aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{other uses}}{{pp-semi-indef|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|Country in North America}}{{Use Canadian English|date=July 2015}}{{Use mdy dates|date=August 2019}}{{Coord|60|N|95|W|display=title}}

{{small|"From Sea to Sea"}}O Canada"{{lower>0.2em name=Anthemroyal anthem is "God Save the Queen", which is sometimes played or sung together with the national anthem, "O Canada", at private and public events. Additionally, its first three lines are also included within the "Viceregal Salute", which is accorded to the governor general and provincial lieutenant governors. However, it has never been adopted as an official symbol of the country.KALLMANN TITLE=NATIONAL AND ROYAL ANTHEMS WEBSITE=ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MUSIC IN CANADA ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 26, 2019, }}}} {{center|(File:"O Canada", performed by the United States Third Marine Aircraft Wing Band.oga)}}| image_map = CAN orthographic.svg| map_width = 220px| alt_map = Projection of North America with Canada in green| capital = Ottawa45N40type:city}}| largest_city = TorontoCanadian English>French}}| ethnic_groups_year = 2016PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA, CATALOG NO. 98-400-X2016187 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20171026161129/HTTP://WWW12.STATCAN.GC.CA/CENSUS-RECENSEMENT/2016/DP-PD/DT-TD/RP-ENG.CFM?LANG=E&APATH=3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=0&GK=0&GRP=1&PID=110528&PRID=10&PTYPE=109445&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&TEMPORAL=2017&THEME=120&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF= DATE=OCTOBER 25, 2017, | ethnic_groups = {{Collapsible list
| titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;font-size:100%;
| title = List of ethnicities| 74.3% European | 14.5% Asian | 5.1% Indigenous | 3.4% Caribbean and Latin American | 2.9% African | 0.2% Oceanian}}| religion_year = 2011
|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;font-size:100%;
|title = List of religions|67.2% Christianity |23.9% Irreligious|3.2% Islam|1.5% Hinduism |1.4% Sikhism |1.1% Buddhism |1.0% Judaism |0.6% Other}}
Canadians>CanadianFederalism parliamentary system>parliamentaryconstitutional monarchyKEITH >LAST1=DOWDING LAST2=DUMONT URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=ACLHBAAAQBAJ&PG=PT395 PUBLISHER=TAYLOR & FRANCIS PAGE=395, }}Monarchy of Canada>Monarch| leader_name1 = Elizabeth IIGovernor General}}| leader_name2 = Julie PayettePrime Minister of Canada>Prime Minister| leader_name3 = Justin TrudeauParliament of Canada>ParliamentSenate of Canada>SenateHouse of Commons of Canada>House of CommonsHistory of Canada#Canada under British rule (1763–1931)>Independence| sovereignty_note = from the United KingdomCanadian Confederation>Confederation| established_date1 = July 1, 1867Statute of Westminster 1931>Statute of Westminster| established_date2 = December 11, 1931| established_event3 = Patriation| established_date3 = April 17, 1982| area_km2 = 9,984,670| area_label = Total area| area_rank = 2nd| area_sq_mi = 3,854,085 | percent_water = 8.92| area_label2 = Total land area9093507sqmi|abbr=on}}DATE=JUNE 20, 2018 ACCESSDATE=JUNE 20, 2018, DATE=FEBRUARY 8, 2017 ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 8, 2017 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170210133245/HTTP://WWW.STATCAN.GC.CA/DAILY-QUOTIDIEN/170208/DQ170208A-ENG.HTM, February 10, 2017, | population_estimate_year = Q2 2019| population_census_year = 2016| population_estimate_rank = 38th| population_density_km2 = 3.92| population_density_sq_mi = 10.15 | population_density_rank = 228th$1.900 trillion}}HTTPS://WWW.IMF.ORG/EXTERNAL/PUBS/FT/WEO/2019/02/WEODATA/WEOREPT.ASPX?PR.X=54&PR.Y=16&SY=2017&EY=2021&SCSM=1&SSD=1&SORT=COUNTRY&DS=.&BR=1&C=156&S=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC&GRP=0&A= >TITLE=WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK DATABASE, OCTOBER 2019 INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND >WEBSITE=IMF.ORG, 17 November 2019, | GDP_PPP_year = 2019| GDP_PPP_rank = 16th| GDP_PPP_per_capita = {{increase}} $50,725| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 21st$1.731{{nbsp}}trillion}}| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = 10th| GDP_nominal_per_capita = {{decrease}} $46,213| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 18th| Gini = 31.8 | Gini_year = 2015| Gini_change = increasePUBLISHER=OECD PUBLISHING PAGE=10 SERIES=OECD ECONOMIC SURVEYS: CANADA ISBN=978-92-64-30073-6, | HDI = 0.926 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increaseYEAR=2017 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 12th| currency = Canadian dollar ($)| currency_code = CAD| utc_offset = −3.5 to −8| utc_offset_DST = −2.5 to −7yyyymmddAnno Domini>AD)The Government of Canada and Standards Council of Canada prescribe ISO 8601 as the country's official all-numeric date format: TRANSLATION BUREAU >FIRST1=PUBLIC WORKS AND GOVERNMENT SERVICES CANADA DATE=1997 LOCATION=TORONTO EDITION=REV. PAGE=97 URL=HTTPS://ARCHIVE.ORG/DETAILS/CANADIANSTYLEGUI0000UNSE/PAGE/97, The {{abbrday}}/{{abbrmonth}}/{{abbryear}} and {{abbrmonth}}/{{abbrday}}/{{abbryear}} formats also remain in common use; see Date and time notation in Canada.