New York City

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New York City
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{{Redirect2|NYC|New York, New York||New York City (disambiguation)|and|NYC (disambiguation)|and|New York, New York (disambiguation)}}{{pp-semi-protected|small=yes}}{{Use mdy dates|date=March 2019}}{{Short description|Largest city in the United States}}

| mapsize = | map_caption = Interactive map outlining New York City| pushpin_map = New York#USA#North America| pushpin_relief = 1| pushpin_map_caption = Location within the state of New YorkLocation within the United StatesLocation within North America| pushpin_label = New York| pushpin_label_position = left40.66173.944region:US-NYdisplay=inline,title}}| coor_pinpoint = UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU >ACCESSDATE=APRIL 23, 2011 TITLE=US GAZETTEER FILES: 2010, 2000, AND 1990, List of sovereign states>Country{{flagu|United States}}}}U.S. state>StateNew York}}
List of regions of the United States>RegionMid-Atlantic (United States)>Mid-AtlanticCounty (United States)>Constituent counties / (boroughs)The Bronx>Bronx (The Bronx)BrooklynManhattan>New York (Manhattan)QueensStaten Island>Richmond (Staten Island)
Colony>Historic colonies| subdivision_name5 = New NetherlandProvince of New York| established_title = Settled| established_date = 1624City of Greater New York>Consolidated| established_date1 = 1898| established_title2 = URL=HTTP://WWW.NYC.GOV/PORTAL/SITE/NYCGOV/MENUITEM.E985CF5219821BC3F7393CD401C789A0/ ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 8, 2010 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100317115700/HTTP://WWW.NYC.GOV/PORTAL/SITE/NYCGOV/MENUITEM.E985CF5219821BC3F7393CD401C789A0 DF=, Mayor–council government>Mayor–Council| governing_body = New York City CouncilMayor of New York City>MayorBill de Blasio (Democratic Party (United States)>D)| total_type = Total| unit_pref = Imperial| area_footnotes = | area_total_sq_mi = 468.484| area_land_sq_mi = 302.643| area_water_sq_mi = 165.841| area_metro_sq_mi = 13318TITLE=US BOARD ON GEOGRAPHIC NAMES UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY >DATE=JUNE 23, 2018, Search for feature ID 975772.| elevation_m = 10| elevation_ft = 33List of United States cities by population>1st, U.S.| population_density_sq_mi = {{#expr:8398748/302.643 round 0}}2010 United States Census>2010| population_total = 8175133| population_footnotes = Community Facts for New York city, New York, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 26, 2017.| population_est = 8398748| pop_est_as_of = 2018| pop_est_footnotes = Metropolitan statistical area>MSA (2018)List of metropolitan statistical areas>1st)New York metropolitan area>CSA (2018)PUBLISHER=U.S. CENSUS BUREAU List of Combined Statistical Areas>1st)| population_demonym = New Yorker| blank6_name = GDP (City, 2015)| blank6_info = US$807 billioweblink (1st)Gross metropolitan product>GMP (Metro, 2019)| blank7_info = US$1.9 trillion (1st)Eastern Time Zone>EST| utc_offset1 = −05:00Eastern Time Zone>EDT| utc_offset1_DST = −04:00| postal_code_type = ZIP Codes| postal_code = 100xx–104xx, 11004–05, 111xx–114xx, 116xxArea codes 212, 646, and 332>212/646/332, Area codes 718, 347, and 929, Area code 917>917Federal Information Processing Standards>FIPS code| blank_info = 36-51000Geographic Names Information System>GNIS feature ID| blank1_info = 975772| blank2_name = Major airports| blank2_info = John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, LaGuardia Airport| blank4_name = Commuter railLIRR, Metro-North, NJ Transit Rail Operations>NJ Transit| blank5_name = Rapid transitNew York City Subway>Subway, Staten Island Railway, PATHBoroughs of New York City>borough by areaQueens – {{convert>109km2}}| blank1_name_sec2 = Largest borough by populationBrooklyn (2,636,735 – 2015 est)STATE & COUNTY QUICKFACTS – KINGS COUNTY (BROOKLYN BOROUGH), NEW YORK PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160217175357/HTTP://QUICKFACTS.CENSUS.GOV/QFD/STATES/36/36047.HTML DF=, | blank2_name_sec2 = Largest borough by GDP (2015)| blank2_info_sec2 = Manhattan – US$630 billion| website =| population_density_km2 = auto}}{{Regions of New York}}The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States.NEWS,weblink New York City’s Population Hits a Record 8.6 Million, The New York Times, March 22, 2018, With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748WEB,weblink NYC Population: Current and Projected Populations,, 2019-05-02, distributed over a land area of about {{convert|302.6|sqmi|km2}},Quick Facts for New York city, New York, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.Stormwater {{webarchive|url= |date=January 25, 2017 }}, New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Accessed February 9, 2017. "These impervious surfaces cover approximately 72% of New York City's 305 square miles in land area and generate a significant amount of stormwater." New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States.WEB,weblink Mapping the Nation's Most Densely Populated Cities, Mike Maciag, Governing – The States and Localities, October 2, 2013, August 27, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink August 27, 2016, Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmassWEB,weblink World Urban Areas, Demographia, 2018, March 27, 2018, and one of the world's most populous megacities,WEB,weblinkweblink yes, October 9, 2009, World's Largest Urban Areas [Ranked by Urban Area Population], Rhett Butler, 2003–2006, April 26, 2011, WEB,weblink Largest Cities of the World – (by metro population), Woolwine-Moen Group d/b/a Graphic Maps, April 26, 2011, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area.WEB,weblink Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 – Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico – 2017 Population Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau, March 24, 2018, A global power city,WEB,weblink Global Power City Index 2009, The Mori Memorial Foundation, June 1, 2012, New York City has been described as the cultural,WEB,weblink Citing its diversity and culture, NYC was voted best city in the world in new global survey, Will Gleason, TimeOut, March 11, 2019, May 19, 2019, After compiling the thoughts of over 30,000 people, both from our NYC readership and half-a-world away, New York was voted the greatest city on the planet for 2019. In a hint as to why this happened, and why now, it also lead the categories of most diverse metropolis and best culture., Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013WEB, Shields, Ann, The World's 50 Most Visited Tourist Attractions – No. 3: Times Square, New York City – Annual Visitors: 50,000,000, Travel+Leisure,weblink November 10, 2014, July 12, 2015, No. 3 Times Square,...No. 4 (tie) Central Park,...No. 10 Grand Central Terminal, New York City, and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017.WEB,weblink Mayor De Blasio And NYC & Company Announce NYC Welcomed Record 62.8 Million Visitors In 2017, NYC & Company, Inc, March 20, 2018, April 4, 2018, Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world.WEB,weblink The 10 Most Photographed Cities In The World, The Crazy Tourist, June 28, 2017, yes,weblink October 11, 2017, WEB, O'Neill, Sean,weblink The 25 most photographed places on Earth,, June 12, 2011, January 17, 2014, Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart"NEWS, Remnick, Noah, Schlossberg, Tatiana,weblink New York Today:Transforming Times Square, The New York Times, August 24, 2015, August 25, 2015, and its "Crossroads",WEB,weblink Times Square – The Official Site of Times Square, Times Square District Management Association, Inc, August 25, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink January 18, 2017, is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District,WEB,weblink Times Square, Encyclopædia Britannica, May 10, 2011, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections,WEB,weblink World's Most-Visited Tourist Attractions No. 3: Times Square, New York City, Travel and Leisure, October 15, 2017, WEB,weblink The Most Jivin' Streetscapes in the World, Luigi Di Serio, 2010, May 10, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink September 21, 2014, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry.WEB,weblink New York Architecture Images- Midtown Times Square, 2011 nyc-architecture, May 10, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink January 25, 2017, The names of many of the city's landmarks, skyscrapers,Buildings in New York City {{webarchive|url= |date=February 17, 2017 }}, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Accessed February 9, 2017. and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world.WEB,weblink Manhattan, New York – Some of the Most Expensive Real Estate in the World Overlooks Central Park, The Pinnacle List, November 24, 2014, WEB, Brennan, Morgan,weblink The World's Most Expensive Billionaire Cities, Forbes, March 22, 2013, July 6, 2013, New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia,NEWS,weblink Indictment of New York Officer Divides Chinese-Americans, Vivian Yee, The New York Times, February 22, 2015, May 5, 2018, WEB,weblink Chinese New Year 2012 in Flushing,, January 25, 2012, May 5, 2018, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city.WEB,weblink NYC – The Official Guide, NYC & Company, May 5, 2018, Plenty of cities have a Chinatown, but New York City—home to the largest Chinese populations in the United States—has more than you can count on one hand., January 23, 2017, WEB, Waxman, Sarah,weblink The History of New York's Chinatown, Mediabridge Infosystems, Inc., May 5, 2018, Manhattan's Chinatown, the largest Chinatown in the United States and the site of the largest concentration of Chinese in the Western Hemisphere, is located on the Lower East Side., WEB,weblink Chinatown New York City Fact Sheet,, May 5, 2018, Chinatown, Manhattan, Chinatown New York City is the biggest in the United States, with the largest concentration of Chinese in the Western Hemisphere., Providing continuous 24/7 service,NEWS,weblink With Terrorism Concerns in Mind, Police Prepare to Guard a Shuttered System, The New York Times, December 20, 2005, February 17, 2012, Al, Baker, Richard, Pérez-Peña, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with {{NYCS const|number|total}} rail stations.WEB,weblink How to Ride the Subway,, April 21, 2014, WEB,weblink 25 Most Extensive Metro Systems in the World,,weblink" title="">weblink March 20, 2013, April 21, 2014, WEB,weblink NYC Subway 101, Walks of New York,weblink" title="">weblink January 9, 2014, July 28, 2016, Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world.WEB,weblink Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017, ShanghaiRanking Consultancy, October 16, 2017, WEB,weblink CWUR 2016 – World University Rankings, Center for World University Rankings, October 16, 2017, Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world,WEB, Meaney, Thomas,weblink Michael Bloomberg's One Percent Foreign-Policy Doctrine, FP, February 12, 2016, February 12, 2016, WEB, Florida, Richard,weblink Sorry, London: New York Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City, The Atlantic Monthly Group, March 3, 2015, March 16, 2015, Our new ranking puts the Big Apple firmly on top., weblink Accessed March 23, 2019. and the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.WEB,weblink NYSE Listings Directory, June 23, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink June 21, 2013, WEB,weblink 2013 WFE Market Highlights, World Federation of Exchanges, July 20, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink March 27, 2014,



In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York, who would become King James II of England. James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had recently seized from the Dutch.

Early history

During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over {{convert|1,000|ft}} in depth. The erosive forward movement of the ice (and its subsequent retreat) contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action also left bedrock at a relatively shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers.WEB,weblink Remnants of an Ice Age, The Wisconsin Ice Sheet Continues Its Journey, The City of New York, August 8, 2015, In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the western portion of Long Island, including the area that would become Brooklyn and Queens; Manhattan; the Bronx; and the Lower Hudson Valley.Evan T. Pritchard (2002). Native New Yorkers: the legacy of the Algonquin people of New York, p. 27; {{ISBN|1-57178-107-2}}The first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême (New Angoulême).BOOK, Rankin, Rebecca B., Cleveland, Rodgers, New York: The World's Capital City, Its Development and Contributions to Progress, Harper, 1948, A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio (Saint Anthony's River). The Padrón Real of 1527, the first scientific map to show the East Coast of North America continuously, was informed by Gomes' expedition and labeled the northeastern United States as Tierra de Esteban Gómez in his honor.WPA Writer's Project: A Maritime History of New York, p. 246; Going Coastal Productions (2004) {{ISBN|0-9729803-1-8}}File:The Purchase of Manhattan Island.png|thumb|alt=A pen drawing of two men in 16th-century Dutch clothing presenting an open box of items to a group of Native Americans in feather headdresses stereotypical of plains tribes.In 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson rediscovered the New York Harbor while searching for the Northwest Passage to the Orient for the Dutch East India Company. He proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River (now the Hudson River), named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange. Hudson's first mate described the harbor as "a very good Harbour for all windes" and the river as "a mile broad" and "full of fish."WEB,weblink The Hudson River, New Netherland Institute, July 10, 2016, Hudson sailed roughly {{convert|150|miles}} north,WEB,weblink Henry Hudson, Encyclopædia Britannica, July 10, 2016, past the site of the present-day New York State capital city of Albany, in the belief that it might be an oceanic tributary before the river became too shallow to continue. He made a ten-day exploration of the area and claimed the region for the Dutch East India Company. In 1614, the area between Cape Cod and Delaware Bay was claimed by the Netherlands and called Nieuw-Nederland (New Netherland).The first non-Native American inhabitant of what would eventually become New York City was Juan Rodriguez (transliterated to Dutch as Jan Rodrigues), a merchant from Santo Domingo. Born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, he arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–14, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch. Broadway, from 159th Street to 218th Street in Upper Manhattan, is named Juan Rodriguez Way in his honor.NEWS, Roberts, Sam, Honoring a Very Early New Yorker,weblink The New York Times, October 2, 2012, Juan Rodriguez monograph. Retrieved July 12, 2013.File:GezichtOpNieuwAmsterdam.jpg|thumb|left|New Amsterdam, centered in the eventual Lower Manhattan, in 1664, the year alt=A painting of a coastline dotted with red roof houses and a windmill, with several masted ships sailing close to shore under blue sky.

Dutch rule

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 – making New York the 12th oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in the continental United StatesWEB, Briney, Amanda,weblink 15 Oldest Cities in the United States,, January 3, 2015, – with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on a citadel and Fort Amsterdam, later called Nieuw Amsterdam (New Amsterdam), on present-day Manhattan Island.Dutch Colonies, National Park Service. Accessed May 19, 2007. "Sponsored by the West India Company, 30 families arrived in North America in 1624, establishing a settlement on present-day Manhattan."GovIsland Park-to-Tolerance: through Broad Awareness and Conscious Vigilance, Tolerance Park. Accessed February 9, 2017. See Legislative Resolutions Senate No. 5476 and Assembly No. 2708. The colony of New Amsterdam was centered at the site which would eventually become Lower Manhattan. It extended from the lower tip of Manhattan to modern day Wall Street,where a 12-foot wooden stockade was built in 1653 to protect against Native American and British Raids.weblink "Timeline: A selected Wall Street chronology" In 1626, the Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit, acting as charged by the Dutch West India Company, purchased the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a small Lenape band,Frederick M. Binder, David M. Reimers: All the Nations Under Heaven: An Ethnic and Racial History of New York City, p. 4; (1996) {{ISBN|0-231-07879-X}} for 60 guildersPieter Schaghen Letter 1626: "... hebben t'eylant Manhattes van de wilde gekocht, voor de waerde van 60 gulden: is groot 11000 morgen. ... "("... They have purchased the Island Manhattes from the Indians for the value of 60 guilders. It is 11,000 morgens in size ...) (about $1,000 in 2006).WEB,weblink Value of the Guilder / Euro, August 19, 2008, International Institute of Social History, A disproved legend claims that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads.WEB,weblink Letter describing purchase by Pieter Schaghen from Dutch National Archive, The Hague, with transcription,, October 28, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink October 23, 2010, JOURNAL, A New Perspective on Indian-White Contact: Cultural Symbols and Colonial Trade, The Journal of American History, 73, 2, September 1986, 10.2307/1908224, Miller, Christopher L, Hamell, George R, 1908224, 311–328, Following the purchase, New Amsterdam grew slowly.WEB,weblink Dutch Colonies, National Park Service, July 10, 2016, To attract settlers, the Dutch instituted the patroon system in 1628, whereby wealthy Dutchmen (patroons, or patrons) who brought 50 colonists to New Netherland would be awarded swathes of land, along with local political autonomy and rights to participate in the lucrative fur trade. This program had little success.WEB,weblink The Patroon System, Library of Congress, July 10, 2016, Since 1621, the Dutch West India Company had operated as a monopoly in New Netherland, on authority granted by the Dutch States General. In 1639–1640, in an effort to bolster economic growth, the Dutch West India Company relinquished its monopoly over the fur trade, leading to growth in the production and trade of food, timber, tobacco, and slaves (particularly with the Dutch West Indies).WEB,weblink The Story of New Amsterdam, New Amsterdam History Center, July 10, 2016, In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant began his tenure as the last Director-General of New Netherland. During his tenure, the population of New Netherland grew from 2,000 to 8,000.BOOK, Jaap, Jacobs, The Colony of New Netherland: A Dutch Settlement in Seventeenth-Century America, Cornell University Press, 2009, 32, BOOK, The Encyclopedia of New York State, 1051, Peter, Eisenstadt, Laura-Eve, Moss, Carole F., Huxley, 2005, Syracuse University Press,weblink 978-0-8156-0808-0, Stuyvesant has been credited with improving law and order in the colony; however, he also earned a reputation as a despotic leader. He instituted regulations on liquor sales, attempted to assert control over the Dutch Reformed Church, and blocked other religious groups (including Quakers, Jews, and Lutherans) from establishing houses of worship.WEB,weblink Peter Stuyvesant, New-York Historical Society, July 11, 2016, The Dutch West India Company would eventually attempt to ease tensions between Stuyvesant and residents of New Amsterdam.WEB,weblink Peter Stuyvesant, New Netherland Institute, July 11, 2016,

English rule

File:A view of Fort George with the city of New York, from the SW.jpg|thumb|Fort George and the city of New York c. 1731]]In 1664, unable to summon any significant resistance, Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to English troops, led by Colonel Richard Nicolls, without bloodshed. The terms of the surrender permitted Dutch residents to remain in the colony and allowed for religious freedom.WEB,weblink The surrender of New Netherland, 1664, Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, July 11, 2016, The English promptly renamed the fledgling city "New York" after the Duke of York (the future King James II of England).BOOK, Homberger, Eric, The Historical Atlas of New York City: A Visual Celebration of 400 Years of New York City's History, 2005, 34, Owl Books, 978-0-8050-7842-8, The transfer was confirmed in 1667 by the Treaty of Breda, which concluded the Second Anglo-Dutch War.WEB,weblink Treaty of Breda, Encyclopædia Britannica, July 10, 2016, On August 24, 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, Dutch captain Anthony Colve seized the colony of New York from England at the behest of Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and rechristened it "New Orange" after William III, the Prince of Orange. The Dutch would soon return the island to England under the Treaty of Westminster of November 1674.NEWS, Van Luling, Todd, The Huffington Post,weblink 8 Things Even New Yorkers Don't Know About New York City, April 17, 2014, September 13, 2014, WEB,weblink The Man Who Took Back New Netherland, Peter Douglas, New Netherland Institute, July 11, 2016, Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused sizeable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670."Native Americans". Penn Treaty Museum. By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200."Gotham Center for New York City History" Timeline 1700–1800 New York experienced several yellow fever epidemics in the 18th century, losing ten percent of its population to the disease in 1702 alone."The Early History of Yellow Fever" (PDF). Pedro Nogueira, Thomas Jefferson University. 2009."Timeline of Yellow Fever in America". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).New York grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule in the early 1700s. It also became a center of slavery, with 42% of households holding slaves by 1730, the highest percentage outside Charleston, South Carolina.JOURNAL, Oltman, Adele,weblink The Hidden History of Slavery in New York, The Nation, October 24, 2005, July 9, 2013, Most slaveholders held a few or several domestic slaves, but others hired them out to work at labor. Slavery became integrally tied to New York's economy through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banks and shipping tied to the American South. Discovery of the African Burying Ground in the 1990s, during construction of a new federal courthouse near Foley Square, revealed that tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the area in the colonial years.The 1735 trial and acquittal in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger, who had been accused of seditious libel after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby, helped to establish the freedom of the press in North America.WEB, Linder, Doug,weblink The Trial of John Peter Zenger: An Account, 2001, In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by King George II as King's College in Lower Manhattan.BOOK, Moore, Nathaniel Fish, An Historical Sketch of Columbia College, in the City of New York, 1754–1876, 1876, 8, Columbia College,

