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{{Redirect2|Tweeting|Tweeted|other uses|Bird vocalization|and|Tweet (disambiguation){{!}}Tweet}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|Global micro-blogging Internet service}}{{Use American English|date=June 2015}}{{Use mdy dates|date=August 2019}}

S&P 500>S&P 500 Component}}San Francisco, California, United States37.7768display=inline,title}}| area_served = Worldwideclass=nowrapJack Dorsey>Noah Glass (Twitter)>Biz StoneEvan Williams (Internet entrepreneur)>Evan Williams}}class=nowrap
| Omid Kordestani | {{small|(Executive Chairman){edih}
| Jack Dorsey | {{small|(CEO)}}
| Ned Segal | {{small|(CFO)}}}}| industry = Internet
{{increase}} US$3.04 billion {{small|(2018)}}}}{{increase}} US$1.2 billion {{small|(2018)}}}}{{increase}} US$453 million {{small|(2018)}}}}{{increase}} US$10.16 billion {{small|(2018)}}}}{{increase}} US$6.8 billion {{small|(2018)}}}}3,900 {{small|(2018)}}}}class=nowrapVine (service)>VinePeriscope (app)>Periscope|MoPub}}| url = {{Official URL}}{{nowrap201918WEBSITE=WWW.ALEXA.COM, July 18, 2019, | registration = Required to post, follow, or be followedclass=nowrap{{small|(February 2019)}}}}class=nowrapJava (programming language)>JavaRuby (programming language)>RubyScala (programming language)>Scala|JavaScript}}PUBLISHER=U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSIONWEBSITE=WWW.ALEXA.COM LANGUAGE=EN, HTTPS://ABOUT.TWITTER.COM/EN_US/COMPANY.HTML>TITLE=TWITTER - COMPANYACCESSDATE=JULY 30, 2019, REUTERS>URL=HTTP://FORTUNE.COM/2017/04/28/TWITTER-CEO-DORSEY-MILLION-COMPANY-STOCK/WORK=FORTUNEACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 14, 2018, HTTPS://WWW.MOPUB.COM/LEGAL/TOS/ > TITLE=MOPUB TERMS OF SERVICE, CHARLES>LAST=HUMBLEDATE=JULY 4, 2011ACCESS-DATE=JANUARY 15, 2013NEWSPAPER=USA TODAY, SHABAN >FIRST1=HAMZA URL=HTTP://WWW.LATIMES.COM/BUSINESS/LA-FI-TWITTER-USERS-FAKE-ACCOUNTS-STOCK-20180727-STORY.HTML ACCESSDATE=JULY 27, 2018WEBSITE=WWW.ALEXA.COM, }}Twitter ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|t|w|ɪ|t|É™r}}) is an American microblogging and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled to 280 for all languages except Chinese, Japanese, and Korean."Tweeting Made Easier" Retrieved November 7, 2017. Registered users can post, like, and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service (SMS) or its mobile-device application software ("app")."Twitter via SMS FAQ" Retrieved April 4, 2019. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco, California, and has more than 25 offices around the world."About Twitter" Retrieved April 24, 2014.Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams, launched in July of that year. The service rapidly gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day,WEB,weblink Twitter, Twitter turns six, March 21, 2012, Twitter, and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day.WEB,weblink Twitter Search Team, The Engineering Behind Twitter's New Search Experience, May 31, 2011, June 7, 2014, Twitter Engineering Blog, Twitter, dead,weblink March 25, 2014, "Twitter turns six", March 21, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet".WEB,weblink Top Sites, Alexa Internet, May 13, 2013, NEWS,weblink Swine Flu's Tweet Tweet Causes Online Flutter, April 29, 2009, Leslie, D'Monte, Business Standard, Also known as the 'SMS of the internet', Twitter is a free social networking service, February 4, 2011, As of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users. Since 2015 Twitter has been a hotbed of debates and news covering politics of the United States. During the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Twitter was the largest source of breaking news on the day, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. (Eastern Time) that day.


{{Further|Timeline of Twitter}}

Creation and initial reaction

File:Twttr sketch-Dorsey-2006.jpg|thumb|A sketch, c. 2006, by Jack Dorsey, envisioning an SMS-based social networksocial networkTwitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey, then an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group.{{registration required|date=February 2011}} NEWS, Miller, Claire Cain,weblink Why Twitter's C.E.O. Demoted Himself, October 30, 2010, The New York Times, October 31, 2010, WEB, Co-founder of Twitter receives key to St. Louis with 140 character proclamation,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, December 28, 2012, September 19, 2009,, KSDK, September 29, 2009, After high school in St. Louis and some time at the Missouri University of Science and Technology, University of Missouri–Rolla, Jack headed east to New York University., The original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams later ascribed to Noah Glass,WEB, Williams, Evan,weblink It's true..., April 13, 2011, Twitter, April 26, 2011, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was also partly due to the fact that the domain was already in use, and it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.NEWS, Buy a vowel? How Twttr became Twitter,weblink CNNMoney, June 9, 2015, November 23, 2010, The developers initially considered "10958" as a short code, but later changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability".WEB,weblink How Twitter Was Born, 140 Characters: A Style Guide for the Short Form, 140 Characters, January 30, 2009, Dom, Sagolla, February 4, 2011, Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. Pacific Standard Time (PST): "just setting up my twttr".WEB, just setting up my twttr,weblink March 21, 2006, Dorsey, Jack, Twitter, February 4, 2011, Jack Dorsey, Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:...we came across the word 'twitter', and it was just perfect. The definition was 'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and 'chirps from birds'. And that's exactly what the product was.NEWS,weblink Twitter Creator Jack Dorsey Illuminates the Site's Founding Document, Los Angeles Times, February 18, 2009, David, Sano, June 18, 2009, The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees"How Twitter Was Founded". Business Insider (April 13, 2011). Retrieved on September 4, 2013. and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006.WEB, Michael, Arrington,weblink Odeo Releases Twttr, TechCrunch, AOL, July 15, 2006, September 18, 2010, Michael Arrington, In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams, Dorsey, and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets â€” including and â€” from the investors and shareholders.NEWS, Om, Malik, Odeo RIP, Hello Obvious Corp, October 25, 2006,weblink GigaOM, June 20, 2009, Williams fired Glass, who was silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011.NEWS, Madrigal, Alexis, Twitter's Fifth Beatle Tells His Side of the Story,weblink April 14, 2011, The Atlantic, April 26, 2011, Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.WEB,weblink A Conversation with Twitter Co-Founder Jack Dorsey, February 12, 2009, Lennon, Andrew, The Daily Anchor, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 27, 2009, Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview:With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter actually changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility. It is that, in part, but the insight we eventually came to was Twitter was really more of an information network than it is a social network.WEB, Ev Williams on Twitter's Early Years,weblink Inc., Inc, 5 October 2013, Issie Lapowsky, 4 October 2013, The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive (SXSWi) conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000.WEB, Nick, Douglas, Twitter blows up at SXSW Conference,weblink Gawker, Univision Communications, March 12, 2007, May 5, 2017, WEB, Courtney Boyd, Meyers, 5 years ago today Twitter launched to the public,weblink The Next Web, July 15, 2011, May 5, 2017, "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways, exclusively streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek{{'}}s Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters. Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, and the bloggers in attendance touted it."NEWS, Levy, Steven, Twitter: Is Brevity The Next Big Thing?, April 30, 2007,weblink Newsweek, February 4, 2011, Steven Levy, Reaction at the conference was highly positive. Blogger Scott Beale said that Twitter was "absolutely ruling" SXSWi. Social software researcher danah boyd said Twitter was "owning" the conference.WEB,weblink To Twitter or Dodgeball at SXSW?, February 4, 2011, Daniel, Terdiman, Daniel Terdiman, March 10, 2007, CNET, CBS Interactive, Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less. And we just did!"WEB, May 7, 2008,weblink We Won!, Twitter Blog, Twitter, February 4, 2011, Biz, Stone, Biz Stone, The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010.Press release (January 22, 2010). "Media Advisory M10-012 – NASA Extends the World Wide Web Out into Space". NASA. Retrieved February 5, 2011. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has also hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue.WEB, Michael, Arrington,weblink Twitter Hires Adam Bain Away from News Corp. as President of Revenue, TechCrunch, AOL, August 23, 2010, February 5, 2011, Michael Arrington,


The company experienced rapid initial growth. It had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007. This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day.NEWS,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Twitter Users Send 50 Million Tweets Per Day â€“ Almost 600 Tweets Are Sent Every Second Through the Microblogging Site, According to Its Own Metrics, Claudine, Beaumont, February 23, 2010, February 7, 2011, London, By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications.NEWS, Staff writer,weblink New Statesman, Twitter Registers 1,500 Per Cent Growth in Users, March 4, 2010, February 7, 2011, Staff writer, As of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter.WEB, Garrett, Sean, Big Goals, Big Game, Big Records,weblink Twitter Blog (blog of Twitter), February 7, 2011, June 18, 2010, As of March 2011, that was about 140 million tweets posted daily.WEB,weblink Twitter Blog: #numbers,, March 14, 2011, January 20, 2012, As noted on, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site in January 2009 from its previous rank of twenty-second.File:Jack Dorsey - TechCrunch Real-Time Stream Crunchup - 2009.jpg|thumb|Jack DorseyJack DorseyTwitter's usage spikes during prominent events. For example, a record was set during the 2010 FIFA World Cup when fans wrote 2,940 tweets per second in the thirty-second period after Japan scored against Cameroon on June 14. The record was broken again when 3,085 tweets per second were posted after the Los Angeles Lakers' victory in the 2010 NBA Finals on June 17,NEWS, Miller, Claire Cain, Sports Fans Break Records on Twitter,weblink Bits (blog of The New York Times), February 7, 2011, June 18, 2010, and then again at the close of Japan's victory over Denmark in the World Cup when users published 3,283 tweets per second.NEWS, Van Grove, Jennifer,weblink Twitter Sets New Record: 3,283 Tweets Per Second, Mashable, February 7, 2011, June 25, 2010, The record was set again during the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup Final between Japan and the United States, when 7,196 tweets per second were published.NEWS,weblink Women's World Cup Final breaks Twitter record, ESPN (United States), ESPN, July 18, 2011, July 31, 2011, When American singer Michael Jackson died on June 25, 2009, Twitter servers crashed after users were updating their status to include the words "Michael Jackson" at a rate of 100,000 tweets per hour.NEWS, Shiels, Maggie,weblink Web Slows After Jackson's Death, BBC News, June 26, 2009, February 7, 2011, The current record as of August 3, 2013 was set in Japan, with 143,199 tweets per second during a television screening of the movie Castle in the SkyWEB,weblink New Tweets per second record, and how!,, (beating the previous record of 33,388, also set by Japan for the television screening of the same movie).NEWS, Kanalley, Craig,weblink Tweets-Per-Second Record Set By Japan, Korea On New Year's Day 2013, The Huffington Post, January 2, 2013, January 3, 2013, Twitter acquired application developer Atebits on April 11, 2010. Atebits had developed the Apple Design Award-winning Twitter client Tweetie for the Mac and iPhone. The application, now called "Twitter" and distributed free of charge, is the official Twitter client for the iPhone, iPad and Mac.NEWS, Miller, Claire Cain,weblink Twitter Acquires Atebits, Maker of Tweetie, April 11, 2010, February 7, 2011, Bits (blog of The New York Times), From September through October 2010, the company began rolling out "New Twitter", an entirely revamped edition of Changes included the ability to see pictures and videos without leaving Twitter itself by clicking on individual tweets which contain links to images and clips from a variety of supported websites including YouTube and Flickr, and a complete overhaul of the interface, which shifted links such as '@mentions' and 'Retweets' above the Twitter stream, while 'Messages' and 'Log Out' became accessible via a black bar at the very top of As of November 1, 2010, the company confirmed that the "New Twitter experience" had been rolled out to all users.


On April 5, 2011, Twitter tested a new homepage and phased out the "Old Twitter".NEWS,weblink Twitter Users Report Has A New Homepage (SCREENSHOTS), The Huffington Post, May 4, 2011, May 22, 2011, Dean, Praetorius, However, a glitch came about after the page was launched, so the previous "retro" homepage was still in use until the issues were resolved; the new homepage was reintroduced on April 20.MAGAZINE, Dunn, John E,weblink Twitter Delays Homepage Revamp After Service Glitch, PCWorld, April 6, 2011, May 22, 2011, WEB,weblink New Twitter Homepage Launched, Chris, Crum, April 20, 2011, April 25, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 24, 2011, On December 8, 2011, Twitter overhauled its website once more to feature the "Fly" design, which the service says is easier for new users to follow and promotes advertising. In addition to the Home tab, the Connect and Discover tabs were introduced along with a redesigned profile and timeline of Tweets. The site's layout has been compared to that of Facebook.WEB,weblink Twitter: Yours to discover,, January 20, 2012, NEWS, Twitter / YouTube,weblink Twitter 2.0: Everything You Need To Know About The New Changes, Fox News, April 7, 2010, January 20, 2012, On February 21, 2012, it was announced that Twitter and Yandex agreed to a partnership. Yandex, a Russian search engine, finds value within the partnership due to Twitter's real time news feeds. Twitter's director of business development explained that it is important to have Twitter content where Twitter users go.NEWS,weblink Twitter partners with Yandex for real-time search, Reuters, February 21, 2012, On March 21, 2012, Twitter celebrated its sixth birthday while also announcing that it had 140 million users and 340 million tweets per day. The number of users was up 40% from their September 2011 number, which was said to have been at 100 million at the time.WEB,weblink Twitter Says It Has 140 Million Users, March 21, 2012, Mashable, In April 2012, Twitter announced that it was opening an office in Detroit, with the aim of working with automotive brands and advertising agencies.NEWS,weblink Twitter heads to Motown to be closer to automakers, Reuters, April 4, 2012, April 5, 2012, Twitter also expanded its office in Dublin.NEWS,weblink Twitter to create 12 jobs as it scales up Irish operations, Irish Independent, April 4, 2012, April 5, 2012, On June 5, 2012, a modified logo was unveiled through the company blog, removing the text to showcase the slightly redesigned bird as the sole symbol of Twitter.WEB, Salvador, Rodriguez, Twitter flips the bird, adopts new logo,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink Los Angeles Times, Tronc, June 6, 2012, July 12, 2012, May 5, 2017, JOURNAL, Scott, Gilbertson, Twitter's New Logo Inspires Parodies, CSS Greatness,weblink Wired, June 8, 2012, May 5, 2017, On October 5, 2012, Twitter acquired a video clip company called Vine that launched in January 2013.NEWS,weblink Twitter Acquires Video Service; Are Third Party Video Developers In Danger Now Too?, MediaBistro, October 9, 2012, October 10, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 11, 2012, NEWS,weblink Twitter Buys Vine, a Video Clip Company That Never Launched, All Things D, October 9, 2012, October 10, 2012, Twitter released Vine as a standalone app that allows users to create and share six-second looping video clips on January 24, 2013. Vine videos shared on Twitter are visible directly in users' Twitter feeds.NEWS, Stuart, Dredge, Vine iPhone app brings short, sharp video to Twitter, The Guardian,weblink January 23, 2013, January 26, 2013, London, Due to an influx of inappropriate content, it is now rated 17+ in Apple's{{Update inline|date=November 2019|reason=}}NEWS,weblink What really happened to the man behind a viral Twitter thread about Apple deleting his movies, Ghosh, Shona, September 29, 2018, Business Insider, September 17, 2018, app store.WEB, Twitter's Vine Changes App Store Rating to +17, Adds Social Sharing Features,weblink ABC News, February 7, 2013, On December 18, 2012, Twitter announced it had surpassed 200 million monthly active users. Twitter hit 100 million monthly active users in September 2011.WEB,weblink Twitter Now Has More Than 200 Million Monthly Active Users, December 18, 2012, Mashable, On January 28, 2013, Twitter acquired Crashlytics in order to build out its mobile developer products.NEWS,weblink Twitter's Boston Acquisitions: Crashlytics Tops $100M, Bluefin Labs Close Behind {{!, Xconomy|date=February 5, 2013|newspaper=Xconomy|language=en-US|access-date=December 16, 2016}}On April 18, 2013, Twitter launched a music app called Twitter Music for the iPhone.WEB, Ulanoff, Lance, Twitter Launches Twitter #music App and Service,weblink Mashable, April 28, 2013, Mashable, On August 28, 2013, Twitter acquired Trendrr,NEWS,weblink Twitter acquires real-time social data company Trendrr to help it better tap into TV and media, The Next web, August 28, 2013, August 29, 2013, followed by the acquisition of MoPub on September 9, 2013.NEWS,weblink Twitter makes another acquisition, CNN Money, September 10, 2013, Chris, Isidore, September 10, 2013, As of September 2013, the company's data showed that 200 million users sent over 400 million tweets daily, with nearly 60% of tweets sent from mobile devices.NEWS, Twitter files for IPO in first stage of stock market launch,weblink September 13, 2013, The Guardian, September 12, 2013, Heidi Moore, On June 4, 2014, Twitter announced that it would acquire Namo Media, a technology firm specializing in "native advertising" for mobile devices.NEWS, Twitter acquires mobile advertising startup Namo Media,weblink June 6, 2014, June 6, 2014, Reuters, Gerry, Shih, On June 19, 2014, Twitter announced that it had reached an undisclosed deal to buy SnappyTV, a service that helps edit and share video from television broadcasts.NEWS, Twitter Boosts Video Push With SnappyTV Buy,weblink June 19, 2014, June 19, 2014, Michael, Calia, The Wall Street Journal, Tom Cheredar, Venture Beat. "Twitter buys SnappyTV to beef up its arsenal of TV-focused ad tools". June 19, 2014. Retrieved June 19, 2014. The company was helping broadcasters and rights holders to share video content both organically across social and via Twitter's Amplify program.NEWS, Sawers, Paul, June 19, 2014, Twitter's evolution as a broadcasting platform continues as it acquires live-TV clipping service SnappyTV,weblink The Next Web, August 28, 2014, In July 2014, Twitter announced that it intended to buy a young company called CardSpring for an undisclosed sum. CardSpring enabled retailers to offer online shoppers coupons that they could automatically sync to their credit cards in order to receive discounts when they shopped in physical stores.WEB, With CardSpring Deal, Twitter's E-Commerce Strategy Emerges in Time for Holidays,weblink July 20, 2014, July 21, 2014, On July 31, 2014, Twitter announced that it had acquired a small password-security startup called Mitro.NEWS, Twitter Acquires Security-Password Startup Mitro,weblink July 31, 2014, August 1, 2014, The Wall Street Journal, Scott, Austin, On October 29, 2014, Twitter announced a new partnership with IBM. The partnership was intended to help businesses use Twitter data to understand their customers, businesses and other trends.Lopes, Marina. "IBM, Twitter to partner on business data analytics". Reuters. October 29, 2014. Retrieved October 29, 2014.