| drives_on = rightTelephone numbers in Canada>+1| cctld = .ca| iso3166code = CA| today = | electricity = 120 V–60 Hz}}Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering {{convert|9.98|e6km2|e6sqmi|2|abbr=off}}, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern border with the United States, stretching some {{convert|8891|km|mi}}, is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is highly urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 per cent residing within {{convert|100|km}} of the southern border. Canada's climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons.Various Indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with a monarch and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per-capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index. Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.


While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".BOOK, James Stuart, Olson, Robert, Shadle, Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism,weblink 1991, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-26257-9, 109, live,weblink April 12, 2016, In 1535, Indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona.BOOK, Alan, Rayburn, Naming Canada: Stories about Canadian Place Names,weblink 2001, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-8293-0, 14–22, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Cartier later used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona (the chief at Stadacona); by 1545, European books and maps had begun referring to this small region along the Saint Lawrence River as Canada.From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River.BOOK, Paul R., Magocsi, Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples,weblink 1999, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-2938-6, 1048, live,weblink April 12, 2016, In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas; until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841.{{citation |author=Victoria |title=An Act to Re-write the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, and for the Government of Canada |url= |year=1841 |publisher=J.C. Fisher & W. Kimble |page=20 |url-status=live |archiveurl= |archivedate=April 12, 2016}} Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, and the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title.BOOK, O'Toole, Roger, Holy nations and global identities: civil religion, nationalism, and globalisation, 2009, Brill, 978-90-04-17828-1, Hvithamar, Annika, Warburg, Margit, Jacobsen, Brian Arly, 137, Dominion of the Gods: Religious continuity and change in a Canadian context, By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth".BOOK, Irene, Morra, The New Elizabethan Age: Culture, Society and National Identity after World War II,weblink 2016, I.B.Tauris, 978-0-85772-867-8, 49, The government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using Dominion in the statutes of Canada in 1951.WEB,weblink November 8, 1951 (21st Parliament, 5th Session), April 9, 2019, Bowden, J.W.J.. (2015). Dominion': A Lament. The Dorchester Review 5, no. 2: pp.58-64.In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada fully under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, and later that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.BOOK, Canada and the British Empire, Buckner, Philip, Oxford University Press, 2008, 37–40, 56–59, 114, 124–125, 978-0-19-927164-1, The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion.BOOK, John, Courtney, David, Smith, The Oxford Handbook of Canadian Politics,weblink 2010, Oxford Handbooks Online, 978-0-19-533535-4, 114, live,weblink April 12, 2016,


{{See also|Timeline of Canadian history|List of years in Canada}}{{Further|Historiography of Canada}}

Indigenous peoples

File:Langs N.Amer.svg|upright=1.5|thumb|alt=Colour-coded map of North America showing the distribution of North American language families north of Mexico|Linguistic areas of North American Indigenous peoples at the time of European contact]]Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis,BOOK, Christoph Beat, Graber, Karolina, Kuprecht, Jessica C., Lai, International Trade in Indigenous Cultural Heritage: Legal and Policy Issues,weblink 2012, Edward Elgar Publishing, 978-0-85793-831-2, 366, live,weblink April 12, 2016, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers. The term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982.WEB, Native American, First Nations or Aboriginal? {{!, Druide |url=||accessdate=May 19, 2017 |url-status=live|archiveurl=|archivedate=July 3, 2017}}The first inhabitants of North America are generally hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago.BOOK, Thomas D., Dillehay, The Settlement of the Americas: A New Prehistory,weblink 2008, Basic Books, 978-0-7867-2543-4, 61, live,weblink April 13, 2016, BOOK, Brian M., Fagan, Nadia, Durrani, World Prehistory: A Brief Introduction,weblink 2016, Routledge, 978-1-317-34244-1, 124, The Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada.BOOK, Rajiv, Rawat, Circumpolar Health Atlas,weblink 