American Revolution

File:BattleofLongisland.jpg|thumb|The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolution, took place in alt=Colonial era soldiers stand and kneel while firing muskets at and advancing enemy. Behind them is a mounted soldier with a bayonet and behind them is a large flag.The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765, as the Sons of Liberty, organized in the city, skirmished over the next ten years with British troops stationed there. The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, was fought in August 1776 within the modern-day borough of Brooklyn. After the battle, in which the Americans were defeated, the British made the city their military and political base of operations in North America. The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters. As many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation. When the British forces evacuated at the close of the war in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia. They resettled other freedmen in England and the Caribbean.The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776. Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church.Trinity Church bicentennial celebration, May 5, 1897 By Trinity Church (New York, N.Y.) p. 37In 1785, the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York City the national capital shortly after the war. New York was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States. In 1789, the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first time, and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street.WEB, The People's Vote: President George Washington's First Inaugural Speech (1789), U.S. News and World Report,weblink September 1, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink September 25, 2008, By 1790, New York had surpassed Philadelphia to become the largest city in the United States, but by the end of that year, pursuant to the Residence Act, the national capital was moved to Philadelphia.WEB,weblink Residence Act, Web Guides: Primary Documents in American History, Library of Congress, April 23, 2017, The Nine Capitals of the United States, by Robert Fortenbaugh (1948), p. 9, via U.S. Senate web site

Nineteenth century

File:Hippolyte Sebron - Rue De New-York En 1840.jpg|thumb|left|Broadway follows the Native American Wickquasgeck Trail through Manhattan.NEWS, The Streets Where History Lives, Russell, Shorto,weblink alt=A painting of a snowy city street with horse-drawn sleds and a 19th-century fire truck under blue skyUnder New York State's gradual abolition act of 1799, children of slave mothers were to be eventually liberated but to be held in indentured servitude until their mid-to-late twenties."An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Negro Slavery in New York" (L. 1799, Ch. 62)WEB, Harper, Douglas,weblink Slavery in the North – Emancipation in New York, 2003, February 6, 2013, Together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped slaves, a significant free-black population gradually developed in Manhattan. Under such influential United States founders as Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, the New York Manumission Society worked for abolition and established the African Free School to educate black children.New York Divided: Slavery and the Civil War online exhibit, New-York Historical Society, (November 17, 2006 to September 3, 2007, physical exhibit), accessed May 10, 2012 It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely abolished in the state, and free blacks struggled afterward with discrimination. New York interracial abolitionist activism continued; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. The city's black population reached more than 16,000 in 1840.Leslie M. Harris, "African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863", Department of History, Emory UniversityIn the 19th century, the city was transformed by development relating to its status as a trading center, as well as by European immigration.Ira Rosenwaike (1972). Population History of New York City, p. 55. The city adopted the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass almost all of Manhattan. The 1825 completion of the Erie Canal through central New York connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River and the Great Lakes.BOOK, Bridges, William, Map Of The City Of New York And Island Of Manhattan With Explanatory Remarks And References, 1811, ; Lankevich (1998), pp. 67–68. Local politics became dominated by Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish and German immigrants.BOOK, Mushkat, Jerome Mushkat, Fernando Wood: A Political Biography, Kent State University Press, 1990, 36, 978-0-87338-413-1, Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. Public-minded members of the contemporaneous business elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park in an American city.File:Mulberry Street NYC c1900 LOC 3g04637u edit.jpg|thumb|Manhattan's Little Italy, Lower East SideLower East SideThe Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants, of whom over 200,000 were living in New York by 1860, upwards of a quarter of the city's population."Cholera in Nineteenth Century New York". VNY, City University of New York. There was also extensive immigration from the German provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25% of New York's population by 1860.Leslie M. Harris, "The New York City Draft Riots", excerpt from In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863, University of Chicago Press, 2003Democratic Party candidates were consistently elected to local office, increasing the city's ties to the South and its dominant party. In 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood called upon the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the United States after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on. Anger at new military conscription laws during the American Civil War (1861–1865), which spared wealthier men who could afford to pay a $300 ({{Inflation|US|300|1863|fmt=eq}}) commutation fee to hire a substitute,"The Draft in the Civil War", led to the Draft Riots of 1863, whose most visible participants were ethnic Irish working class.The situation deteriorated into attacks on New York's elite, followed by attacks on Black New Yorkers and their property after fierce competition for a decade between Irish immigrants and black people for work. Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground, with more than 200 children escaping harm due to efforts of the New York Police Department, which was mainly made up of Irish immigrants. At least 120 people were killed.BOOK, McPherson, James M., Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction,weblink McGraw-Hill Education, 2001, 978-0-07-743035-1, 399, Eleven Black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of Blacks to flee the city for Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and New Jersey. The black population in Manhattan fell below 10,000 by 1865, which it had last been in 1820. The white working class had established dominance. Violence by longshoremen against Black men was especially fierce in the docks area. It was one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history.BOOK, Cook, Adrian, The Armies of the Streets: The New York City Draft Riots of 1863, 1974, 193–195,

Modern history

File:Old timer structural worker2.jpg|thumb|left|A construction worker atop the Empire State Building as it was being built in 1930. The alt=A man working on a steel girder high about a city skyline.In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens.WEB,weblink The 100 Year Anniversary of the Consolidation of the 5 Boroughs into New York City, October 28, 2010, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink October 11, 2007, , New York City. Retrieved June 29, 2007 The opening of the subway in 1904, first built as separate private systems, helped bind the new city together. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication.In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board. In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city's worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and major improvements in factory safety standards.Cornell University Library: Triangle Factory Fire, Cornell University. Accessed February 9, 2017.File:Dag Hammarskjold outside the UN building.jpg|thumb|right|upright|UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld in front of the United Nations HeadquartersUnited Nations HeadquartersNew York's non-white population was 36,620 in 1890.Ira Rosenwaike (1972).Population History of New York City, p. 78. New York City was a prime destination in the early twentieth century for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South, and by 1916, New York City had become home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America. The Harlem Renaissance of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition. The larger economic boom generated construction of skyscrapers competing in height and creating an identifiable skyline.New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in the early 1920s, overtaking London. The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in the early 1930s, becoming the first megacity in human history.WEB,weblink New York Urbanized Area: Population & Density from 1800 (Provisional),, July 8, 2009, The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello La Guardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.BOOK, Allen, Oliver E., The Tiger â€“ The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Chapter 9: The Decline, 1993, 978-0-201-62463-2, Returning World War II veterans created a post-war economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens and Nassau County as well as similar suburban areas in New Jersey. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America's place as the world's dominant economic power. The United Nations Headquarters was completed in 1952, solidifying New York's global geopolitical influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York's displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.WEB, Burns, Ric, The Center of the World â€“ New York: A Documentary Film (Transcript), PBS,weblink September 1, 2008, August 22, 2003, File:Stonewall_Inn_5_pride_weekend_2016.jpg|thumb|left|The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, a designated U.S. National Historic Landmark and National Monument, as the site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots and the cradle of the modern (gay rights]] movement.WEB,weblink Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, May 1, 2011, NEWS,weblink Stonewall Inn Named National Monument, a First for the Gay Rights Movement, Eli Rosenberg, The New York Times, June 24, 2016, June 25, 2016, |alt=A two-story building with brick on the first floor, with two arched doorways, and gray stucco on the second floor off of which hang numerous rainbow flags.)The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movementWEB,weblink Why New York City Is a Major Destination for LGBT Travelers, Julia Goicichea, The Culture Trip, August 16, 2017, February 2, 2019, WEB,weblink Brief History of the Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement in the U.S., University of Kentucky, September 2, 2017, WEB,weblink Feature: How the Stonewall riots started the LGBT rights movement, Nell Frizzell, Pink News UK, June 28, 2013, August 31, 2017, WEB,weblink Stonewall riots, Encyclopædia Britannica, August 31, 2017, and the modern fight for LGBT rights.WEB, U.S. National Park Service, Civil Rights at Stonewall National Monument,weblink Department of the Interior, October 17, 2016, August 31, 2017, WEB,weblink Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots, July 2, 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink May 30, 2013, Wayne R. Dynes, author of the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, wrote that drag queens were the only "transgender folks around" during the June 1969 Stonewall riots. "None of them in fact made a major contribution to the movement."WEB,weblink So, what was Stonewall?, Cristan Williams, January 25, 2013, The TransAdvocate, March 28, 2017, Others say the transgender community in New York City played a significant role in fighting for LGBT equality during the period of the Stonewall riots and thereafter.In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates.WEB, Tannenbaum, Allan,weblink New York in the 70s: A Remembrance, The Digital Journalist, December 18, 2011, While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through that decade and into the beginning of the 1990s.WEB, Effgen, Christopher,weblink New York Crime Rates 1960–2009,, September 11, 2001, October 28, 2010, By the mid 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city's economy. New York's population reached all-time highs in the 2000 Census and then again in the 2010 Census.File:UA Flight 175 hits WTC south tower 9-11 edit.jpeg|thumb|United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the original World Trade CenterWorld Trade CenterNew York suffered the bulk of the economic damage and largest loss of human life in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks. Two of the four airliners highjacked that day were flown into the twin towers of the World Trade Center, destroying them and killing 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers. The North Tower became the tallest building ever to be destroyed anywhere then or subsequently.NEWS,weblink Missing Doctor Added to List of 9/11 Victims, July 2008, Associated Press, TWO SL LLC, New York, February 21, 2013, The rebuilding of the area has created a new One World Trade Center, and a 9/11 memorial and museum along with other new buildings and infrastructure. The World Trade Center PATH station, which had opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal, was also destroyed in the attack. A temporary station was built and opened on November 23, 2003. An {{convert|800000|sqft|adj=on}} permanent rail station designed by Santiago Calatrava, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, the city's third-largest hub, was completed in 2016.World Trade Center Transportation Hub, World Trade Center. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The state-of-the-art World Trade Center Transportation Hub, completed in 2016, serves 250,000 Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) daily commuters and millions of annual visitors from around the world. At approximately 800,000 square feet, the Hub, designed by internationally acclaimed architect Santiago Calatrava, is the third largest transportation center in New York City." The new One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western HemisphereNEWS, Hetter, Katia,weblink It's official: One World Trade Center to be tallest U.S. skyscraper, CNN, November 12, 2013, March 1, 2014, and the sixth-tallest building in the world by pinnacle height, with its spire reaching a symbolic {{convert|1776|ft|m|1}} in reference to the year of U.S. independence.WEB,weblink New York City Skyscraper Diagram, Skyscraper Source Media, January 22, 2013, One World Trade Center {{webarchive|url= |date=June 5, 2013 }}, Accessed February 9, 2017. "The roof height is the same as original One World Trade Center. The building is topped out by a 124-meter (408-foot) spire. So the tower rises 1,776 feet (541-meter) which marks the year of the American declaration of Independence."WEB, Matthews, Laura,weblink One World Trade Center On Top As Tallest Building In New York City, The International Business Times, April 30, 2012, January 22, 2013, WEB, Lesser, Benjamin,weblink It's official: 1 World Trade Center is now New York's tallest skyscraper, Daily News, New York, April 30, 2012, January 22, 2013, The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and popularizing the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.Nocera, Joe. "Two Days in September", The New York Times, September 14, 2012. Accessed May 6, 2017. "On the left, that anger led, a year ago, to the rise of the Occupy Wall Street movement. Thus, Anniversary No. 2: Sept. 17, 2011, was the date Occupy Wall Street took over Zuccotti Park in Lower Manhattan, which soon led to similar actions in cities across the country. The movement's primary issue was income inequality — 'We are the 99 percent', they used to chant."


File:Core of New York City by Sentinel-2.jpg|alt=|thumb|The core of the New York City Metropolitan Area, with Manhattan IslandManhattan IslandNew York City is situated in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston.Washington, D.C. is {{convert|228|mi|km}} driving distance from New York, and Boston is {{convert|217|mi|km}} driving distance from New York. â€“ Google Maps The location at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading port. Most of New York City is built on the three islands of Long Island, Manhattan, and Staten Island.The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. Between New York City and Troy, New York, the river is an estuary.WEB,weblink Information About the Hudson River Estuary,, August 20, 2011, The Hudson River separates the city from the U.S. state of New Jersey. The East River—a tidal strait—flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates most of Manhattan from the Bronx. The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.NEWS, Joseph, Berger, Reclaimed Jewel Whose Attraction Can Be Perilous,weblink The New York Times, July 19, 2010, July 21, 2010, The city's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times; reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s.BOOK, Gillespie, Angus K., 1999, Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center, Rutgers University Press, 71, 978-0-7838-9785-1, Some of the natural relief in topography has been evened out, especially in Manhattan.BOOK, Lopate, Phillip, Waterfront: A Walk Around Manhattan, Anchor Press, 2004, 978-0-385-49714-5, The city's total area is {{convert|468.484|sqmi}}, including {{convert|302.643|sqmi|abbr=on}} of land and {{convert|165.841|sqmi|abbr=on}} of this is water.New York State Gazetteer from 2010 United States Census, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.NEWS, The New York Times, It's Still a Big City, Just Not Quite So Big, Sam, Roberts,weblink May 22, 2008, May 22, 2008, The highest point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which, at {{convert|409.8|ft}} above sea level, is the highest point on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine.BOOK, Lundrigan, Margaret, Staten Island: Isle of the Bay, NY, Arcadia Publishing, 2004, 978-0-7385-2443-6, 10, The summit of the ridge is mostly covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.BOOK, Howard, David, Outside Magazine's Urban Adventure New York City, W.W. Norton & Company, 2002, 978-0-393-32212-5, 35, {{clear}}{hide}Geographic location
| Centre =New York City
| North = NorthWestchester County, NY
| Northeast = Long Island Sound
| East = Nassau County, NY
| Southeast = Atlantic Ocean
| South = Monmouth County, NJSouth
| Southwest = Middlesex County, NJ
| West = Hudson County, NJ
| Northwest = Bergen County, NJ


{{Wide image|10 mile panorama of NYC, Feb., 2018.jpg|1800px|3=Ten-mile (16km) Manhattan skyline panorama from 120th Street to the Battery, taken in February 2018 from across the Hudson River in Weehawken, New Jersey.{hide}flatlist|
  1. Riverside Church
  2. Time Warner Center
  3. 220 Central Park South
  4. Central Park Tower
  5. One57
  6. 432 Park Avenue
  7. 53W53
  8. Chrysler Building
  9. Bank of America Tower
  10. Conde Nast Building
  11. The New York Times Building
  12. Empire State Building
  13. Manhattan West
  14. a: 55 Hudson Yards, 14b: 35 Hudson Yards, 14c: 10 Hudson Yards, 14d: 15 Hudson Yards
  15. 56 Leonard Street
  16. 8 Spruce Street
  17. Woolworth Building
  18. 70 Pine Street
  19. 30 Park Place
  20. Trump Building
  21. Three World Trade Center
  22. Four World Trade Center
  23. One World Trade Center{edih}|align-cap=center}}
{{Wide image|Brooklyn Skyline (9910358874).jpg|1800px|3=Downtown Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island. The Manhattan Bridge (far left) and the Brooklyn Bridge (near left) are seen across the East River from Lower Manhattan at in June 2013.|dir=rtl}}{{Wide image|Long Island City New York May 2015 panorama 3.jpg|1000px|3=The growing skyline of Long Island City, Queens,WEB,weblink NYC's Fastest-Growing Neighborhood Gets $180 Million Investment, Henry Goldman, Bloomberg, L.P, October 30, 2018, October 30, 2018, facing the East River at blue hour in May 2015. At left is the Queensboro Bridge, connecting Queens to Manhattan.|dir=rtl}}{{Wide image|1650 Grand Concourse.jpg|800px|3=The Grand Concourse in The Bronx, foreground with Manhattan in the background in February 2018|dir=rtl}}{{Wide image|Verrazano-Narrows Bridge Aerial.JPG|800px|3=The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, one of the world's longest suspension bridges, connecting Staten Island, foreground, to Brooklyn, in the background, across The Narrows.|dir=rtl}}


{{Further|Architecture of New York City|List of buildings, sites, and monuments in New York City|List of tallest buildings in New York City|List of hotels in New York City}}File:Antiguo vs Moderno (4432379954).jpg|thumb|left|upright|Modernist architecture juxtaposed with Gothic Revival architectureGothic Revival architecture{{multiple image|align = right|direction = verticalwidth1=150|height1=250width2=150caption2 = The Chrysler Building, above, built in 1930, is an example of the Art Deco style, with ornamental hub caps and a spire. The Empire State Building is a solitary icon of New York. It was the List of tallest buildings and structures 1931–70 and is defined by its setback (architecture)>setbacks, Art Deco details and the spire.}}File:Greenpoint Houses.JPG|thumb|left|Landmark 19th-century rowhouses, including brownstones, on tree-lined Kent Street in the Greenpoint Historic DistrictGreenpoint Historic DistrictNew York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods, from the saltbox style Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to 1656, to the modern One World Trade Center, the skyscraper at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan and the most expensive office tower in the world by construction cost.WEB,weblink As One World Trade Center soars, so do its costs,, February 1, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink February 1, 2012, Manhattan's skyline, with its many skyscrapers, is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. {{As of|2019}}, New York City had 6,455 high-rise buildings, the third most in world after Hong Kong and Seoul.Skyline Ranking, Emporis. Accessed February 9, 2017. Of these, {{As of|2011|lc=y}}, 550 completed structures were at least {{convert|330|ft|m|sp=us}} high, the second most in the world after Hong Kong,WEB,weblink Emporis Skyline Ranking, Emporis Corporation, October 23, 2011, {{Failed verification|date=March 2019}} with over 50 completed skyscrapers taller than {{convert|656|ft|m|sp=us}}.{{Citation needed|date=March 2019}} These include the Woolworth Building, an early example of Gothic Revival architecture in skyscraper design, built with massively scaled Gothic detailing; completed in 1913, for 17 years it was the world's tallest building.Staff. "Alchemy borrows $220M for Woolworth conversion" {{webarchive|url= |date=February 11, 2017 }}, Real Estate Weekly, June 15, 2016. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The neo-gothic Woolworth Building was commissioned by Frank W. Woolworth in 1910 as his eponymous company's new headquarters and designed by renowned architect Cass Gilbert. The building was completed in 1913 and was for 17 years the tallest building in the world."The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setbacks in new buildings and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below.JOURNAL, Fischler, Raphael, The Metropolitan Dimension of Early Zoning: Revisiting the 1916 New York City Ordinance, Journal of the American Planning Association, 64, 1998, 2, The Art Deco style of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco style.WEB, Favorites! 100 Experts Pick Their top 10 New York Towers, The Skyscraper Museum, January 22, 2006,weblink September 1, 2008, A highly influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its façade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building's structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is a prominent example of green design in American skyscrapers and has received an award from the American Institute of Architects and AIA New York State for its design.The character of New York's large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and townhouses and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930.BOOK, Plunz, Richard A., History of Housing in New York City: Dwelling Type and Change in the American Metropolis, Chapters 3 [Rich and Poor] & 4 [Beyond the Tenement], 1990, Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-06297-8, In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. In neighborhoods such as Riverdale (in the Bronx), Ditmas Park (in Brooklyn), and Douglaston (in Queens), large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian.NEWS,weblink If You're Thinking of Living In/Riverdale, the Bronx; A Community Jealous of Its Open Space, The New York Times, March 1, 1998, February 10, 2012, WEB,weblink New York Metro: 6 Affordable Neighborhoods,, September 17, 2001, February 10, 2012, NEWS,weblink If You're Thinking of Living In/Douglaston, Queens; Timeless City Area, With a Country Feel, The New York Times, February 8, 2004, February 10, 2012, Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835.Lankevich (1998), pp. 82–83; BOOK, Wilson, Rufus Rockwell, New York: Old & New: Its Story, Streets, and Landmarks, 1902, J.B. Lippincott, 354, A distinctive feature of many of the city's buildings is the roof-mounted wooden water tower. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes.WEB, Elliot, Debbie, Wondering About Water Towers, National Public Radio, December 2, 2006,weblink September 1, 2008, Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, such as Jackson Heights.BOOK, Hood, Clifton, 722 Miles: The Building of the Subways and How They Transformed New York, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004, 175–177, 978-0-8018-5244-2, According to the United States Geological Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in New York City than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near the city, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.WEB, Robertson, Jessica, Petersen, Mark,weblink New Insight on the Nation's Earthquake Hazards, United States Geological Survey, July 17, 2014, August 12, 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink August 11, 2014, {{Clear}}