2015 and slow growth

On February 11, 2015, Twitter announced that it had acquired Niche, an advertising network for social media stars, founded by Rob Fishman and Darren Lachtman.WEB,weblink Twitter Acquires Niche, A Startup That Helps Advertisers Work With Social Media Celebrities, Ha, Anthony, TechCrunch, April 10, 2016, The acquisition price was reportedly $50 million.WEB,weblink Twitter buys Niche, an ad network for Vine stars, for about $50 million in cash and stock, Business Insider, April 10, 2016, On March 13, 2015, Twitter announced its acquisition of Periscope, an app that allows live streaming of video.WEB, Josh, Constine, Twitter Confirms Periscope Acquisition, And Here's How The Livestreaming App Works,weblink March 13, 2015, April 10, 2015, In April 2015, the desktop homepage changed.WEB,weblink gets a refresh,, July 30, 2019, Twitter announced that it had acquired TellApart, a commerce ads tech firm, with $532 million stock.WEB, Josh, Constine, Twitter Improves Ads By Acquiring TellApart, Selling Them Through Google's DoubleClick,weblink April 29, 2015, April 29, 2015, WEB, Matt, Rosoff, Twitter's price for TellApart: $532 million,weblink April 29, 2015, April 30, 2015, Later in the year it became apparent that growth had slowed, according to Fortune,WEB,weblink What if the Twitter growth everyone is hoping for never comes?, Matthew, Ingram, Fortune, October 25, 2015, September 23, 2016, Business Insider,WEB,weblink Twitter user growth continues to stall, Laurie, Beaver, Margaret, Boland, Business Insider, October 28, 2015, September 23, 2016, Marketing LandWEB,weblink Revenue Is Up, But Twitter Is Still Struggling In Slow Growth Mode, Martin, Beck, Marketing Land, October 27, 2015, September 23, 2016, and other news websites including Quartz (in 2016).NEWS,weblink Twitter now has a problem that's way worse than slow user growth, Alice, Truong, Quartz, February 10, 2016, September 23, 2016, In June 2016, Twitter acquired an artificial intelligence startup called Magic Pony for $150 million.NEWS, Madhumita, Murgia, Twitter pays $150m for London AI startup Magic Pony,weblink The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, June 20, 2016, April 23, 2017, WEB, Ingrid, Lunden, Twitter pays up to $150M for Magic Pony Technology, which uses neural networks to improve images,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, June 20, 2016, April 23, 2017,

Initial public offering (IPO)

(File:Twitter's San Francisco Headquarters.jpg|thumb|Twitter's San Francisco headquarters, as seen from a corner on Market Street)On September 12, 2013, Twitter announced that it had filed papers with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) ahead of a planned stock market listing.NEWS, BBC News,weblink Twitter plans stock market listing, September 12, 2013, September 13, 2013, It revealed its prospectus in an 800-page filing.NEWS,weblink Twitter's filing for IPO, The New York Times, November 7, 2013, September 23, 2016, Twitter planned to raise US$1 billion as the basis for its stock market debut.NEWS,weblink Twitter wants to raise $1bn in its stock market debut, BBC News, October 4, 2013, October 12, 2013, The IPO filing states that "200,000,000+ monthly active users" access Twitter and "500,000,000+ tweets per day" are posted.WEB, S-1 1 d564001ds1.htm FORM S-1,weblink United States Securities Exchange Commission, United States Securities Exchange Commission, October 5, 2013, October 3, 2013, In an October 15, 2013 amendment to their SEC S-1 filing,WEB, Amendment 1 to Form S-1 Registration Statement, Twitter, Inc.,weblink October 15, 2013, EDGAR, November 8, 2013, Twitter declared that they would list on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), quashing speculation that their stock would trade on the NASDAQ exchange. This decision was widely viewed to be a reaction to the botched initial public offering of Facebook.NEWS, Twitter Announces It Will List On The NYSE Under TWTR, Twitter, Inc.,weblink October 15, 2013, TechCrunch, November 8, 2013, On November 6, 2013, 70 million sharesWEB, Interesting Numbers From Twitter's IPO,weblink November 8, 2013, ABC News, November 8, 2013, were priced at US$26 and issued by lead underwriter Goldman Sachs.NEWS, Twitter prices IPO at $26 per share,weblink November 6, 2013, Yahoo! Finance, November 8, 2013, On November 7, 2013, the first day of trading on the NYSE, Twitter shares opened at $26.00 and closed at US$44.90, giving the company a valuation of around US$31 billion.NEWS, Twitter shares jump 73% in market debut,weblink November 7, 2013, BBC News, November 8, 2013, The paperwork from show of November 7 that among the founders, Williams received a sum of US$2.56 billion and Dorsey received US$1.05 billion, while Costolo's payment was US$345 million.WEB, Twitter IPO: Guess Who Just Got Rich,weblink Mashable, Mashable, November 8, 2013, Kurt Wagner, November 8, 2013, On February 5, 2014, Twitter published its first results as a public company, showing a net loss of $511 million in the fourth quarter of 2013.NEWS, Twitter posts revenues of $242m but share price plummets as growth stalls,weblink The Guardian, February 5, 2014, February 7, 2014, Dominic, Rushe, On January 5, 2016, CEO Jack Dorsey commented on a report that Twitter planned to expand its character limit to 10,000 (private messages already had the longer limit as of July), requiring users to click to see anything beyond 140 characters. He said while Twitter would "never lose that feeling" of speed, users could do more with the text.NEWS,weblink Twitter to Expand Tweet's 140-Character Limit to 10,000, Koh, Yoree, The Wall Street Journal, January 5, 2016, March 24, 2016, In September 2016, Twitter shares rose 20% after a report that it had received takeover approaches. Potential buyers were Alphabet (parent company of Google),WEB, David, Faber, Anita, Balakrishnan, Twitter may soon get formal bid, suitors said to include Salesforce and Google,weblink CNBC, NBCUniversal News Group, September 23, 2016, April 23, 2017, Microsoft,WEB, Antonio José, Vielma, Microsoft seen as possible Twitter suitor: Source,weblink CNBC, NBCUniversal News Group, September 26, 2016, April 23, 2017, NEWS, Zlata, Rodionova, Twitter sale: Disney and Microsoft join Google in list of potential bidders,weblink The Independent, September 27, 2016, April 23, 2017, WEB, Andrew, Nusca, Will Microsoft Buy Twitter?,weblink Fortune (magazine), Fortune, Time Inc., September 27, 2016, April 23, 2017,,WEB, Ingrid, Lunden, Katie, Roof, Matthew, Lynley, Ron, Miller, Salesforce, Google, Microsoft, Verizon are all eyeing up a Twitter bid,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, September 23, 2016, April 23, 2017, Verizon, and The Walt Disney Company.WEB, Alex, Sherman, Sarah, Frier, Disney Is Working With an Adviser on Potential Twitter Bid,weblink Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg L.P., September 26, 2016, April 23, 2017, WEB, Katie, Roof, Matthew, Panzarino, Yep, Disney is in talks with bankers about possible Twitter acquisition,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, September 26, 2016, April 23, 2017, Twitter's board of directors were open to a deal, which could have come by the end of 2016.NEWS, Twitter shares soar almost 20% on takeover talk,weblink September 23, 2016, April 23, 2017, BBC News, However, no deal was made, with reports in October stating that all the potential buyers dropped out partly due to concerns over abuse and harassment on the service.WEB, Alex, Sherman, Christopher, Palmeri, Sarah, Frier, Disney Dropped Twitter Pursuit Partly Over Image,weblink Bloomberg Technology, Bloomberg L.P., October 18, 2016, April 23, 2017, WEB, Rich, McCormick, Twitter's reputation for abuse is turning off potential suitors,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, October 19, 2016, April 23, 2017, WEB, Rob, Price, Twitter's abuse problem is reportedly part of the reason Disney chose not to buy it,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, October 18, 2016, April 23, 2017, In June 2017, Twitter revamped its dashboard to improve the new user experience.WEB, Howard, Anne, Twitter Gets a New Look. Does it get it Right?,weblink RPRN Newsmagazine, RPRN News, June 19, 2017, June 19, 2017, JOURNAL, Pierce, David, Twitter Redesigned Itself to Make the Tweet Supreme Again,weblink Wired, June 19, 2017, June 15, 2017,


As chief executive officer, Dorsey saw the startup through two rounds of capital funding by the venture capitalists who backed the company.NEWS, Miller, Claire Cain, Goel, Vindu, Twitter Sidelines One Founder and Promotes Another,weblink October 16, 2008, Bits (blog of The New York Times), February 5, 2011, On October 16, 2008,{{registration required|date=February 2011}} NEWS, Miller, Claire Cain, Popularity or Income? Two Sites Fight It Out,weblink October 20, 2008, The New York Times, November 5, 2008, Williams took over the role of CEO, and Dorsey became chairman of the board.WEB, Caroline, McCarthy, Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey Steps Down,weblink October 16, 2008, CNET, CBS Interactive, November 5, 2008, On October 4, 2010, Williams announced that he was stepping down as CEO. Dick Costolo, formerly Twitter's chief operating officer, became CEO. On October 4, 2010, Williams made an announcement saying that he will stay with the company and "be completely focused on product strategy".WEB, Staff writer,weblink #newtwitterceo, Blog of Twitter, October 4, 2010, February 5, 2011, Staff writer, WEB,weblink Twitter CEO Evan Williams Stepping Down, Mashable, October 4, 2010, According to The New York Times, "Mr. Dorsey and Mr. Costolo forged a close relationship" when Williams was away.NEWS, Miller, Claire Cain,weblink Two Twitter Founders Trade Places, March 28, 2011, The New York Times, March 28, 2011, According to PC Magazine, Williams was "no longer involved in the day-to-day goings on at the company". He was focused on developing a new startup, and became a member of Twitter's board of directors, and promised to "help in any way I can". In 2011, Stone was still with Twitter but was working with AOL as an "advisor on volunteer efforts and philanthropy".NEWS, Albanesius, Chloe, Twitter's Evan Williams Confirms Departure,weblink March 29, 2011, PC Magazine, Ziff Davis, March 29, 2011, In January 2014 Stone announced the release of Jelly, a 'social Q&A network for mobile'.WEB, Newton, Casey, Twitter Founder Biz Stone Launches Jelly, A Social Q&A Network for Mobile,weblink September 12, 2014, The Verge, January 7, 2014, Dorsey rejoined Twitter in March 2011, as executive chairman focusing on product development. At that time he split his schedule with Square (where he is CEO), whose offices are within walking distance of Twitter's in San Francisco.In September 2011, board members and investors Fred Wilson and Bijan Sabet resigned from Twitter's board of directors.WEB,weblink Twitter Shakes Things Up Again: Fred Wilson, Bijan Sabet Leaving Board – Peter Kafka – Social, AllThingsD, September 16, 2011, November 14, 2011, In October 2012, Twitter announced it had hired former Google executive Matt Derella to become their new director of business agency development.Olanoff, Drew. "Twitter Poaches Former Google Exec Matt Derella As New Director Of Agency Business Development". October 23, 2012. Retrieved October 24, 2012. Twitter named former Goldman Sachs executive Anthony Noto as the company's CFO in July 2014, with an "annual salary of $250,000 and one-time restricted stock options of 1.5 million shares ... valued at $61.5 million".Reuters. "Twitter replaces CFO with former Goldman manager". July 1, 2014. Retrieved June 15, 2015. On June 10, 2015, Twitter announced its CEO Dick Costolo would resign on July 1, 2015.NEWS,weblink Twitter's Embattled Chief Executive, Costolo, Will Resign, June 11, 2015, VINDU, GOEL, New York Times, June 11, 2015, Noto was said to be considered a potential replacement for outgoing CEO Costolo.Koh, Yoree, "Twitter CFO's Ascent Creates New Power Center" (please edit this parenthetical note to "subscribers only" if link does not work for non-subscribers), Wall Street Journal, June 15, 2015. Retrieved June 15, 2015. On October 14, 2015, former Google chief business officer Omid Kordestani became executive chairman, replacing Dorsey who remains CEO.NEWS,weblink Twitter Taps Former Google Officer as Executive Chairman, Koh, Yoree, October 14, 2015, The Wall Street Journal, October 17, 2015, On January 26, 2016, Leslie Berland, former executive vice president of global advertising, marketing, and digital partnerships at American Express, was named chief marketing officer.WEB, Kosoff, Maya, Twitter just named its new CMO,weblink Business Insider, Business Insider, January 29, 2016, In November 2016, COO Adam Bain announced his resignation and CFO Anthony Noto took over Bain's role.WEB,weblink Twitter COO Adam Bain to Leave the Company, FORTUNE, Fortune, December 21, 2016, NEWS,weblink Twitter's Chief Operating Officer to Step Down, Isaac, Mike, November 9, 2016, The New York Times, 0362-4331, December 21, 2016, A month later, on December 20, 2016, CTO Adam Messinger announced that he too was leaving.WEB,weblink Twitter's CTO Adam Messinger is leaving the company along with VP of product Josh McFarland, Lynley, Matthew, TechCrunch, December 21, 2016, NEWS,weblink Twitter's Chief Technology Officer to Leave Company, Isaac, Mike, December 20, 2016, The New York Times, 0362-4331, December 21, 2016,

Appearance and features


(File:Twitter 2010 logo - from Commons.svg|thumb|The Twitter logo from September 14, 2010 – June 5, 2012, featuring the silhouette version of "Larry the Bird")Twitter has become internationally identifiable by its signature bird logo, or the Twitter Bird. The original logo, which was simply the word "Twitter", was in use from its launch in March 2006. It was accompanied by an image of a bird which was later discovered to be a piece of clip art created by the British graphic designer Simon Oxley.NEWS,weblink Who Made That Twitter Bird?, The New York Times, Melanie, Rehak, August 8, 2014, April 2, 2018, A new logo had to be redesigned by founder Biz Stone with help from designer Philip Pascuzzo, which resulted in a more cartoon-like bird in 2009. This version had been dubbed "Larry the Bird" specifically named after Larry Bird of the NBA's Boston Celtics fame.NEWS,weblink Twitter's Logo Is Named After Larry Bird, Yahoo!Sports, Eric, Freeman, August 2011, March 1, 2012, Within a year, the Larry the Bird logo underwent a redesign by Stone and Pascuzzo to eliminate the cartoon features, leaving a solid silhouette of Larry the Bird that was used from 2010 through 2012.WEB,weblink Who Made That Twitter Bird?, Melanie, Rehak, August 8, 2014, July 31, 2019, The New York Times, In 2012, Douglas Bowman created a further simplified version of Larry the Bird, keeping the solid silhouette but making it more similar to a mountain bluebird.NEWS,weblink No flipping the bird! Twitter unveils strict usage guidelines for new logo, The Guardian, Josh, Halliday, June 7, 2012, October 11, 2014, This new logo was called simply the "Twitter Bird," and has been used as the company's branding since.NEWS,weblink Twitter's bird logo gets a makeover, Brandon, Griggs, CNN, June 7, 2012, June 7, 2012,


On May 30, 2014, Twitter announced, "Starting today, we're rolling out a new font on, moving from Helvetica Neue to Gotham".WEB, Tweet from @support (now @TwitterSupport),weblink Twitter, July 12, 2018, May 30, 2014,


(File:Twitter wikipedia.png|thumb|right|The Twitter account page for Wikipedia, demonstrating the account-customized timeline view which shows tweets in reverse chronological order)Tweets are publicly visible by default, but senders can restrict message delivery to only their followers. Users can tweet via the Twitter website, compatible external applications (such as for smartphones), or by Short Message Service (SMS) available in certain countries.WEB,weblink Using Twitter with Your Phone, We currently support 2-way (sending and receiving) Twitter SMS via short codes and one-way (sending only) via long codes., Twitter Support, June 1, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 15, 2010, Users may subscribe to other users' tweets—this is known as "following" and subscribers are known as "followers"WEB, Stone, Biz,weblink There's a List for That,, October 30, 2009, February 1, 2010, or "tweeps", a portmanteau of Twitter and peeps.NEWS, Brown, Amanda, The tricky business of business tweeting, March 2, 2011,weblink The Irish Times, April 28, 2011, Individual tweets can be forwarded by other users to their own feed, a process known as a "retweet". Users can also "like" (formerly "favorite") individual tweets.NEWS, Twitter officially kills off favorites and replaces them with likes,weblink November 4, 2015, The Verge, Vox Media, Twitter allows users to update their profile via their mobile phone either by text messaging or by apps released for certain smartphones and tablets.WEB,weblink Download the free Twitter app | Twitter,, July 30, 2019, Twitter has been compared to a web-based Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client.WEB, Stutzman, Fred, The 12-Minute Definitive Guide to Twitter,weblink April 11, 2007, AOL Developer Network, November 12, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 4, 2008, In a 2009 Time magazine essay, technology author Steven Johnson described the basic mechanics of Twitter as "remarkably simple":}}According to research published in April 2014, around 44% of user accounts have never tweeted.NEWS,weblink 44 Percent of Twitter Accounts Have Never Tweeted, Murphy, David, April 13, 2014, PC Magazine, The first tweet was posted by Jack Dorsey (creator) at 12:50 PM PST on March 21, 2006 and read "just setting up my twttr".TWEET, jack, 20, March 21, 2006, just setting up my twttr, In 2009, the first tweet was sent from space. US astronauts Nicola Stott and Jeff Williams took part in a live 'tweetup' from the International Space Station with around 35 members of the public at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC, USA.BOOK, Guinness World Records 2011, Glenday, Craig, 2010, 9781904994572,


(File:Content of Tweets.svg|thumb|Content of tweets according to Pear Analytics{{legend|#093|News (3.6%)}}{{legend|#90c|Spam (3.8%)}}{{legend|#f90|Self-promotion (5.9%)}}{{legend|#933|Pointless babble (40.1%)}}{{legend|#1e1edc|Conversational (37.6%)}}{{legend|#660|Pass-along value (8.7%)}})San Antonio-based market-research firm Pear Analytics analyzed 2,000 tweets (originating from the United States and in English) over a two-week period in August 2009 from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm (CST) and separated them into six categories.BOOK, Twitter Study – August 2009, Twitter Study Reveals Interesting Results About Usage, Ryan Kelly, Pear Analytics, San Antonio, Texas, August 12, 2009,weblink" title="">weblinkweblink July 15, 2011, dead, Pointless babble made up 40%, with 38% being conversational. Pass-along value had 9%, self-promotion 6% with spam and news each making 4%.Despite Jack Dorsey's own open contention that a message on Twitter is "a short burst of inconsequential information", social networking researcher danah boyd responded to the Pear Analytics survey by arguing that what the Pear researchers labelled "pointless babble" is better characterized as "social grooming" and/or "peripheral awareness" (which she justifies as persons "want[ing] to know what the people around them are thinking and doing and feeling, even when co-presence isn't viable").WEB, danah, boyd, danah boyd, Twitter: "pointless babble" or peripheral awareness + social grooming?, August 16, 2009,weblink September 19, 2009, Similarly, a survey of Twitter users found that a more specific social role of passing along messages that include a hyperlink is an expectation of reciprocal linking by followers.JOURNAL, Avery Holton, Kang Baek, Mark Coddington, Yaschur, Carolyn, Seeking and Sharing: Motivations for Linking on Twitter, Communication Research Reports, 2014, 31, 1, 33–40, 10.1080/08824096.2013.843165,


Hashtags, retweets and usernames

{{Redirect2|Retweet|Twitter hashtag|more about hashtags|Hashtag}}{{Further|Mention (blogging)#@ (At sign)}}Users can group posts together by topic or type by use of hashtags – words or phrases prefixed with a “#” sign. Similarly, the “@” sign followed by a username is used for mentioning or replying to other users.NEWS,weblink Twitter: How To Set Up Your Account, The Daily Telegraph, Donald, Strachan, February 19, 2009, February 13, 2011, London, To repost a message from another Twitter user and share it with one's own followers, a user can click the retweet button within the Tweet.