2012, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-4456-4, 58, live,weblink March 30, 2017, The (Technological and industrial history of Canada#The Stone Age: Fire (14,000 BC – AD 1600)|characteristics of Canadian Indigenous societies) included permanent settlements, agriculture, complex societal hierarchies, and trading networks.BOOK, Hayes, Derek, Canada: an illustrated history, 2008, Douglas & Mcintyre, 978-1-55365-259-5, 7, 13, BOOK,weblink Indigenous difference and the Constitution of Canada, Patrick, Macklem, 2001, University of Toronto Press, 170, 978-0-8020-4195-1, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.BOOK, Sonneborn, Liz, Chronology of American Indian History, January 2007, Infobase Publishing, 978-0-8160-6770-1, 2–12, The Indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000BOOK, Wilson, Donna M, Northcott, Herbert C,weblink Dying and Death in Canada, University of Toronto Press, 2008, 978-1-55111-873-4, 25–27, live,weblink April 12, 2016, and two million,BOOK, Thornton, Russell, A population history of North America, Haines, Michael R, Steckel, Richard Hall, Cambridge University Press, 2000, 13, 380, Population history of Native North Americans, 978-0-521-49666-7, with a figure of 500,000 accepted by Canada's Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.BOOK, Handbook of North American Indians, Indians in Contemporary Society, 2, Bailey, Garrick Alan, Native Populations of Canada, O'Donnell, C. Vivian, 2008, Government Printing Office,weblink 285, 978-0-16-080388-8, As a consequence of European colonization, the population of Canada's Indigenous peoples declined by forty to eighty percent, and several First Nations, such as the Beothuk, disappeared.BOOK, Ingeborg, Marshall, A History and Ethnography of the Beothuk,weblink 1998, McGill-Queen's Press, 978-0-7735-1774-5, 442, live,weblink September 20, 2017, The decline is attributed to several causes, including the transfer of European diseases, such as influenza, measles, and smallpox to which they had no natural immunity,BOOK, True Peters, Stephanie, Smallpox in the New World,weblink 2005, Marshall Cavendish, 978-0-7614-1637-1, 39, live,weblink April 12, 2016, conflicts over the fur trade, conflicts with the colonial authorities and settlers, and the loss of Indigenous lands to settlers and the subsequent collapse of several nations' self-sufficiency.BOOK, Z., Laidlaw, Alan, Lester, Indigenous Communities and Settler Colonialism: Land Holding, Loss and Survival in an Interconnected World,weblink 2015, Springer, 978-1-137-45236-8, 150, live,weblink September 20, 2017, BOOK, Arthur J., Ray, I Have Lived Here Since The World Began, 244, 978-1-55263-633-6, Key Porter Books, 2005, Although not without conflict, European Canadians' early interactions with First Nations and Inuit populations were relatively peaceful.BOOK, Preston, David L., The Texture of Contact: European and Indian Settler Communities on the Frontiers of Iroquoia, 1667–1783,weblink 2009, University of Nebraska Press, 978-0-8032-2549-7, 43–44, live,weblink January 12, 2016, First Nations and Métis peoples played a critical part in the development of European colonies in Canada, particularly for their role in assisting European coureur des bois and voyageurs in the exploration of the continent during the North American fur trade.BOOK, J.R., Miller, Compact, Contract, Covenant: Aboriginal Treaty-Making in Canada,weblink 2009, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-9227-5, 34, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 2, 2014, The Crown and Indigenous peoples began interactions during the European colonization period, though the Inuit, in general, had more limited interaction with European settlers.WEB,weblink Innu Culture, 3. Innu-Inuit 'Warfare', 1999, Tanner, Adrian, Department of Anthropology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, March 8, 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 30, 2014, However, from the late 18th century, European Canadians encouraged Indigenous peoples to assimilate into their own culture.BOOK, Asch, Michael, Aboriginal and Treaty Rights in Canada: Essays on Law, Equity, and Respect for Difference,weblink 1997, UBC Press, 978-0-7748-0581-0, 28, live,weblink January 12, 2016, These attempts reached a climax in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with forced integration and relocations.BOOK, Kirmayer, Laurence J., Guthrie, Gail Valaskakis, Healing Traditions: The Mental Health of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada,weblink 2009, UBC Press, 978-0-7748-5863-2, 9, live,weblink January 12, 2016, A period of redress is underway, which started with the appointment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada by the Government of Canada in 2008.WEB,weblink Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action,, 2015, National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation, 5,weblink" title="">weblink June 15, 2015, July 9, 2016,

European colonization