File:5 Boroughs Labels New York City Map.svg|thumb|upright=1.1|The five (borough (New York City)|boroughs]] of New York City:{{legend|#4DAF4A|1. Manhattan}}{{legend|#FFFF33|2. Brooklyn}}{{legend|#FF7F00|3. Queens}}{{legend|#E41A1C|4. The Bronx}}{{legend|#984EA3|5. Staten Island}}|alt=A map with five insular regions of different colors.){{NYC boroughs}}{{nowrap|New York City}} is often referred to collectively as the five boroughs, and in turn, there are (:Category:Neighborhoods in New York City|hundreds of distinct neighborhoods) throughout the boroughs, many with a definable history and character to call their own. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States (Staten island would be ranked 37th) ; these same boroughs are coterminous with the four most densely populated counties in the United States (New York [Manhattan], Kings [Brooklyn], Bronx, and Queens).
  • Brooklyn (Kings County), on the western tip of Long Island, is the city's most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social, and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods, and a distinctive architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn is the largest central core neighborhood in the outer boroughs. The borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country.BOOK, Immerso, Michael, Coney Island: The People's Playground, Rutgers University Press, 2002, 3, 978-0-8135-3138-0, Marine ParkNEWS, Hughes, C.J., Marine Park, Brooklyn: Block Parties, Bocce and Salt Air, The New York Times, August 21, 2016,weblink October 29, 2017, The neighborhood of Marine Park, a compact enclave in southeast Brooklyn, has a major claim to fame. It sits next to the borough's largest park, Marine Park, and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms,WEB,weblink 19 Reasons Why Brooklyn Is New York's New Startup Hotspot, CB Insights, October 19, 2015, August 27, 2017, and of postmodern artNEWS,weblink One Celebrated Brooklyn Artist's Futuristic New Practice, Alexandria Symonds, The New York Times, April 29, 2016, August 27, 2017, and design.NEWS,weblink Brooklyn's Wearable Revolution, Vanessa Friedman, The New York Times, April 30, 2016, August 27, 2017,
  • Queens (Queens County), on Long Island north and east of Brooklyn, is geographically the largest borough, the most ethnically diverse county in the United States,NEWS, O'Donnell, Michelle,weblink In Queens, It's the Glorious 4th, and 6th, and 16th, and 25th ..., New York Times, July 4, 2006, July 20, 2014, and the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.NEWS,weblink Queens, New York, Sightseeing, Christine Kim, Demand Media, USA Today, March 20, 2016, WEB,weblink Queens, Andrew Weber,, April 30, 2013, March 20, 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink May 13, 2015, Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, the borough has since developed both commercial and residential prominence. Downtown Flushing has become one of the busiest central core neighborhoods in the outer boroughs. Queens is the site of Citi Field, the baseball stadium of the New York Mets, and hosts the annual U.S. Open tennis tournament at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park. Additionally, two of the three busiest airports serving the New York metropolitan area, John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, are located in Queens. (The third is Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey.)
  • Staten Island (Richmond County) is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, and to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry, a daily commuter ferry which provides unobstructed views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan. In central Staten Island, the Staten Island Greenbelt spans approximately {{convert|2500|acres|km2|abbr=on}}, including {{convert|28|mi|km}} of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city.WEB,weblink Staten Island Greenbelt &124; New York-New Jersey Trail Conference,, October 28, 2010, Designated in 1984 to protect the island's natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks.
  • The Bronx (Bronx County) is New York City's northernmost borough and the only New York City borough with a majority of it a part of the mainland United States. It is the location of Yankee Stadium, the baseball park of the New York Yankees, and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City.NEWS, Frazier, Ian, Utopia, the Bronx, The New Yorker, June 26, 2006,weblink September 1, 2008, It is also home to the Bronx Zoo, the world's largest metropolitan zoo,WEB,weblink Bronx Zoo Animals & Exhibits, Wildlife Conservation Society, March 20, 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 14, 2015, which spans {{convert|265|acre|km2}} and houses over 6,000 animals.BOOK, Ward, Candace, New York City Museum Guide, Dover Publications, 2000, 978-0-486-41000-5, 72, The Bronx is also the birthplace of rap and hip hop culture.BOOK, David, Toop, Rap Attack 2: African Rap to Global Hip Hop, Serpents Tail, 1992, 978-1-85242-243-1, Pelham Bay Park is the largest park in New York City, at {{convert|2,772|acre|ha}}.NEWS, Foderaro, Lisa W., How Big Is That Park? City Now Has the Answer,weblink The New York Times, May 31, 2013, May 31, 2013,


File:DSC 4585 (8204033522).jpg|alt=|thumb|Queens-Midtown Tunnel after flooding caused by (Hurricane Sandy]] on October 29, 2012.WEB, Johnson, Mary,weblink VIDEO: Dramatic Explosion at East Village Con Ed Plant,, October 29, 2012, November 27, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink December 3, 2012, )Under the Köppen climate classification, using the {{convert|0|°C|0}} isotherm, New York City features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization. The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climates (Dfa).WEB,weblink World Map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification, Peel, M.C., Finlayson, B.L., The University of Melbourne,weblink" title="">weblink January 13, 2015, yes, April 26, 2013, McMahon, T.A, WEB,weblink New York Polonia Polish Portal in New York,, April 26, 2013, For the Trewartha classification, it is defined as an oceanic climate (Do).WEB,weblink Trewartha maps,, January 30, 2019, WEB,weblink Chapter 47. Global mapping,, January 30, 2019, Annually, the city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine. The city lies in the USDA 7b plant hardiness zone.WEB,weblink USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map, Agricultural Research Center, PRISM Climate Group Oregon State University, February 24, 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink February 27, 2014, Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow sea breezes offshore temper the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachian Mountains keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The daily mean temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is {{convert|32.6|°F|1}};weblink Accessed November 13, 2017. temperatures usually drop to {{convert|10|°F|0}} several times per winter,WEB, The Climate of New York, New York State Climate Office,weblink July 6, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink April 12, 2008, and reach {{convert|60|°F}} several days in the coldest winter month. Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of {{convert|76.5|°F|1}} in July.Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, while daytime temperatures exceed {{convert|90|°F|0}} on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed {{convert|100|°F|0}}, although the last time this happened was July 23, 2011. Extreme temperatures have ranged from {{convert|−15|°F|0}}, recorded on February 9, 1934, up to {{convert|106|°F|0}} on July 9, 1936; the coldest recorded wind chill was {{convert|−37|°F|0}} on the same day as the all-time record lowweblink The record cold daily maximum was {{convert|2|°F|0}} on December 30, 1917, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum was {{convert|84|°F|0}}, last recorded on July 22, 2011. The average water temperature of the nearby Atlantic Ocean ranges from {{convert|39.7|°F|1}} in February to {{convert|74.1|°F|1}} in August.WEB,weblink New York City Sea Temperature – United States – Sea Temperatures, World Sea Temperatures, The city receives {{convert|49.9|in|sigfig=3}} of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been {{convert|25.8|in|cm|0}}; this varies considerably between years. Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York area.NEWS, Dolnick, Sam,weblink Damage From Irene Largely Spares New York – Recovery Is Slower in New York Suburbs, The New York Times, August 28, 2011, January 26, 2013, Hurricane Sandy brought a destructive storm surge to New York City on the evening of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels, and subway lines in Lower Manhattan and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburbs.WEB,weblink Superstorm Sandy blamed for at least 11 U.S. deaths as it slams East Coast, CNN, October 29, 2012, January 22, 2013, The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the city and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.WEB, Stone, Jeff, Gallucci, Maria,weblink Hurricane Sandy Anniversary 2014: Fortifying New York – How Well Armored Are We For The Next Superstorm?, International Business Times, October 29, 2014, July 23, 2015, WEB, Eshelman, Robert S.,weblink ADAPTATION: Political support for a sea wall in New York Harbor begins to form, E&E Publishing, LLC, November 15, 2012, July 23, 2015, {{New York City weatherbox}}{{Graph:Weather monthly history| York| title=New York City weather}}


File:New York World's Fair August 1964.jpeg|thumb|right|alt=A spherical sculpture and several attractions line a park during a World's Fair.|Flushing Meadows–Corona Park was used in the 1964 New York World's Fair, with the UnisphereUnisphereThe City of New York has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the National Park Service, the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, and the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.In its 2018 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that the park system in New York City was the ninth-best park system among the fifty most populous U.S. cities.WEB, ParkScore 2018: City Rankings,weblink The Trust for Public Land, November 8, 2018, ParkScore ranks urban park systems by a formula that analyzes median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.

National parks

File:Statue of Liberty, NY.jpg|thumb|The Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracydemocracyGateway National Recreation Area contains over {{convert|26000|acres|2|abbr=on|lk=out}} in total, most of it surrounded by New York City,WEB, Discover the truly wild side of New York's metropolitan area,weblink, June 11, 2012, including the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. In Brooklyn and Queens, the park contains over {{convert|9000|acre|km2}} of salt marsh, wetlands, islands, and water, including most of Jamaica Bay. Also in Queens, the park includes a significant portion of the western Rockaway Peninsula, most notably Jacob Riis Park and Fort Tilden. In Staten Island, Gateway National Recreation Area includes Fort Wadsworth, with historic pre-Civil War era Battery Weed and Fort Tompkins, and Great Kills Park, with beaches, trails, and a marina.The Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island Immigration Museum are managed by the National Park Service and are in both the states of New York and New Jersey. They are joined in the harbor by Governors Island National Monument, in New York. Historic sites under federal management on Manhattan Island include Castle Clinton National Monument; Federal Hall National Memorial; Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site; General Grant National Memorial ("Grant's Tomb"); African Burial Ground National Monument; and Hamilton Grange National Memorial. Hundreds of private properties are listed on the National Register of Historic Places or as a National Historic Landmark such as, for example, the Stonewall Inn, part of the Stonewall National Monument in Greenwich Village, as the catalyst of the modern gay rights movement.

State parks

There are seven state parks within the confines of New York City, including Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve, a natural area that includes extensive riding trails, and Riverbank State Park, a {{convert|28|acre|m2|adj=on}} facility that rises {{convert|69|ft|m}} over the Hudson River.WEB,weblink New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, New York City Region,, October 28, 2010,

City parks

File:Bronx Zoo reindeer.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Reindeer at the Bronx ZooBronx Zoo{{see also|Parks and recreation in New York City}}New York City has over {{convert|28000|acre|km2}} of municipal parkland and {{convert|14|mi|km}} of public beaches.WEB,weblink Mayor Giuliani Announces Amount of Parkland in New York City has Passed {{convert, 28000, acre, km2, on, Mark |date=February 3, 1999 |publisher=New York City Mayor's Office |accessdate=September 1, 2008}}; WEB,weblink Beaches, New York City Department of Parks & Recreation, September 1, 2008, The largest municipal park in the city is Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx, with {{convert|2772|acres|0|abbr=on}}.WEB, Pelham Bay Park,weblink City of New York, June 8, 2012,
  • Central Park, an {{convert|843|acre|km2|adj=on}} park in middle-upper Manhattan, is the most visited urban park in the United States and one of the most filmed locations in the world, with 40 million visitors in 2013.WEB, The World's 50 Most Visited Tourist Attractions – No. 4 (tie) Central Park, New York City – Annual Visitors: 40,000,000, Ann Shields, Travel+Lesiure,weblink November 10, 2014, March 27, 2016, The park contains a wide range of attractions; there are several lakes and ponds, two ice-skating rinks, the Central Park Zoo, the Central Park Conservatory Garden, and the {{convert|106|acre|km2|adj=on}} Jackie Onassis Reservoir.The Rservoir, Accessed October 20, 2017. "Officially named the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir in 1994, the Reservoir is famed for the 1.58 mile track that encircles the 106-acre body of water." Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theater, and the historic Carousel. On October 23, 2012, hedge fund manager John A. Paulson announced a $100 million gift to the Central Park Conservancy, the largest ever monetary donation to New York City's park system.NEWS, Foderaro, Lisa W.,weblink A $100 Million Thank-You for a Lifetime's Central Park Memories, The New York Times, October 23, 2012, October 23, 2012,
  • Washington Square Park is a prominent landmark in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. The Washington Square Arch at the northern gateway to the park is an iconic symbol of both New York University and Greenwich Village.
  • Prospect Park in Brooklyn has a {{convert|90|acre|m2|adj=on}} meadow, a lake, and extensive woodlands. Within the park is the historic Battle Pass, prominent in the Battle of Long Island.Park History, Prospect Park Alliance. Accessed February 9, 2017.
  • Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, with its {{convert|897|acres}} making it the city's fourth largest park,Foderaro, Lisa W. "How Big Is That Park? City Now Has the Answer", The New York Times, May 31, 2013. Accessed February 9, 2017. "But the biggest loser was clearly Flushing Meadows. Previously the third-largest park in the city, it dropped to fourth place after the new analysis put its actual acreage at 897 (897.62 to be precise), down from 1,255 acres." was the setting for the 1939 World's Fair and the 1964 World's Fair[Flushing Meadows Corona Park World's Fair Legacy; Celebrating the 50th & 75th Anniversaries of the 1939 & 1964 Fairs], New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed February 9, 2017. and is host to the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center and the annual United States Open Tennis Championships tournament.National Tennis Center Strategic Vision Project, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The 42-acre NTC is located within Flushing Meadows Corona Park on parkland leased by NYC Parks to USTA and is one of the world' largest public recreational tennis facilities. For 11 months of the year, NTC facilities are open to the public for indoor and outdoor tennis. The NTC is also host to the US Open, one of the sport's four Grand Slam championship tennis tournaments."
  • Over a fifth of the Bronx's area, {{convert|7000|acre|km2}}, is given over to open space and parks, including Pelham Bay Park, Van Cortlandt Park, the Bronx Zoo, and the New York Botanical Gardens.via Associated Press. "Ladies and gentlemen, the Bronx is blooming!", NBC News, July 2, 2008. Accessed February 9, 2017. "Despite its urban image, the Bronx has 7,000 acres of park land, about 25 percent of its total area. In addition to Yankee Stadium and the Bronx Zoo, the borough's green spaces include the New York Botanical Garden; a 19th century garden overlooking the Hudson River called Wave Hill; and Van Cortlandt and Pelham Bay parks, where you can bird-watch, play golf and ride horses."
  • In Staten Island, the Conference House Park contains the historic Conference House, site of the only attempt of a peaceful resolution to the American Revolution which was conducted in September 1775, attended by Benjamin Franklin representing the Americans and Lord Howe representing the British Crown.Conference House Park, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed February 9, 2017. "On September 11, 1776, this house was the site of a conference between British Lord Admiral Richard Howe and Founding Fathers Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Edward Rutledge. The talks occurred just two months after the Declaration of Independence had been signed. With the British controlling New York City, Long Island, and Staten Island, the Americans seemed headed for defeat. Lord Howe offered to end the conflict peacefully if the American colonies would return to British control, but the Americans refused to give up their struggle for independence." The historic Burial Ridge, the largest Native American burial ground within New York City, is within the park.Jerome Jacobson, Mary Harris, James V. Taylor, Albert J. Anderson, William A. Ritchie, Robert E. Funk. Burial Ridge, Tottenville, Staten Island, N.Y., Staten Island Institute of Arts & Sciences, 1980, at The Digital Archaeological Record. Accessed February 9, 2017.
{{clear}}{{wide image|26 - New York - Octobre 2008.jpg|1100px|3=Central Park, as seen from Rockefeller Center, is the most visited city park in the United States.|alt=A large rectangular park stretches to the horizon behind a city skyline.}}

Military installations

New York City is home to Fort Hamilton, the U.S. military's only active duty installation within the city.WEB,weblink Map of Military Installations in the Contiguous US,, February 20, 2012, The Brooklyn facility was established in 1825 on the site of a small battery utilized during the American Revolution, and it is one of America's longest serving military forts.BOOK, Jackson, Kenneth T., The History of New York City, 2nd Edition, 2010, Yale University Press, New Haven, 978-0-300-11465-2, 30,weblink Today Fort Hamilton serves as the headquarters of the North Atlantic Division of the United States Army Corps of Engineers and for the New York City Recruiting Battalion. It also houses the 1179th Transportation Brigade, the 722nd Aeromedical Staging Squadron, and a military entrance processing station. Other formerly active military reservations still utilized for National Guard and military training or reserve operations in the city include Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island and Fort Totten in Queens.