Twitter Lists

In late 2009, the "Twitter Lists" feature was added, making it possible for users to follow ad hoc lists of authors instead of individual authors.WEB, Staff writer,weblink Twitter Lists!, Support forum at, n.d., February 13, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 22, 2009, Staff writer,

Using SMS

Through SMS, users can communicate with Twitter through five gateway numbers: short codes for the United States, Canada, India, New Zealand, and an Isle of Man-based number for international use. There is also a short code in the United Kingdom which is only accessible to those on the Vodafone, O2NEWS,weblink Twitter Brings Back UK SMS; Vodafone First, Others To Follow, The Guardian, March 27, 2009, Robert, Andrews, June 7, 2009, London, and OrangeWEB,weblink,, November 16, 2009, March 28, 2010, networks. In India, since Twitter only supports tweets from Bharti Airtel,NEWS,weblink Twitter, Bharti Airtel Tie-Up To Activate Twitter SMS Service in India, Kutty, Darpana, October 15, 2009,, February 23, 2011, an alternative platform called smsTweetWEB,weblink SMStweet :: Send Twitter Message sing SMS in India, April 3, 2010, India, was set up by a user to work on all networks.NEWS,weblink Tweeting Via SMS Is In, the Way It Should Be, Balanarayan, N.T., December 17, 2009, Daily News and Analysis, February 23, 2011, A similar platform called GladlyCast exists for mobile phone users in Singapore and Malaysia.WEB,weblink Update Twitter or Plurk by sending an SMS to a Singapore or Malaysia local number, April 3, 2010, Singapore, The tweets were set to a largely constrictive 140-character limit for compatibility with SMS messaging, introducing the shorthand notation and slang commonly used in SMS messages. The 140-character limit also increased the usage of URL shortening services such as,,,, and other content-hosting services such as TwitPic, and NotePub to accommodate multimedia content and text longer than 140 characters. Since June 2011, Twitter has used its own domain for automatic shortening of all URLs posted on its site, making other link shorteners unnecessary for staying within Twitter's 140 character limit.WEB, Staff writer, n.d.,weblink About Twitter's Link Service, Twitter Help Center (module of Twitter), February 23, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 25, 2011, Staff writer,

Media character limits

In 2016, Twitter announced that media such as photos, videos, and the person's handle, would not count against the already constrictive 140 character limit. A user photo post used to count for a large chunk of a Tweet, about 24 characters.NEWS,weblink Coming soon to Twitter: More room to tweet, Associated Press, May 24, 2016, May 24, 2016, Attachments and links would also no longer be part of the character limit.WEB,weblink Twitter eases 140 character limit, Lever, Rob, May 24, 2016, Yahoo Tech, May 25, 2016,

Twitter handle character limits

Since March 30, 2017, the Twitter handles are outside the tweet itself, therefore they no longer count towards the character limit.TheVerge articlefrom 2017-03-30: Mentioning overhaul of Twitter's reply system: No longer counts towards former 140-character limitation.Only new Twitter handles added to the conversation count towards the limit.

Character limit doubled to 280

In 2017, Twitter doubled their historical 140-character-limitation to 280.WEB,weblink Giving you more characters to express yourself, September 27, 2017, Under the new limit, glyphs are counted as a variable number of characters, depending upon the script they are from: most European letters and punctuation forms count as one character, while each CJK glyph counts as two, so that only 140 such glyphs can be used in a tweet.

Image captions

On Tuesday, 2016-03-29, Twitter introduced a feature to improve accessibility for visually impaired people:Twitter Blog article: “Accessible images for everyone!” A caption with the length of up to 420 charactersTwitter Help center: Picture Descriptions - How to make images accessible for people can be added to each image optionally.This caption can be accessed by screen reading software or by hovering the mouse above a picture inside TweetDeck.

Trending topics

(File:Twitter TT.PNG|thumb|Countries and cities with local trending topics in Twitter)A word, phrase, or topic that is mentioned at a greater rate than others is said to be a "trending topic". Trending topics become popular either through a concerted effort by users or because of an event that prompts people to talk about a specific topic.WEB, Bloggers back media against youth league, April 3, 2010,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 18, 2011, These topics help Twitter and their users to understand what is happening in the world and what people's opinions are about it.WEB, Top Twitter Trends of 2009, April 3, 2010,weblink Trending topics are sometimes the result of concerted efforts and manipulations by preteen and teenaged fans of certain celebrities or cultural phenomena, particularly musicians like Lady Gaga (known as Little Monsters), Justin Bieber (Beliebers), Rihanna (Rih Navy) and One Direction (Directioners), and novel series Twilight (Twihards) and Harry Potter (Potterheads). Twitter has altered the trend algorithm in the past to prevent manipulation of this type with limited success.WEB, Vicky Woollaston,weblink Justin Bieber fans beat Twitter 'block' | Web User magazine,, January 20, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 22, 2012, The Twitter web interface displays a list of trending topics on a sidebar on the home page, along with sponsored content (see image).Twitter often censors trending hashtags that are claimed to be abusive or offensive. Twitter censored the #ThatsafricanNEWS, #Thatsafrican – When Twitter Went Racist?, April 3, 2010,weblink Huffington Post, David, Weiner, June 21, 2009, and #thingsdarkiessay hashtags after users complained that they found the hashtags offensive.WEB, Thingsdarkiessay causes a Twitter storm, January 11, 2012,weblink Independent Online (South Africa), Independent Online, South Africa, November 5, 2009, There are allegations that Twitter removed #NaMOinHyd from the trending list and added an Indian National Congress-sponsored hashtag.NEWS, Role of Twitter in trending wars, August 14, 2013,weblink NITI Central, Kanchan, Gupta, August 13, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 16, 2013, mdy-all,


In October 2015, Twitter introduced "Moments"—a feature that allows users to curate tweets from other users into a larger collection. Twitter initially intended the feature to be used by its in-house editorial team and other partners; they populated a dedicated tab in Twitter's apps, chronicling news headlines, sporting events, and other content.NEWS,weblink Meet Moments, Twitter's Most Important New Feature Ever, Pierce, David, 2015-10-06, Wired, 2019-07-17, 1059-1028, WEB,weblink Twitter launches Moments, its dead-simple tab for browsing the best tweets, Newton, Casey, 2015-10-06, The Verge, en-US, 2019-07-17, In September 2016, creation of moments became available to all Twitter users.WEB,weblink Twitter opens its Moments feature up to everyone, Kastrenakes, Jacob, 2016-09-28, The Verge, 2019-07-17,

Adding and following content

There are numerous tools for adding content, monitoring content and conversations including Twitter's own TweetDeck,, HootSuite, and {{As of|2009}}, fewer than half of tweets posted were posted using the web user interface with most users using third-party applications (based on an analysis of 500 million tweets by Sysomos).WEB,weblink Inside Twitter Clients – An Analysis of 500 Million Tweets, Sysomos, November 2009, August 23, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 1, 2010, mdy-all,

Verified accounts

(File:Twitter verified account.png|thumb|right|The official Twitter profile of Twitter, Inc. The blue check mark right of the profile name indicates that it is a verified account.)In June 2009, after being criticized by Kanye West and sued by Tony La Russa over unauthorized accounts run by impersonators, Twitter launched their 'Verified Accounts' program.WEB,weblink Not Playing Ball, Biz, Stone, June 6, 2009, Twitter, NEWS, Kanalley, Craig, Why Twitter Verifies Users: The History Behind the Blue Checkmark,weblink June 9, 2014, Huffington Post, March 12, 2013, Twitter stated that an account with a verification badge indicates "we've been in contact with the person or entity the account is representing and verified that it is approved."WEB, Cashmore, Pete, Twitter Launches Verified Accounts,weblink June 11, 2009, June 9, 2014, After the beta period, Twitter stated in their FAQ that the company "proactively verifies accounts on an ongoing basis to make it easier for users to find who they’re looking for" and that they "do not accept requests for verification from the general public."WEB,weblink FAQs about verified accounts, bot: unknown,weblink July 19, 2016, In July 2016, Twitter announced a public application process to grant verified status to an account "if it is determined to be of public interest" and that verification "does not imply an endorsement."WEB,weblink About verified accounts, bot: unknown,weblink July 20, 2016, WEB,weblink Announcing an Application Process for Verified Accounts, July 19, 2016, Twitter, MAGAZINE,weblink Twitter opens verification to all, Matt, Burgess, Wired, July 20, 2016, September 16, 2016, As of November 2017, Twitter continued to deny verification of Julian Assange despite his requests.MAGAZINE, Twitter's Authentication Policy Is a Verified Mess,weblink November 10, 2017, Nitasha, Tiku, Wired, In November 2017, the company suspended the verification process and announced plans to refine it in response to backlash after white nationalist Jason Kessler had his account verified on Twitter.WEB,weblink Twitter suspends blue check mark verifications, Jill, Dises, CNN Tech, November 9, 2017, November 10, 2017, TWEET, TwitterSupport, 928654369771356162, Verification was meant to authenticate identity & voice but it is interpreted as an endorsement or an indicator of importance. We recognize that we have created this confusion and need to resolve it. We have paused all general verifications while we work and will report back soon, November 9, 2017, TWEET, jack, 928658511311097856, We should’ve communicated faster on this (yesterday): our agents have been following our verification policy correctly, but we realized some time ago the system is broken and needs to be reconsidered. And we failed by not doing anything about it. Working now to fix faster., November 9, 2017, Verified status allows access to some features unavailable to other users, such as only seeing mentions from other verified accounts.WEB, Wagner, Kurt, Twitter Unveils Exclusive Feature For Verified Users,weblink September 12, 2013, June 9, 2014, In a March 8, 2018 live-stream on Twitter's Periscope, Dorsey discussed the idea of allowing any user to get a verified account. “The intention is to open verification to everyone, and to do it in a way that is scalable where [Twitter is] not in the way,” Dorsey said. “And people can verify more facts about themselves, and we don’t have to be the judge or imply any bias on our part.”NEWS,weblink Twitter CEO Wants to Open Up Verified Accounts to Everyone, Spangler, Todd, March 9, 2018, Variety, March 9, 2018, en-US, {{anchor|lite}} {{anchor|Twitter Lite}}


File:Twitter Mobile.PNG|right|thumb|The (Mobile Web|mobile]] version of has mobile apps for iPhone, iPad, Android, Windows 10, Windows Phone, BlackBerry, and Nokia S40.WEB, Twitter apps for phones, tablets and computers.,weblink Twitter, April 6, 2017, dead,weblink April 2, 2017, Users can also tweet by sending SMS.WEB, Tweeting via text message,weblink Twitter Help Center, Twitter, April 6, 2017, In April 2017, Twitter introduced Twitter Lite, a progressive web app designed for regions with unreliable and slow Internet connections, with a size of less than one megabyte, designed for devices with limited storage capacity.WEB, Sam, Byford, Twitter Lite is a faster, leaner mobile web version of Twitter,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, April 6, 2017, April 6, 2017, WEB, Jon, Russell, Twitter launches a 'lite' mobile web app that's optimized for emerging markets,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, April 6, 2016, April 6, 2017, This has been released in countries with slow internet connection such as the Philippines.WEB, Twitter officially unveils lite version for PH users,weblink June 14, 2017, June 16, 2017, Twitter Lite has evolved into the main Twitter web interface, see section “interface”.

Third-party applications

For many years, Twitter has limited the use of third-party applications accessing the service by implementing a 100,000 user limit per application.WEB, Wauters, Robin,weblink Twitter API Changes Set Maximum User Cap for 3rd Parties,, August 17, 2012, May 9, 2013, Since August 2010, third-party Twitter applications have been required to use OAuth, an authentication method that does not require users to enter their password into the authenticating application. This was done to increase security and improve the user experience.WEB,weblink Twitter Applications and OAuth, Twitter, August 30, 2010, September 13, 2010,

Related headlines feature

This feature adds websites to the bottom of a tweet's permalink page. If a website embedded a tweet onto one of their stories, the tweet will show the websites that mentioned the tweet. This feature was added onto Twitter so if the viewer doesn't understand what the tweet means, they can click on the sites to read more about what the person is talking about.NEWS, Mlot, Stephanie, Twitter Adds 'Related Headlines' to Embedded Tweets,weblink June 9, 2014, PC Magazine,


In 2015, Twitter began to roll out the ability to attach poll questions to tweets. Polls are open for up to 7 days, and voters are not personally identified.JOURNAL, Your Twitter Feed Is About to Be Flooded With Polls,weblink Wired, October 23, 2015, October 21, 2015, Initially, polls could have only two options with a maximum of twenty characters per option. Later{{When|date=August 2019}}, the ability to add four options with up to 25 characters per option, was added.

Streaming video

In 2016, Twitter began to place a larger focus on live streaming video programming, hosting various events including streams of the Republican and Democratic conventions during the U.S. presidential campaign as part of a partnership with CBS News,WEB, Twitter and CBS News to partner for live stream of Republican and Democratic National Conventions,weblink, CBS News, July 11, 2016, Dreamhack and ESL eSports events, and winning a bid for non-exclusive streaming rights to ten NFL Thursday Night Football games in the 2016 season.WEB, Brodkin, Jon, Twitter buys NFL streaming rights for 10 Thursday Night Football games,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, April 5, 2016, April 5, 2016, During an event in New York in May 2017, Twitter announced that it planned to construct a 24-hour streaming video channel hosted within the service, featuring content from various partners.WEB, Twitter plans to broadcast live video 24 hours a day,weblink The Verge, May 12, 2017, April 26, 2017, WEB, Twitter still thinks it's a TV platform — and here are its dozen new shows,weblink Re/code, Vox Media, May 12, 2017, May 2, 2017, CEO Jack Dorsey stated that the digital video strategy was part of a goal for Twitter to be "the first place that anyone hears of anything going on that matters to them"; as of the first quarter of 2017, Twitter had over 200 content partners, who streamed over 800 hours of video over 450 events.Twitter announced a number of new and expanded partnerships for its streaming video services at the event, including Bloomberg, BuzzFeed, Cheddar (Opening Bell and Closing Bell shows; the latter was introduced in October 2016) IMG Fashion (coverage of fashion events), Live Nation Entertainment (streaming concert events), Major League Baseball (weekly online game stream, plus a weekly program with live look-ins and coverage of trending stories), MTV and BET (red carpet coverage for their MTV Video Music Awards, MTV Movie & TV Awards, and BET Awards), NFL Network (the Monday-Thursday news program NFL Blitz Live, and Sunday Fantasy Gameday),NEWS,weblink NFL Sets Kickoff of Twitter Live Show for 2017-18 Season, Spangler, Todd, August 29, 2017, Variety, August 30, 2017, en-US, WEB, Twitter signed a new live video deal with the NFL that doesn't include games,weblink The Verge, May 12, 2017, May 11, 2017, the PGA Tour (PGA Tour Live coverage of early tournament rounds preceding television coverage),WEB, PGA Tour, Twitter Ink Live-Streaming Deal for Coverage of Thursday, Friday Rounds,weblink, May 12, 2017, January 5, 2017, The Players' Tribune, Ben Silverman and Howard T. Owens' Propagate (daily entertainment show #WhatsHappening), The Verge (weekly technology show Circuit Breaker: The Verge’s Gadget Show), Stadium (a new digital sports network being formed by Silver Chalice and Sinclair Broadcast Group)WEB, Sinclair Partners to Revamp, Relaunch Sports Network,weblink Broadcasting and Cable, April 15, 2017, WEB, American Sports Network, Campus Insiders, and 120 Sports Announce Mega-Merger Deal,weblink Underdog Dynasty (SBNation), Vox Media, April 15, 2017, April 13, 2017, WEB, Is Twitter the new home for Southern Miss football?,weblink Sun Herald, May 12, 2017, and the WNBA (weekly game).WEB, Twitter Pushes Live-Video Deals With MLB, NFL, Viacom, BuzzFeed, Live Nation, WNBA and More,weblink Variety, May 12, 2017, May 2017, {{anchor|archival}}{{anchor|archives}}

Account archival

Twitter has offered {{cl-span|two different methods|date=October 2019}} of archiving one's own Twitter account data. Those methods have their individual benefits and disadvantages. Since August 2019, only the latter archival method is available.{{cn|date=October 2019}}

Browsable legacy Twitter archive format

In December 2012, Twitter introduced a “Tweet archival” feature, article “Your Twitter archive” which created a ZIP file that contains an offline-browsable archive of all tweets.Those exported tweets could be browsed and searched offline by using the bundled user-interface accessible through an Internet browser, which used client-side, JavaScript-powered pagination2012 SearchEngineLand article on browsing tweets offline..The user interface of the tweet archive browser had a design similar to Twitter's 2010–2014 desktop user interface, even until the feature's removal.The tweet text contents, ID's, time data and source labels are located in the file called “tweets.csv”.The ability to export this type of tweet archive, which never existed on the new layout, has been removed entirely in August 2019[when exactly?], after co-existing with the new 2018 data archival method.Even when accessing the legacy Twitter desktop website layout using the user-agent of an older browser version, the option has disappeared from the account settings.It was possible to request at least 1 archive per day{{please verify|date=September 2019}}.

New machine-readable archive format

Due to the legal GDPR §20 obligation (effective since May 2018) to provide data portability, social media services had to introduce advanced data export capabilities and utilities.The original browsable tweet archives did lack a lot of metadata, especially about the account itself, which the new machine-readable archival feature does contain:
  • Account ID and creation date
  • Direct messages
  • List of:
    • Following users + count
    • Followed users + count
    • Blocked user IDs
    • Muted user IDs
    • Liked tweets
  • Twtter Moments
  • Information about Periscope account
  • Saved searches
  • Screen name changes
  • Associated mobile phone number
  • Various account settings
  • Users in created Twitter Lists
  • Member of which Twitter Lists
  • Advanced tweet metadata (e.g. tweet source tag)
  • More…
The tweet contents are located in the file called “tweet.js”.However, this new archival format contains all uploaded multimedia in the highest resolution, which makes its file size usually multiple times as large.Additionally, the integrated tweet browser from the legacy archival feature is not bundled.Another disadvantage is that one can only generate one of these archives per 30 days.After obtaining this archive, one has to wait 30 days until requesting the next archive is possible. During that timespan, the previous archive remains downloadable from the account settings.This feature co-existed with the original browsable tweet archival feature since early 2018, until the latter was removed in August 2019.