In about 1000 AD, the Norse built a small encampment that only lasted a few years at L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Linda S., Cordell, Kent, Lightfoot, Francis, McManamon, George, Milner, L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site, Archaeology in America: An Encyclopedia,weblink 2009, ABC-CLIO, 978-0-313-02189-3, 82, No further European exploration occurred until 1497, when Italian seafarer John Cabot explored and claimed Canada's Atlantic coast in the name of King Henry VII of England.BOOK, Raymond B., Blake, Jeffrey, Keshen, Norman J., Knowles, Barbara J., Messamore, Conflict and Compromise: Pre-Confederation Canada,weblink 2017, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-3553-1, 19, In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier explored the Gulf of Saint Lawrence where, on July 24, he planted a {{convert|10|m|ft|adj=on}} cross bearing the words "Long Live the King of France" and took possession of the territory New France in the name of King Francis I.BOOK, Cartier, Jacques, Biggar, Henry Percival, Cook, Ramsay, The Voyages of Jacques Cartier,weblink 1993, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-6000-6, 26, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The early 16th century saw European mariners with navigational techniques pioneered by the Basque and Portuguese establish seasonal whaling and fishing outposts along the Atlantic coast.BOOK, Donald Peter, Kerr, Historical Atlas of Canada: From the beginning to 1800,weblink 1987, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-2495-4, 47, In general, early settlements during the Age of Discovery appear to have been short-lived due to a combination of the harsh climate, problems with navigating trade routes and competing outputs in Scandinavia.BOOK, Baten, Jörg, A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present., 2016, Cambridge University Press, 84, 978-1-107-50718-0, BOOK, Graeme, Wynn, Canada and Arctic North America: An Environmental History,weblink 2007, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-85109-437-0, 49, In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, by the royal prerogative of Queen Elizabeth I, founded St. John's, Newfoundland, as the first North American English colony.BOOK, Rose, George A, Cod: The Ecological History of the North Atlantic Fisheries,weblink October 1, 2007, Breakwater Books, 978-1-55081-225-1, 209, live,weblink April 12, 2016, French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal (in 1605) and Quebec City (in 1608).BOOK, Ninette, Kelley, Michael J., Trebilcock, The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy,weblink September 30, 2010, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-9536-7, 27, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Among the colonists of New France, Canadiens extensively settled the Saint Lawrence River valley and Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana.BOOK, Howard Roberts, LaMar, Howard R. Lamar, The Reader's Encyclopedia of the American West, 1977, University of Michigan Press, 978-0-690-00008-5, 355,weblink The Beaver Wars broke out in the mid-17th century over control of the North American fur trade.BOOK, Tucker, Spencer C, Arnold, James, Wiener, Roberta, The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890: A Political, Social, and Military History,weblink September 30, 2011, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-85109-697-8, 394, live,weblink April 12, 2016, File:Benjamin West 005.jpg|thumb|alt=Benjamin West's "The Death of General Wolfe" dying in front of British flag while attended by officers and native allies|Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe (1771) dramatizes James Wolfe's death during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham at Quebec.]]The English established additional settlements in Newfoundland, beginning in 1610 and the Thirteen Colonies to the south were founded soon after.BOOK, Phillip Alfred, Buckner, John G., Reid, The Atlantic Region to Confederation: A History,weblink 1994, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-6977-1, 55–56, live,weblink April 12, 2016, BOOK, Hornsby, Stephen J, British Atlantic, American frontier: spaces of power in early modern British America, 2005, University Press of New England, 978-1-58465-427-8, 14, 18–19, 22–23, A series of four wars erupted in colonial North America between 1689 and 1763; the later wars of the period constituted the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War.BOOK, Nolan, Cathal J, Wars of the age of Louis XIV, 1650–1715: an encyclopedia of global warfare and civilization,weblink 2008, ABC-CLIO, 978-0-313-33046-9, 160, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, and Canada and most of New France came under British rule in 1763 after the Seven Years' War.JOURNAL, Allaire, Gratien, From 'Nouvelle-France' to 'Francophonie canadienne': a historical survey, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, May 2007, 185, 25–52, 10.1515/IJSL.2007.024, 2007, The Royal Proclamation of 1763 established First Nation treaty rights, created the Province of Quebec out of New France, and annexed Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia. St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony in 1769.JOURNAL, Hicks, Bruce M, Use of Non-Traditional Evidence: A Case Study Using Heraldry to Examine Competing Theories for Canada's