{|class="wikitable collapsible collapsed" style="float:right; margin:0 0 0.5em 1em; text-align:right; font-size:90%;"! style="background:tan; text-align:center" colspan="4"|City compared to State & U.S.  style="background:#ccc; text-align:center;"2010 United States Census>2010 CensusQuickFacts for New York City / New York State / United States, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.New York City Population Projections by Age/Sex & Borough, 2010–2040, New York City Department of City Planning, December 2013. Accessed February 9, 2017.NY CityNY StateU.S.Total population 8,175,133 19,378,102 308,745,538Population change, 2000 to 2010 +2.1% +2.1% +9.7%Population density (people/sqmi) 27,012.5 411.2 87.4Median household income (2015) $53,373 $59,269 $53,889Bachelor's degree or higher 35.7% 34.2% 29.8%Foreign born 37.2% 22.5% 13.2%White (non-Hispanic) 44.0% 65.7% 72.4%Black 25.5% 15.9% 12.6%Hispanic (any race) 28.6% 17.6% 16.3%Asian 12.7% 7.3% 4.8%{|class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"! Racial composition !! 2010 !! 1990 !! 1970 !! 1940White American>White 44.0% 52.3% 76.6% 93.6%Non-Hispanic whites>Non-Hispanic 33.3% 43.2% 62.9%From 15% sample 92.0%African American>Black or African American 25.5% 28.7% 21.1% 6.1%Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 28.6% 24.4% 16.2% 1.6%Asian American>Asian 12.7% 7.0% 1.2% −File:Broadway Crowds (5896264776) crop.jpg|thumb|New York City had an estimated population density of 28,491 people per square mile (11,000/km²) in 2017, with ManhattanManhattan{{Historical populations|type= USA49375840724810664117171304621863494017921611973415205624227839111469611511747791478103191169825074143437202476688356200486930446745499578919577781984789486270716397322564800827881751338398748PUBLISHER=CENSUS.GOV, June 4, 2016, Note: Census figures (1790–2010) cover}} the present area of all five boroughs, before and after the 1898 consolidation. For New York City itself before annexing part of the Bronx in 1874, see Manhattan#Demographics.Sources: 1698–1771,BOOK, Harrington, Greene and, American Population Before the Federal Census of 1790, New York, 1932, BOOK, Rosenwaike, Ira, Population History of New York City, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse,. NY, 1972, 978-0-8156-2155-3, 8, 1790–1890,The Encyclopedia of New York City, ed. Kenneth T. Jackson (Yale 1995, {{ISBN|0-300-05536-6}}), p. 923, citing "U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census of Population 1960 (vol.1, part A, table 28), 1970, 1980, 1990". After annexing part of the Bronx in 1874, the population of the then-New York City was 1,206,299 in 1880 and 1,515,301 in 1890.U.S. Census, from The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1929 (reprinted in 1971 by American Heritage Press and Workman Publishing, {{ISBN|0-07-071881-4}}), p. 503. 1900–1990,Gibson, Campbell. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, United States Census Bureau, June 1998. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 2000 and 2010,weblink" title="">DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 from the Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for New York city, New York, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.weblink" title="">DP-1: Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 from the 2010 Demographic Profile Data for New York city, New York, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.NEWS, Roberts, Sam, City Population Barely Grew in the '00s, Census Finds,weblink March 24, 2011, The New York Times, March 24, 2011, }}New York City is the most populous city in the United States, with an estimated 8,398,748 residents {{As of|2018|lc=y|July|df=}}, incorporating more immigration into the city than outmigration since the 2010 United States Census.WEB, Sherry, Virginia N.,weblink Staten Island population at all-time high of 473,000; NYC's soars to record 8.4 million, Staten Island Advance, March 27, 2014, March 27, 2014, NEWS, Roberts, Sam, Fewer People Are Abandoning the Bronx, Census Data Show,weblink The New York Times, March 14, 2013, March 27, 2014, More than twice as many people live in New York City as in the second-most populous U.S. city (Los Angeles), and within a smaller area. New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2014 (316,000) than any other U.S. city. New York City's population is about 43% of New York State's populationWEB, ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates – 2012–2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates – City Versus State,weblink 2016, American Fact Finder, United States Census Bureau, October 8, 2018, and about 36% of the population of the New York metropolitan area.WEB, ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates – 2012–2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates – City Versus Metro,weblink 2016, American Fact Finder, United States Census Bureau, October 8, 2018,

Population density

In 2017, the city had an estimated population density of {{convert|28491|PD/sqmi}}, rendering it the most densely populated of all municipalities housing over 100,000 residents in the United States, with several small cities (of fewer than 100,000) in adjacent Hudson County, New Jersey having greater density, as per the 2010 Census.weblink" title="">GCT-PH1: Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – State – County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017. Geographically co-extensive with New York County, the borough of Manhattan's 2017 population density of {{convert|72,918|PD/sqmi|PD/sqkm}}weblink" title="">GCT-PH1: Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – County – County Subdivision and Place from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New York County, New York, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017. makes it the highest of any county in the United StatesGuide to State and Local Census Geography, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.Highest Density, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017. and higher than the density of any individual American city.WEB, Mann, Camille, Valera, Stephanie,weblink World's Most Crowded Islands, The Weather Channel, June 27, 2013,

Race and ethnicity

{{further|:Category:Ethnic groups in New York City|Bangladeshis in New York City|Caribbeans in New York City|Chinese in New York City|Filipinos in New York City|Fuzhounese in New York City|Indians in New York City|Irish in New York City|Italians in New York City|Japanese in New York City|Koreans in New York City|Puerto Ricans in New York City|Russians in New York City|Ukrainians in New York City}}The city's population in 2010 was 44% white (33.3% non-Hispanic white), 25.5% black (23% non-Hispanic black), 0.7% Native American, and 12.7% Asian.NEWS, Saul, Michael Howard,weblink New York City Population Hits Record High, The Wall Street Journal, March 27, 2014, March 27, 2014, Hispanics of any race represented 28.6% of the population, while Asians constituted the fastest-growing segment of the city's population between 2000 and 2010; the non-Hispanic white population declined 3 percent, the smallest recorded decline in decades; and for the first time since the Civil War, the number of blacks declined over a decade.NEWS, Roberts, Sam,weblink New York City's Population Barely Rose in the Last Decade, the Census Finds, March 24, 2011, May 1, 2011, The New York Times, {{multiple image|align = left|perrow = 2|total_width=370width1=600|height1=400width2=550|height2=350width3=600|height3=400width4=550|height4=350width5=600|height5=400width6=550|height6=350Chinatown, Manhattan>Manhattan Chinatown; Lower Manhattan's Little Italy, Manhattan; Upper Manhattan's Spanish Harlem; Jackson Heights, Queens>Little India, Queens; Brighton Beach#Russian-speaking cultures; Midtown Manhattan's Koreatown, Manhattan>Koreatown }}Throughout its history, New York has been a major port of entry for immigrants into the United States. More than 12 million European immigrants were received at Ellis Island between 1892 and 1924.WEB,weblink Ellis Island strives to tell more complete immigration story, Charisse, Jones, USA Today, September 24, 2008, July 4, 2014, The term "melting pot" was first coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side. By 1900, Germans constituted the largest immigrant group, followed by the Irish, Jews, and Italians.EB1911, New York City#Population, 19, 617, In 1940, whites represented 92% of the city's population.WEB, Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink yes,weblink August 6, 2012, Approximately 37% of the city's population is foreign born, and more than half of all children are born to mothers who are immigrants.NEWS, Semple, Kirk,weblink City's Newest Immigrant Enclaves, From Little Guyana to Meokjagolmok, The New York Times, June 8, 2013, June 12, 2013, The Newest New Yorkers: 2013, New York City Department of City Planning, December 2013. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The immigrant share of the population has also doubled since 1965, to 37 percent. With foreign-born mothers accounting for 51 percent of all births, approximately 6-in-10 New Yorkers are either immigrants or the children of immigrants." In New York, no single country or region of origin dominates. The ten largest sources of foreign-born individuals in the city {{As of|2011|lc=y}} were the Dominican Republic, China, Mexico, Guyana, Jamaica, Ecuador, Haiti, India, Russia, and Trinidad and Tobago,NEWS, Semple, Kirk,weblink Immigration Remakes and Sustains City, a Report Concludes, The New York Times, December 18, 2013, December 18, 2013, while the Bangladeshi-born immigrant population has become one of the fastest growing in the city, counting over 74,000 by 2011.NEWS, Goldstein, Joseph,weblink Bangladeshis Build Careers in New York Traffic, The New York Times, November 28, 2013, November 28, 2013, Asian Americans in New York City, according to the 2010 Census, number more than one million, greater than the combined totals of San Francisco and Los Angeles.NEWS, Semple, Kirk,weblink Asian New Yorkers Seek Power to Match Numbers, The New York Times, June 23, 2011, July 5, 2011, Asians, a group more commonly associated with the West Coast, are surging in New York, where they have long been eclipsed in the city's kaleidoscopic racial and ethnic mix. For the first time, according to census figures released in the spring, their numbers have topped one million—nearly 1 in 8 New Yorkers—which is more than the Asian population in the cities of San Francisco and Los Angeles combined., New York contains the highest total Asian population of any U.S. city proper.WEB,weblink Asian American Statistics, Améredia Incorporated, July 5, 2011, The New York City borough of Queens is home to the state's largest Asian American population and the largest Andean (Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Bolivian) populations in the United States, and is also the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State; multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown, in Brooklyn, and around Flushing, Queens, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves – while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau CountyWEB,weblink State & County QuickFacts Nassau County, New York QuickLinks, United States Census Bureau, July 18, 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink October 7, 2014, on Long Island,WEB, Shao, Heng,weblink Join The Great Gatsby: Chinese Real Estate Buyers Fan Out To Long Island's North Shore, Forbes, April 10, 2014, August 2, 2014, as the New York metropolitan region and New York State have become the top destinations for new Chinese immigrants, respectively, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into New York City and surrounding areas,WEB,weblink Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, July 18, 2014, WEB,weblink Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Lawful Permanent Residents Supplemental Table 2, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, July 18, 2014, WEB,weblink Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Lawful Permanent Residents Supplemental Table 1, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, July 18, 2014, WEB,weblink Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 2, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, February 24, 2013, NEWS, Marzulli, John,weblink Malaysian man smuggled illegal Chinese immigrants into Brooklyn using Queen Mary 2: authorities, The New York Daily News, May 9, 2011, February 24, 2013, New York,weblink" title="">weblink May 5, 2015, no, with the largest metropolitan Chinese diaspora outside Asia,WEB,weblink Chinese New Year 2012 in Flushing,, January 25, 2012, May 2, 2013, including an estimated 812,410 individuals in 2015.WEB,weblink Selected Population Profile in the United States 2015 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA Chinese alone, United States Census Bureau, April 2, 2017, In 2012, 6.3% of New York City was of Chinese ethnicity, with nearly three-fourths living in either Queens or Brooklyn, geographically on Long Island.WEB,weblink American Fact Finder, United States Census Bureau, July 19, 2014, A community numbering 20,000 Korean-Chinese (Chaoxianzu or Joseonjok) is centered in Flushing, Queens, while New York City is also home to the largest Tibetan population outside China, India, and Nepal, also centered in Queens.WEB,weblink Most Significant Unreached People Group Communities in Metro NY, GLOBAL GATES, July 17, 2012, October 27, 2014, Koreans made up 1.2% of the city's population, and Japanese 0.3%. Filipinos were the largest Southeast Asian ethnic group at 0.8%, followed by Vietnamese, who made up 0.2% of New York City's population in 2010. Indians are the largest South Asian group, comprising 2.4% of the city's population, with Bangladeshis and Pakistanis at 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively.Table SF1-P9 NYC: Total Asian Population by Selected Subgroups, New York City Department of City Planning. Accessed February 9, 2017. Queens is the preferred borough of settlement for Asian Indians, Koreans, Filipinos,WEB,weblink Queens County, New York QuickFacts, U.S. Census Bureau, August 13, 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink August 8, 2014, and Malaysians and other Southeast Asians;WEB, Roleke, John,weblink A Growing Chinatown in Elmhurst,, August 13, 2014, while Brooklyn is receiving large numbers of both West Indian and Asian Indian immigrants.(File:Race and ethnicity 2010- New York City (5559914315).png|thumb|A map of racial distribution in New York, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow))New York City has the largest European and non-Hispanic white population of any American city. At 2.7 million in 2012, New York's non-Hispanic white population is larger than the non-Hispanic white populations of Los Angeles (1.1 million), Chicago (865,000), and Houston (550,000) combined.WEB,weblink American FactFinder – Results, U.S. Department of Commerce, October 8, 2014, The non-Hispanic white population was 6.6 million in 1940.WEB,weblink Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, Population Division Working Paper, U.S. Census Bureau, yes,weblink August 6, 2012, The non-Hispanic white population has begun to increase since 2010.NEWS,weblink Census Estimates Show Another Increase in New York City's Non-Hispanic White Population, July 1, 2014, The New York Times, The European diaspora residing in the city is very diverse. According to 2012 Census estimates, there were roughly 560,000 Italian Americans, 385,000 Irish Americans, 253,000 German Americans, 223,000 Russian Americans, 201,000 Polish Americans, and 137,000 English Americans. Additionally, Greek and French Americans numbered 65,000 each, with those of Hungarian descent estimated at 60,000 people. Ukrainian and Scottish Americans numbered 55,000 and 35,000, respectively. People identifying ancestry from Spain numbered 30,838 total in 2010.WEB,weblink Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010, United States Census Bureau, October 8, 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink December 18, 2014, People of Norwegian and Swedish descent both stood at about 20,000 each, while people of Czech, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Scotch-Irish, and Welsh descent all numbered between 12,000–14,000 people.WEB,weblink American FactFinder – Results, United States Census Bureau, October 8, 2014, Arab Americans number over 160,000 in New York City,WEB,weblink A Community of Many Worlds: Arab Americans in New York City, Allied Media Corp, October 9, 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink November 8, 2014, with the highest concentration in Brooklyn. Central Asians, primarily Uzbek Americans, are a rapidly growing segment of the city's non-Hispanic white population, enumerating over 30,000, and including over half of all Central Asian immigrants to the United States,WEB,weblink Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Lawful Permanent Residents Supplemental Table 2, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, July 19, 2014, most settling in Queens or Brooklyn. Albanian Americans are most highly concentrated in the Bronx.WEB, Ragaru, Nadège, Dymi, Amilda,weblink The Albanian-American Community in the United States : A Diaspora Coming to Visibility, July 29, 2014, The wider New York City metropolitan statistical area, with over 20 million people, about 50% greater than the second-place Los Angeles metropolitan area in the United States, is also ethnically diverse,WEB, Ian, Gordon, Tony, Travers, Christine, Whitehead, London School of Economics and Political Science,weblink The Impact of Recent Immigration on the London Economy, The City of London Corporation, July 2007, September 8, 2013, with the largest foreign-born population of any metropolitan region in the world. The New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States, substantially exceeding the combined totals of Los Angeles and Miami. It is home to the largest Jewish and Israeli communities outside Israel, with the Jewish population in the region numbering over 1.5 million in 2012 and including many diverse Jewish sects, predominantly from around the Middle East and Eastern Europe, and including a rapidly growing Orthodox Jewish population, the largest outside Israel.The metropolitan area is also home to 20% of the USA's Indian Americans and at least 20 Little India enclaves, and 15% of all Korean Americans and four Koreatowns;WEB,weblink Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data Geography: New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA, September 2, 2012, WEB,weblink Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data Geography: United States, U.S. Census Bureau, September 2, 2012, the largest Asian Indian population in the Western Hemisphere; the largest Russian American, Italian American, and African American populations; the largest Dominican American, Puerto Rican American, and South American and second-largest overall Hispanic population in the United States, numbering 4.8 million; and includes multiple established Chinatowns within New York City alone.NEWS, Semple, Kirk,weblink Asian New Yorkers Seek Power to Match Numbers, The New York Times, June 23, 2011, September 2, 2012, Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Brazil were the top source countries from South America for legal immigrants to the New York City region in 2013; the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean; Egypt, Ghana, and Nigeria from Africa; and El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala in Central America.WEB,weblink Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status by Leading Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) of Residence and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2013, United States Department of Homeland Security, March 6, 2015, Amidst a resurgence of Puerto Rican migration to New York City, this population had increased to approximately 1.3 million in the metropolitan area {{As of|2013|lc=y}}.Since 2010, a Little Australia has emerged and is growing rapidly representing the Australasian presence in Nolita, Manhattan.WEB,weblink G-day! Welcome to Little Australia in New York City, Shaun Busuttil, KarryOn, November 3, 2016, May 23, 2019, In Little Australia, Australian-owned cafes are popping up all over the place (such as Two Hands), joining other Australian-owned businesses (such as nightclubs and art galleries) as part of a growing green and gold contingent in NYC. Indeed, walking in this neighbourhood, the odds of your hearing a fellow Aussie ordering a coffee or just kicking back and chatting are high – very high – so much so that if you're keen to meet other Aussies whilst taking your own bite out of the Big Apple, then this is the place to throw that Australian accent around like it's going out of fashion!,weblinkweblink Australia's secret weapon is quietly changing New York, Emma Reynolds,, July 30, 2018, June 4, 2019, THERE’S a quiet revolution taking place across the Big Apple, and it all stems from Down Under., WEB,weblink The Australian Cafés Taking Over The NYC Breakfast Scene, Siobhan Gunner, Just Opened New York, June 4, 2019, In 2011, there were an estimated 20,000 Australian residents of New York City, nearly quadruple the 5,537 in 2005.weblink Accessed June 1, 2019.{weblink] Accessed June 1, 2019. Qantas Airways of Australia and Air New Zealand have been exploring the possibilities of long-haul flights from New York to Sydney and Auckland, respectively, which would both rank among the longest non-stop flights in the world.WEB,weblink Auckland-New York step closer thanks to Air NZ Boeing purchase, Stuff, May 27, 209, June 2, 2019, weblink Accessed May 23, 2019.

Sexual orientation and gender identity

{{further|Stonewall riots|New York City LGBT Pride March|Same-sex marriage in New York}}{{multiple image|align = right|perrow = 2|total_width=370width1=600|height1=400width3=600|height3=400width4=550|height4=350width2=550|height2=350Filipinos in the New York City metropolitan region>Manila-born Geena Rocero introducing International Transgender Day of Visibility; Caribbean people; the 2015 LGBT Pride March (New York City)>Manhattan LGBT Pride March, the world's largest; and the Multicultural Festival at the 2018 Queens Pride Parade.}}The New York metropolitan area is home to a prominent self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at nearly 570,000 individuals, the largest in the United States and one of the world's largest.WEB, Gary J., Gates,weblink Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey, The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation, December 7, 2013, BOOK, Silverman, Brian, Chauvin, Kelsy,weblink Frommer's New York City 2013, 2013, March 24, 2015, 978-1-118-33144-6, Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011 and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter.NEWS, Confessore, Nicholas, Barbaro, Michael,weblink New York Allows Same-Sex Marriage, Becoming Largest State to Pass Law, The New York Times Company, June 24, 2011, September 2, 2012, Charles Kaiser, author of The Gay Metropolis: The Landmark History of Gay Life in America, wrote that in the era after World War II, "New York City became the literal gay metropolis for hundreds of thousands of immigrants from within and without the United States: the place they chose to learn how to live openly, honestly and without shame."Kaiser, p. xiv Accessed March 28, 2017.The annual New York City Pride March (or gay pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue and ends at Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan; the parade rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.WEB,weblink Revelers Take To The Streets For 48th Annual NYC Pride March, CBS New York, June 25, 2017, June 26, 2017, A sea of rainbows took over the Big Apple for the biggest pride parade in the world Sunday., The annual Queens Pride Parade is held in Jackson Heights and is accompanied by the ensuing Multicultural Parade.NEWS,weblink Elmhurst vigil remembers transgender victims lost to violence and hate, Bill Parry, New York Daily News, July 10, 2018, April 13, 2019,

Transgender contribution

New York City is home to the largest transgender population in the world, estimated at more than 50,000 in 2018, concentrated in Manhattan and Queens. However, until the June 1969 Stonewall riots, this community had felt marginalized and neglected by the gay community.