In mid-September 2019, Twitter was ranked the 32nd most visited website globally by Alexa's web traffic analysis, down from twelfth in March 2018.WEB,weblink, March 23, 2018, Alexa Internet, March 23, 2018, Alexa topsites. Retrieved September 15, 2019.weblink user estimates vary as the company does not publish statistics on active accounts. A February 2009 blog entry ranked Twitter as the third most used social network based on their count of 6 million unique monthly visitors and 55 million monthly visits.NEWS, Kazeniac, Andy, Social Networks: Facebook Takes Over Top Spot, Twitter Climbs,weblink February 9, 2009,, February 17, 2009, In 2009, Twitter had a monthly user retention rate of forty percent.NEWS,weblink Twitter Quitters Outnumber Those Who Stay, Report Finds, Hoffman, Stefanie, April 29, 2009, April 29, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink January 11, 2012, dead, United Business Media, Twitter had annual growth of 1,382 percent, increasing from 475,000 unique visitors in February 2008 to 7 million in February 2009. Twitter's annual growth rate decreased from 7.8 percent in 2015 to 3.4 percent in 2017.NEWS, McGiboney, Michelle, Twitter's Tweet Smell of Success,weblink Nielsen, March 18, 2009, April 5, 2009, An April 2017 a blog entry ranked Twitter as the tenth most used social network based on their count of 319 million monthly visitors.WEB, Global Social Networks Ranked by Number of Users,weblink Statista, June 18, 2017, Its global user base in 2017 was 328 million.NEWS,weblink Twitter is now losing users in the U.S., Fiegerman, Seth, CNNMoney, March 23, 2018, As per August 2018, Twitter light (data saving app) is available in 45 countries.NEWS,weblink Twitter Lite expands to 21 more countries, adds push notifications, TechCrunch, August 16, 2018, en-US,


{{update section|date=September 2019}}{{see also|Black Twitter}}{{bar box|width=300pxPUBLISHER=BILL HARTZER ACCESS-DATE=MAY 22, 2011, HTTP://WWW.COMSCOREDATAMINE.COM/2011/02/THE-NETHERLANDS-LEADS-GLOBAL-MARKETS-IN-TWITTER-REACH/ >TITLE=THE NETHERLANDS LEAD GLOBAL MARKETS IN TWITTER.COM REACH DATE=FEBRUARY 10, 2011 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 15, 2011, |titlebar=#dddddddddd|left1=Country|right1=Percent|float=right|bars={{bar percent 2|Indonesia|June 2010|Red|20.8|December 2010|Red|19.0}}{{bar percent 2|Brazil|June 2010|Yellow|20.5|December 2010|Yellow|21.8}}{{bar percent 2|Venezuela|June 2010|Green|19.0|December 2010|Green|21.1}}{{bar percent 2|Netherlands|June 2010|Orange|17.7|December 2010|Orange|22.3}}{{bar percent 2|Japan|June 2010|Blue|16.8|December 2010|Blue|20.0}}|caption=Note: Visitor age 15+, home and work locations. Excludes visitation from public computers such as Internet cafes or access from mobile phones or PDAs.}}In 2009, Twitter was mainly used by older adults who might not have used other social sites before Twitter, said Jeremiah Owyang, an industry analyst studying social media. "Adults are just catching up to what teens have been doing for years," he said.NEWS, Claire Cain, Miller, Who's Driving Twitter's Popularity? Not Teens, August 25, 2009, The New York Times,weblink September 18, 2009, According to comScore only eleven percent of Twitter's users are aged twelve to seventeen. comScore attributed this to Twitter's "early adopter period" when the social network first gained popularity in business settings and news outlets attracting primarily older users. However, comScore also stated in 2009 that Twitter had begun to "filter more into the mainstream", and "along with it came a culture of celebrity as Shaq, Britney Spears and Ashton Kutcher joined the ranks of the Twitterati".NEWS, Andrew, Lipsman, What Ashton vs. CNN Foretold About the Changing Demographics of Twitter, September 2, 2009,weblink comScore, September 18, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 7, 2009, mdy-all, According to a study by Sysomos in June 2009, women make up a slightly larger Twitter demographic than men—fifty-three percent over forty-seven percent. It also stated that five percent of users accounted for seventy-five percent of all activity, and that New York City has more Twitter users than other cities.WEB, Cheng, Alex, Evans, Mark, Inside Twitter â€“ An In-Depth Look Inside the Twitter World, June 2009,weblink Sysomos, February 23, 2011, According to Quancast, twenty-seven million people in the US used Twitter as of September 3, 2009. Sixty-three percent of Twitter users are under thirty-five years old; sixty percent of Twitter users are Caucasian, but a higher than average (compared to other Internet properties) are African American/black (sixteen percent) and Hispanic (eleven percent); fifty-eight percent of Twitter users have a total household income of at least US$60,000.WEB, Bluff, Brian, Who Uses Twitter?, May 2010,weblink, September 22, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 31, 2010, The prevalence of African American Twitter usage and in many popular hashtags has been the subject of research studies.WEB, Adrian, Chen, Why So Many Black People Are On Twitter,weblink Gawker, Univision Communications, May 17, 2011, May 5, 2017, WEB, Nick, Saint, Why Is Twitter More Popular With Black People Than White People?,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, April 30, 2010, May 5, 2017, On September 7, 2011, Twitter announced that it had 100 million active users logging in at least once a month and 50 million active users every day.WEB, September 8, 2011, Taylor, Chris,weblink Twitter has 100 million active users, In an article published on January 6, 2012, Twitter was confirmed to be the biggest social media network in Japan, with Facebook following closely in second. comScore confirmed this, stating that Japan was the only country in the world where Twitter leads Facebook.Yarrow, Jay, "There's Only One Place In The World Where Twitter Is Bigger Than Facebook", Business Insider, January 6, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012.On March 31, 2014, Twitter announced there were 255 million monthly active users (MAUs) and 198 million mobile MAUs.WEB, Twitter Reports First Quarter 2014 Results,weblink June 9, 2014,weblink June 9, 2014, dead, In 2013, there were over 100 million users actively using Twitter daily and about 500 million Tweets every day,WEB, Twitter, Inc Common Stock,weblink June 9, 2014, with about 29% of users checking Twitter multiple times a day.WEB, Duggan, Maeve, Social Media Update 2013,weblink June 9, 2014, December 30, 2013, In 2012, the country with the most active users on Twitter was the United States.WEB,weblink Twitter reaches half a billion accounts – More than 140 millions in the U.S., Semiocast, October 7, 2014, A 2016 Pew research poll found that Twitter is used by 24% of all online US adults. It was equally popular with men and women (24% and 25% of online Americans respectively), but more popular with younger (36% of 18-29 year olds) generations.NEWS,weblink Social Media Update 2016, November 11, 2016, Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech, March 23, 2018, en-US,


For the fiscal year 2017, Twitter reported losses of US$108 million, with an annual revenue of $2.443 billion, a decrease of 3.9% over the previous fiscal cycle. Twitter's shares traded at over $17 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at over US$25.6 billion in October 2018.{| class="wikitable float-left" style="text-align: right;"!Year!Revenuein mil. US$!Net incomein mil. US$!Total assetsin mil. US$!EmployeesLAST=DATE=ARCHIVE-URL=URL-STATUS=, |28|−67|0||2011|106|−164|721||2012|317|−79|832||2013|665|−645|3,366|2,712LAST=DATE=ARCHIVE-URL=URL-STATUS=, |1,403|−578|5,583|3,638LAST=DATE=ARCHIVE-URL=URL-STATUS=, |2,218|−521|6,442|3,898LAST=DATE=ARCHIVE-URL=URL-STATUS=, |2,530|−457|6,870|3,583LAST=DATE=ARCHIVE-URL=URL-STATUS=, |2,443|−108|7,412|3,372LAST=DATE=URL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVE-DATE=, |3,042|1,206|10,163|3,900


(File:Twitter Headquarters.jpg|thumb|Twitter's San Francisco headquarters located at 1355 Market Street)Twitter raised over US$57 million from venture capitalist growth funding, although exact figures are not publicly disclosed. Twitter's first A round of funding was for an undisclosed amount that is rumored to have been between US$1 million and US$5 million.WEB, Staff writer,weblink, Twitter Raises over $35M in Series C, MarketingVOX, February 16, 2009, February 23, 2011, dead,, August 7, 2011, Staff writer, Its second B round of funding in 2008 was for US$22 millionNEWS, Womack, Brian, Twitter Shuns Venture-Capital Money as Startup Values Plunge,, November 12, 2008, Bloomberg L.P., Bloomberg, February 23, 2011, and its third C round of funding in 2009 was for US$35 million from Institutional Venture Partners and Benchmark Capital along with an undisclosed amount from other investors including Union Square Ventures, Spark Capital, and Insight Venture Partners. Twitter is backed by Union Square Ventures, Digital Garage, Spark Capital, and Bezos Expeditions.NEWS, Miller, Claire Cain, Twitter Sidelines One Founder and Promotes Another,weblink October 16, 2008, Bits (blog of The New York Times), February 23, 2011, In May 2008, The Industry Standard remarked that Twitter's long-term viability is limited by a lack of revenue.WEB, February 23, 2011,weblink Twitter: Fanatical Users Help Build the Brand, But Not Revenue, The Industry Standard (via InfoWorld), March 31, 2008, Snyder, Bill, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 16, 2010, Twitter board member Todd Chaffee forecast that the company could profit from e-commerce, noting that users may want to buy items directly from Twitter since it already provides product recommendations and promotions.NEWS, Claire Cain, Miller, Twitter Plans To Offer Shopping Advice and Easy Purchasing, June 19, 2009,weblink Bits (blog of The New York Times), February 23, 2011, By March 2009 communications consultant Bill Douglass predicted in an interview that Twitter would be worth $1 billion within six months,NEWS, Will Twitter Be Google's Next YouTube?,weblink ECommerce Times, March 9, 2009, which came to pass when the company closed a financing round valuing it at $1 billion in September of that year.NEWS, Twitter's Latest Valuation: $1 Billion,weblink New York Times Bits blog, September 24, 2009, Brad, Stone, The company raised US$200 million in new venture capital in December 2010, at a valuation of approximately US$3.7 billion. In March 2011, 35,000 Twitter shares sold for US$34.50 each on Sharespost, an implied valuation of US$7.8 billion.NEWS, Carlson, Nicholas, Twitter Valued At $7.8 Billion In Private Market Auction,weblink March 4, 2011, Business Insider via San Francisco Chronicle, Hearst, March 26, 2011, In August 2010 Twitter announced a "significant" investment led by Digital Sky Technologies that, at US$800 million, was reported to be the largest venture round in history.NEWS, San Jose Mercury News,weblink Twitter lands $800 million venture capital deal, breaking record, Peter, Delevett, August 1, 2011, In December 2011, the Saudi prince Alwaleed bin Talal invested US$300 million in Twitter. The company was valued at US$8.4 billion at the time.NEWS, Scott, Mark, Saudi Prince Invests $300 Million in Twitter,weblink December 19, 2011, The New York Times, December 19, 2011, In 2016, Twitter was valued by Forbes at US$15.7 billion.NEWS,weblink In Any Acquisition, Here's How Much We Think Twitter Is Worth, Team, Trefis, Forbes, March 23, 2018, en,

Revenue sources

In July 2009, some of Twitter's revenue and user growth documents were published on TechCrunch after being illegally obtained by Hacker Croll. The documents projected 2009 revenues of US$400,000 in the third quarter and US$4 million in the fourth quarter along with 25 million users by the end of the year. The projections for the end of 2013 were US$1.54 billion in revenue, US$111 million in net earnings, and one billion users.NEWS, Staff writer, Hacker Exposes Private Twitter Documents, July 15, 2009,weblink Bits (blog of The New York Times), February 23, 2011, Staff writer, No information about how Twitter planned to achieve those numbers was published. In response, Twitter co-founder Biz Stone published a blog post suggesting the possibility of legal action against the hacker.WEB, February 23, 2011,weblink Twitter, Even More Open Than We Wanted, Twitter Blog (blog of Twitter), July 15, 2007, Stone, Biz, Biz Stone, On April 13, 2010, Twitter announced plans to offer paid advertising for companies that would be able to purchase "promoted tweets" to appear in selective search results on the Twitter website, similar to Google Adwords' advertising model. As of April 13, Twitter announced it had already signed up a number of companies wishing to advertise, including Sony Pictures, Red Bull, Best Buy, and Starbucks.NEWS,weblink The Guardian, Twitter Unveils 'Promoted Tweets' Ad Plan â€“ Twitter To Let Advertisers Pay for Tweets To Appear in Search Results, Charles, Arthur, April 13, 2010, February 23, 2011, London, WEB, Sara, Kimberley,weblink Twitter Debuts 'Promoted Tweets' Ad Platform, MediaWeek (U.K. edition), April 13, 2010, February 5, 2011, The company generated US$45 million in annual revenue in 2010, after beginning sales midway through that year; the company operated at a loss through most of 2010.NEWS, February 23, 2011,weblink Twitter as Tech Bubble Barometer, The Wall Street Journal, February 10, 2011, Ante, Spencer E., Efrati, Amir, Das, Anupretta, Users' photos can generate royalty-free revenue for Twitter, and an agreement with World Entertainment News Network (WENN) was announced in May 2011.NEWS,weblink Photo agency's CEO addresses TwitPic controversy, British Journal of Photography, May 11, 2011, August 17, 2011, Laurent, Olivier, London, The deal will give WENN exclusive rights to sell images posted on the TwitPic service., dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 3, 2011, In June 2011, Twitter announced that it would offer small businesses a self-service advertising system.WEB, Todd Wasserman,weblink Twitter Will Automate Ad-Buying by the End of the Year,, June 9, 2011, November 14, 2011, Twitter generated US$139.5 million in advertising sales during 2011.The self-service advertising platform was launched in March 2012 to American Express card members and merchants in the U.S. on an invite-only basis. Twitter later reported that numerous small businesses and people who used the self-service tool provided feedback that indicated they were impressed by the feature.WEB, Zach Miners, Twitter opens self-service ads to everyone,weblink CMO, IDG Communications, August 18, 2014, April 30, 2013, To continue their advertising campaign, Twitter announced on March 20, 2012, that promoted tweets would be introduced to mobile devices."Twitter Rolls Out Promoted Tweets for Mobile"; Wasserman, Todd. March 20, 2012. In April 2013, Twitter announced that its Twitter Ads self-service platform, consisting of promoted tweets and promoted accounts, was available to all U.S. users without an invite.Twitter's financial revenue statistics for the first quarter of 2014 was reported as US$250 million.On August 3, 2016, Twitter launched Instant Unlock Card, a new feature that encourages people to tweet about a brand in order to earn rewards and utilize the social media network's conversational ads. The format itself consists of images or videos with call-to-action buttons and a customizable hashtag.MAGAZINE, Twitter Is Helping Brands Drive Conversations With Instant Unlock Cards,weblink Mary Swant, Adweek, August 4, 2016,



Twitter places great reliance on open-source software.NEWS, Vaughan-Nichols, Steven, How Twitter tweets your tweets with open source,weblink September 10, 2012, ZDNet, August 30, 2012, The Twitter Web interface uses the Ruby on Rails framework,NEWS,weblink The Pied Piper of Pay, Forbes, Lee, Gomes, June 22, 2009, June 16, 2009, deployed on a performance enhanced Ruby Enterprise Edition implementation of Ruby.WEB, ryan king, September 25, 2009, Twitter on Ruby,weblink We recently migrated Twitter from a custom Ruby 1.8.6 build to a Ruby Enterprise Edition release candidate, courtesy of Phusion. Our primary motivation was the integration of Brent's MBARI patches, which increase memory stability., October 31, 2009, In the early days of Twitter, tweets were stored in MySQL databases that were temporally sharded (large databases were split based on time of posting). After the huge volume of tweets coming in caused problems reading from and writing to these databases, the company decided that the system needed re-engineering.WEB,weblink New Tweets per second record, and how!, Raffi, Krikorian, August 13, 2013, August 21, 2013, From Spring 2007 to 2008, the messages were handled by a Ruby persistent queue server called Starling.WEB, January 11, 2009,weblink Announcing Starling, Twitter, January 16, 2008, Payne,weblink" title="">weblink January 20, 2008, Since 2009, implementation has been gradually replaced with software written in Scala.WEB,weblink Twitter on Scala, April 3, 2009, Bill, Venners, Artima Developer, June 17, 2009, The switch from Ruby to Scala and the JVM has given Twitter a performance boost from 200–300 requests per second per host to around 10,000–20,000 requests per second per host. This boost was greater than the 10x improvement that Twitter's engineers envisioned when starting the switch. The continued development of Twitter has also involved a switch from monolithic development of a single app to an architecture where different services are built independently and joined through remote procedure calls.As of April 6, 2011, Twitter engineers confirmed that they had switched away from their Ruby on Rails search stack to a Java server they call Blender.NEWS,weblink Twitter Search Is Now 3x Faster, April 6, 2011, Individual tweets are registered under unique IDs using software called snowflake, and geolocation data is added using 'Rockdove'. The URL shortner then checks for a spam link and shortens the URL. Next, the tweets are stored in a MySQL database using Gizzard, and the user receives acknowledgement that the tweets were sent. Tweets are then sent to search engines via the Firehose API. The process is managed by FlockDB and takes an average of {{nowrap|350 ms}}.On August 16, 2013, Raffi Krikorian, Twitter's vice president of platform engineering, shared in a blog post that the company's infrastructure handled almost 143,000 tweets per second during that week, setting a new record. Krikorian explained that Twitter achieved this record by blending its homegrown and open source technologies.WEB, How Twitter scaled its infrastructure to handle record tweet-per-second days,weblink GIGAOM, GIGAOM, August 17, 2013, Om Malik, August 17, 2013, The service's application programming interface (API) allows other web services and applications to integrate with Twitter.WEB,weblink Twitter API Wiki / FrontPage,, September 18, 2010,