Confederation, British Journal of Canadian Studies, March 2010, 23, 1, 87–117, 10.3828/bjcs.2010.5, To avert conflict in Quebec, the British Parliament passed the Quebec Act of 1774, expanding Quebec's territory to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley. More importantly, the Quebec Act afforded Quebec special autonomy and rights of self-administration at a time the Thirteen Colonies were increasingly agitating against British rule.BOOK, Eric, Nellis, An Empire of Regions: A Brief History of Colonial British America,weblink 2010, University of Toronto Press – University of British Columbia, 978-1-4426-0403-2, 331, live,weblink April 12, 2016, It re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law there, staving off the growth of an independence movement in contrast to the Thirteen Colonies. The Proclamation and the Quebec Act in turn angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, further fuelling anti-British sentiment in the years prior to the American Revolution.After the successful American War of Independence, the 1783 Treaty of Paris recognized the independence of the newly formed United States and set the terms of peace, ceding British North American territories south of the Great Lakes and east of the Mississippi River to the new country.BOOK, Todd, Leahy, Raymond, Wilson, Native American Movements,weblink September 30, 2009, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-6892-2, 49, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The American war of independence also caused a large out-migration of Loyalists, the settlers who had fought against American independence. Many moved to Canada, particularly Atlantic Canada, where their arrival changed the demographic distribution of the existing territories. New Brunswick was in turn split from Nova Scotia as part of a reorganization of Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes which led to the incorporation of Saint John, New Brunswick to become Canada's first city.BOOK, Peter C, Newman, Peter C. Newman, Hostages to Fortune: The United Empire Loyalists and the Making of Canada,weblink 2016, Touchstone, 978-1-4516-8615-9, 117, live,weblink July 3, 2017, To accommodate the influx of English-speaking Loyalists in Central Canada, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province of Canada into French-speaking Lower Canada (later Quebec) and English-speaking Upper Canada (later Ontario), granting each its own elected legislative assembly.BOOK, McNairn, Jeffrey L, The capacity to judge, University of Toronto Press, 2000, 24,weblink 978-0-8020-4360-3, live,weblink April 12, 2016, File:Laura Secord warns Fitzgibbons, 1813.jpg|right|thumb|alt=Painting of Laura Secord warning British commander James FitzGibbon of an impending American attack at Beaver Dams|War of 1812 heroine Laura Secord warns British commander James FitzGibbon of an impending American attack at Beaver Dams.]]The Canadas were the main front in the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom. Peace came in 1815; no boundaries were changed. Immigration resumed at a higher level, with over 960,000 arrivals from Britain between 1815 and 1850.BOOK, Richard Colebrook, Harris, Historical Atlas of Canada: The land transformed, 1800–1891,weblink 1987, University of Toronto Press, 21, etal, live,weblink April 23, 2016, 978-0-8020-3447-2, New arrivals included refugees escaping the Great Irish Famine as well as Gaelic-speaking Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances.WEB,weblink, The Irish Emigration of 1847 and Its Canadian Consequences, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 7, 2014, Infectious diseases killed between 25 and 33 percent of Europeans who immigrated to Canada before 1891.The desire for responsible government resulted in the abortive Rebellions of 1837.BOOK, Colin, Read, Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada,weblink 1985, MQUP, 978-0-7735-8406-8, 99, live,weblink July 3, 2017, The Durham Report subsequently recommended responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into English culture. The Act of Union merged the Canadas into a united Province of Canada and responsible government was established for all provinces of British North America by 1849.JOURNAL, Romney, Paul, Spring 1989, From Constitutionalism to Legalism: Trial by Jury, Responsible Government, and the Rule of Law in the Canadian Political Culture, Law and History Review, 7, 1, 121–174, 10.2307/743779, 743779, The signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the 49th parallel. This paved the way for British colonies on Vancouver Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858).BOOK, Evenden, Leonard J, Turbeville, Daniel E, Geographical snapshots of North America, Janelle, Donald G, Guilford Press, 1992, 52, The Pacific Coast Borderland and Frontier, 978-0-89862-030-6, The Alaska Purchase of 1867 by the United States established the border along the Pacific coast, although there would continue to be some disputes about the exact demarcation of the Alaska-Yukon and Alaska-BC border for years to come.WEB, Farr, Niko, The Alaska Boundary Dispute,weblink The Canadian Encyclopedia, October 30, 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 15, 2017,

