PHP FORMAT= PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, POPULATION DIVISION ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 6, 2019, }}The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Tennessee was 6,770,010 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 423,905 people since the 2010 United States Census, or 6.68%. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 124,385 people (that is 584,236 births minus 459,851 deaths), and an increase from net migration of 244,537 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 66,412 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 178,125 people.WEB,weblink XLS, Table 4. Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Resident Population Change for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-04), U.S. Census Bureau, December 2017, December 24, 2017, Twenty percent of Tennesseans were born outside the South in 2008, compared to a figure of 13.5% in 1990.NEWS,weblink Tennessee Resists Obama Wave, The Wall Street Journal, Corey, Dade, November 22, 2008, November 23, 2008, In recent years, Tennessee has received an influx of people relocating from California, Florida, New York, Massachusetts, New Jersey, the New England States and several northern states for the low cost of living, and the booming healthcare and automobile industries. Metropolitan Nashville is one of the fastest-growing areas in the country due in part to these factors.{{Citation needed|date=March 2018}}The center of population of Tennessee is located in Rutherford County, in the city of Murfreesboro.WEB, Population and Population Centers by State: 2000, United States Census Bureau, December 6, 2008,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100223204810weblink">weblink February 23, 2010, As of the 2010 census, the racial composition of Tennessee's population was as follows:{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"! Racial composition !! 1990WEB,weblink Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141224151538weblink">weblink December 24, 2014, !! 2000WEB,weblink Population of Tennessee: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts, Census Viewer,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171225031555weblink">weblink December 25, 2017, !! 2010 !! 2017 est.White American>White 83.0% 80.2% 77.6% 77.8%African American>Black 16.0% 16.4% 16.7% 16.8%Asian American>Asian 0.7% 1.0% 1.4% 1.9%Native Americans in the United States>Native 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3%Native Hawaiian andPacific Islander>other Pacific Islander – – 0.1% 0.1%Race and ethnicity in the United States Census>Other race 0.2% 1.0% 2.2% 1.3%Multiracial American>Two or more races – 1.1% 1.7% 2.1%In the same year 4.6% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).WEB,weblink Tennessee QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, Quickfacts.census.gov, July 10, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150207081642weblink">weblink February 7, 2015, (File:Tennessee population map.png|thumb|right|Tennessee population density map, 2010)In 2000, the five most common self-reported ethnic groups in the state were: American (17.3%), African American (13.0%), Irish (9.3%), English (9.1%), and German (8.3%).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040920132346weblink">weblink dead, September 20, 2004, Ancestry: 2000, PDF, U.S. Census Bureau, Angela, Brittingham, G. Patricia, de la Cruz, 6, June 2004, July 31, 2010, C2KBR-35, Most Tennesseans who self-identify as having American ancestry are of English and Scotch-Irish ancestry. An estimated 21–24% of Tennesseans are of predominantly English ancestry.BOOK, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, Oxford University Press, New York, David Hackett, Fischer, David Hackett Fischer, 1989, 633–639, 978-0195037944, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, BOOK,weblink Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America, Continuum, New York, Dominic J., Pulera, 2004, 57, 978-0826416438, In the 1980 census 1,435,147 Tennesseans claimed "English" or "mostly English" ancestry out of a state population of 3,221,354 making them 45% of the state at the time.WEB,weblink Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 – Table 3, PDF, December 9, 2011, According to the 2010 census, 6.4% of Tennessee's population were reported as under 5 years of age, 23.6% under 18, and 13.4% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.3% of the population.WEB,weblink Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data, Tennessee, U.S. Census Bureau, 2010, On June 19, 2010, the Tennessee Commission of Indian Affairs granted state recognition to six Indian tribes which was later repealed by the state's Attorney General because the action by the commission was illegal. The tribes were as follows:

Birth data

As of 2011, 36.3% of Tennessee's population younger than age 1 were minorities.NEWS,weblink Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot, Exner, Rich, June 3, 2012, The Plain Dealer, Note: Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.{| class="wikitable"|+ Live births by single race/ethnicity of mother! Race! 2013JOURNAL,weblink Births: Final Data for 2013, National Vital Statistic Reports, National Center for Health Statistics, Joyce A., Martin, Brady E., Hamilton, Michelle J. K., Osterman, Sally C., Curtin, T. J., Mathews, 1, 64, 1, January 15, 2015, ! 2014JOURNAL,weblink Births: Final Data for 2014, National Vital Statistic Reports, National Center for Health Statistics, Brady E., Hamilton, Joyce A., Martin, Michelle J. K., Osterman, Sally C., Curtin, T. J., Mathews, 1, 64, 12, December 23, 2015, ! 2015JOURNAL,weblink Births: Final Data for 2015, National Vital Statistic Reports, National Center for Health Statistics, Joyce A., Martin, Brady E., Hamilton, Michelle J. K., Osterman, Anne K., Driscoll, T. J., Mathews, 1, 66, 1, January 5, 2017, ! 2016JOURNAL,weblink Births: Final Data for 2016, National Vital Statistic Reports, National Center for Health Statistics, Joyce A., Martin, Brady E., Hamilton, Michelle J. K., Osterman, Anne K., Driscoll, Patrick, Drake, 1, 67, 1, January 31, 2018, ! 2017JOURNAL,weblink Births: Final Data for 2017, National Vital Statistic Reports, National Center for Health Statistics, Joyce A., Martin, Brady E., Hamilton, Michelle J. K., Osterman, Anne K., Driscoll, Patrick, Drake, 1, 67, 8, November 7, 2018, White Americans>White:| 59,804 (74.7%)| 61,391 (75.2%)| 61,814 (75.7%)| ...| ... Non-Hispanic whites>Non-Hispanic White| 54,377 (68.0%)| 55,499 (68.0%)| 55,420 (67.8%)| 53,866 (66.7%)| 53,721 (66.3%)African Americans>Black| 17,860 (22.3%)| 17,791 (21.8%)| 17,507 (21.4%)| 15,889 (19.7%)| 16,050 (19.8%)Asian Americans>Asian| 2,097 (2.6%)| 2,180 (2.7%)| 2,153 (2.6%)| 1,875 (2.3%)| 1,905 (2.4%)Native Americans in the United States>American Indian| 231 (0.3%)| 240 (0.3%)| 211 (0.2%)| 77 (0.1%)| 150 (0.2%)Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic (of any race)| 6,854 (8.6%)| 6,986 (8.6%)| 7,264 (8.9%)| 7,631 (9.4%)| 7,684 (9.5%)| Total Tennessee| 79,992 (100%)| 81,602 (100%)| 81,685 (100%)| 80,807 (100%)| 81,016 (100%)
  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Religion

{{Pie chart
| caption=Religious affiliation of Tennessee population as of 2014WEB,weblink Religious Landscape Study, May 11, 2015, Pew Forum, September 4, 2017,
| other = yes
| label1 = Evangelical Protestant
| value1 = 52
| color1 = #4900FF
| label2 = Mainline Protestant:
| value2 = 13
| color2 = #260084
| label3 = Protestants
| value3 = 8
| color3 = #9A76F4
| label4 = Roman Catholic
| value4 = 6
| color4 = #4F82F8
| label5 = Latter-day Saints
| value5 = 1
| color5 = #7036FF
| label6 = Orthodox Christian
| value6 = 1
| color6 = #D5C4FF
| label7 = Other Christian
| value7 = 1
| color7 = #A140C3
| label8 = Islam
| value8 = 1
| color8 = #185A00
| label9 = Jewish
| value9 = 1
| color9 = #FF0000
| label10 = Non-religious
| value10 = 14
| color10 = #777777
}}
The religious affiliations of the people of Tennessee as of 2014:

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