Twitter introduced the first major redesign of its user interface in September 2010, adopting a dual-pane layout with a navigation bar along the top of the screen, and an increased focus on the inline embedding of multimedia content. Critics considered the redesign an attempt to emulate features and experiences found in mobile apps and third-party Twitter clients.WEB,weblink A Brief History Of Twitter's Many Redesigns,, en-US, 2019-07-17, NEWS,weblink Take a Tour of the New Twitter, Calore, Michael, 2010-09-16, Wired, 2019-07-17, 1059-1028, WEB,weblink Here Comes the New, Ostrow, Adam, Mashable, en, 2019-07-17, WEB,weblink The New Twitter Is an Attack on All Desktop Apps, Grove, Jennifer Van, Mashable, en, 2019-07-17, The new layout was revised in 2011 with a focus on continuity with the web and mobile versions, introducing "Connect" (interactions with other users such as replies) and "Discover" (further information regarding trending topics and news headlines) tabs, an updated profile design, and moving all content to the right pane (leaving the left pane dedicated to functions and the trending topics list).WEB,weblink Twitter app and website redesign: hands-on pictures and video, Houston, Thomas, 2011-12-08, The Verge, 2019-07-17, In March 2012, Twitter became available in Arabic, Farsi, Hebrew and Urdu, the first right-to-left language versions of the site. About 13,000 volunteers helped with translating the menu options.NEWS, Twitter Arabic, Farsi, Hebrew and Urdu version launch, March 7, 2012, March 7, 2012, BBC News,weblink In August 2012, beta support for Basque, Czech and Greek was added, making the site available in 33 different languages.NEWS, Twitter Now Available in Basque, Czech, Greek, August 6, 2012, August 7, 2012, PC Magazine,weblink In September 2012, a new layout for profiles was introduced, with larger "covers" that could be customized with a custom header image, and a display of the user's recent photos posted.NEWS,weblink Twitter redesign makes more of photos, O'Carroll, Lisa, 2012-09-18, The Guardian, 2019-07-17, en-GB, 0261-3077, The "Discover" tab was discontinued in April 2015,WEB,weblink Twitter is killing off its Discover tab, Popper, Ben, 2015-04-08, The Verge, 2019-07-17, and was succeeded on the mobile app by an "Explore" tab—which features trending topics and moments.WEB,weblink Twitter replaces the Moments tab with Explore, Newton, Casey, 2017-01-26, The Verge, 2019-07-17, In September 2018, Twitter began to migrate selected web users to its progressive web app (based on its Twitter Lite experience for mobile web), reducing the interface to two columns. Migrations to this iteration of Twitter increased in April 2019, with some users receiving it with a modified layout.WEB,weblink Twitter tests new desktop layouts, Musil, Steven, CNET, en, 2019-07-17, WEB,weblink Progressive Web Apps moving mainstream as Twitter makes its mobile site the main one, Bright, Peter, 2018-09-06, Ars Technica, en-us, 2019-07-17, In July 2019, Twitter officially released this redesign, with no further option to opt-out while logged in. It is designed to further-unify Twitter's user experience between the web and application versions, adopting a three-column layout with a sidebar containing links to common areas (including Explore), and features from the mobile version (such as multi-account support, and an opt-out for the "top tweets" mode on the timeline).WEB,weblink Twitter is changing to be more like mobile app, Gallagher, Sean, 2019-07-15, Ars Technica, en-us, 2019-07-17, WEB,weblink Twitter desktop redesign adopts some of its mobile app's best features, Lee, Dami, 2019-07-15, The Verge, 2019-07-17,


File:Failwhale.png|thumb|right|The Twitter fail whale error messageerror messageDuring an outage, Twitter users were at one time shown the "fail whale" error message image created by Yiying Lu,{{Registration required|date=February 2011}} NEWS, Walker, Rob,weblink Consumed  â€“ Fail Whale, The New York Times Magazine, 17, February 15, 2009, February 15, 2009, Rob Walker (journalist), illustrating eight orange birds using a net to hoist a whale from the ocean captioned "Too many tweets! Please wait a moment and try again."NEWS, Whyte, Murray, February 23, 2011,weblink Tweet, Tweet â€“ There's Been an Earthquake, Toronto Star, June 1, 2008, Web designer and Twitter user Jen Simmons was the first to coin the term "fail whale" in a September 2007 tweet.WEB, 2019-08-30, La vera storia della balena di Twitter, The real story of the Twitter whale,weblink 24 January 2015, La Stampa, Italian, TWEET, 845050439, jensimmons, Oh, fail whale, you are making my website fail. No more wordpress-twitter-crossposting., Simmons, Jen, 2007-09-02, In a November 2013 WIRED interview Chris Fry, VP of Engineering at that time, noted that the company had taken the "fail whale" out of production as the platform was now more stable.JOURNAL,weblink Killing the Fail Whale With Twitter's Christopher Fry, Wired, November 25, 2013, May 4, 2018, Twitter had approximately ninety-eight percent uptime in 2007 (or about six full days of downtime).WEB, Staff writer, February 23, 2011,weblink Twitter Growing Pains Cause Lots of Downtime in 2007, Royal Pingdom (blog of Pingdom), December 19, 2007, Staff writer, The downtime was particularly noticeable during events popular with the technology industry such as the 2008 Macworld Conference & Expo keynote address.WEB, February 23, 2011,weblink MacWorld, Twitter Blog (blog of Twitter), January 15, 2008, Dorsey, Jack, Jack Dorsey, WEB, May 7, 2008,weblink MacWorld Brings Twitter to its Knees, Oracle AppsLab, January 15, 2008, Kuramoto, Jake,

Privacy, security, and harassment

Twitter messages are public, but users can also send private "direct messages". Information about who has chosen to follow an account and who a user has chosen to follow is also public, though accounts can be changed to "protected" which limits this information (and all tweets) to approved followers.WEB,weblink How to Hide Your Followers & Who You Are Following on Twitter | The Classroom | Synonym,, November 9, 2015, December 7, 2015, Twitter collects personally identifiable information about its users and shares it with third parties as specified in its privacy policy. The service also reserves the right to sell this information as an asset if the company changes hands.WEB, Twitter Privacy Policy,weblink May 14, 2007, Twitter, March 11, 2009, While Twitter displays no advertising, advertisers can target users based on their history of tweets and may quote tweets in adsNEWS, Hansell, Saul, Advertisers Are Watching Your Every Tweet,weblink July 16, 2009, The New York Times, July 17, 2009, directed specifically to the user.A security vulnerability was reported on April 7, 2007, by Nitesh Dhanjani and Rujith. Since Twitter used the phone number of the sender of an SMS message as authentication, malicious users could update someone else's status page by using SMS spoofing.JOURNAL,weblink Twitter Vulnerability: Spoof Caller ID To Take Over Any Account, Wired, Scott, Gilbertson, June 11, 2007, February 5, 2011, The vulnerability could be used if the spoofer knew the phone number registered to their victim's account. Within a few weeks of this discovery, Twitter introduced an optional personal identification number (PIN) that its users could use to authenticate their SMS-originating messages.WEB,weblink Twitter SMS Spoofing Still Undead, John, Leyden, The Register, March 6, 2009, June 17, 2009, On January 5, 2009, 33 high-profile Twitter accounts were compromised after a Twitter administrator's password was guessed by a dictionary attack.WEB, Stone, Biz, Biz Stone, Monday Morning Madness, January 5, 2009,weblink June 17, 2009, Falsified tweets—including sexually explicit and drug-related messages—were sent from these accounts.WEB, Obama's Twitter Site Hacked?, January 5, 2009,weblink The Washington Times, January 5, 2009, Christina, Bellantoni, Stephen Dinan, Twitter launched the beta version of their "Verified Accounts" service on June 11, 2009, allowing people with public profiles to announce their account name. The home pages of these accounts display a badge indicating their status.WEB,weblink Twitter Power Players Get Shiny 'Verified' Badges, Caroline, McCarthy, CNET, CBS Interactive, June 12, 2009, February 23, 2011, In May 2010, a bug was discovered by Ä°nci Sözlük that could allow a Twitter user to force others to follow them without the other users' consent or knowledge. For example, comedian Conan O'Brien's account, which had been set to follow only one person, was changed to receive nearly 200 malicious subscriptions.WEB,weblink Twitter Bug Lets You Control Who Follows You, Adam, Ostrow, Mashable, May 10, 2010, May 11, 2010, In response to Twitter's security breaches, the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) brought charges against the service; the charges were settled on June 24, 2010. This was the first time the FTC had taken action against a social network for security lapses. The settlement requires Twitter to take a number of steps to secure users' private information, including maintenance of a "comprehensive information security program" to be independently audited biannually.WEB, Gonsalves, Antone, June 25, 2010,weblink Twitter, Feds Settle Security Charges â€“ Twitter Must Establish and Maintain a 'Comprehensive Information Security Program' and Allow Third-Party Review of the Program Biannually for the 10 Years, InformationWeek, February 23, 2011, On December 14, 2010, the United States Department of Justice issued a subpoena directing Twitter to provide information for accounts registered to or associated with WikiLeaks.WEB,weblink Twitter Subpoena,, January 10, 2011, Twitter decided to notify its users and said in a statement, "... it's our policy to notify users about law enforcement and governmental requests for their information, unless we are prevented by law from doing so."NEWS,weblink Icelandic MP Fights US Demand for Her Twitter Account Details, The Guardian, Rushe, Dominic, January 8, 2011, January 10, 2011, London, A "MouseOver" exploit occurred on September 21, 2010, when an XSS Worm became active on Twitter. When a user held the mouse cursor over blacked-out parts of a tweet, the worm within the script would automatically open links and re-post itself on the reader's account. The exploit was then re-used to post pop-up ads and links to pornographic sites. The origin of the worm is unclear, but Pearce H. Delphin (known on Twitter as @zzap) and a Scandinavian developer, Magnus Holm, both claim to have modified a related exploit found by another user (possibly Masato Kinugawa) who was using it to create coloured Tweets.WEB
, 17-Year-Old Australian Boy, Japanese Developer Take Blame for Twitter Meltdown
, Schroeder, Stan, Mashable
, September 22, 2010, February 23, 2011
, Kinugawa, a Japanese developer, reported the XSS vulnerability to Twitter on August 14. Later, when he found it was exploitable again, he created the account 'RainbowTwtr' and used it to post coloured messages. Delphin says he exposed the security flaw by tweeting a JavaScript function for "onMouseOver", and Holm later created and posted the XSS Worm that automatically re-tweeted itself. Security firm Sophos reported that the virus was spread by people doing it for "fun and games", but noted it could be exploited by cybercriminals.NEWS, Fildes, Jonathan,weblink Twitter Scrambles To Block Worms, BBC News, September 21, 2010, February 23, 2011, Twitter issued a statement on their status blog at 13:50 UTC that "The exploit is fully patched."WEB,weblink Twitter Status â€“ XSS Attack Identified and Patched,, September 21, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 23, 2010, Twitter representative Carolyn Penner said no charges would be pressed.STAFF WRITER> TITLE = KIWI LINK TO TWITTER 'MOUSEOVER' CHAOSTHE NEW ZEALAND HERALD> ACCESS-DATE = FEBRUARY 23, 2011 URL = HTTP://WWW.NZHERALD.CO.NZ/TECHNOLOGY/NEWS/ARTICLE.CFM?C_ID=5&OBJECTID=10675311, Staff writer, In May 2011, a claimant known as "CTB" in the case of CTB v Twitter Inc. took action against Twitter at the High Court of Justice of England and Wales,"Twitter Inc., Unknown Posters Sued by Athlete Known as 'CTB' at U.K. Court" May 20, 2011 requesting that the company release details of account holders. This followed gossip posted on Twitter about professional footballer Ryan Giggs's private life. This led to the 2011 British privacy injunctions controversy and the "super-injunction".WEB,weblink$21388933.htm, Twitter users served with privacy injunction,, May 22, 2011, Tony Wang, the head of Twitter in Europe, said that people who do "bad things" on the site would need to defend themselves under the laws of their own jurisdiction in the event of controversy, and that the site would hand over information about users to the authorities when it was legally required to do so.NEWS,weblink BBC News, UK, Twitter's European boss Tony Wang gives legal warning, May 25, 2011, May 25, 2011, He also suggested that Twitter would accede to a UK court order to divulge names of users responsible for "illegal activity" on the site.NEWS,weblink The Independent, UK, Twitter chief hints he may have to divulge users' names, May 26, 2011, December 13, 2011, Lewis, Smith, Twitter acquired Dasient, a startup that offers malware protection for businesses, in January 2012. Twitter announced plans to use Dasient to help remove hateful advertisers on the website.NEWS,weblink Twitter Buys Dasient Security Startup To Combat Spam, The Huffington Post, January 24, 2012, Twitter also offered a feature which would allow tweets to be removed selectively by country, before deleted tweets used to be removed in all countries.NEWS, January 27, 2012,weblink Twitter to selectively 'censor' tweets by country, BBC News, "Twitter Blog – Tweets still must flow" January 26, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2012. The first use of the policy was to block the account of German neo-Nazi group Besseres Hannover on October 18, 2012.NEWS, Nicholas, Kulish, Twitter Blocks Germans' Access to Neo-Nazi Group,weblink The New York Times, October 18, 2012, May 5, 2017, The policy was used again the following day to remove anti-Semitic French tweets with the hashtag #unbonjuif ("a good Jew").NEWS, Twitter removes French anti-Semitic tweets,weblink BBC News, BBC, October 19, 2012, May 5, 2017, In February 2012, a third-party public-key encryption app (written in Python and partially funded by a grant from the Shuttleworth FoundationWEB,weblink CrypTweet encrypts Twitter direct messages – CSO | The Resource for Data Security Executives, CSO, February 21, 2012, July 23, 2012, ) for private messaging in Twitter, CrypTweet, was released.WEB,weblink CrypTweet: Experimental Twitter Encryption,, July 23, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 20, 2012, A month later Twitter announced it would implement the "Do Not Track" privacy option, a cookie-blocking feature found in Mozilla's Firefox browser. The "Do Not Track" feature works only on sites that have agreed to the service.NEWS,weblink Nick, Bilton, Twitter Implements Do Not Track Privacy Option, The New York Times, May 17, 2012, May 26, 2012, In August 2012, it was reported that there was a market in fake Twitter followers used to increase politicians' and celebrities' apparent popularity.NEWS, Rory Carroll in Los Angeles,weblink Fake Twitter accounts may be driving up Mitt Romney's follower number | World news |, Guardian, August 16, 2012, London, August 9, 2012, The black market for the fake followers, known as "bots", has been linked to "nearly every politically linked account from the White House to Congress to the 2016 campaign trail". In June 2014, POLITICO analyzed Twitter handles with the highest rates of fake followers: U.S. President Barack Obama with 46.8 percent, Democratic National Committee Chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz with 35.1 percent, and Senator John McCain with 23.6 percent. The culprits working to generate the fake followers, or "bots", included campaign workers or friends of political candidates. One site offered 1,000 fake followers for $20. The people creating the "bots" were often from Eastern Europe and Asia.NEWS, SAMUELSOHN, DARREN, Pols have a #fakefollower problem,weblink June 16, 2014, POLTICO, June 11, 2014, NEWS, Lotan, Gilad, Op-Ed Mining Twitter gold, at five bucks a pop,weblink June 16, 2014, Los Angeles Times, May 31, 2014, In 2013, two Italian researchers calculated 10 percent of total accounts on Twitter were "bots" although other estimates have placed the figure even higher.MAGAZINE, WOOLLACOTT, Emma, Why fake Twitter accounts are a political problem,weblink June 16, 2014, New Statesman, After a number of high-profile hacks of official accounts, including those of the Associated Press and The Guardian,WEB,weblink Twitter Warns news Organisations Amid Syrian Hacking Attacks, Descrier, April 30, 2013, April 30, 2013, in April 2013, Twitter announced a two-factor login verification as an added measure against hacking.NEWS, Rodriguez, Salvador,weblink Twitter adds two-step verification option to help fend off hackers,, May 23, 2013, June 10, 2013, In August 2013, Twitter announced plans to introduce a "report abuse" button for all versions of the site following uproar, including a petition with 100,000 signatures, over Tweets that included rape and death threats to historian Mary Beard, feminist campaigner Caroline Criado-Perez and the member of parliament Stella Creasy."Twitter's Tony Wang issues apology to abuse victims", BBC News, August 3, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013."Of Pride, Prejudice and Harassment on Twitter" The New York Times, August 3, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013."Twitter updates its rules for users, after uproar over rape, bomb threats", CNET, August 3, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013. Followed the sharing of images showing the killing of American journalist James Foley in 2014, Twitter said that in certain cases it would delete pictures of people who had died after requests from family members and "authorized individuals".WEB,weblink Twitter Is Trying to Block Images of James Foley's Death, Yahoo! Tech, August 20, 2014, September 6, 2014, "Twitter policy on media concerning a deceased user" Nu Wexler on Twitter, August 19, 2014.Twitter announced new reporting and blocking policies in December 2014,WEB,weblink Twitter announces sweeping update to reporting, blocking tools, Ars Technica, December 2, 2014, WEB,weblink Building a safer Twitter,, July 30, 2019, NEWS,weblink Twitter unveils new tools to fight harassment, CBS News, WEB,weblink Twitter Gives Harassed Users a Little Ammo | Social Networking | TechNewsWorld,, July 30, 2019, including a blocking mechanism devised by Randi Harper, a target of GamerGate.WEB,weblink Twitter Inc (TWTR) Could Use Gamergate Autoblocker Model To Block Millions of Fake Accounts?, Fahad Saleem, TechInsider, NEWS,weblink Blocked on Twitter: Software's limits in the fight against online hate, The Globe and Mail, Toronto, December 4, 2014, NEWS, Taylor, Wofford, One Woman's New Tool to Stop Gamergate Harassment on Twitter, November 29, 2014, December 6, 2014, Newsweek,weblink In February 2015, CEO Dick Costolo said he was 'frankly ashamed' at how poorly Twitter handled trolling and abuse, and admitted Twitter had lost users as a result.WEB, Tiku, Nitasha, Twitter CEO: 'We suck at dealing with abuse',weblink The Verge, February 5, 2015, February 5, 2015, In 2015, following an updated terms of service and privacy policy, Twitter users outside the United States were legally served by the Ireland-based Twitter International Company instead of Twitter, Inc. The change made these users subject to Irish and European Union data protection lawsNEWS, Ireland to become privacy regulator for 300m Twitter users,weblink May 12, 2015, Irish Times, In 2016, Twitter announced the creation of the Twitter Trust & Safety Council to help "ensure that people feel safe expressing themselves on Twitter." The council's inaugural members included 50 organizations and individuals.Twitter's corporate blog, "Announcing the Twitter Trust & Safety Council"On May 5, 2018, Twitter sent out an update/mail to every customer regarding a bug that stored passwords unmasked in an internal log. According to them the investigation showed no indications of breach or misuse but recommended everyone to change their password anyway.NEWS,weblink Twitter Compromised! Change Your Password Right Now, May 5, 2018, Yeah Hub, On May 10, 2019, Twitter announced that they suspended 166,513 accounts for promoting terrorism in the July–December 2018 period, stating there was a steady decrease in terrorist groups trying to use the platform owing to its "zero-tolerance policy enforcement". According to Vijaya Gadde, Legal, Policy and Trust and Safety Lead at Twitter, there was a reduction of 19% terror related tweets from the previous reporting period (January–June 2018).NEWS,weblink Twitter suspended over 1.6 lakh terror-promoting accounts in six months, May 10, 2019, Economic Times, May 10, 2019, NEWS,weblink Twitter suspensions for promoting terrorism drop yet again, Holt, Kris, May 10, 2019, Engadget, May 10, 2019, NEWS,weblink Twitter's User-Reported Violations Jumped 19%—but the Number of Accounts Punished Dropped, Abril, Danielle, May 10, 2019, Fortune, NEWS,weblink Twitter reports fall in extreme content, May 10, 2019, SBS News, May 10, 2019, NEWS,weblink TWITTER HAS SUSPENDED MORE THAN 166,000 ACCOUNTS RELATED TO PROMOTION OF TERRORISM, May 10, 2019, Tech2, May 10, 2019, Firstpost, On May 13, 2019, Twitter disclosed that they had discovered a bug that accidentally shared location data from iOS devices to an advertiser. They assured that the data was not retained and that the bug was fixed.WEB,weblink A bug impacting collection and sharing of location data on iOS devices, Twitter, May 19, 2019, WEB,weblink Twitter bug accidentally shared location data of some iOS users, Lakshmanan, Ravie, May 14, 2019, The Next Web, May 19, 2019, WEB,weblink Twitter bug disclosed some users' location data to an unnamed partner, Perez, Sarah, May 13, 2019, TechCrunch, May 19, 2019,