Confederation and expansion

File:Canada provinces evolution 2.gif|thumb|alt=Refer to caption|An animated map showing the growth and change of Canada's provinces and territories since Confederation in 1867.]]Following several constitutional conferences, the Constitution Act officially proclaimed Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, initially with four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.BOOK, Gertjan, Dijkink, Hans, Knippenberg, The Territorial Factor: Political Geography in a Globalising World,weblink 2001, Amsterdam University Press, 978-90-5629-188-4, 226, live,weblink April 12, 2016, BOOK, History of Canada Since 1867, Robert, Bothwell, Michigan State University Press, 1996, 978-0-87013-399-2, 31, 207–310, Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories, where the Métis' grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870.BOOK, Bumsted, JM, The Red River Rebellion, Watson & Dwyer, 1996, 978-0-920486-23-8, British Columbia and Vancouver Island (which had been united in 1866) joined the confederation in 1871, while Prince Edward Island joined in 1873.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink March 3, 2006, Building a nation, Canadian Atlas, Canadian Geographic, May 23, 2011, Between 1871 and 1896, almost one quarter of the Canadian population immigrated southwards, to the U.S.BOOK, Denison, Merrill, The Barley and the Stream: The Molson Story, 1955, McClelland & Stewart Limited, 8, To open the West to European immigration, parliament also approved sponsoring the construction of three transcontinental railways (including the Canadian Pacific Railway), opening the prairies to settlement with the Dominion Lands Act, and establishing the North-West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this territory.WEB,weblink Sir John A. Macdonald, 2008, Library and Archives Canada, May 23, 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 14, 2011, WEB,weblink The Canadian West: An Archival Odyssey through the Records of the Department of the Interior, Cook, Terry, 2000, The Archivist, Library and Archives Canada, May 23, 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 14, 2011, In 1898, during the Klondike Gold Rush in the Northwest Territories, parliament created the Yukon Territory. Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905.

Early 20th century

Because Britain still maintained control of Canada's foreign affairs under the Constitution Act, 1867, its declaration of war in 1914 automatically brought Canada into World War I.BOOK, Brian Douglas, Tennyson, Canada's Great War, 1914–1918: How Canada Helped Save the British Empire and Became a North American Nation,weblink 2014, Scarecrow Press (Cape Breton University), 978-0-8108-8860-9, 4, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Volunteers sent to the Western Front later became part of the Canadian Corps, which played a substantial role in the Battle of Vimy Ridge and other major engagements of the war.BOOK, Morton, Desmond, A military history of Canada, McClelland & Stewart, 1999, 4th, 130–158, 173, 203–233, 258, 978-0-7710-6514-9, Out of approximately 625,000 Canadians who served in World War I, some 60,000 were killed and another 172,000 were wounded.BOOK, J. L., Granatstein, Canada's Army: Waging War and Keeping the Peace,weblink 2004, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-8696-9, 144, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when the Unionist Cabinet's proposal to augment the military's dwindling number of active members with conscription was met with vehement objections from French-speaking Quebecers.BOOK, Richard Morton, McGonigal, The Conscription Crisis in Quebec – 1917: a Study in Canadian Dualism, 1962, Harvard University Press, Intro, The Military Service Act brought in compulsory military service, though it, coupled with disputes over French language schools outside Quebec, deeply alienated Francophone Canadians and temporarily split the Liberal Party. In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain, and the 1931 Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada's independence.BOOK, Frederick Lee, Morton, Law, Politics and the Judicial Process in Canada,weblink 2002, University of Calgary Press, 978-1-55238-046-8, 63, File:Crew of a Sherman-tank south of Vaucelles.jpg|upright=.65|thumb|left|alt=Crew of a Sherman-tank resting while parked|Canadian crew of a Sherman tank, south of Vaucelles, France, during the Battle of Normandy in June 1944]]The Great Depression in Canada during the early 1930s saw an economic downturn, leading to hardship across the country.BOOK, Robert B., Bryce, Maturing in Hard Times: Canada's Department of Finance through the Great Depression,weblink June 1, 1986, McGill-Queen's University Press, McGill-Queen's, 978-0-7735-0555-1, 41, live,weblink April 12, 2016, In response to the downturn, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Saskatchewan introduced many elements of a welfare state (as pioneered by Tommy Douglas) in the 1940s and 1950s.JOURNAL, Mulvale, James P, Basic Income and the Canadian Welfare State: Exploring the Realms of Possibility, Basic Income Studies, July 11, 2008, 