Christianity (59%) — made up of Roman Catholicism (33%), Protestantism (23%), and other Christians (3%) — is the most prevalent religion in New York, {{As of|2014|lc=y}}.Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research Center, Accessed July 30, 2015. It is followed by Judaism, with approximately 1.1 million adherents,WEB,weblink World Jewish Population, – Judaism Online, September 2, 2012, WEB,weblink Jewish Community Study of New York: 2011 Comprehensive Report, UJA-Federation of New York, August 13, 2014, over half of whom live in Brooklyn.NEWS, Weichselbaum, Simone,weblink Nearly one in four Brooklyn residents are Jews, new study finds, New York Daily News, June 26, 2012, May 30, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink July 4, 2018, no, The Jewish population makes up 18.4% of the city.WEB,weblink N.Y. Jewish Population Grows to 1.5M: Study, Josh Nathan-Kazis, June 12, 2012, Islam ranks third in New York City, with estimates ranging between 600,000 and 1,000,000 observers, including 10% of the city's public school children.NEWS, Marc, Santora, Sharon, Otterman,weblink New York City Adds 2 Muslim Holy Days to Public School Calendar, The New York Times, March 4, 2015, March 4, 2015, These three largest groups are followed by Hinduism, Buddhism, and a variety of other religions, as well as atheism. In 2014, 24% of New Yorkers self-identified with no organized religious affiliation.{{multiple image|header = Religious affiliations in New York City| align = center| direction = horizontal| image1 = StPatCathExt1.jpg| width1 = 103New York City Landmarks>landmark Gothic revival architecture Roman Catholic St. Patrick's Cathedral (Manhattan)>St. Patrick's Cathedral, Midtown Manhattan| alt1 =| image2 = Jueus ultraortodoxes satmar a brooklyn.jpg| width2 = 200Haredi Jews>Ultra-Orthodox Jewish residents in Brooklyn. Brooklyn has the largest Jewish community in the United States, with approximately 600,000 individuals.| alt2 =| image3 = Islamic Cultural Center E96 jeh.JPG| width3 = 131| caption3 = The Islamic Cultural Center of New York in Upper Manhattan, the first mosque built in New York City.| alt3 =| image4 = Exterior Hindu Temple.JPG| width4 = 100Hindu Temple Society of North America>Ganesh Temple in Flushing, Queens, the oldest Hindu temple in the U.S.| alt4 =| image5 = Buddhist Temple, Chinatown.jpg| width5 = 112New York Mahayana Temple>Mahayana Buddhist Temple in Chinatown, Manhattan| alt5 =| image6 = Times Square after dark atheist.jpg| width6 = 200American Atheists>atheistic views, promoted on this electronic billboard in Times Square.| alt6 =}}

Wealth and income disparity

New York City has a high degree of income disparity as indicated by its Gini Coefficient of 0.5 for the city overall and 0.6 for Manhattan, as of 2006.WEB, Urban Inequality, October 1, 2008, Glaeser, Edward, Resseger, Matt, Tobio, Kristina,weblink 2, 43, While Manhattan is the physical embodiment of big-city inequality and has a Gini coefficient of .6, ... [NYC overall is listed in the graph on page 43], National Bureau of Economic Research, January 15, 2019, no,weblink December 4, 2015, mdy-all, (This is not unusual, as all large cities have greater income disparities than the nation overall.) In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in New York County (Manhattan) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States.WEB,weblink County Employment and Wages Summary, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, September 18, 2014, September 21, 2014, As of 2017, New York City was home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world at 103,WEB,weblink Top 10 Billionaire Cities, Weaalth-X, 2018, May 16, 2018, New York was the world's top billionaire city in 2017, remaining the preferred location for those seeking a luxury blend of finance, culture, commerce, shopping and real estate. The city is home to more billionaires than almost every country in the world, with the exception of China, Germany and India., including former Mayor Michael Bloomberg.WEB,weblink Michael Bloomberg, Forbes, February 24, 2016, New York also had the highest density of millionaires per capita among major U.S. cities in 2014, at 4.6% of residents.WEB, Wallace, Gregory,weblink Want to meet a millionaire? Here's where to go, CNN, August 4, 2014, August 4, 2014, New York City is one of the relatively few American cities levying an income tax (currently about 3%) on its residents.WEB,weblink U.S. Cities That Levy Income Taxes, Moreno, Tonya, February 2, 2017, December 20, 2017,weblink March 8, 2017, no, Fourteen states and the District of Columbia allow cities, counties, and municipalities to levy their own separate individual income taxes in addition to state income taxes., WEB,weblink Personal Income Tax & Non-resident NYC Employee Payments, City of New York, December 19, 2017, WEB,weblink New York City tax rate schedule, New York City, 2017, December 15, 2017,weblink March 8, 2017, no,


City economic overview{|class"toc" style"float:right; font-size:90%; text-align:center; margin:1em;"

Top publicly traded companiesin New York City (ranked by 2015 revenues)with City and U.S. ranks style="background:#ccc;" NYC style="background:#ccc;"corporation>USVerizon Communications>|13JPMorgan Chase|23Citigroup29MetLife40American International Group49Pfizer (pharmaceuticals)>|55New York Life Insurance Company>|61Goldman Sachs74Morgan Stanley78Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (Teachers Ins. & Annuity)>82INTL FCStone83American Express85 style="background:lemonchiffon"Every firm's revenue exceeded $30 billionFinancial services firms in greenFull table at Economy of New York CitySource: Fortune 500Fortune, Volume 173, Number 8 (June 15, 2016), p. F-40New York City is a global hub of business and commerce, as a center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media, traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States; while Silicon Alley, metonymous for New York's broad-spectrum high technology sphere, continues to expand. The Port of New York and New Jersey is also a major economic engine, handling record cargo volume in 2017, over 6.7 million TEUs.WEB,weblink Port of New York and New Jersey Sets New Cargo Volume Record for 2017, New Jersey Business, February 6, 2018, October 19, 2018, New York City's unemployment rate fell to its record low of 4.0% in September 2018.WEB,weblink State's Unemployment Rate Hits 4.1%, Reaches 30-Year Low – NYC Unemployment Rate Drops to 4.0%, a New All-Time Low, New York State Department of Labor, October 18, 2018, October 19, 2018, Many Fortune 500 corporations are headquartered in New York City,Fortune 500 web site (cities), retrieved July 21, 2011; Fortune, Vol. 163, no. 7 (May 23, 2011), p. F-45 as are a large number of multinational corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company.NEWS, Wylde, Kathryn, Keeping the Economy Growing, Gotham Gazette, January 23, 2006,weblink September 1, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink October 6, 2008, New York City has been ranked first among cities across the globe in attracting capital, business, and tourists.WEB, Kennedy, Simon,weblink Beijing Breaks Into Top Ten in Rankings by A.T. Kearney, Bloomberg L.P, April 13, 2014, April 13, 2014, Kaske, Michelle. weblink" title="">"New York City Tops Global Competitiveness Rankings, Economist Report Says",, March 12, 2012, backed up by the Internet Archive as of March 12, 2012. Accessed February 9, 2017. New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry is metonymously reflected as "Madison Avenue". The city's fashion industry provides approximately 180,000 employees with $11 billion in annual wages.NEWS, Fermino, Jennifer,weblink Mayor de Blasio announces $3M in grants for New York City's fashion industry, New York Daily News, February 7, 2014, February 11, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink October 11, 2017, no, Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Manufacturing accounts for a significant but declining share of employment, although the city's garment industry is showing a resurgence in Brooklyn.NEWS, Yang, Catherine,weblink The Garment District, Brooklyn Style, Epoch Times, July 19, 2014, October 27, 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink October 27, 2014, Food processing is a US$5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents.Chocolate is New York City's leading specialty-food export, with up to US$234 million worth of exports each year.WEB,weblink PDF, More Than a Link in the Food Chain, The Mayor's Office for Industrial and Manufacturing Business, September 1, 2008, February 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink August 31, 2008, Entrepreneurs were forming a "Chocolate District" in Brooklyn {{As of|2014|lc=y}},WEB, Potkewitz, Hilary,weblink 'Chocolate district' in the making in Brooklyn, Crain Communications Inc, November 17, 2014, December 15, 2014, while Godiva, one of the world's largest chocolatiers, continues to be headquartered in Manhattan.WEB,weblink Godiva Chocolatier Inc. Company Information, Hoover's Inc, January 9, 2015,

Wall Street

File:Photos NewYork1 032.jpg|thumb|right|The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, by a significant margin the world's largest stock exchange per weblink The NYSE Makes Stock Exchanges Around The World Look Tiny, March 26, 2017, WEB,weblink Is the New York Stock Exchange the Largest Stock Market in the World?, March 26, 2017, at US.1 trillion as of April 2018.WEB, Largest stock exchange operators worldwide as of April 2018, by market capitalization of listed companies (in trillion U.S. dollars),weblink Statista, February 18, 2019, ">alt=A large flag is stretched over Roman style columns on the front of a large building.New York City's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. The city's securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of the city's private sector jobs, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of its tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700.WEB, Thomas P. (New York State Comptroller), DiNapoli, Kenneth B. (New York State Deputy Comptroller), Bleiwas,weblink The Securities Industry in New York City, October 2013, July 30, 2014, Many large financial companies are headquartered in New York City, and the city is also home to a burgeoning number of financial startup companies.Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013. Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012,WEB, Ambereen, Choudhury, Elisa, Martinuzzi, Ben, Moshinsky,weblink London Bankers Bracing for Leaner Bonuses Than New York, Bloomberg L.P., November 26, 2012, July 20, 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink August 4, 2014, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually.WEB, Vallikappen, Sanat,weblink Pay Raises for Bank Risk Officers in Asia Trump New York, Bloomberg L.P, November 10, 2013, July 20, 2014, In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry generated 19% of New York State's tax revenue.WEB,weblink DiNapoli: Wall Street Bonuses Edge Up in 2014, Office of the New York State Comptroller, March 11, 2015, July 15, 2015, New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and debt capital markets, driven in part by the size and financial development of the U.S. economy.WEB, McKinsey & Company, New York City Economic Development Corporation,weblink Sustaining New York's and the US' Global Financial Services Leadership, City of New York, July 19, 2015, {{rp|31–32}}WEB,weblink Total debt securities, June 2013, Bank for International Settlements, July 19, 2015, New York also leads in hedge fund management; private equity; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions. Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers.{{rp|34–35}} New York is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States.NEWS, Chaudhuri, Saabira,weblink Ranking the Biggest U.S. Banks: A New Entrant in Top 5, The Wall Street Journal, September 15, 2014, July 19, 2015, Many of the world's largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m2) of office space in 2018, making it the largest office market in the United States,WEB,weblink Understanding The Manhattan Office Space Market,, July 20, 2014, while Midtown Manhattan, with 400 million square feet (37.2 million m2) in 2018,WEB,weblink Q3 2018 U.S. Office Market Outlook – Download research report, Colliers International, December 6, 2018, April 13, 2019, is the largest central business district in the world.WEB,weblink Marketbeat United States CBD Office Report 2Q11, Cushman & Wakefield, Inc, July 20, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink May 8, 2013,

Tech and biotech

{{further|Tech:NYC|Tech companies in New York City|Biotech companies in New York City|Silicon Alley}}File:Flatiron District.jpg|thumb|right|Silicon Alley, once centered around the Flatiron District, is now metonymous for New York's high techhigh techSilicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high technology industriesWEB, Megan Rose, Dickey, Jillian, D'Onfro,weblink SA 100 2013: The Coolest People In New York Tech, Business Insider, October 24, 2013, July 30, 2014, involving the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, game design, financial technology ("FinTech"), and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment across a broad spectrum of high technology enterprises, most based in Manhattan, with others in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region.High technology startup companies and employment are growing in New York City and the region, bolstered by the city's position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines,WEB, Telecommunications and Economic Development in New York City: A Plan for Action, New York City Economic Development Corporation, March 2005,weblink PDF, July 10, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink October 12, 2007, New York's intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity.NEWS, Pereira, Ivan,weblink City opens nation's largest continuous Wi-Fi zone in Harlem, amNewYork/Newsday, December 10, 2013, July 30, 2014, Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City.WEB, Brodkin, Jon,weblink Verizon will miss deadline to wire all of New York City with FiOS, Condé Nast, June 9, 2014, July 30, 2014, {{As of|2014}}, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector.NEWS, S3 Partners,weblink 5 signs NYC's tech scene is growing up – NYC tech sector hits 300,000, New York Daily News, January 8, 2015, May 1, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink June 27, 2018, no, WEB, Jillian, Eugenios, Steve, Hargreaves, Aimee, Rawlins,weblink The most innovative cities in America, CNNMoney, October 7, 2014, October 7, 2014, The technology sector has been claiming a greater share of New York City's economy since 2010.NEWS,weblink Even Without Amazon, Tech Could Keep Gaining Ground in New York, Ben Casselman, Keith Collins, and Karl Russell, The New York Times, February 15, 2019, February 16, 2019, (Tech:NYC), founded in 2016, is a non-profit organization which represents New York City's technology industry with government, civic institutions, in business, and in the media, and whose primary goals are to further augment New York's substantial tech talent base and to advocate for policies that will nurture tech companies to grow in the city.WEB,weblink A Year After its Launch, TechNYC Has Become a Force in New York Politics, Jonathan Schieber, May 24, 2017, TechCrunch, March 15, 2019, The biotechnology sector is also growing in New York City, based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences called Cornell Tech on Roosevelt Island with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital.NEWS, Pérez-Peña, Richard,weblink Cornell Alumnus Is Behind $350 Million Gift to Build Science School in City, The New York Times, December 19, 2011, August 1, 2014, WEB,weblink 'Game-changing' Tech Campus Goes to Cornell, Technion, Anne, Ju, Cornell University, December 19, 2011, August 1, 2014, By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than {{convert|700,000|sqft|m2}} on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation's Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology.NEWS, Morris, Keiko,weblink Wanted: Biotech Startups in New York City: The Alexandria Center for Life Science Looks to Expand, The Wall Street Journal, July 28, 2014, August 1, 2014,

Real estate

Real estate is a major force in the city's economy, as the total value of all New York City property was assessed at US$1.072 trillion for the 2017 fiscal year, an increase of 10.6% from the previous year, with 89% of the increase coming from market effects.Department of Finance Publishes Fiscal Year 2017 Tentative Assessment Roll, New York City Department of Finance, January 15, 2016. "Today, Jacques Jiha, Commissioner for the Department of Finance, announced the publication of the Tentative Property Assessment Roll for fiscal year 2017, which shows the total Market Value for the upcoming year at about $1.072 trillion, an increase of $102.5 billion, or 10.6 percent from the 2016 Fiscal Year." The Time Warner Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at US$1.1 billion in 2006. New York City is home to some of the nation's—and the world's—most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007 for US$510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,104/m²), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,887/m²) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue.Quirk, James. WEB,weblink Bergen offices have plenty of space,weblink" title="">weblink December 22, 2007, yes, , The Record (Bergen County), July 5, 2007. Accessed July 5, 2007. "On Monday, a 26-year-old, 33-story office building at 450 Park Ave. sold for a stunning $1,589 per square foot, or about ,10 million. The price is believed to be the most ever paid for a U.S. office building on a per-square-foot basis. That broke the previous record—set four weeks earlier—when 660 Madison Ave. sold for $1,476 a square foot."In 2014 Manhattan was home to six of the top ten ZIP Codes in the United States by median housing price.WEB, Carlyle, Erin,weblink New York Dominates 2014 List of America's Most Expensive ZIP Codes, Forbes, October 8, 2014, October 9, 2014, Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commands the highest retail rents in the world, at US{{convert|3,000|$/ft2|$/m2}} in 2017.NEWS,weblink A plea for Fifth Avenue, Janette Sadik-Khan, The New York Times, January 9, 2017, January 9, 2017, In 2019, the most expensive home sale ever in the United States achieved completion in Manhattan, at a selling price of US$238 million, for a {{convert|24,000|ft2|m2}} penthouse apartment overlooking Central Park.weblink Accessed February 16, 2019.


File:1 times square night 2013.jpg|thumb|right|Times Square is the hub of the Broadway theater district and a media center. It also has one of the highest annual attendance rates of any tourist attraction in the world, estimated at 50 million.]]File:I Love New York.svg|thumb|right|The I Love New York logo, designed by Milton GlaserMilton GlaserTourism is a vital industry for New York City, which has witnessed a growing combined volume of international and domestic tourists, receiving an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately 62.8 million visitors in 2017. Tourism had generated an all-time high US$61.3 billion in overall economic impact for New York City in 2014, pending 2015 statistics. Approximately 12 million visitors to New York City were from outside the United States, with the highest numbers from the United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil, and China.I Love New York (stylized I ❤ NY) is both a logo and a song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and have been used since 1977 to promote tourism in New York City,Interview with Milton Glaser The Believer. Accessed July 8, 2015. and later to promote New York State as well. The trademarked logo, owned by New York State Empire State Development,WEB,weblink I Love New York Logo, New York State Education Department, September 26, 2013, July 8, 2015, appears in souvenir shops and brochures throughout the city and state, some licensed, many not. The song is the state song of New York.Major tourist destinations include Times Square; Broadway theater productions; the Empire State Building; the Statue of Liberty; Ellis Island; the United Nations Headquarters; museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art; greenspaces such as Central Park and Washington Square Park; Rockefeller Center; the Manhattan Chinatown; luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues; and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade; the lighting of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree; the St. Patrick's Day parade; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival; and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage.WEB,weblink Places To Visit In New York City, February 14, 2015, Pinterest Places To Visit In New York City, yes,weblink February 15, 2015, Major attractions in the boroughs outside Manhattan include Flushing Meadows-Corona Park and the Unisphere in Queens; the Bronx Zoo; Coney Island, Brooklyn; and the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx. The New York Wheel, a 630-foot ferris wheel, was under construction at the northern shore of Staten Island in 2015,WEB, Hargreaves, Steve,weblink Visa-seeking Chinese fund giant NY Ferris wheel, CNN, July 15, 2015, July 19, 2015, overlooking the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, and the Lower Manhattan skyline.NEWS, Jennifer, Peltz, Associated Press,weblink NYC to get 'world's largest' Ferris wheel, NBC News, Associated Press, September 28, 2012, September 28, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink September 29, 2012, Manhattan was on track to have an estimated 90,000 hotel rooms at the end of 2014, a 10% increase from 2013.WEB, Dailey, Jessica,weblink Number Of Manhattan Hotel Rooms To Increase 10% In 2014, Vox Media, October 9, 2013, October 6, 2014, In October 2014, the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York for US$1.95 billion, making it the world's most expensive hotel ever sold.WEB, Frank, Robert,weblink Waldorf becomes most expensive hotel ever sold: $1.95 billion, CNBC, October 6, 2014, October 6, 2014,

Media and entertainment

{{further|New Yorkers in journalism}}File:Rockefeller Center (2006).JPG|thumb|left|Rockefeller Center is home to NBC StudiosNBC StudiosNew York is a prominent location for the American entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media being set there.NEWS, Santora, Marc,weblink Four Marvel TV Shows to Film in New York, The New York Times, February 26, 2014, February 27, 2014, {{As of|2012}}, New York City was the second largest center for filmmaking and television production in the United States, producing about 200 feature films annually, employing 130,000 individuals. The filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly US$9 billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015.WEB,weblink Mayor De Blasio Announces Increased Growth of New York City's Entertainment Industry Brings $8.7 billion into the Local Economy, City of New York Mayor's Office of Media and Entertainment, October 15, 2015, April 10, 2016, By volume, New York is the world leader in independent film productionWEB,weblink New York Film Academy, New York City, New York Film Academy, February 8, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 26, 2012, – one-third of all American independent films are produced in New York City.WEB, Request for Expressions of Interest, The Governors Island Preservation & Education Corporation, 2005,weblink PDF, February 11, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink August 2, 2008, The Association of Independent Commercial Producers is also based in New York.WEB,weblink Association of Independent Commercial Producers, AICP Staff & National Offices, February 8, 2012, In the first five months of 2014 alone, location filming for television pilots in New York City exceeded the record production levels for all of 2013,WEB, Goundry, Nick,weblink New York half-year location filming surpasses record for whole of 2013, Location Guide, June 6, 2014, September 20, 2014, with New York surpassing Los Angeles as the top North American city for the same distinction during the 2013/2014 cycle.WEB, Goundry, Nick,weblink New York surpasses Los Angeles for TV drama pilot filming, Location Guide, June 25, 2014, September 20, 2014, New York City is also a center for the advertising, music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America.PRESS RELEASE, Tampa Bay 12th Largest Media Market Now, Tampa Bay Partnership, August 26, 2006,weblink September 1, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink September 28, 2008, Some of the city's media conglomerates and institutions include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the Associated Press, Bloomberg L.P., the News Corporation, The New York Times Company, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, AOL, and Viacom. Seven of the world's top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York.Top 10 Consolidated Agency Networks: Ranked by 2006 Worldwide Network Revenue, Advertising Age Agency Report 2007 Index (April 25, 2007). Retrieved June 8, 2007. Two of the top three record labels' headquarters are in New York: Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group. Universal Music Group also has offices in New York. New media enterprises are contributing an increasingly important component to the city's central role in the media sphere.More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city, and the publishing industry employs about 25,000 people.WEB, Media and Entertainment, New York City Economic Development Corporation,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink January 28, 2008, September 1, 2008, Two of the three national daily newspapers with the largest circulations in the United States are published in New York: The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include The New York Daily News, which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson,WEB,weblink New York Daily News (American newspaper),, May 4, 2013, and The New York Post, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton.Allan Nevins, The Evening Post: Century of Journalism, Boni and Liveright, 1922, p. 17. The city also has a comprehensive ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages.NEWS, Ethnic Press Booms In New York City, Editor & Publisher, July 10, 2002,weblink September 1, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink June 30, 2008, El Diario La Prensa is New York's largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation.WEB,weblink el Diario/La Prensa: The Nation's Oldest Spanish-Language Daily, July 27, 2005, New America Media, September 1, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink May 22, 2008, The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African American newspaper. The Village Voice, historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture.NEWS,weblink After 62 Years and Many Battles, Village Voice Will End Print Publication, John Leland (journalist), John Leland and Sarah Maslin Nir, The New York Times, August 22, 2017, September 2, 2017, The television and radio industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city's economy. The three major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: ABC, CBS, and NBC. Many cable networks are based in the city as well, including MTV, Fox News, HBO, Showtime, Bravo, Food Network, AMC, and Comedy Central. The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYC Media,WEB,weblink NYC Media,, May 4, 2013, that has produced several original Emmy Award-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government. WBAI, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States.New York is also a major center for non-commercial educational media. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971.WEB,weblink Community Celebrates Public Access TV's 35th Anniversary,, October 28, 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink August 25, 2010, WNET is the city's major public television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television programming. WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.WEB, Radio Research Consortium, Top 30 Public Radio Subscribers: Spring 2006 Arbitron, August 28, 2006,weblink PDF, September 1, 2008,