Open source

Twitter has a history of both using and releasing open source software while overcoming technical challenges of their service.WEB,weblink Twitter / OpenSource,, April 18, 2013, dead,weblink April 15, 2013, A page in their developer documentation thanks dozens of open source projects which they have used, from revision control software like Git to programming languages such as Ruby and Scala.WEB, Open Source Thanks,weblink Twitter, April 18, 2013, dead,weblink April 15, 2013, Software released as open source by the company includes the Gizzard Scala framework for creating distributed datastores, the distributed graph database FlockDB, the Finagle library for building asynchronous RPC servers and clients, the TwUI user interface framework for iOS, and the Bower client-side package manager.WEB, Open Source,weblink Twitter, January 4, 2017, The popular Twitter Bootstrap web design library was also started at Twitter and is the second most popular repository on GitHub.WEB, Search: Stars>1,weblink Github, January 4, 2017,

Innovators patent agreement

On April 17, 2012, Twitter announced it would implement an "Innovators Patent Agreement" which would obligate Twitter to only use its patents for defensive purposes. The agreement went into effect in 2012.WEB,weblink Twitter introduces Innovators Patent Agreement, vows to not abuse patent system, Terrence, O'Brien, Engadget, AOL, April 17, 2012, August 11, 2012, {{Anchor|}}

URL shortener is a URL shortening service created by Twitter. It is only available for links posted to Twitter and not available for general use. All links posted to Twitter use a wrapper.WEB, Garrett, Sean, June 8, 2010,weblink Links and Twitter: Length Shouldn't Matter, Twitter Blog (blog of Twitter), February 23, 2011, Twitter hopes that the service will be able to protect users from malicious sites, and will use it to track clicks on links within tweets.WEB, Metz, Cade, September 2, 2010,weblink Twitter Tightens Grip on Own Firehose, February 23, 2011, The Register, Having used the services of third parties TinyURL and,WEB, Weisenthal, Joe, May 6, 2009,weblink Twitter Switches from TinyURL to, Business Insider, February 23, 2011, Twitter began experimenting with its own URL shortening service for private messages in March 2010 using the domain, before it purchased the domain. The service was tested on the main site using the accounts @TwitterAPI, @rsarver and @raffi. On September 2, 2010, an email from Twitter to users said they would be expanding the roll-out of the service to users. On June 7, 2011, Twitter announced that it was rolling out the feature.WEB,weblink Penner, Carolyn, Link Sharing Made Simple, June 7, 2011, June 9, 2011, Twitter Blog (blog of Twitter),

Integrated photo-sharing service

On June 1, 2011, Twitter announced its own integrated photo-sharing service that enables users to upload a photo and attach it to a Tweet right from, June 1, 2011,weblink Twitter now with integrated photo-sharing service and completely new twitter search, Techshrimp, June 1, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 30, 2011, Users now also have the ability to add pictures to Twitter's search by adding hashtags to the tweet.Mike Flacy, Digital Trends. "Twitter photo sharing goes live for all users". August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 10, 2011. Twitter also plans to provide photo galleries designed to gather and syndicate all photos that a user has uploaded on Twitter and third-party services such as TwitPic.


A Twitterbot is a computer program that automatically posts on Twitter, they are programmed to tweet, retweet, and follow other accounts. According to a recent report, there were 20 million, fewer than 5%, of accounts on Twitter that were fraudulent in 2013. These fake accounts are often used to build large follower populations quickly for advertisers, while others respond to tweets that include a certain word or phrase.WEB, D'onfro, Jillian, Twitter Admits 5% Of Its 'Users' Are Fake,weblink Business Insider, May 15, 2014, Twitter's wide-open application programming interface and cloud servers make it possible for twitterbots' existence within the social networking site.MAGAZINE, Dubbin, Rob, The Rise Of Twitter Bots,weblink The New Yorker, May 15, 2014,


Twitter is recognized for having one of the most open and powerful developer APIs of any major technology company.NEWS,weblink Top 10 Web APIs – Bridging Today's Technology, January 11, 2012, WebDAM, en-US, December 18, 2016, Developer interest in Twitter began immediately following its launch, prompting the company to release the first version of its public API in September 2006.WEB,weblink Introducing the Twitter API {{!, Twitter Blogs||access-date=December 18, 2016}} The API quickly became iconic as a reference implementation for public REST APIs and is widely cited in programming tutorials.WEB,weblink Ruby on Rails Tutorial (Rails 5),, December 18, 2016, From 2006 until 2010, Twitter's developer platform experienced strong growth and a highly favorable reputation. Developers built upon the public API to create the first Twitter mobile phone clients as well as the first URL shortener. Between 2010 and 2012, however, Twitter made a number of decisions that were received unfavorably by the developer community.NEWS,weblink Twitter's 10 Year Struggle with Developer Relations {{!, Nordic APIs {{!}}|date=March 23, 2016|newspaper=Nordic APIs|language=en-US|access-date=December 18, 2016}} In 2010, Twitter mandated that all developers adopt OAuth authentication with just 9 weeks of notice.WEB,weblink Twitter Launches Countdown to OAuthcalypse, Parr, Ben, Mashable, December 18, 2016, Later that year, Twitter launched its own URL shortener, in direct competition with some of its most well-known 3rd-party developers.NEWS,weblink Twitter to launch URL shortener and may block TinyURL and, ComputerWeekly, en-GB, December 18, 2016, And in 2012, Twitter introduced strict usage limits for its API, "completely crippling" some developers.WEB,weblink Tweetro says it's 'completely crippled' by Twitter's strict 100,000 user token limit, Streams, Kimber, November 11, 2012, The Verge, December 18, 2016, While these moves successfully increased the stability and security of the service, they were broadly perceived as hostile to developers, causing them to lose trust in the platform.WEB,weblink Twitter Handcuffs Client Apps With New API Changes, Ha, Anthony, TechCrunch, December 18, 2016, In an effort to reset its relationship with developers, Twitter acquired Crashlytics on January 28, 2013 for over US$100 million, its largest acquisition to date.NEWS,weblink Twitter's Boston Acquisitions: Crashlytics Tops $100M, Bluefin Labs Close Behind {{!, Xconomy|date=February 5, 2013|newspaper=Xconomy|language=en-US|access-date=December 18, 2016}} Founded by Jeff Seibert and Wayne Chang, Crashlytics had rapidly gained popularity as a tool to help mobile developers identify and fix bugs in their apps.WEB,weblink Crashlytics - Lightweight QA & Analytic Tool {{!, Krify||access-date=December 18, 2016|date=April 28, 2015}} Twitter committed to continue supporting and expanding the service.WEB,weblink Twitter Acquires Mobile Crash-Reporting Tool Crashlytics, Development Of The Product Will Continue "Unabated", Olanoff, Drew, TechCrunch, December 18, 2016, In October 2014, Twitter announced Fabric, a suite of mobile developer tools built around Crashlytics.NEWS,weblink Twitter's Audacious Plan to Infiltrate All Your Apps, Honan, Mat, WIRED, en-US, December 18, 2016, Fabric brought together Crashlytics, Answers (mobile app analytics), Beta (mobile app distribution), Digits (mobile app identity and authentication services), MoPub, and TwitterKit (login with Twitter and Tweet display functionality) into a single, modular SDK, allowing developers to pick and choose which features they needed while guaranteeing ease of installation and compatibility. By building Fabric on top of Crashlytics, Twitter was able to take advantage of Crashlytics' large adoption and device footprint to rapidly scale usage of MoPub and TwitterKit. Fabric reached active distribution across 1 billion mobile devices just 8 months after its launch.WEB,weblink Milestone Achieved: Over 1 Billion Devices!, Fabric Blog, December 18, 2016, In early 2016, Twitter announced that Fabric was installed on more than 2 billion active devices and used by more than 225,000 developers. Fabric is recognized as the #1 most popular crash reporting and also the #1 mobile analytics solution among the top 200 iOS apps, beating out Google Analytics, Flurry, and MixPanel.NEWS,weblink The State of Mobile SDKs in 2016, Lew, Jason, December 15, 2016, MightySignal Mobile Trends, December 18, 2016, WEB,weblink Fabric lands top spots for app analytics, stability, and monetization, Fabric Blog, December 18, 2016,


File:Twitter Town Hall-Dorsey Obama.png|thumb|alt=Man in his twenties smiling at left, man in his forties using computer at center, large crystal chandelier, several people in audience|Dorsey (left) said after a Twitter Town Hall with Barack Obama held in July 2011, that Twitter received over 110,000 #AskObama tweets.AV MEDIA, Jack Dorsey, Impressions on the White House Twitter Townhall,weblink July 8, 2011, The White House, July 10, 2011, ]]{{See also|Censorship of Twitter}}{{See also|Deplatforming|Twitter suspensions}}



Twitter has been used for a variety of purposes in many industries and scenarios. For example, it has been used to organize protests, sometimes referred to as "Twitter Revolutions",MAGAZINE, Could Tunisia Be The Next Twitter Revolution?,weblink The Atlantic, January 13, 2011, November 20, 2016, which include the protests over the 2009 Moldovan election, the 2009 student protests in Austria, the 2009 Gaza–Israel conflict, the 2009 Iranian green revolution, the 2009 Toronto G20 protests, the 2010 Bolivarian Revolution, the 2010 Stuttgart21 protests in Germany, the 2011 Egyptian Revolution, 2011 England riots, the 2011 United States Occupy movement, the 2011 anti-austerity movement in Spain, the 2011 Aganaktismenoi movements in Greece, the 2011 demonstration in Rome, the 2011 Wisconsin labor protests, the 2012 Gaza–Israel conflict, the 2013 protests in Brazil, and the 2013 Gezi Park protests in Turkey.CONFERENCE, A Systematic Literature Review of Twitter Research from a Socio-Political Revolution Perspective, Buettner, Ricardo, Buettner, Katharina, yes, 2016, 49th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences,weblink IEEE, Kauai, Hawaii, 10.13140/RG.2.1.4239.9442, A result of the Iranian election protests saw the government of Iran block Twitter in censorship.WEB, Rebecca, Santana, Iran Election, Uprising Tracked On Twitter As Government Censors Media,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink HuffPost, AOL, June 15, 2009, June 18, 2009, May 5, 2017, The service is also used as a form of civil disobedience: In 2010, users expressed outrage over the Twitter Joke Trial by copying a controversial joke about bombing an airport and attaching the hashtag #IAmSpartacus, a reference to the Spartacus film and a sign of solidarity and support to a man controversially prosecuted after posting a tweet joking about bombing an airport if they cancelled his flight. #IAmSpartacus became the number one trending topic on Twitter worldwide.NEWS,weblink #IAmSpartacus campaign explodes on Twitter in support of airport joker, Siddique, Haroon, November 12, 2010, The Guardian, November 20, 2016, Another case of civil disobedience happened in the 2011 British privacy injunction debate, where several celebrities who had taken out anonymized injunctions were identified by thousands of users in protest to traditional journalism being censored.NEWS,weblink Scottish newspaper identifies injunction footballer, Gabbatt, Adam, Taylor, Matthew, May 22, 2011, The Guardian, May 22, 2011, During the Arab Spring in early 2011, the number of hashtags mentioning the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt increased.NEWS,weblink Twitter's influence on the Arab Spring, August 19, 2011, The Globe and Mail, November 20, 2016, A study by the Dubai School of Government found that only 0.26% of the Egyptian population, 0.1% of the Tunisian population and 0.04% of the Syrian population are active on Twitter.WEB,weblink How the Arab World Uses Facebook and Twitter, Fox, Zoe, June 8, 2012, Mashable, November 20, 2016,


According to documents leaked by Edward Snowden and published in July 2014, the United Kingdom's GCHQ has a tool named BIRDSONG for "automated posting of Twitter updates", and a tool named BIRDSTRIKE for "Twitter monitoring and profile collection".NEWS,weblink GCHQ leak lists UK cyber-spies' hacking tools, BBC News, July 15, 2014, July 16, 2014, "JTRIG Tools and Techniques". Retrieved July 16, 2014.During the 2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests, Twitter suspended a core group of 1,000 "fake" accounts and an associated network of 200,000 accounts for operating a disinformation campaign that was linked to the Chinese government. In their announcement, Twitter released two data sets detailing the core group's account activity.WEB, Makena, Kelly, 2019-08-28, Facebook and Twitter uncover Chinese trolls spreading doubts about Hong Kong protests,weblink August 19, 2019, The Verge, WEB, 2019-08-28, Hong Kong protests: Twitter and Facebook crack down on "deceptive" accounts linked to China,weblink CBS News, Ramy, Inocencio, August 20, 2019, WEB, 2019-08-28, Information operations directed at Hong Kong,weblink Twitter Blog, Twitter Safety, Geng Shuang, the spokesperson of the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, did not comment on the suspensions but suggested that the activity could be attributed to overseas Chinese citizens.NEWS, 2019-08-28, China cries foul over Facebook, Twitter block of fake accounts,weblink Reuters, August 20, 2019, WEB, 2019-08-28, China Resists Charge by Twitter, Facebook of Disinformation Effort,weblink The Wall Street Journal, August 20, 2019,

Issues and controversies

In January 2016, Twitter was sued by the widow of a U.S. man killed in the 2015 Amman shooting attack, claiming that allowing the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) to continually use the platform, including direct messages in particular,WEB,weblink Revived lawsuit says Twitter DMs are like handing ISIS a satellite phone, The Verge, August 31, 2016, August 30, 2016, constituted the provision of material support to a terrorist organization, which is illegal under U.S. federal law. Twitter disputed the claim, stating that "violent threats and the promotion of terrorism deserve no place on Twitter and, like other social networks, our rules make that clear."NEWS,weblink Lawsuit Blames Twitter for ISIS Terrorist Attack, Wall Street Journal, January 16, 2016, NEWS,weblink Can Twitter Be Liable for ISIS Tweets?, Wall Street Journal, January 20, 2016, The lawsuit was dismissed by the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, upholding the Section 230 safe harbor, which dictates that the operators of an interactive computer service are not liable for the content published by its users.WEB,weblink Twitter is not legally responsible for the rise of ISIS, rules California district court, The Verge, Vox Media, August 11, 2016, August 10, 2016, The lawsuit was revised in August 2016, providing comparisons to other telecommunications devices.Twitter suspended multiple parody accounts that satirized Russian politics in May 2016, sparking protests and raising questions about where the company stands on freedom of speech.WEB,weblink Twitter Suspends Russian Satirical Accounts, Raising Free Speech Questions {{!, News|website=The Moscow Times|access-date=June 2, 2016}} Following public outcry, Twitter restored the accounts the next day without explaining why the accounts had been suspended.NEWS,weblink Twitter unblocks spoof Putin account after widespread criticism, Times, The Moscow, network, part of the New East, June 2, 2016, The Guardian, June 2, 2016, The same day, Twitter, along with Facebook, Google, and Microsoft, jointly agreed to a European Union code of conduct obligating them to review "[the] majority of valid notifications for removal of illegal hate speech" posted on their services within 24 hours.NEWS,weblink Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Microsoft sign EU hate speech code, The Guardian, June 7, 2016, May 31, 2016, Hern, Alex, In August 2016, Twitter stated that it had banned 235,000 accounts over the past six months, bringing the overall number of suspended accounts to 360,000 accounts in the past year, for violating policies banning use of the platform to promote extremism.NEWS, Elizabeth, Weise, Twitter suspends 235,000 accounts for extremism,weblink USA Today, August 18, 2016, November 20, 2016, In October 2017, actress Rose McGowan said that Twitter had suspended her account for 12 hours after she repeatedly tweeted about former film studio executive Harvey Weinstein's alleged sexual misconduct toward her and others. Twitter explained that McGowan's account had violated its privacy policy because one of her tweets included a private phone number. According to The New York Times, "Many Twitter users expressed outrage over Ms. McGowan's account being locked". After the tweet was removed, her account was unlocked several hours before the 12-hour ban was set to expire. A Twitter representative stated, "We will be clearer about these policies and decisions in the future."NEWS,weblink Rose McGowan's Twitter Account Locked After Posts About Weinstein, October 12, 2017, Nellie, Bowles, Cara, Buckley, The New York Times, NEWS,weblink Rose McGowan suspended from Twitter after Ben Affleck tweets, Livsey, Anna, October 12, 2017, The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, 0261-3077, October 13, 2017, Later that day, software engineer Kelly Ellis, using the hashtag #WomenBoycottTwitter, urged women to shun Twitter for 24 hours, beginning at midnight, in solidarity with McGowan and, tweeted Ellis, "all the victims of hate and harassment Twitter fails to support." The boycott was joined by activists, celebrities and journalists.NEWS,weblink #WomenBoycottTwitter, Supporting Rose McGowan, October 13, 2017, Anna, Codrea-Rado, Amie, Tsang, The New York Times, Between January and late July 2017, Twitter had identified and shut down over 7,000 phony accounts created by Iranian influence operations.NEWS,weblink It's not just the Russians anymore as Iranians and others turn up disinformation efforts ahead of 2020 vote, 2019-07-25, The Washington Post, Timberg, Craig, Romm, Tony, In November 2017, the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment, revealed that Twitter is among the corporations that avoided paying taxes by using offshore companies."So lief die SZ-Recherche". Süddeutsche Zeitung. November 5, 2017. Later The New York Times reported that Russian-American billionaire Yuri Milner had strong Kremlin backing for his investments in Facebook and Twitter.NEWS,weblink Kremlin Cash Behind Billionaire's Twitter and Facebook Investments, Drucker, Jesse, November 5, 2017, The New York Times, November 6, 2017, en-US, 0362-4331, In May 2018, in response to scrutiny over the misuse of Twitter by those seeking to maliciously influence elections, Twitter announced that it would partner with the nonprofit organization Ballotpedia to add special labels verifying the authenticity of political candidates running for election in the U.S.NEWS, Twitter to add labels to U.S. political candidates,weblink May 23, 2018, CBS, May 23, 2018, NEWS, Scola, Nancy, Twitter to verify election candidates in the midterms,weblink May 23, 2018, Politico, May 23, 2018, In August 2019, Jack Dorsey's account was hacked by using Twitter's SMS to tweet feature to send crude messages. Days later, the ability to send a tweet via SMS was temporarily turned off.NEWS, Twitter disables tweeting via SMS after CEO gets hacked,weblink The Verge, September 4, 2019, In October 2019, Twitter announced it would stop running political ads on its ad platform effective 22 November. This has been a result of several spurious claims made by political ads. Company CEO Dorsey clarified that internet advertising had great power and was extremely effective for commercial advertisers, the power brings significant risks to politics where crucial decisions impact millions of livesWEB,weblink Twitter Bans Political Ads on Its Platform, Pressure Up on Defiant Facebook, News18, 2019-10-31, .