3, 1, 10.2202/1932-0183.1084, On the advice of Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, war with Germany was declared effective September 10, 1939, by King George VI, seven days after the United Kingdom. The delay underscored Canada's independence.The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939. In all, over a million Canadians served in the armed forces during World War II and approximately 42,000 were killed and another 55,000 were wounded.BOOK, Edward, Humphreys, Great Canadian Battles: Heroism and Courage Through the Years,weblink 2013, Arcturus Publishing, 978-1-78404-098-7, 151, live,weblink April 13, 2016, Canadian troops played important roles in many key battles of the war, including the failed 1942 Dieppe Raid, the Allied invasion of Italy, the Normandy landings, the Battle of Normandy, and the Battle of the Scheldt in 1944. Canada provided asylum for the Dutch monarchy while that country was occupied and is credited by the Netherlands for major contributions to its liberation from Nazi Germany.BOOK, Goddard, Lance, Canada and the Liberation of the Netherlands, Dundurn Press, 2005, 225–232, 978-1-55002-547-7, The Canadian economy boomed during the war as its industries manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China, and the Soviet Union. Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec in 1944, Canada finished the war with a large army and strong economy.BOOK, Bothwell, Robert, Alliance and illusion: Canada and the world, 1945–1984, 2007, UBC Press, 978-0-7748-1368-6, 11, 31,

Contemporary era

File:Alexander-NFLD.jpg|thumb|alt=Harold Alexander at desk receiving legislation|At Rideau Hall, Governor General the Viscount Alexander of Tunis (centre) receives the bill finalizing the union of Newfoundland and Canada on March 31, 1949.]]The financial crisis of the Great Depression had led the Dominion of Newfoundland to relinquish responsible government in 1934 and become a crown colony ruled by a British governor.BOOK, Phillip, Alfred Buckner, Canada and the British Empire,weblink 2008, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-927164-1, 135–138, live,weblink July 3, 2017, After two bitter referendums, Newfoundlanders voted to join Canada in 1949 as a province.BOOK, J. Patrick, Boyer, Direct Democracy in Canada: The History and Future of Referendums,weblink 1996, Dundurn, 978-1-4597-1884-5, 119, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Canada's post-war economic growth, combined with the policies of successive Liberal governments, led to the emergence of a new Canadian identity, marked by the adoption of the Maple Leaf Flag in 1965,BOOK, Mackey, Eva, The house of difference: cultural politics and national identity in Canada, University of Toronto Press, 2002, 978-0-8020-8481-1, 57, the implementation of official bilingualism (English and French) in 1969,JOURNAL, Landry, Rodrigue, Forgues, Éric, Official language minorities in Canada: an introduction, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, May 2007, 185, 1–9, 10.1515/IJSL.2007.022, 2007, and the institution of official multiculturalism in 1971.JOURNAL, Esses, Victoria M, Gardner, RC, July 1996, Multiculturalism in Canada: Context and current status, Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 28, 3, 145–152, 10.1037/h0084934, Socially democratic programs were also instituted, such as Medicare, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans, though provincial governments, particularly Quebec and Alberta, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 17, 2010, Social Policies in Canada: A Model for Development, Sarrouh, Elissar, January 22, 2002, Social Policy Series, No. 1, United Nations, 14–16, 22–37, May 23, 2011, Finally, another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the Canada Act, the patriation of Canada's constitution from the United Kingdom, concurrent with the creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.WEB,weblink Proclamation of the Constitution Act, 1982, May 5, 2014,, Government of Canada, February 10, 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 11, 2017, NEWS, March 17, 2009, A statute worth 75 cheers,weblink The Globe and Mail, Toronto, February 10, 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 11, 2017, NEWS,weblink Canada is celebrating 150 years of... what, exactly?, Couture, Christa, January 1, 2017, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, February 10, 2017, the Constitution Act itself cleaned up a bit of unfinished business from the Statute of Westminster in 1931, in which Britain granted each of the Dominions full legal autonomy if they chose to accept it. All but one Dominion – that would be us, Canada – chose to accept every resolution. Our leaders couldn't decide on how to amend the Constitution, so that power stayed with Britain until 1982., live,weblink" title="">weblink February 10, 2017, Canada had established complete sovereignty as an independent country, although the Queen retained her role as monarch of Canada.WEB,weblink Some Visual Aspects of the Monarchical Tradition, Trepanier, Peter, 2004, Canadian Parliamentary Review, Canadian Parliamentary Review, February 10, 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 