Education and scholarly activity

Primary and secondary education

The New York City Public Schools system, managed by the New York City Department of Education, is the largest public school system in the United States, serving about 1.1 million students in more than 1,700 separate primary and secondary schools.WEB, New York City Department of Education – About Us, The New York City Department of Education, 2014,weblink July 30, 2014, The city's public school system includes nine specialized high schools to serve academically and artistically gifted students. The city government pays the Pelham Public Schools to educate a very small, detached section of the Bronx.NEWS,weblink A Tiny Strip of New York That Feels Like the Suburbs, The New York Times, May 6, 1997, June 28, 2016, Gross, Jane, bot: unknown,weblink June 28, 2016, ()File:Butler Library - 1000px - AC.jpg|thumb|right|Butler Library at Columbia UniversityColumbia UniversityFile:NYC - Washington Square Park - Arch.jpg|thumb|The Washington Square Arch, an unofficial icon of both New York University (NYU) and its Greenwich VillageGreenwich VillageThe New York City Charter School Center assists the setup of new charter schools.WEB,weblink The New York City Charter School Center, April 16, 2015, There are approximately 900 additional privately run secular and religious schools in the city.WEB,weblink Private School Universe Survey, National Center for Education Statistics, September 1, 2008,

Higher education and research

Over 600,000 students are enrolled in New York City's over 120 higher education institutions, the highest number of any city in the United States and higher than other major global cities like LondonWEB,weblink Universities in London, August 23, 2018, and Tokyo,WEB,weblink A–Z Universities in Tokyo, August 23, 2018, including over half million in the City University of New York (CUNY) system alone in 2014.WEB,weblink The City University of New York, August 24, 2014, In 2005, three out of five Manhattan residents were college graduates, and one out of four had a postgraduate degree, forming one of the highest concentrations of highly educated people in any American city.NEWS, McGeehan, Patrick, New York Area Is a Magnet For Graduates, The New York Times, August 16, 2006,weblink March 27, 2007, New York City is home to such notable private universities as Barnard College, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Fordham University, Mercy College, New York University, New York Institute of Technology, Pace University, Rockefeller University, and Yeshiva University; several of these universities are ranked among the top universities in the world.The public CUNY system is one of the largest universities in the nation, comprising 24 institutions across all five boroughs: senior colleges, community colleges, and other graduate/professional schools. The public State University of New York (SUNY) system serves New York City, as well as the rest of the state. The city also has other smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as St. John's University, The Juilliard School, Manhattan College, The College of Mount Saint Vincent, Fashion Institute of Technology, Parsons School of Design, The New School, Pratt Institute, The School of Visual Arts, The King's College, and Wagner College.Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences. New York City has the most postgraduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, with 127 Nobel laureates having roots in local institutions {{As of|2005|lc=y}};PRESS RELEASE, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Economic Development Corporation President Andrew M. Alper Unveil Plans to Develop Commercial Bioscience Center in Manhattan, New York City Economic Development Corporation,weblink November 18, 2004, September 1, 2008, while in 2012, 43,523 licensed physicians were practicing in New York City.WEB, Blair, Horner, Arthur, Levin, Suzanne, Mattei, Ciceron (contributor), Casey,weblink The Doctor Is In: New York's Increasing Number of Doctors, 13, Appendix 1: Comparison Of The Numbers Of New York Doctors By County, As Of December 31, 2004 And December 31, 2012, August 2014, August 22, 2014, Major biomedical research institutions include Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and Weill Cornell Medical College, being joined by the Cornell University/Technion-Israel Institute of Technology venture on Roosevelt Island. The graduates of SUNY Maritime College in the Bronx earned the highest average annual salary of any university graduates in the United States, US$144,000 as of 2017.NEWS,weblink The Young Mariners of Throgs Neck, Gary M. Stern, The New York Times, March 16, 2017, March 16, 2017,

Human resources

Public health

File:NewYorkPresbyterian-Cornell.jpg|thumb|right|New York-Presbyterian HospitalNew York-Presbyterian HospitalThe New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) operates the public hospitals and clinics in New York City. A public benefit corporation with $6.7 billion in annual revenues, HHC is the largest municipal healthcare system in the United States serving 1.4 million patients, including more than 475,000 uninsured city residents.WEB,weblink HHC Website, HHC was created in 1969 by the New York State Legislature as a public benefit corporation (Chapter 1016 of the Laws 1969).WEB,weblink The History of New York City's Municipal Hospitals, HHC Foundation, yes,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2012, HHC operates 11 acute care hospitals, five nursing homes, six diagnostic and treatment centers, and more than 70 community-based primary care sites, serving primarily the poor and working class. HHC's MetroPlus Health Plan is one of the New York area's largest providers of government-sponsored health insurance and is the plan of choice for nearly half million New Yorkers.WEB,weblink Metroplus, MetroPlus, October 8, 2014, HHC's facilities annually provide millions of New Yorkers services interpreted in more than 190 languages.WEB,weblink 2014 HHC Report to the Community, New York City Health + Hospitals, March 10, 2017, The most well-known hospital in the HHC system is Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States. Bellevue is the designated hospital for treatment of the President of the United States and other world leaders if they become sick or injured while in New York City.WEB,weblink Funding Universe Web Site, Funding Universe, October 8, 2014, The president of HHC is Ramanathan Raju, MD, a surgeon and former CEO of the Cook County health system in Illinois.WEB,weblink CEO of Chicago Public Hospitals to Take the Helm of HHC, WNYC, October 8, 2014, In August 2017, Mayor Bill de Blasio signed legislation outlawing pharmacies from selling cigarettes once their existing licenses to do so expired, beginning in 2018.WEB,weblink NYC Boosts Cigarette Prices to $13, Bans Sales by Pharmacies, Henry Goldman and Jennifer Kaplan, Bloomberg L.P, August 28, 2017, August 30, 2017,

Public safety

Police and law enforcement

{{further|Police surveillance in New York City|Crime in New York City}}File:Manhattan, New York - USA (6914876902).jpg|thumb|right|The New York Police Department (NYPD) represents the largest police force in the United States.]]The New York Police Department (NYPD) has been the largest police force in the United States by a significant margin, with over 35,000 sworn officers.WEB,weblink Bureau of Justice Statistics, 34, Appendix Table 1, U.S. Department of Justice, December 5, 2013, Members of the NYPD are frequently referred to by politicians, the media, and their own police cars by the nickname, New York's Finest.Crime has continued an overall downward trend in New York City since the 1990s.weblink Accessed July 6, 2017. In 2012, the NYPD came under scrutiny for its use of a stop-and-frisk program,NEWS, NYPD Stop And Frisks: 15 Shocking Facts About A Controversial Program,weblink December 24, 2013, Huffington Post, May 15, 2012, WEB, Stop-and-Frisk Campaign: About the Issue,weblink NYCLU, December 24, 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink December 30, 2013, July 31, 2007, WEB, NYPD Stop and Frisk,weblink Huffington Post, December 24, 2013, which has undergone several policy revisions since then. In 2014, New York City had the third lowest murder rate among the largest U.S. cities,WEB,weblink San Diego County homicides up 12% in 2015, Lyndsay, Winkley, having become significantly safer after a spike in crime in the 1970s through 1990s.Arthur Prager, "Worst-Case Scenario" {{webarchive|url= |date=March 30, 2013 }}, American Heritage, February/March 2006. Violent crime in New York City decreased more than 75% from 1993 to 2005, and continued decreasing during periods when the nation as a whole saw increases.WEB,weblink Don't Tell New York, But Crime Is Going Up,, August 20, 2011, By 2002, New York City's crime rate was similar to that of Provo, Utah, and was ranked 197th in crime among the 216 U.S. cities with populations greater than 100,000. In 2005, the homicide rate was at its lowest level since 1966,WEB,weblink The Remarkable Drop in Crime in New York City, Langan, Patrick A., Matthew R. Durose, October 21, 2004, Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, February 8, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink February 15, 2009, and in 2007, the city recorded fewer than 500 homicides for the first time ever since crime statistics were first published in 1963.Fewer Killings in 2007, but Still Felt in City's Streets, The New York Times, January 1, 2008. Retrieved June 21, 2009. In 2017, 60.1% of violent crime suspects were Black, 29.6% Hispanic, 6.5% White, 3.6% Asian and 0.2% American Indianweblink New York City experienced 292 homicides in 2017,WEB,weblink Table 8 – New York, Sociologists and criminologists have not reached consensus on the explanation for the dramatic decrease in the city's crime rate. Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the NYPD,"Livingstone to follow methods of the NYPD". Telegraph. January 17, 2001. including its use of CompStat and the broken windows theory."Staying a beat ahead of crime". November 5, 2002. Others cite the end of the crack epidemic and demographic changes,BOOK, Johnson, Bruce D., Andrew, Golub, Eloise, Dunlap, The Crime Drop in America, The Rise and Decline of Hard Drugs, Drug Markets, and Violence in Inner-City New York, Blumstein, Alfred, Joel Wallman, 2006, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-86279-0, ; BOOK, Karmen, Andrew, New York Murder Mystery: The True Story Behind the Crime Crash of the 1990s, 2000, NYU Press, 978-0-8147-4717-9, including from immigration.WEB, Shurkin, Joel N.,weblink Mystery Of New York's Falling Crime Rate Remains Unsolved, American Institute of Physics, February 13, 2013, July 5, 2015, Another theory is that widespread exposure to lead pollution from automobile exhaust, which can lower intelligence and increase aggression levels, incited the initial crime wave in the mid-20th century, most acutely affecting heavily trafficked cities like New York. A strong correlation was found demonstrating that violent crime rates in New York and other big cities began to fall after lead was removed from American gasoline in the 1970s.WEB,weblink America's Real Criminal Element: Lead, Kevin, Drum, Mother Jones, January–February 2013, March 3, 2013, Another theory cited to explain New York City's falling homicide rate is the inverse correlation between the number of murders and the increasingly wetter climate in the city.NEWS, Andrew W., Lehren, Christine, Hauser,weblink In New York City, Fewer Murders on Rainy Days, The New York Times, July 2, 2009, July 5, 2015, Organized crime has long been associated with New York City, beginning with the Forty Thieves and the Roach Guards in the Five Points in the 1820s. The 20th century saw a rise in the Mafia, dominated by the Five Families, as well as in gangs, including the Black Spades."Youth Gangs". Gotham Gazette. March 5, 2001. The Mafia and gang presence has declined in the city in the 21st century.NEWS,weblink NY Crime – Mafia Is Down—but Not Out – Crime Families Adapt to Survive, Lowering Profile and Using Need-to-Know Tactics, Sean Gardiner, Pervaiz Shallwani, The Wall Street Journal, February 18, 2014, July 8, 2015, WEB,weblink How New York Gang Culture Is Changing, August 18, 2015, VICE,


File:Peter Stehlik - FDNY Rescue 1 - 2012.05.18.JPG|thumb|The Fire Department of New York (FDNY) is the largest municipal fire department in the United States.]]The Fire Department of New York (FDNY), provides fire protection, technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services for the five boroughs of New York City. The FDNY is the largest municipal fire department in the United States and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department. The FDNY employs approximately 11,080 uniformed firefighters and over 3,300 uniformed EMTs and paramedics. The FDNY's motto is New York's Bravest.The fire department faces multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures, there are many secluded bridges and tunnels, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires. New York is also home to one of the largest subway systems in the world, consisting of hundreds of miles of tunnel with electrified track.The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn,"9 Metrotech Center – FDNY Headquarters {{webarchive|url= |date=January 18, 2012 }}". Fresh Meadow Mechanical Corp. Retrieved on November 5, 2009. and the FDNY Fire Academy is located on Randalls Island.WEB,weblink FDNY Fire Academy, The City of New York, October 8, 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink October 14, 2014, There are three Bureau of Fire Communications alarm offices which receive and dispatch alarms to appropriate units. One office, at 11 Metrotech Center in Brooklyn, houses Manhattan/Citywide, Brooklyn, and Staten Island Fire Communications; the Bronx and Queens offices are in separate buildings.

Public library system

File:New York Public Library May 2011.JPG|thumb|left|The Stephen A. Schwarzman Headquarters Building of the New York Public Library, at 5th Avenue and 42nd Street.]]The New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the United States, serves Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island.WEB,weblink Nation's Largest Libraries, LibrarySpot, September 1, 2008, Queens is served by the Queens Borough Public Library, the nation's second largest public library system, while the Brooklyn Public Library serves Brooklyn.

Culture and contemporary life

{{Further|Culture of New York City|List of nightclubs in New York City|List of people from New York City}}New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland and Latvia and by New York's Baruch College. A book containing a series of essays titled New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia. In describing New York, author Tom Wolfe said, "Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather."PRESS RELEASE, Speeches: Tom Christopher Exhibit Opening, Consulate General of the United States: Frankfurt, Germany, May 9, 2007,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 23, 2007, September 1, 2008, Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance, which established the African-American literary canon in the United States.NEWS, Harlem in the Jazz Age,weblink May 31, 2012, The New York Times, February 8, 1987, NEWS, ART; A 1920's Flowering That Didn't Disappear,weblink May 31, 2012, NY Times, May 24, 1998, The city was a center of jazzWEB, Harlem Renaissance Music in the 1920s,weblink 1920s Fashion & Music, June 1, 2012, in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s, and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s.NEWS, Will Gentrification Spoil the Birthplace of Hip-Hop? – New York,weblink June 1, 2012, NY Times, May 21, 2007, The city's punkHarrington, Joe S. Sonic Cool: The Life & Death of Rock 'N' Roll. pp. 324–30. 2002. Hal-Leonard. and hardcoreWEB, Survival of the Streets,weblink Vice, June 1, 2012, September 2009, scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s. New York has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature.The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism (also known as the New York School) in painting; and hip hop, punk, salsa, freestyle, Tin Pan Alley, certain forms of jazz, and (along with Philadelphia) disco in music. New York City has been considered the dance capital of the world.WEB,weblink capital,, July 10, 2011, WEB,weblink Free To Dance – About The Film, Public Broadcasting Service, July 10, 2011, WEB,weblink Group Visits, Alvin Ailey Dance Foundation, Inc, July 10, 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink May 13, 2011, The city is also frequently the setting for novels, movies (see List of films set in New York City), and television programs. New York Fashion Week is one of the world's preeminent fashion events and is afforded extensive coverage by the media.BOOK, Bradford, Julie, Fashion Journalism, Routledge, 2014, 129,weblink July 18, 2015, 978-1-136-47536-8, BOOK, Susan, Dillon, The Fundamentals of Fashion Management, A&C Black, 2011, 115,weblink July 18, 2015, 978-2-940411-58-0, New York has also frequently been ranked the top fashion capital of the world on the annual list compiled by the Global Language Monitor.WEB,weblink New York retakes Top Global Fashion Capital Title from London, edging past Paris,, February 11, 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink April 23, 2014,


One of the most common traits attributed to New York City is its fast pace, which spawned the term (wikt:New York minute|New York minute). Journalist Walt Whitman characterized New York's streets as being traversed by "hurrying, feverish, electric crowds".


New York City has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries of all sizes.WEB, Creative New York, Center for an Urban Future, December 2005,weblink PDF, September 1, 2008, The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts. Wealthy business magnates in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as the famed Carnegie Hall and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, that would become internationally established. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the 1880s, New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical. Strongly influenced by the city's immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart, George M. Cohan, and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. New York City itself is the subject or background of many plays and musicals.

Performing arts

File:Lincoln Center Twilight.jpg|thumb|left|alt=The corner of a lit up plaza with a fountain in the center and the ends of two brightly lit buildings with tall arches on the square.Broadway theatre is one of the premier forms of English-language theatre in the world, named after Broadway, the major thoroughfare that crosses Times Square,NEWS, Welsh, Anne Marie,weblink 2 plays + 9 nominations=good odds for locals, San Diego Union-Tribune, June 6, 2004, September 1, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink October 5, 2008, also sometimes referred to as "The Great White Way".McBeth, VR. weblink" title="">"The Great White Way" on Quote: "Coined in 1901 by O.J. Gude, the designer of many prominent advertising displays, to describe the new light show that beckoned along Broadway, The Great White Way is a phrase known worldwide to describe Broadway's profusion of theaters in Times Square."Tell, Darcy. Times Square spectacular: lighting up Broadway New York: HarperCollins, 2007Allen, Irving Lewis. The City in Slang: New York Life and Popular Speech. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Quote: "By 1910, the blocks of Broadway just above 42nd Street were at the very heart of the Great White Way. The glow of Times Square symbolized the center of New York, if not of the world." Forty-one venues in Midtown Manhattan's Theatre District, each with at least 500 seats, are classified as Broadway theatres. According to The Broadway League, Broadway shows sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million.WEB,weblink Broadway Calendar-Year Statistics, The Broadway League, July 20, 2014, Performance artists displaying diverse skills are ubiquitous on the streets of Manhattan.Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, anchoring Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is home to numerous influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic, and New York City Ballet, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and Alice Tully Hall. The Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute is in Union Square, and Tisch School of the Arts is based at New York University, while Central Park SummerStage presents free music concerts in Central Park.WEB, About Summer Stage,weblink City Parks Foundation, June 14, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink October 16, 2012, File:MET entrance.jpg|thumb|The Metropolitan Museum of Art, part of Museum MileMuseum Mile

Visual arts

New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites, many of which are internationally known.Museum Mile is the name for a section of Fifth Avenue running from 82nd to 105th streets on the Upper East Side of Manhattan,WEB,weblink Museum Mile Festival, Official site, August 23, 2014, in an area sometimes called Upper Carnegie Hill.NEWS, Reaching High on Upper 5th Avenue, October 21, 2011, Laura, Kusisto, The Wall Street Journal, August 23, 2014,weblink October 23, 2011, no,weblink" title="">weblink The Mile, which contains one of the densest displays of culture in the world, is actually three blocks longer than one mile (1.6 km). Ten museums occupy the length of this section of Fifth Avenue.WEB,weblink Museums on the Mile, August 23, 2014, January 1, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink The tenth museum, the Museum for African Art, joined the ensemble in 2009, although its museum at 110th Street, the first new museum constructed on the Mile since the Guggenheim in 1959,NEWS, Chan, Sewell,weblink Museum for African Art Finds its Place, August 23, 2014, February 9, 2007, The New York Times, opened in late 2012. In addition to other programming, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation.NEWS,weblink New Drive Promoting 5th Ave.'s 'Museum Mile', August 23, 2014, June 27, 1979, The New York Times, Many of the world's most lucrative art auctions are held in New York City.NEWS,weblink Leonardo da Vinci Painting Sells for $450.3 Million, Shattering Auction Highs, Robin Pogrebin and Scott Reyburn, The New York Times, November 15, 2017, November 16, 2017, WEB,weblink Christ painting by Leonardo da Vinci sells for record $450M, Associated Press, on MSN, November 15, 2017, November 15, 2017, yes,weblink" title="">weblink November 16, 2017,