Twitter is banned completely in Iran, China and North Korea,"Religion, Twitter and freedom: A peaceful explosion", The Economist, May 27, 2015. Retrieved June 2, 2015. and has been intermittently blocked in numerous countries including Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Venezuela and Turkmenistan on different bases.NEWS,weblink China blocks Twitter, Flickr, YouTube and Hotmail ahead of Tiananmen anniversary, Branigan, Tania, The Guardian, London, NEWS,weblink Venezuelans Blocked on Twitter as Opposition Protests Mount, Patricia Laya,, February 15, 2014, WEB,weblink Challenging the access ban in Turkey,, WEB,weblink Iraq Crisis: Twitter, Google, YouTube and Facebook Blocked by Government to Stop Isis Plotting, International Business Times UK, June 13, 2014, WEB,weblink Turkmenistan country profile, BBC Monitoring, BBC News, February 26, 2018, In 2016, Twitter cooperated with the Israeli government to remove certain content originating outside Israel from tweets seen in Israel.WEB,weblink How Israel is trying to enforce gag orders beyond its borders, Michael Schaeffer Omer-Man, 972 Mag, August 9, 2016, September 23, 2016, In the 11th biannual transparency report published on September 19, 2017, Twitter said that Turkey was the first among countries where about 90 percent of removal requests came from, followed by Russia, France and Germany.WEB,weblink Turkey top country seeking removal of content on Twitter: Report, hurriyet, September 20, 2017, September 20, 2017, Twitter stated that between July 1 and December 31, 2018, "We received legal demands relating to 27,283 accounts from 47 different countries, including Bulgaria, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, and Slovenia for the first time."NEWS, Turkey had highest request for content removal on Twitter,weblink IPA News, May 11, 2019, As part of evidence to a US Senate Enquiry, the company admitted that their systems "detected and hid" several hundred thousand tweets relating to the 2016 Democratic National Committee email leak.WEB,weblink United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Crime and Terrorism: Testimony of Sean J. Edgett, Acting General Counsel, Twitter Inc., October 31, 2017, November 6, 2017, During the curfew in Jammu and Kashmir after revocation of its autonomous status on 5 August 2019, the Indian government approached Twitter to block accounts which were spreading anti-India content.NEWS,weblink Govt tells Twitter to block accounts inciting anti-India content using Kashmir, Hindustan Times, August 12, 2019,

Trending topics

After claims in the media that the hashtags #wikileaks and #occupywallstreet were being censored because they did not show up on the site's list of trending topics, Twitter responded by stating that it does not censor hashtags unless they contain obscenities.NEWS, Arthur, Charles,weblink Wikileaks: Twitter explains why it's not trending, as hackers play cat and mouse, The Guardian, December 9, 2010, November 29, 2011, London, "Reply to question from journalist about alleged censorship of #occupywallstreet" Twitter, September 26, 2011. Retrieved November 29, 2011.WEB, Larson, Dave,weblink Twitter admits editing offensive Trending Topics, plans more, August 1, 2011, November 29, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 11, 2011, However, in his 2017 testimony to the US Senate Committee, Acting General Counsel Sean J. Edgett admitted to suppressing tweets that were potentially damaging to Hillary Clinton – including around half of all those using the #DNCLeak hashtag (relating to the 2016 DNC leaks).WEB,weblink United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Crime and Terrorism, Testimony of Sean J. Edgett, July 30, 2019, In 2016, at the same time as Twitter executives paid to attend a political fundraiser by Hillary Clinton, the Twitter platform banned a pro-Bernie Sanders account that had started a hashtag critical of Clinton's fundraising from wealthy donors.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink Twitter Exec Censors #WhichHillary in advance of Sunday Fundraiser, Key Primaries, February 26, 2016, Daily Kos,

Trust & Safety Council

The announcement of Twitter's "Trust & Safety Council" was met with objection from parts of its userbase.BOOK,weblink GOP GPS, Evan, Siegfried, Skyhorse, August 23, 2016, November 12, 2017, 9781510717336, WEB,weblink Is Twitter's Trust & Safety Council a Front for Censorship?, Dann, Albright, Makeuseof, February 29, 2016, November 12, 2017, Critics accused the member organizations of being heavily skewed towards "the restriction of hate speech" and a Reason article expressed concern that "there’s not a single uncompromising anti-censorship figure or group on the list".WEB,weblink Just Another 'Black Box'? First Thoughts on Twitter's Trust And Safety Council, Andrew, Puddephatt, CircleID, February 11, 2016, November 12, 2017, WEB,weblink Did Twitter's Orwellian 'Trust and Safety' Council Get Robert Stacy McCain Banned?, Robby, Soave,, February 20, 2016, November 12, 2017,


In 2016, a campaign to turn Twitter into a platform cooperative owned democratically by the users was launched.WEB, Nathan Schneider,weblink Here's my plan to save Twitter: let's buy it, The Guardian, April 7, 2019, The campaign attracted over 5 000 shareholders and a proposal to transform the company into a user-owned cooperative was put forth in the annual shareholder meeting. 4.9% of shareholders voted in favor of the proposal.WEB,weblink We can democratize Twitter,, July 30, 2019, There was also an attempt by former undercover CIA agent Valerie Plame Wilson to crowdfund enough money to buy Twitter and remove Donald Trump from the platform.NEWS,weblink Buy Twitter, ban Trump: former CIA agent tries to crowdfund $1bn purchase, The Guardian, August 24, 2017, April 7, 2019,


Instant, short, and frequent communication

In May 2008, The Wall Street Journal wrote that social networking services such as Twitter "elicit mixed feelings in the technology-savvy people who have been their early adopters. Fans say they are a good way to keep in touch with busy friends. But some users are starting to feel too connected, as they grapple with check-in messages at odd hours, higher cellphone bills and the need to tell acquaintances to stop announcing what they're having for dinner."NEWS, February 22, 2011,weblink Friends Swap Twitters, and Frustration â€“ New Real-Time Messaging Services Overwhelm Some Users with Mundane Updates from Friends, The Wall Street Journal, March 16, 2007, Lavallee, Andrew,weblink" title="">weblink March 14, 2015, dead, The following year, John C. Dvorak described Twitter as "the new CB radio".MAGAZINE,weblink Twitter Is the New CB Radio, John C. Dvorak, August 25, 2009, PC Magazine,

Emergency use

A practical use for Twitter's real-time functionality is as an effective de facto emergency communication system for breaking news. It was neither intended nor designed for high-performance communication, but the idea that it could be used for emergency communication was not lost on the creators, who knew that the service could have wide-reaching effects early on when the company used it to communicate during earthquakes.JOURNAL, Alexander, Mills, Rui, Chen, JinKyu, Lee, H. Raghav, Rao, Web 2.0 Emergency Applications: How Useful Can Twitter Be for Emergency Response?, Twitter for Emergency Management and Mitigation, 2009, 3,weblink November 20, 2016, Another practical use that is being studied is Twitter's ability to track epidemics and how they spread.NEWS, Brooke, Jarvis, Twitter becomes a tool for tracking flu epidemics and other public health issues,weblink The Washington Post, March 4, 2013, November 21, 2016, In addition, Twitter has acted as a sensor for automatic response to natural disasters such as bush fires.JOURNAL, Robert, Power, Bella, Robinson, David, Ratcliffe, Finding Fires with Twitter,weblink Proceedings of Australasian Language Technology Association Workshop, 2013, November 21, 2016, JOURNAL, Paul, Earle, Daniel, Bowden, Michelle, Guy, Twitter earthquake detection: earthquake monitoring in a social world,weblink Annals of Geophysics, 2011, 54, 6, November 21, 2016,


Twitter has been adopted as a communication and learning tool in educational and researchJOURNAL, 3, 1, Grandjean, Martin, A social network analysis of Twitter: Mapping the digital humanities community, Cogent Arts & Humanities, 2016, 1171458, 10.1080/23311983.2016.1171458, settings mostly in colleges and universities.Rankin, M. (2010). "Some general comments on the 'Twitter Experiment'"Grosseck & Holotescu (2008). "Can we use Twitter for educational activities?" {{webarchive|url= |date=May 18, 2012 }} Proceedings of the 4th International Scientific Conference: eLearning and Software forEducation, Bucharest, Romania. It has been used as a backchannel to promote student interactions, especially in large-lecture courses.Elavsky, CM, Mislan, C & Elavsky, S (2011). When talking less is more: exploring outcomes of Twitter usage in the large‐lecture hall. Learning, Media and Technology Volume 36, Issue 3. Research has found that using Twitter in college courses helps students communicate with each other and faculty, promotes informal learning, allows shy students a forum for increased participation, increases student engagement, and improves overall course grades.Junco, R., Heiberger, G., & Loken, E. (2011). "The effect of Twitter on college student engagement and grades". Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(2), 119–132. {{webarchive |url= |date=May 8, 2012 }}Junco, R., Elavsky, C. M., Heiberger, G. (2012). "Putting Twitter to the test: assessing outcomes for student collaboration, engagement, and success". British Journal of Educational Technology. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01284.x {{webarchive |url= |date=January 20, 2013 }}Ebner, Lienhardt, Rohs, & Meyer (2010). "Microblogs in Higher Education – A chance to facilitate informal and process-oriented learning?" {{webarchive|url= |date=June 26, 2011 }} Computers & Education, 55, 92–100.Twitter has been an increasingly growing in the field of education, as an effective tool that can be used to encourage learning and idea, or knowledge sharing, in and outside the classroom.JOURNAL, Carrie, Ross, Maninger, Robert, LaPrairie, Kimberly, Sullivan, Sam, Spring 2015, The Use of Twitter in the Creation of Educational Professional Learning Opportunities,weblink Administrative Issues Journal: Connecting Education, Practice, and Research., 5, 55–76, 2153-7615, 10.5929/2015.5.1.7, {{ERIC, EJ1062476, }} By using or creating hashtags, students and educators are able to communicate under specific categories of their choice, to enhance and promote education. A broad example of a hashtag used in education is "edchat", to communicate with other teachers, and people using that hashtag. Once teachers find someone they want to talk to, they can either direct message the person, or narrow down the hashtag to make the topic of the conversation more specific using hashtags for scichat (science), engchat (English), sschat (social studies).In a 2011 study, researchers found that young peoples use of Twitter helped to improve relationships with teachers, encourage interactive learning, and ultimately lead to high grades. In the same study it was found that out of a group of 158 educators, 92% agreed that the reason they use Twitter is because of how user friendly it is, another 86% agreed that they started and continue using Twitter because of how easy it is to learn, and finally, 93% said they use Twitter because it is free. People found that sifting through large amounts of data is challenging, however, with the simple nature of Twitter large amount of information became easily accessible.JOURNAL, Greenhow, Christine, Gleason, Benjamin, October 3, 2012, Twitteracy: Tweeting as a New Literacy Practice, The Educational Forum, 76, 4, 464–478, 10.1080/00131725.2012.709032, Much of this simplicity comes from the use of the hashtag, and the intuitive nature of how Twitter as a microblogging site operates. These features help to promote education outside the classroom on a global setting where students and educators are easily able create, connect, and share knowledge. This ultimately promotes growth and learning among students and educators, not just in the class room, but virtually and around the world.

Public figures

Tech writer Bruce Sterling commented in 2007 that using Twitter for "literate communication" is "about as likely as firing up a CB radio and hearing some guy recite the Iliad".{{Registration required|date=February 2011}} NEWS, Pontin, Jason, From Many Tweets, One Loud Voice on the Internet, April 22, 2007,weblink The New York Times, June 21, 2009, Jason Pontin, In September 2008, the journalist Clive Thompson mused in a New York Times Magazine editorial that the service had expanded narcissism into "a new, supermetabolic extreme—the ultimate expression of a generation of celebrity-addled youths who believe their every utterance is fascinating and ought to be shared with the world".{{Registration required|date=February 2011}} NEWS, Clive, Thompson, I'm So Totally, Digitally Close to You, September 5, 2009,weblink The New York Times Magazine, August 22, 2009, One of the earliest documented forms of celebrity-related Twitter-like disclosures dates from 1980, when real estate mogul William Desmond Ryan made round-the-clock press releases about his relationship with comedian Phyllis Diller, even revealing what she was making him for dinner on a nightly basis.NEWS,weblink St. Petersburg Times – Google News Archive Search, St. Petersburg Times, October 7, 2014, Conversely, Vancouver Sun columnist Steve Dotto opined that part of Twitter's appeal is the challenge of trying to publish such messages in tight constraints,WEB, Nick, Lewis, Tweet this: It's the year of the Twitter,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink The Vancouver Sun, Postmedia Network, April 6, 2009, April 15, 2009, May 5, 2017, and Jonathan Zittrain, professor of Internet law at Harvard Law School, said that "the qualities that make Twitter seem inane and half-baked are what makes it so powerful."{{registration required|date=February 2011}} NEWS, Noam, Cohen, Twitter on the Barricades: Six Lessons Learned, June 20, 2009, The New York Times,weblink June 21, 2009, In that same vein, and with Sigmund Freud in mind, political communications expert Matthew Auer observed that well-crafted tweets by public figures often deliberately mix trivial and serious information so as to appeal to all three parts of the reader’s personality: the id, ego, and superego.JOURNAL, Matthew, Auer, The Policy Sciences of Social Media, Policy Studies Journal, 2011, 39, 4, 709–736, 10.1111/j.1541-0072.2011.00428.x, The novelist Rick Moody wrote a short story for Electric Literature called "Some Contemporary Characters," composed entirely of tweets.NEWS, Rick Moody's Twitter Short Story Draws Long List of Complaints,weblink December 1, 2009, Wall Street Journal, May 19, 2012, Steven, Kurutz, In 2009, Nielsen Online reported that Twitter had a user-retention rate of forty percent. Many people stop using the service after a month; therefore the site may potentially reach only about ten percent of all Internet users.NEWS, Many Twitters Are Quick Quitters: Study,weblink April 29, 2009, Reuters, February 22, 2011, Belinda, Goldsmith, In 2009, Twitter won the "Breakout of the Year" Webby Award.WEB, Staff writer, n.d.,weblink 13th Annual Webby Special Achievement Award Winners, Webby Award, The Webby Awards, February 22, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 20, 2011, Staff writer, WEB,weblink Jimmy Fallon Wins Top Webby: And the Winners Are..., PC World (magazine), PC World, May 5, 2009, February 22, 2011, Ian, Paul, During a February 2009 discussion on National Public Radio's Weekend Edition, the journalist Daniel Schorr stated that Twitter accounts of events lacked rigorous fact-checking and other editorial improvements. In response, Andy Carvin gave Schorr two examples of breaking news stories that played out on Twitter and said users wanted first-hand accounts and sometimes debunked stories.WEB,weblink Welcome to the Twitterverse, NPR, National Public Radio, February 28, 2009, Carvin, Andy, February 22, 2011, Andy Carvin, On November 29, 2009, Twitter was named the Word of the Year by the Global Language Monitor, declaring it "a new form of social interaction".WEB,weblink Top Word of 2009: Twitter,, July 28, 2014, November 29, 2009, Time magazine acknowledged its growing level of influence in its 2010 Time 100; to determine the influence of people, it used a formula based on famous social networking sites, Twitter and Facebook. The list ranges from Barack Obama and Oprah Winfrey to Lady Gaga and Ashton Kutcher.WEB, Vidyarthi, Neil,weblink Time Magazine's Social Influence Index Led by Obama, Gaga, Kutcher,, April 30, 2010, February 22, 2011, The Hill on February 28, 2011 described Twitter and other social media as a "strategic weapon ... which have the apparent ability to re-align the social order in real time, with little or no advanced [sic] warning". The U.S. government, seeing social media's role in the 2010 Arab Spring revolts, covertly developed a Cuban alternative to Twitter called ZunZuneo as part of a long-term strategy to "stir unrest". The service was active from 2010 to 2012.WEB, Alberto, Arce, Desmond, Butler, Jack, Gillum, U.S. secretly created 'Cuban Twitter' to stir unrest,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink The Washington Post, Jeff Bezos, Nash Holdings, April 3, 2014, May 5, 2017, During the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, in which he appeared at the London Olympic Stadium in person,NEWS, Sir Tim Berners-Lee stars in Olympics opening ceremony, Karen, Friar,weblink ZDNet, July 28, 2012, July 28, 2012, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the founder of the World Wide Web, tweeted "This is for everyone",WEB, Berners-Lee, Tim, This is for everyone,weblink Twitter, July 27, 2012, July 28, 2012, which was instantly spelled out in LCD lights attached to the chairs of the 80,000 people in the audience.

World leaders

(File:Donald Trump Facebook Twitter post 19679418 10159419638630725 2833632475130915488 o,jpg.jpg|thumb|280px|Donald Trump's twitter post)World leaders and their diplomats have taken note of Twitter's rapid expansion and have been increasingly utilizing Twitter diplomacy, the use of Twitter to engage with foreign publics and their own citizens. US Ambassador to Russia, Michael A. McFaul has been attributed as a pioneer of international Twitter diplomacy. He used Twitter after becoming ambassador in 2011, posting in English and Russian.NEWS, Ländler, Mark, In the Scripted World of Diplomacy, a Burst of Tweets, International New York Times, April 28, 2014, February 4, 2014,weblink On October 24, 2014, Queen Elizabeth II sent her first tweet to mark the opening of the London Science Museum's Information Age exhibition.NEWS,weblink Queen's first tweet., BBC News, October 24, 2014, Cellan-Jones, Rory, A 2013 study by website Twiplomacy found that 153 of the 193 countries represented at the United Nations had established government Twitter accounts.WEB,, Twiplomacy Study 2013 – International Organisations,weblink April 27, 2014, The same study also found that those accounts amounted to 505 Twitter handles used by world leaders and their foreign ministers, with their tweets able to reach a combined audience of over 106 million followers.According to an analysis of accounts, the heads of state of 125 countries and 139 other leading politicians have Twitter accounts that have between them sent more than 350,000 tweets and have almost 52 million followers. However, only 30 of these do their own tweeting, more than 80 do not subscribe to other politicians and many do not follow any accounts.John Heilprin Leaders all a twitter but few do own tweets The Advertiser July 28, 2012 Pg 64Donald Trump has used Twitter as a method of providing ideas and information during his presidential campaign in 2016, the transitional period and as US President. A study performed at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology showed his tweets from these different time periods and through analysis of his tweets, the professors found that President Trump uses a mode called "forensic mode" the most often in his tweets. This is described as a quick reactive usage, as they found he often used Twitter to show his judgement of the events that occurred regarding both his allies and his enemies. After his election to the presidency he tweeted this "forensic-style" tweet, "Just had a very open and successful election. Now professional protesters, incited by the media, are protesting. Very Unfair!".BOOK, Trump typhoon: A rhetorical analysis of the Donald's Twitter feed - IEEE Conference Publication, 1–7, en-US, 10.1109/IPCC.2017.8013976, Trump typhoon: A rhetorical analysis of the Donald's Twitter feed, 2017, Watt, Anneliese, Carvill, Caroline, House, Richard, Livingston, Jessica, Williams, Julia M., 978-1-5090-3042-2, In a study done at New York University in 2015, an analysis and comparison of the Twitter accounts of Donald Trump, Jeb Bush, Bernie Sanders, and Hillary Clinton, found observations showing the goals of each candidate's Twitter during their respective primary elections. Some comparisons that were made were the use of Aristotle's theory of Rhetoric. The research found that Donald Trump used pathos, the appeal to emotion, in his rhetoric; Bernie Sanders tended to use ethos and logos for his Twitter; Hillary Clinton tended to use logos and pathos to try to convey her values, and Jeb Bush shows that he uses a mix of all three on his account. The study also looked at the media response to the tweets during the election. The study found that the tweets became more persuasive for the candidates if the media put the tweets in front of more viewers, versus less powerful if they were only visible to those already on Twitter. In that way, presidential candidates who had their tweets covered more in the news were able to get their message to more potential voters.WEB,weblink mcconnell_thesis_final.pdf, Dropbox, en, April 23, 2018,