File:Smorgasburg in Dumbo.jpg|thumb|left|Smorgasburg opened in 2011 as an open-air food market and is part of the (Brooklyn Flea]].NEWS, Strand, Oliver, Brooklyn Market: Woodstock of Eating,weblink The New York Times, May 29, 2013, July 5, 2011, |alt=People crowd around white tents in the foreground next to a red brick wall with arched windows. Above and to the left is a towering stone bridge.)New York City's food culture includes an array of international cuisines influenced by the city's immigrant history. Central and Eastern European immigrants, especially Jewish immigrants from those regions, brought bagels, cheesecake, hot dogs, knishes, and delicatessens (or delis) to the city. Italian immigrants brought New York-style pizza and Italian cuisine into the city, while Jewish immigrants and Irish immigrants brought pastrami and corned beef, respectively. Chinese and other Asian restaurants, sandwich joints, trattorias, diners, and coffeehouses are ubiquitous throughout the city. Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafel and kebabsNEWS, Kebabs on the Night Shift, Jennifer, Bleyer, The New York Times, May 14, 2006,weblink January 17, 2014, examples of modern New York street food. The city is home to "nearly one thousand of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine restaurants in the world", according to Michelin.WEB,weblink 27,479 restaurants selected by the Michelin Guide – Top Destinations, Michelin, August 24, 2014, The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene assigns letter grades to the city's restaurants based upon their inspection results.WEB,weblink Restaurant Inspection Results (Letter Grades), The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, January 19, 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 22, 2014, As of 2019, there were 27,043 restaurants in the city, up from 24,865 in 2017.weblink Accessed June 1, 2019. The Queens Night Market in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park attracts over 10,000 people nightly to sample food from over 85 countries.WEB,weblink Citing its diversity and culture, NYC was voted best city in the world in new global survey, Will Gleason, TimeOut, March 11, 2019, June 23, 2019, Just look at the Queens Night Market, which began in the summer of 2015 as a collection of 40 vendors serving authentic and affordable international cuisine in Flushing Meadows Corona Park. Since then, it’s steadily attracted more and more attendees and, last year, averaged 10,000 people a night. Those thousands of New Yorkers weren’t just hungry for new food, but for new points-of-view. “When I first started, it was all about how can we attract people with an event that’s as affordable and diverse as possible,” says Night Market founder John Wang. “We’ve now been able to represent over 85 countries, and I’m constantly hearing examples of people branching out and trying things they’ve never heard of before., {{multiple image|align = right|perrow = 2|total_width=370width1=600|height1=400width2=550|height2=350width3=600|height3=400width4=550|height4=350Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, the world's largest parade; the annual New York's Village Halloween Parade>Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the annual Filipinos in the New York City metropolitan region Philippine Independence Day Parade>Independence Day Parade; and the ticker-tape parade for the Apollo 11 astronauts}}


New York City is well known for its street parades, which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. The majority of parades are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is the world's largest parade,WEB,weblink Millions Of Revelers Marvel Over Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, CBS Broadcasting Inc, November 24, 2016, March 30, 2017, beginning alongside Central Park and processing southward to the flagship Macy's Herald Square store;WEB,weblink Guide to the 2016 Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, Hilarey Wojtowicz, The Independent Traveler, Inc, March 28, 2017, the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person. Other notable parades including the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade in March, the LGBT Pride March in June, the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Canyon of Heroes on Broadway from Bowling Green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan.

Accent and dialect

The New York area is home to a distinctive regional speech pattern called the New York dialect, alternatively known as Brooklynese or New Yorkese. It has generally been considered one of the most recognizable accents within American English.BOOK, Newman, Michael, 2005, New York Talk, American Voices, Walt, Wolfram, Ben, Ward, 82–87, Blackwell, 978-1-4051-2109-5, The traditional New York area accent is characterized as non-rhotic, so that the sound {{IPA|[ɹ]}} does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant; therefore the pronunciation of the city name as "New Yawk." There is no {{IPA|[ɹ]}} in words like park {{IPA|[pɑək]}} or {{IPA|[pɒək]}} (with vowel backed and diphthongized due to the low-back chain shift), butter {{IPA|[bʌɾə]}}, or here {{IPA|[hiə]}}. In another feature called the low back chain shift, the {{IPA|[ɔ]}} vowel sound of words like talk, law, cross, chocolate, and coffee and the often homophonous {{IPA|[ɔr]}} in core and more are tensed and usually raised more than in General American English. In the most old-fashioned and extreme versions of the New York dialect, the vowel sounds of words like "girl" and of words like "oil" became a diphthong {{IPA|[ɜɪ]}}. This is often misperceived by speakers of other accents as a reversal of the er and oy sounds, so that girl is pronounced "goil" and oil is pronounced "erl"; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like "Joizey" (Jersey), "Toidy-Toid Street" (33rd St.) and "terlet" (toilet). The character Archie Bunker from the 1970s television sitcom All in the Family was an example of having used this pattern of speech.The classic version of the New York City dialect is generally centered on middle and working-class New Yorkers. The influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect, and the traditional form of this speech pattern is no longer as prevalent among general New Yorkers as it has been in the past.NEWS, Sontag, Deborah,weblink Oy Gevalt! New Yawkese An Endangered Dialect?, The New York Times, February 14, 1993, July 19, 2014,


{{multiple image
| align = right
| direction = vertical
| image1 = New York City Marathon 2014 (15082977714).jpg
| width1 = 225
| caption1 = The New York Marathon is the largest marathon in the world.WEB,weblink 2017 New York City Marathon Entrants By the Numbers – Applications for the world's largest race were at an all-time high for 2017, Kit Fox, Runner's World – Rodale Inc, March 2, 2017, May 10, 2017,
| alt1 = Three runners in a race down a street where onlookers are cheering behind barriers.
| image2 = Arthur ashe stadium interior.jpg
| width2 = 225
| caption2 = The US Open Tennis Championships are held every August and September in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens.
| alt2 = A tennis stadium pack with fans watching a grass court.
| image3 = Citi Field 2011.JPG
| width3 = 225
| caption3 = Citi Field, also in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, has been home to the New York Mets since 2009.
| alt3 = A baseball stadium from behind home plate in the evening.
}}New York City is home to the headquarters of the National Football League,WEB,weblink National Football League Company Information, Hoover's, Inc, May 18, 2013, Major League Baseball,WEB,weblink Major League Baseball Company Information, Hoover's, Inc, May 18, 2013, the National Basketball Association,WEB,weblink National Basketball Association, Inc. Company Information, Hoover's, Inc, May 18, 2013, the National Hockey League,WEB,weblink National Hockey League Company Information, Hoover's, Inc, May 18, 2013, and Major League Soccer.WEB,weblink Major League Soccer, L.L.C. Company Information, Hoovers, Inc, May 18, 2013, The New York metropolitan area hosts the most sports teams in the four major North American professional sports leagues with nine, one more than Los Angeles, and has 11 top-level professional sports teams if Major League Soccer is included, also one more than Los Angeles. Participation in professional sports in the city predates all professional leagues, and the city has been continuously hosting professional sports since the birth of the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1882. The city has played host to over forty major professional teams in the five sports and their respective competing leagues, both current and historic. Four of the ten most expensive stadiums ever built worldwide (MetLife Stadium, the new Yankee Stadium, Madison Square Garden, and Citi Field) are located in the New York metropolitan area.WEB, Esteban,weblink 11 Most Expensive Stadiums In The World, Total Pro Sports, October 27, 2011, September 2, 2012, Madison Square Garden, its predecessor, the original Yankee Stadium and Ebbets Field, are sporting venues located in New York City, the latter two having been commemorated on U.S. postage stamps.New York has been described as the "Capital of Baseball".VIDEO, Baseball: A Film by Ken Burns; Inning 7: The Capital of Baseball, Television Documentary, PBS,weblink There have been 35 Major League Baseball World Series and 73 pennants won by New York teams. It is one of only five metro areas (Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore–Washington, and the San Francisco Bay Area being the others) to have two baseball teams. Additionally, there have been 14 World Series in which two New York City teams played each other, known as a Subway Series and occurring most recently in {{wsy|2000}}. No other metropolitan area has had this happen more than once (Chicago in {{wsy|1906}}, St. Louis in {{wsy|1944}}, and the San Francisco Bay Area in {{wsy|1989}}). The city's two current Major League Baseball teams are the New York Mets, who play at Citi Field in Queens,NEWS, New York Mets – TeamReport,weblink May 31, 2012, Chicago Tribune, May 30, 2012, and the New York Yankees, who play at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx.WEB, 2000S,weblink Newyork Yankees, May 31, 2012, These teams compete in six games of interleague play every regular season that has also come to be called the Subway Series. The Yankees have won a record 27 championships,WEB, New York Yankees: Facts, History, Stats, and Resources,weblink The free sources, May 31, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink June 5, 2012, yes, while the Mets have won the World Series twice.NEWS, How Mets, Colt .45s Grew Up To Beat The Bullies,weblink May 31, 2012, Chicago Tribune, October 8, 1986, The city also was once home to the Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles Dodgers), who won the World Series once,WEB, Dodgers Timeline,weblink Los Angeles Dodgers, September 22, 2008, and the New York Giants (now the San Francisco Giants), who won the World Series five times. Both teams moved to California in 1958.WEB, Historical Moments,weblink Dodgers Giants, May 31, 2012, There are also two Minor League Baseball teams in the city, the Brooklyn CyclonesNEWS, Major League Baseball, Police Athletic League and the Brooklyn Cyclones to host free MLB Umpire Camp,weblink May 31, 2012, MLB Press Release, May 30, 2012, and Staten Island Yankees.NEWS, New ownership group for Staten Island Yankees talks about future plans,weblink May 17, 2012, Silive, May 31, 2012, The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Giants and the New York Jets, although both teams play their home games at MetLife Stadium in nearby East Rutherford, New Jersey,NEWS, Preparations Different for a Home-and-Home Contest,weblink May 31, 2012, The New York Times, December 22, 2011, which hosted Super Bowl XLVIII in 2014.NEWS, Owners warm up to New York/New Jersey as Super Bowl XLVIII host,weblink, Associated Press, May 26, 2010, May 27, 2010, It's the first time the league has gone to a cold-weather site that doesn't have a dome ... the NFL will wait and see how this foray into the great outdoors in winter goes. Then the league might OK another bid, The metropolitan area is home to three National Hockey League teams. The New York Rangers, the traditional representative of the city itself and one of the league's Original Six, play at Madison Square Garden in Manhattan. The New York Islanders, traditionally representing Nassau and Suffolk Counties of Long Island, currently play at Barclays Center in Brooklyn and are planning a return to Nassau County by way of a new arena just outside the border with Queens at Belmont Park. The New Jersey Devils play at Prudential Center in nearby Newark, New Jersey and traditionally represent the counties of neighboring New Jersey which are coextensive with the boundaries of the New York metropolitan area and media market.The city's National Basketball Association teams are the Brooklyn Nets, which played in and were named for New Jersey until 2012, and the New York Knicks, while the New York Liberty is the city's Women's National Basketball Association team. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city.WEB,weblink Postseason Overview, National Invitation Tournament, September 1, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink July 24, 2008, The city is well known for its links to basketball, which is played in nearly every park in the city by local youth, many of whom have gone on to play for major college programs and in the NBA.In soccer, New York City is represented by New York City FC of Major League Soccer, who play their home games at Yankee Stadiumweblink Accessed May 10, 2017 and the New York Red Bulls, who play their home games at Red Bull Arena in nearby Harrison, New Jersey.NEWS,weblink Picture-perfect opening for $200M Red Bull Arena in Harrison, Associated Press, March 20, 2010, Historically, the city is known for the New York Cosmos, the highly successful former professional soccer team which was the American home of Pelé. A new version of the New York Cosmos was formed in 2010, and began play in the second division North American Soccer League in 2013. The Cosmos play their home games at James M. Shuart Stadium on the campus of Hofstra University, just outside the New York City limits in Hempstead, New York.The annual United States Open Tennis Championships is one of the world's four Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens.WEB,weblink US Open 2015, United States Tennis Association, July 6, 2015, The New York City Marathon, which courses through all five boroughs, is the world's largest running marathon, with 51,394 finishers in 2016WEB,weblink TCS New York City Marathon, May 10, 2017, New York Road Runners, July 2013, and 98,247 applicants for the 2017 race. The Millrose Games is an annual track and field meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile. Boxing is also a prominent part of the city's sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year.NEWS, Boxer Johnny Tapia's 'crazy life' ends,weblink May 28, 2012, CNN, May 31, 2012, The city is also considered the host of the Belmont Stakes, the last, longest and oldest of horse racing's Triple Crown races, held just over the city's border at Belmont Park on the first or second Sunday of June. The city also hosted the 1932 U.S. Open golf tournament and the 1930 and 1939 PGA Championships, and has been host city for both events several times, most notably for nearby Winged Foot Golf Club. The Gaelic games are played in Riverdale, Bronx at Gaelic Park, home to the New York GAA, the only North American team to compete at the senior inter-county level.


File:Image-Grand central Station Outside Night 2.jpg|thumb|left|New York City is home to the two busiest rail stations in the US, including alt=A row of yellow taxis in front of a multi-story ornate stone building with three huge arched windows.New York City's comprehensive transportation system is both complex and extensive.

Rapid transit

Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, accounts for one in every three users of mass transit in the United States, and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in the New York City Metropolitan Area.WEB, The MTA Network: Public Transportation for the New York Region, Metropolitan Transportation Authority,weblink August 30, 2012, WEB, Pisarski, Alan, Commuting in America III: Commuting Facts, Transportation Research Board, October 16, 2006,weblink PDF, August 30, 2012,


File:R160A E Train entering World Trade Center.jpg|thumb|The New York City Subway is the world's largest rapid transit system by length of routes and by number of stationsstationsThe iconic New York City Subway system is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with {{NYCS const|number|total}}, and by length of routes. Nearly all of New York's subway system is open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong,WEB,weblink Service Hours, MTR, July 31, 2012, WEB,weblink Tsuen Wan Line,, July 31, 2012, London, Paris, Seoul,WEB,weblink Train Time Table – Search station, Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation, August 29, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink February 16, 2012, WEB,weblink Subway map, Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation, August 29, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink April 14, 2012, and Tokyo. The New York City Subway is also the busiest metropolitan rail transit system in the Western Hemisphere, with 1.76 billion passenger rides in 2015,WEB,weblink Annual Subway Ridership, Metropolitan Transit Authority, May 21, 2016, while Grand Central Terminal, also referred to as "Grand Central Station", is the world's largest railway station by number of train platforms.Public transport is essential in New York City. 54.6% of New Yorkers commuted to work in 2005 using mass transit.NEWS, Christie, Les,weblink New Yorkers are Top Transit Users, January 2, 2008, June 29, 2007,, This is in contrast to the rest of the United States, where 91% of commuters travel in automobiles to their workplace.WEB, NHTS 2001 Highlights Report, BTS03-05, U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2001,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, May 14, 2005, PDF, September 1, 2008, According to the New York City Comptroller, workers in the New York City area spend an average of 6 hours and 18 minutes getting to work each week, the longest commute time in the nation among large cities.REPORT, The Hardest Working Cities, Office of the New York City Comptroller,weblink March 2015, New York is the only US city in which a majority (52%) of households do not have a car; only 22% of Manhattanites own a car.WEB, Rachel, Weinberger, John, Kaehny, Matthew, Rufo,weblink U.S. Parking Policies: An Overview of Management Strategies, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, 62, 2010, New York City is the largest, densest and most transit- and pedestrian-oriented city in the United States. It is the only U.S. city in which a majority of households do not have a car. Despite this, New York City is very much an American city in the way it under prices and under uses curbside parking meters. Meter rates are far lower than in other leading world cities, and New York suffers from high levels of cruising and double parking (p. 62) ... Nationally 90% of households own automobiles. New Yorkers own fewer at 48% with only 22% of Manhattan residents owning automobiles (p. 78), June 11, 2011, Due to their high usage of mass transit, New Yorkers spend less of their household income on transportation than the national average, saving $19 billion annually on transportation compared to other urban Americans.WEB, New York City's Green Dividend,weblink CEOs for Cities, January 26, 2012, April 21, 2010, New York City's commuter rail network is the largest in North America. The rail network, connecting New York City to its suburbs, consists of the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, and New Jersey Transit. The combined systems converge at Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station and contain more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines. In Queens, the elevated AirTrain people mover system connects JFK International Airport to the New York City Subway and the Long Island Rail Road; a separate AirTrain system is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway to connect LaGuardia Airport to these transit systems.WEB, Durkin, Erin,weblink Andrew Cuomo announces $450M plan to build AirTrain connecting LaGuardia Airport to the subway,, January 20, 2015, January 21, 2015, WEB, Honan, Katie, Cuomo Announces AirTrain to LaGuardia Airport from Subway, LIRR,weblink DNAinfo, January 20, 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 20, 2015, For intercity rail, New York City is served by Amtrak, whose busiest station by a significant margin is Pennsylvania Station on the West Side of Manhattan, from which Amtrak provides connections to Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. along the Northeast Corridor, and long-distance train service to other North American cities.WEB,weblink National Fact Sheet Fiscal Year 2013, Amtrak, April 20, 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink April 10, 2015, The Staten Island Railway rapid transit system solely serves Staten Island, operating 24 hours a day. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH train) links Midtown and Lower Manhattan to northeastern New Jersey, primarily Hoboken, Jersey City, and Newark. Like the New York City Subway, the PATH operates 24 hours a day; meaning three of the six rapid transit systems in the world which operate on 24-hour schedules are wholly or partly in New York (the others are a portion of the Chicago 'L', the PATCO Speedline serving Philadelphia, and the Copenhagen Metro).Multibillion-dollar heavy rail transit projects under construction in New York City include the Second Avenue Subway, and the East Side Access project.WEB, Dobnik, Verena,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, February 8, 2013, NYC Transit Projects: East Side Access, Second Avenue Subway, And 7 Train Extension (PHOTOS), Huffington Post, February 7, 2013, August 15, 2014,


File:Port-authority-terminal.jpg|thumb|The Port Authority Bus Terminal, the world's busiest bus station, at 8th Avenue and 42nd Street.]]New York City's public bus fleet runs 24/7 and is the largest in North America.WEB,weblink Top 100 Transit Bus Fleets, 4, Metro Magazine, April 20, 2015, The Port Authority Bus Terminal, the main intercity bus terminal of the city, serves 7,000 buses and 200,000 commuters daily, making it the busiest bus station in the world.PRESS RELEASE, Architect Chosen for Planned Office Tower Above Port Authority Bus Terminal's North Wing,weblink Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, November 17, 2008, August 12, 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2009,


File:JFK Plane Queue.jpg|thumb|left|John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gatewaybusiest international air passenger gatewayNew York's airspace is the busiest in the United States and one of the world's busiest air transportation corridors. The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area include John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, and LaGuardia Airport; 130.5 million travelers used these three airports in 2016, and the city's airspace is the busiest in the nation.WEB,weblink The Port Authority of NY and NJ 2016 Air Traffic Report, The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, April 14, 2017, June 26, 2017, JFK and Newark Liberty were the busiest and fourth busiest U.S. gateways for international air passengers, respectively, in 2012; {{As of|2011|lc=y}}, JFK was the busiest airport for international passengers in North America.WEB,weblink 2011 Year-to-date International Passenger Traffic (as of December 2011), Airports Council International, October 8, 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink December 6, 2010, Plans have advanced to expand passenger volume at a fourth airport, Stewart International Airport near Newburgh, New York, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.WEB, Strunsky, Steve,weblink Stewart International Airport upgrade approved as Port Authority aims to increase passenger traffic, New Jersey On-Line LLC., May 31, 2012, July 30, 2012, Plans were announced in July 2015 to entirely rebuild LaGuardia Airport in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities.NEWS, McGeehan, Patrick,weblink La Guardia Airport to Be Overhauled by 2021, Cuomo and Biden Say, The New York Times, July 27, 2015, July 28, 2015, Other commercial airports in or serving the New York metropolitan area include Long Island MacArthur Airport, Trenton–Mercer Airport and Westchester County Airport. The primary general aviation airport serving the area is Teterboro Airport.