More than twenty Roman Catholic cardinals manage active Twitter accounts,WEB,weblink A List of Cardinals on Twitter (October 2015),, October 12, 2015, dead,weblink January 19, 2016, mdy-all, nine of whom were cardinal electors for the 2013 Papal conclave.NEWS, Tweeting Cardinals Share Pre-Conclave Thoughts,weblink September 24, 2013, ABC News, March 6, 2013, Alyssa Newcomb, Pope Benedict XVI's Twitter account was set up in 2012. As of April 2016, his successor, Pope Francis, has 9.06 million followers of his Twitter account (@Pontifex).NEWS, The reason why the Pope has a Twitter and not a Facebook account,weblink April 11, 2016, The Independent, May 23, 2014, Linda Sharkey, In a 2015 European Foundation for Democracy-European Policy Centre policy dialogue panel in Brussels, Mark Wallace, CEO of the "CounterExtremism Project" and former U.S ambassador to the United Nations, said: "Twitter is currently the 'gateway drug' for those seeking to recruit fighters for Islamic terrorism and this must be stopped."WEB,weblink Social media platforms have 'crucial role to play in combating extremist rhetoric', Martin Banks, July 2, 2015, EU Reporter, January 21, 2018,

Twitterbot effect

Twitterbots are capable of influencing public opinion about culture, products and political agendas by automatically generating mass amounts of tweets through imitating human communication.NEWS, Bilton, Nick, Friends, and Influence, for Sale Online,weblink The New York Times, May 15, 2014, The New York Times states, "They have sleep-wake cycles so their fakery is more convincing, making them less prone to repetitive patterns that flag them as mere programs."NEWS, Urbina, Ian, I Flirt and Tweet. Follow Me at #Socialbot,weblink The New York Times, May 15, 2014, August 10, 2013, The tweets generated vary anywhere from a simple automated response to content creation and information sharing, all of which depends on the intention of the person purchasing or creating the bot. The social implications these Twitterbots potentially have on human perception are sizeable according to a study published by the ScienceDirect Journal. Looking at the Computers as Social Actors (CASA) paradigm, the journal notes, "people exhibit remarkable social reactions to computers and other media, treating them as if they were real people or real places." The study concluded that Twitterbots were viewed as credible and competent in communication and interaction making them suitable for transmitting information in the social media sphere.JOURNAL, Edwards, Chad, Is that a bot running the social media feed? Testing the differences in perceptions of communication quality for a human agent and a bot agent on Twitter, Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 372–376, 10.1016/j.chb.2013.08.013, 2014, While the technological advances have enabled the ability of successful Human-Computer Interaction, the implications are questioned due to the appearance of both benign and malicious bots in the Twitter realm. Benign Twitterbots may generate creative content and relevant product updates whereas malicious bots can make unpopular people seem popular, push irrelevant products on users and spread misinformation, spam and/or slander.MAGAZINE, Miners, Zach, Bot or Not? Researchers make an app to sniff out bots on Twitter,weblink PC World, May 15, 2014, May 6, 2014, In addition to content-generating bots, users can purchase followers, favorites, retweets and comments on various websites that cater to expanding a user's image through accumulation of followers. With more followers, users' profiles gain more attention, thus increasing their popularity.WEB, Depillis, Lydia, Swenzy',weblink May 15, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 23, 2014, Generating Web traffic is a valuable commodity for both individuals and businesses because it indicates notability.NEWS, Depillis, Lydia, Click farms are the new sweatshops,weblink The Washington Post, May 15, 2014, January 6, 2014, With Twitterbots, users are able to create the illusion of "buzz" on their site by obtaining followers from services such as Swenzy and underground suppliers who operate bot farms or click farms. The companies that facilitate this service create fake Twitter accounts that follow a number of people, some of these Twitter accounts may even post fake tweets to make it seem like they are real. This practice of obtaining mass amounts of twitterbots as followers is not permitted on Twitter.WEB, Martin, Michel, How To Spot And Outfake Bogus Twitter Followers,weblink NPR, May 15, 2014, The emphasis on followers and likes as a measure of social capital has urged people to extend their circle to weak and latent ties to promote the idea of popularity for celebrities, politicians, musicians, public figures, and companies alike.BOOK, Van Dijck, Jose, The Culture of Connectivity: A Critical History of Social Media,weblink Oxford University Press, 2013, 9780199970780, According to The New York Times, bots amass significant influence and have been noted to sway elections, influence the stock market, public appeal, and attack governments.NEWS, Urbina, Ian, I Flirt and Tweet. Follow Me at #Socialbot,weblink The New York Times, May 15, 2014, August 10, 2013,


Twitter is also increasingly used for making TV more interactive and social.WEB,weblink What Shows Are Viewers Tweeting About and What Does this Mean for Operators?,, March 31, 2011, May 22, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 11, 2011, This effect is sometimes referred to as the second screen,JOURNAL, Hayat, Tsahi, Samuel-Azran, Tal, 2017, "You too, Second Screeners?" Second Screeners' Echo Chambers During the 2016 U.S. Elections Primaries, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 61, 2, 291–308, 10.1080/08838151.2017.1309417, "virtual watercooler" or social television—the practice has been called "chatterboxing"."Social Web Makes TV Viewers 'Chatterboxers'", Sky News, March 15, 2012 {{webarchive |url= |date=March 17, 2012 }} Twitter has been successfully used to encourage people to watch live TV events, such as the Oscars, the Super BowlWEB,weblink Twitter Blog: Super Data,, February 10, 2010, May 22, 2011, and the MTV Video Music Awards; however this strategy has proven less effective with regularly scheduled TV shows.WEB,weblink Does Twitter Drive TV Ratings?,, November 14, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 1, 2011, Such direct cross-promotions have been banned from French television due to regulations against secret advertising.WEB,weblink France bans Facebook and Twitter promotion on TV, FRANCE 24, June 6, 2011, November 14, 2011, In December 2012, Twitter and Nielsen entered a multi-year agreement to produce social TV ratings, which are expected to be commercially available for the fall 2013 season as the Nielsen Twitter TV Rating.WEB, Shontell, Alyson, February 4, 2013, Twitter Makes Big Acquisition, Buys Social TV Analytics Company Bluefin Labs,weblink Business Insider, February 6, 2013, NEWS, Geron, Tomio, February 6, 2013, Twitter Confirms Bluefin Labs Acquisition For Social TV,weblink Forbes, February 6, 2013, Advertising Age said Twitter had become the new TV Guide.NEWS, October 23, 2012, Twitter Has Become the New TV Guide – Now Can It Offer New TV Rating?,weblink Advertising Age, Crain, February 6, 2013, Then in February 2013, Twitter acquired Bluefin Labs for an estimated US$50 million to $100 million. Founded in 2008 at the MIT Media Lab, Bluefin is a data miner whose analysis tells which brands (e.g., TV shows and companies) are chatted about the most in social media.NEWS, Stelter, Brian, February 5, 2013, Twitter Buys Company That Mines Chatter About TV,weblink The New York Times, February 6, 2013, MIT Technology Review said that Bluefin gives Twitter part of the US$72 billion television advertising market.NEWS, Talbot, David, February 5, 2013, Buying Bluefin Will Give Twitter a Piece of TV's $72 Billion Ad Market,weblink MIT Technology Review, February 6, 2013, In May 2013, it launched Twitter Amplify—an advertising product for media and consumer brands.NEWS, Indvik, Lauren, May 23, 2013, Twitter Amplify Will Bring Sponsored Video Clips to Your Feed,weblink Mashable, May 25, 2014, With Amplify, Twitter runs video highlights from major live broadcasts, with advertisers' names and messages playing before the clip.NEWS, Lunden, Ingrid, May 23, 2013, Twitter Launches TV Ad Targeting, Twitter Amplify For Real-Time Videos In Stream,weblink TechCrunch, May 25, 2014, In October 2013, Comcast announced that it had partnered with Twitter to implement its "See It" feature within the service, allowing posts promoting programs on selected NBCUniversal channels to contain direct links to TV Everywhere streaming to the program. On launch, the concept was limited to NBCUniversal channels and Xfinity cable television subscribers.WEB, 'See It' Button Should Be the Game-Changer Pay TV Desperately Needs,weblink Variety, May 12, 2017, November 24, 2013, In an attempt to compete with Twitter's leadership in TV, Facebook introduced a number of features in 2013 to drive conversation about TV including hashtags, verified profiles and embeddable posts. It also opened up new data visualization APIs for TV news and other media outlets, enabling them to search for a word and see a firehose of public posts that mention it as well as show how many people mentioned a word in both public and private posts during a set time frame, with a demographic breakdown of the age, gender, and location of these people.NEWS, Constine, Josh, May 21, 2014, Facebook Adds Shazam-Style Audio Recognition To Help You Automatically Tag Posts With TV Shows And Songs,weblink TechCrunch, May 26, 2014, In January 2014, Facebook announced a partnership with UK-based social TV analytics company SecondSync which saw the social network make its social TV available outside the company for the first time. Facebook struck the partnership to help marketers understand how people are using the social network to talk about topics such as TV.NEWS, Protalinski, Emil, January 30, 2014, Facebook opens up its social TV data for the first time in partnership with UK analytics firm SecondSync,weblink The Next Web, June 1, 2014, However, Twitter responded by acquiring SecondSync and Parisian social TV firm Mesagraph three months later. These acquisitions, as well as a partnership with research company Kantar (which it had been working with to develop a suite of analytics tools for the British TV industry since August 2013) strengthened Twitter's dominance of the "second screen" – TV viewers using tablets and smartphones to share their TV experience on social media. With the additional analytic tools, Twitter was able to improve the firm's offering to advertisers, allowing them to, for instance, only promote a tweet onto the timelines of users who were watching a certain programme.NEWS, Hern, Alex, April 1, 2014, Twitter buys UK 'social TV' firm SecondSync,weblink The Guardian, June 1, 2014, By February 2014, all four major U.S. TV networks had signed up to the Amplify program, bringing a variety of premium TV content onto the social platform in the form of in-tweet real-time video clips.NEWS, Wasserman, Todd, February 27, 2014, Twitter Snags the Last of the Major Networks, ABC, for Amplify,weblink Mashable, May 25, 2014, In March 2014, ITV became the first major broadcaster in the UK to sign up to Twitter AmplifyNEWS, Plunkett, John, March 31, 2014, ITV commercial boss warns brands that 90% of content is 'crap',weblink The Guardian, London, April 12, 2014, and Twitter introduced one-tap video playback across its mobile apps to further enhance the consumer experience.NEWS, Summers, Nick, March 20, 2014, Twitter is testing one-tap video playback across its mobile apps for Amplify partner clips,weblink The Next Web, May 26, 2014, In June 2014, Twitter acquired its Amplify partner in the U.S., SnappyTV.NEWS, Bradwell, Jason, July 2, 2014, Why Did Twitter Buy SnappyTV? Grabyo Reaction,weblink VOD Professional, August 28, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 28, 2014, In Europe, Twitter's Amplify partner is London-based Grabyo, which has also struck numerous deals with broadcasters and rights holders to share video content across Facebook and Twitter.NEWS, Sawyers, Paul, June 10, 2014, Wimbledon 'near-live' highlights will be broadcast globally across Facebook, Twitter, Google+ and YouTube,weblink TNW, June 12, 2014, In July 2017, Twitter announced that it would wind down SnappyTV as a separate company, and integrate its features into the Media Studio suite on Twitter.WEB,weblink Twitter confirms it is winding down SnappyTV, shifting features to Media Studio, TechCrunch, Lunden, Ingrid, July 25, 2017,


User accounts with large follower base

{{as of|2019|11|06|df=}}, the ten Twitter accounts with the most followers were:WEB,weblink Twitter: Most Followers, Friend or Follow, November 6, 2019, {|class="wikitable sortable"! Rank! class="unsortable" | Change (monthly)! Account name! Owner! Followers (millions)! Activity! Country 1.{{unchanged}}Barack Obama on social media>@BarackObama| Barack Obama 110 Former U.S. PresidentUSA}} 2.{{unchanged}}| @katyperry| Katy Perry 108.2| MusicianUSA}} 3. {{unchanged}}| @justinbieber| Justin Bieber 107.2| MusicianCAN}} 4. {{unchanged}}| @rihanna| Rihanna 94.3| MusicianBAR}} 5. {{unchanged}}| @taylorswift13| Taylor Swift 85| MusicianUSA}} 6.{{unchanged}}| @Cristiano| Cristiano Ronaldo 80.8Association football>FootballerPOR}} 7. {{unchanged}}| @ladygaga| Lady Gaga 80.1| Musician and actressUSA}} 8. {{unchanged}}| @TheEllenShow| Ellen DeGeneres 78.9| ComedianUSA}} 9. {{unchanged}}| @YouTube| YouTube 72 Online video platformUSA}} 10. {{increase}}| @ArianaGrande| Ariana Grande 67| Musician and actressUSA}}

Oldest accounts

The oldest Twitter accounts are 14 accounts that became active on March 21, 2006, all belonging to Twitter employees at the time and including @jack (Jack Dorsey), @biz (Biz Stone), and @noah (Noah Glass).WEB,weblink Search by Twitter bio, name, URL, location, more, Followerwonk, May 9, 2013,

Record tweets

A selfie orchestrated by 86th Academy Awards host Ellen DeGeneres during the March 2, 2014 broadcast was at the time the most retweeted image ever.NEWS, Selfie at Oscars breaks retweet record,weblink BBC News, March 3, 2014, March 3, 2014, WEB,weblink If only Bradley's arm was longer. Best photo ever. #oscars, DeGeneres, Ellen, Twitter, March 2, 2014, March 3, 2014, DeGeneres said she wanted to pay homage to Meryl Streep's record 17 Oscar nominations by setting a new record with her, and invited other Oscar celebrities to join them. The resulting photo of twelve celebrities broke the previous retweet record within forty minutes, and was retweeted over 1.8 million times in the first hour.NEWS, BBC Trending,weblink #BBCtrending: Selfie at Oscars breaks retweet record,, March 3, 2014, July 28, 2014, BBC News, NEWS, March 3, 2014, Associated Press,weblink Ellen DeGeneres' Selfie at Oscars Sets Retweet Record, Crashes Twitter, The Ledger, By the end of the ceremony it had been retweeted over 2 million times; less than 24 hours later, it had been retweeted over 2.8 million times. {{As of|2014|March|18}}, it has been retweeted over 3.4 million times. The group selfie effort was parodied by Lego, and Matt Groening with The Simpsons.WEB,weblink Ellen DeGeneres' Famous Oscar Selfie Gets The Simpsons and Lego Treatment—Take a Look!,, March 4, 2014, July 28, 2014, WEB,weblink Grumpy Cat, Legos Parody Ellen's Oscars Selfie,, March 5, 2014, July 28, 2014, It beat the previous record, 778,801, which was held by Barack Obama, following his victory in the 2012 presidential election.NEWS,weblink Oscars 2014, the year of the selfie: Ellen tweet grabs retweet record, March 2, 2014,, October 7, 2014, Amy, Hubbard, NEWS, Barack Obama victory tweet most retweeted ever,weblink BBC News, November 8, 2013, November 7, 2012, "Four more years" Barack Obama on Twitter, November 6, 2012. On May 9, 2017, Ellen's record was broken by Carter Wilkerson (@carterjwm) by collecting nearly 3.5 million retweets in a little over a month.WEB,weblink @Twitter, Twitter, May 9, 2017, According to Guinness World Records, the fastest pace to a million followers was set by actor Robert Downey Jr. in 23 hours and 22 minutes in April 2014.NEWS, Fastest time to reach one million followers on Twitter,weblink Guinness World Records, May 19, 2015, April 12, 2014, This record was later broken by Caitlyn Jenner, who joined the site on June 1, 2015 and amassed a million followers in just 4 hours and 3 minutes.The most tweeted moment in the history of Twitter occurred on August 2, 2013; during a Japanese television airing of the Studio Ghibli film Castle in the Sky, fans simultaneously tweeted the word {{Nihongo|balse|バルス}}—the incantation for a destruction spell used during its climax, after it was uttered in the film. There was a global peak of 143,199 tweets in one second, beating the previous record of 33,388.WEB, Oremus, Will,weblink Balse Festival: Japan "Castle in the Sky" airing breaks Twitter record for tweets per second,, August 19, 2013, June 26, 2014, NEWS,weblink How an Old Japanese Anime Broke a Twitter Record, Ashcraft, Brian, Kotaku, August 31, 2018, en-US, The most discussed event in Twitter history occurred on October 24, 2015; the hashtag ("#ALDubEBTamangPanahon") for Tamang Panahon, a live special episode of the Filipino variety show Eat Bulaga! at the Philippine Arena, centering on its popular on-air couple AlDub, attracted 41 million tweets.WEB,weblink Fans in the Philippines & around the world sent 41M Tweets mentioning #ALDubEBTamangPanahon, October 27, 2015, October 30, 2015, Twitter Data Verified Account, WEB, Mendoza, Arvin,weblink 'AlDub' breaks FIFA World Cup's Twitter record, October 25, 2015, October 25, 2015, Philippine Daily Inquirer, The most-discussed sporting event in Twitter history was the 2014 FIFA World Cup semi-final between Brazil and Germany on July 8, 2014.NEWS, Tomchak, Anne-Marie,weblink #BBCtrending: Brazil's World Cup thrashing breaks Twitter records, July 9, 2014, July 9, 2014, BBC Online, On the day of the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Twitter proved to be the largest source of breaking news, with over 40 million tweets sent that day.NEWS, Mike, Isaac, Sydney, Ember, For Election Day Influence, Twitter Ruled Social Media,weblink The New York Times, November 8, 2016, November 20, 2016,

Trending topics

A recent studyJOURNAL, Annamoradnejad, Issa, Habibi, Jafar, 2019, A Comprehensive Analysis of Twitter Trending Topics,weblink 2019 5th International Conference on Web Research (ICWR), Tehran, Iran, IEEE, 22–27, 10.1109/ICWR.2019.8765252, 9781728114316, 2019arXiv190709007A, 1907.09007, analysed trending topics of 2018 according to several criteria. Their results highlight a number of points:
  • More than 68% of trends were hashtags.
  • Around 45% of trends consist of more than one word. In average, they contain 13 characters.
  • In average, a topic needs 36.2 minutes to reach the top ten list and remains in that list for 85.6 minutes.
  • In average, a topic needs 91.5 minutes to reach the first rank and holds the position for 99.3 minutes.
  • 28% (977 topics in 2018) of all first rank trending topics reached that position in less than 10 minutes.
  • First rank topics mostly appear once in that position. Only 2% reoccurred more than three times.
  • In average, a topic needs more than 112,000 tweets to reach the top ten list, and 263,000 tweets to reach the first rank.
  • English language with 6,914 unique topics, comprised 39% of all topics. Arabic with 20% and Spanish with 7% were the second and third most popular languages for trending topics.

See also


Further reading

External links

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