File:Spirit of America - Staten Island Ferry.jpg|thumb|The Staten Island Ferry shuttles commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island.]]The Staten Island Ferry is the world's busiest ferry route, carrying over 23 million passengers from July 2015 through June 2016 on the {{convert|5.2|mi|km|adj=on}} route between Staten Island and Lower Manhattan and running 24 hours a day.WEB,weblink Staten Island Ferry ridership breaks record,, Anna Sanders, September 20, 2016, December 31, 2016, Other ferry systems shuttle commuters between Manhattan and other locales within the city and the metropolitan area.NYC Ferry, a NYCEDC initiative with routes planned to travel to all five boroughs, was launched in 2017, with second graders choosing the names of the ferries.WEB,weblink First of New York's citywide ferries arrives in Brooklyn Bridge Park, Zoe Rosenberg, Curbed New York, Vox Media, April 17, 2017, April 17, 2017, Meanwhile, Seastreak ferry announced construction of a 600-passenger high-speed luxury ferry in September 2016, to shuttle riders between the Jersey Shore and Manhattan, anticipated to start service in 2017; this would be the largest vessel in its class.WEB,weblink This is the new high-speed ferry coming to New Jersey in 2017, Larry Higgs, NJ Advance Media for, September 14, 2016, September 23, 2016,

Taxis, transport startups, and trams

{{see also|Taxicabs of New York City}}(File:NYC Toyota Prius v.jpg|thumb|right|Yellow medallion taxicabs are widely recognized icons of the city)Other features of the city's transportation infrastructure encompass more than 12,000 yellow taxicabs;WEB,weblink The State of the NYC Taxi, New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission, March 9, 2006, PDF, September 1, 2008, various competing startup transportation network companies; and an aerial tramway that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan Island. Ride-sharing services have become significant competition for cab drivers in New York.NEWS,weblink The Downside of Ride-Hailing: More New York City Gridlock, Winnie Hu, The New York Times, March 6, 2017, March 30, 2017, WEB,weblink Cuomo pushes for ride-sharing services outside NYC, Karen DeWitt, North Country Public Radio, January 10, 2017, March 29, 2017,

Streets and highways

File:Storm at Manhattan.jpg|thumb|8th Avenue, looking northward ("uptown"). Most streets and avenues in Manhattan's grid plan incorporate a one-way trafficone-way trafficDespite New York's heavy reliance on its vast public transit system, streets are a defining feature of the city. Manhattan's street grid plan greatly influenced the city's physical development. Several of the city's streets and avenues, like Broadway,WEB,weblink'_in_the_Rain.html,weblink" title="">weblink yes, September 2, 2006, The Myths and Metaphors of Music and Dance Singin' in the Rain, Hofstra University, February 6, 2012, Wall Street,WEB, Nordquist, Richard,weblink Grammar & Composition metonymy,, February 6, 2012, Madison Avenue,WEB,, yes, May 22, 2016, Definition of Metonymy, Chegg, Inc, August 12, 2014, WEB,, Metonymy vs Synecdoche, 2012, February 6, 2012, and Seventh Avenue are also used as metonyms for national industries there: the theater, finance, advertising, and fashion organizations, respectively.New York City also has an extensive web of expressways and parkways, which link the city's boroughs to each other and to northern New Jersey, Westchester County, Long Island, and southwestern Connecticut through various bridges and tunnels. Because these highways serve millions of outer borough and suburban residents who commute into Manhattan, it is quite common for motorists to be stranded for hours in traffic jams that are a daily occurrence, particularly during rush hour.George Washington Bridge turns 75 years old: Huge flag, cake part of celebration, Times Herald-Record, October 24, 2006. "The party, however, will be small in comparison to the one that the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey organized for 5,000 people to open the bridge to traffic in 1931. And it won't even be on what is now the world's busiest bridge for fear of snarling traffic."New York City is also known for its rules regarding turning at red lights. Unlike the rest of the United States, New York State prohibits right or left turns on red in cities with a population greater than one million, to reduce traffic collisions and increase pedestrian safety. In New York City, therefore, all turns at red lights are illegal unless a sign permitting such maneuvers is present.WEB,weblink Rules of the Road,,

{{anchor|Bridges|Tunnels}}River crossings

File:George Washington Bridge from New Jersey-edit.jpg|thumb|left|The George Washington Bridge, connecting Upper Manhattan (background) from Fort Lee, New Jersey across the (Hudson River]], is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge.WEB,weblink March 10, 2014, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey – George Washington Bridge, The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, WEB,weblink GW Bridge Painters: Dangerous Job on Top of the World's Busiest Bridge, Bod Woodruff, Lana Zak, Stephanie Wash, yes, ABC News, November 20, 2012, April 20, 2016, )New York City is located on one of the world's largest natural harbors,New York Harbor Video – How the Earth Was Made. Historycom. Retrieved on April 12, 2014. and the boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island are (primarily) coterminous with islands of the same names, while Queens and Brooklyn are located at the west end of the larger Long Island, and The Bronx is located at the southern tip of New York State's mainland. This situation of boroughs separated by water led to the development of an extensive infrastructure of well-known bridges and tunnels.The George Washington Bridge is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge,WEB,weblink September 13, 2013, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey – George Washington Bridge, The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, WEB, Bod, Woodruff, Lana, Zak, Stephanie, Wash,weblink GW Bridge Painters: Dangerous Job on Top of the World's Busiest Bridge, ABC News, November 20, 2012, September 13, 2013, connecting Manhattan to Bergen County, New Jersey. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the Americas and one of the world's longest.WEB,weblink Longest Suspension Bridges in the World, Pearson Education, September 7, 2012, WEB,weblink Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, Eastern Roads, September 7, 2012, The Brooklyn Bridge is an icon of the city itself. The towers of the Brooklyn Bridge are built of limestone, granite, and Rosendale cement, and their architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. This bridge was also the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and is the first steel-wire suspension bridge. The Queensboro Bridge is an important piece of cantilever architecture. The Manhattan Bridge, opened in 1909, is considered to be the forerunner of modern suspension bridges, and its design served as the model for many of the long-span suspension bridges around the world; the Manhattan Bridge, Throgs Neck Bridge, Triborough Bridge, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge are all examples of Structural Expressionism.New York Architecture Images-Manhattan Bridge. (December 31, 1909). Retrieved on April 12, 2014.New York Architecture Images. Retrieved on April 12, 2014.Manhattan Island is linked to New York City's outer boroughs and New Jersey by several tunnels as well. The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world.WEB,weblink Lincoln Tunnel Historic Overview, Eastern Roads, August 13, 2014, The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sailed through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan's piers. The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927.Holland Tunnel (I-78). Retrieved on April 12, 2014.WEB, Holland Tunnel, National Historic Landmark Quicklinks, National Park Service,weblink August 13, 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink June 29, 2014, The Queens-Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940.WEB,weblink Queens-Midtown Tunnel Historic Overview, Eastern Roads, August 13, 2014, President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it."President the 'First' to Use Midtown Tube; Precedence at Opening Denied Hundreds of Motorists", The New York Times, November 9, 1940. p. 19. The Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel (officially known as the Hugh L. Carey Tunnel) runs underneath Battery Park and connects the Financial District at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook in Brooklyn.

{{anchor|Environmental perspectives}} Environment

File:NYC Hybrid Taxi.JPG|thumb|As of July 2010, the city had 3,715 alt=Two yellow taxis on a narrow street lined with shops.

Environmental impact reduction

New York City has focused on reducing its environmental impact and carbon footprint.WEB,weblink Mayor de Blasio Commits to 80 Percent Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by 2050, Starting with Sweeping Green Buildings Plan, City of New York, October 31, 2014, September 21, 2014, Mass transit use in New York City is the highest in the United States. Also, by 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis and other clean diesel vehicles, representing around 28% of New York's taxi fleet in service, the most of any city in North America.NEWS,weblink Appeals Court Rejects Effort to Create Hybrid Taxi Fleet, The New York Times, July 27, 2010, July 31, 2010, Andy, Newman, New York's high rate of public transit use, over 200,000 daily cyclists {{As of|2014|lc=y}},WEB, Bicycling in New York City: Know the Facts, Transportation Alternatives,weblink October 31, 2014, and many pedestrian commuters make it the most energy-efficient major city in the United States.BOOK, Ben, Jervey, The Big Green Apple: Your Guide to Eco-Friendly Living in New York City, 978-0-7627-3835-9, Globe Pequot Press, 2006, Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city; nationally the rate for metro regions is about 8%.WEB, 2001 National Household Travel Survey: Summary of Travel Trends, U.S. Department of Transportation, December 2004,weblink PDF, September 1, 2008, In both its 2011 and 2015 rankings, Walk Score named New York City the most walkable large city in the United States,NEWS, Richard, Florida, The Atlantic,weblink 2015's Most Walkable U.S. Cities, MSN, April 7, 2015, April 12, 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink April 11, 2015, WEB,weblink NYC tops list of most walkable cities in America – video narrative by Mara Montalbano, Buzz60, on MSN, April 11, 2015, WEB,weblink The 10 Most Walkable U.S. Cities, MarketWatch, 2011, July 20, 2011, and in 2018, Stacker ranked New York the most walkable U.S. city.WEB,weblink Most walkable cities in America, Betsy Ladyzhets, Stacker, via MSN, April 18, 2018, May 18, 2018, Citibank sponsored the introduction of 10,000 public bicycles for the city's bike-share project in the summer of 2013.WEB, Hamblin, James, The Summer Bicycles Took Control,weblink The Atlantic Monthly, The Atlantic Monthly Group, June 28, 2013, June 28, 2013, New York City's numerical "in-season cycling indicator" of bicycling in the city had hit an all-time high of 437 when measured in 2014.WEB,weblink 2014 NYC In-Season Cycling Indicator, City of New York, March 15, 2019, The city government was a petitioner in the landmark Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency Supreme Court case forcing the EPA to regulate greenhouse gases as pollutants. The city is a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings, including the Hearst Tower among others.NEWS, Pogrebin, Robin, 7 World Trade Center and Hearst Building: New York's Test Cases for Environmentally Aware Office Towers, The New York Times, April 16, 2006,weblink September 1, 2008, Mayor Bill de Blasio has committed to an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions between 2014 and 2050 to reduce the city's contributions to climate change, beginning with a comprehensive "Green Buildings" plan.

Water purity and availability

New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed.WEB,weblink Current Reservoir Levels, New York City Department of Environmental Protection, August 15, 2014, As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants.NEWS, Lustgarten, Abrahm, City's Drinking Water Feared Endangered; $10B Cost Seen, The New York Sun, August 6, 2008,weblink August 9, 2008, The city's municipal water system is the largest in the United States, moving over one billion gallons of water per day. The Croton Watershed north of the city is undergoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City's water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city's current availability of water.NEWS, Dunlap, David W.,weblink Quiet Milestone in Project to Bring Croton Water Back to New York City, The New York Times, July 23, 2014, August 20, 2014, The ongoing expansion of New York City Water Tunnel No. 3, an integral part of the New York City water supply system, is the largest capital construction project in the city's history,NEWS, Flegenheimer, Matt,weblink After Decades, a Water Tunnel Can Now Serve All of Manhattan, The New York Times, October 16, 2013, August 15, 2014, with segments serving Manhattan and The Bronx completed, and with segments serving Brooklyn and Queens planned for construction in 2020.NEWS,weblink De Blasio Adding Money for Water Tunnel in Brooklyn and Queens, Jim Dwyer, The New York Times, April 6, 2016, April 15, 2016, In 2018, New York City announced a US$1 billion investment to protect the integrity of its water system and to maintain the purity of its unfiltered water supply.NEWS,weblink A Billion-Dollar Investment in New York's Water, Winnie Hu, The New York Times, January 18, 2018, January 18, 2018,

Air quality

According to the 2016 World Health Organization Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database,WEB, WHO Global Ambient Air Quality Database (update 2018),weblink World Health Organization, the annual average concentration in New York City's air of particulate matter measuring 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5) was 7 micrograms per cubic meter, or 3 micrograms below the recommended limit of the WHO Air Quality Guidelines for the annual mean PM2.5.WEB, Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health,weblink World Health Organization, The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, in partnership with Queens College, conducts the New York Community Air Survey to measure pollutants at about 150 locations.WEB, Air Pollution Monitoring,weblink New York City Environmental Protection,

Environmental revitalization

Newtown Creek, a {{convert|3.5|mi|km|0|abbr=off|adj=on|sp=us}} a long estuary that forms part of the border between the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, has been designated a Superfund site for environmental clean-up and remediation of the waterway's recreational and economic resources for many communities.NEWS, Mireya, Navarro, Newtown Creek Is Declared a Superfund Site, September 27, 2010,weblink The New York Times, September 27, 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink May 8, 2014, One of the most heavily used bodies of water in the Port of New York and New Jersey, it had been one of the most contaminated industrial sites in the country,WEB,weblink Newtown Creek Clean-Up Efforts, December 12, 2008, The City Concealed, Thirteen (, June 29, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink July 5, 2009, containing years of discarded toxins, an estimated {{convert|30|e6USgal|m3}} of spilled oil, including the Greenpoint oil spill, raw sewage from New York City's sewer system, and other accumulation.

Government and politics


File:New York City Hall.jpg|thumb|right|alt=A wide white building in a colonial style with a cupola in the center.New York City has been a metropolitan municipality with a mayor–council form of governmentWEB,weblink Forms of Municipal Government, National League of Cities, February 10, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 18, 2012, since its consolidation in 1898. In New York City, the city government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services.The Mayor and council members are elected to four-year terms. The City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2007, About the Council, New York City Council, June 6, 2007, Each term for the mayor and council members lasts four years and has a three consecutive-term limit,NEWS, Sewell, Chan, Jonathan P., Hicks,weblink Council Votes, 29 to 22, to Extend Term Limits, The New York Times, October 23, 2008, February 13, 2012, which is reset after a four-year break. The New York City Administrative Code, the New York City Rules, and the City Record are the code of local laws, compilation of regulations, and official journal, respectively.BOOK, Gibson's New York Legal Research Guide, Ellen M., Gibson, William H., Manz, 2004, 3rd, 450, 458, 473, Wm. S. Hein Publishing, 978-1-57588-728-9, 2004042477, 54455036,weblink harv, NEWS, Councilman Ben Kallos wants city to publish government notices on its website, Erin, Durkin, May 26, 2014, New York Daily News,weblink July 23, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink October 11, 2017, no, File:NYC - New York County Supreme Courthouse.jpg|thumb|left|The New York County Courthouse houses the New York Supreme CourtNew York Supreme CourtEach borough is coextensive with a judicial district of the state Unified Court System, of which the Criminal Court and the Civil Court are the local courts, while the New York Supreme Court conducts major trials and appeals. Manhattan hosts the First Department of the Supreme Court, Appellate Division while Brooklyn hosts the Second Department. There are also several extrajudicial administrative courts, which are executive agencies and not part of the state Unified Court System.Uniquely among major American cities, New York is divided between, and is host to the main branches of, two different US district courts: the District Court for the Southern District of New York, whose main courthouse is on Foley Square near City Hall in Manhattan and whose jurisdiction includes Manhattan and the Bronx; and the District Court for the Eastern District of New York, whose main courthouse is in Brooklyn and whose jurisdiction includes Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. The US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and US Court of International Trade are also based in New York, also on Foley Square in Manhattan.


File:Bill_de_Blasio_11-2-2013.jpg|thumb|upright|Bill de Blasio, the current and 109th Mayor of New York CityMayor of New York CityThe present mayor is Bill de Blasio, the first Democrat since 1993.NEWS, Michael, Barbaro, David W., Chen,weblink De Blasio Is Elected New York City Mayor, The New York Times, November 5, 2013, November 6, 2013, He was elected in 2013 with over 73% of the vote, and assumed office on January 1, 2014.The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. As of April 2016, 69% of registered voters in the city are Democrats and 10% are Republicans.WEB,weblink NYSVoter Enrollment by County, Party Affiliation and Status, April 2016, New York State Board of Elections, July 30, 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink July 30, 2016, New York City has not been carried by a Republican in a statewide or presidential election since President Calvin Coolidge won the five boroughs in 1924. In 2012, Democrat Barack Obama became the first presidential candidate of any party to receive more than 80% of the overall vote in New York City, sweeping all five boroughs. Party platforms center on affordable housing, education, and economic development, and labor politics are of importance in the city.New York is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States, as four of the top five ZIP Codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top ZIP Code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigns of George W. Bush and John Kerry.WEB, 2006 Election Overview: Top Zip Codes,,weblink September 1, 2008, The city has a strong imbalance of payments with the national and state governments. It receives 83 cents in services for every $1 it sends to the federal government in taxes (or annually sends $11.4 billion more than it receives back). City residents and businesses also sent an additional $4.1 billion in the 2009–2010 fiscal year to the state of New York than the city received in return.WEB, Downstate Pays More, Upstate Gets More: Does It Matter?, The Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government – The Public Policy Research Arm of the State University of New York,weblink December 2011, January 22, 2019, no,weblink" title="">weblink May 1, 2016,

Notable people

Global outreach

In 2006, the Sister City Program of the City of New York, Inc. was restructured and renamed New York City Global Partners. Through this program, New York City has expanded its international outreach to a network of cities worldwide, promoting the exchange of ideas and innovation between their citizenry and policymakers. New York's historic sister cities are denoted below by the year they joined New York City's partnership network.WEB,weblink NYC's Partner Cities, The City of New York, March 26, 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink August 14, 2013, {| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"! New York City Global Partners network|Africa{{div col|small=yes|rules=yes|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}Asia(East){{div col|small=yes|rules=yes|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}(South){{div col|small=yes|rules=yes|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}(West){{div col|small=yes|rules=yes|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}Australia Europe(Central) (East){{div col|small=yes|rules=yes|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}(North){{div col|small=yes|rules=yes|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}(South){{div col|small=yes|rules=yes|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}(West){{div col|small=yes|rules=yes|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}North America(Canada){{div col|small=yes|rules=yes|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}(Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean){{div col|small=yes|rules=yes|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}(United States){{div col|small=yes|rules=yes|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}South America{{div col|small=yes|rules=yes|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}

See also





Further reading

  • BOOK, Belden, E. Porter, 1849,weblink New York, Past, Present, and Future: Comprising a History of the City of New York, a Description of its Present Condition, and an Estimate of its Future Increase, New York, G.P. Putnam, From Google Books.
  • BOOK, Anthony Burgess, Burgess, Anthony, 1976, New York, New York, Little, Brown & Co., 978-90-6182-266-0, New York (Anthony Burgess book),
  • BOOK, Federal Writers' Project, Federal Writers' Project, 1939, The WPA Guide to New York City, New York, The New Press, 1995 reissue, 978-1-56584-321-9,
  • ENC-NYC,
  • BOOK, Jackson, Kenneth T., Dunbar, David S., 2005, Empire City: New York Through the Centuries, Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-10909-3,
  • BOOK, American Metropolis: A History of New York City, Lankevich, George L., NYU Press, 1998, 978-0-8147-5186-2,
  • BOOK, E. B. White, White, E.B., 1949, Here is New York, Little Bookroom, 2000 reissue,
  • AIA4,
  • BOOK, Colson Whitehead, Whitehead, Colson, 2003, The Colossus of New York: A City in 13 Parts, New York, Doubleday, 978-0-385-50794-3,

External links

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