4, 2016, BOOK, Bickerton, James, Gagnon, Alain, Canadian Politics, Broadview Press, 4th, 978-1-55111-595-5, 2004, 250–254, 344–347, In 1999, Nunavut became Canada's third territory after a series of negotiations with the federal government.JOURNAL, Légaré, André, 2008, Canada's Experiment with Aboriginal Self-Determination in Nunavut: From Vision to Illusion, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, 15, 2–3, 335–367, 10.1163/157181108X332659, 24674996, At the same time, Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, giving birth to a secular nationalist movement.BOOK, Lance W., Roberts, Rodney A., Clifton, Barry, Ferguson, Recent Social Trends in Canada, 1960–2000,weblink 2005, McGill-Queen's Press – MUniversity of Manitoba, 978-0-7735-7314-7, 415, live,weblink July 3, 2017, The radical Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) ignited the October Crisis with a series of bombings and kidnappings in 1970JOURNAL, Munroe, HD, The October Crisis Revisited: Counterterrorism as Strategic Choice, Political Result, and Organizational Practice, Terrorism and Political Violence, 2009, 21, 2, 288–305, 10.1080/09546550902765623, and the {{Not a typo|sovereignist}} Parti Québécois was elected in 1976, organizing an unsuccessful referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980. Attempts to accommodate Quebec nationalism constitutionally through the Meech Lake Accord failed in 1990.JOURNAL, Sorens, J, Globalization, secessionism, and autonomy, Electoral Studies, December 2004, 23, 4, 727–752, 10.1016/j.electstud.2003.10.003, This led to the formation of the Bloc Québécois in Quebec and the invigoration of the Reform Party of Canada in the West.NEWS,weblink A brief history of the Bloc Québécois, The Globe and Mail, Daniel, Leblanc, August 13, 2010, November 25, 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 1, 2010, BOOK, The new politics of the Right: neo-Populist parties and movements in established democracies, Hans-Georg, Betz, Stefan, Immerfall,weblink 173, St. Martin's Press, 1998, 978-0-312-21134-9, live,weblink April 12, 2016, A second referendum followed in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of 50.6 to 49.4 percent.BOOK, Carol L., Schmid, The Politics of Language : Conflict, Identity, and Cultural Pluralism in Comparative Perspective: Conflict, Identity, and Cultural Pluralism in Comparative Perspective,weblink 2001, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-803150-5, 112, live,weblink April 12, 2016, In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled unilateral secession by a province would be unconstitutional and the Clarity Act was passed by parliament, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure from Confederation.In addition to the issues of Quebec sovereignty, a number of crises shook Canadian society in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These included the explosion of Air India Flight 182 in 1985, the largest mass murder in Canadian history;WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink June 22, 2008, Commission of Inquiry into the Investigation of the Bombing of Air India Flight 182, Government of Canada, May 23, 2011, the École Polytechnique massacre in 1989, a university shooting targeting female students;WEB, Sourour, Teresa K,weblink 1991, Report of Coroner's Investigation, March 8, 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 28, 2016, and the Oka Crisis of 1990,NEWS, The Oka Crisis,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink August 4, 2011, Digital Archives, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2000, May 23, 2011, the first of a number of violent confrontations between the government and Indigenous groups.BOOK, Roach, Kent, September 11: consequences for Canada, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2003, 15, 59–61, 194, 978-0-7735-2584-9, Canada also joined the Gulf War in 1990 as part of a U.S.-led coalition force and was active in several peacekeeping missions in the 1990s, including the UNPROFOR mission in the former Yugoslavia.JOURNAL, Learning the lessons of UNPROFOR: Canadian peacekeeping in the former Yugoslavia, 10.1080/11926422.1999.9673175, Lenard J., Cohen, Alexander, Moens, Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, 6, 2, 1999, 85–100, Canada sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001, but declined to join the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003.JOURNAL, Jockel, Joseph T, Sokolsky, Joel B, 2008, Canada and the war in Afghanistan: NATO's odd man out steps forward, Journal of Transatlantic Studies, 6, 1, 100–115, 10.1080/14794010801917212, In 2011, Canadian forces participated in the NATO-led intervention into the Libyan Civil War,BOOK, Aidan, Hehir, Robert, Murray, Libya, the Responsibility to Protect and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention,weblink 2013, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-1-137-27396-3, 88, live,weblink April 12, 2016, and also became involved in battling the Islamic State insurgency in Iraq in the mid-2010s.WEB,weblink Canada's Policy to Confront the Islamic State, Canadian Global Affairs Institute, 2015, Thomas, Juneau, December 10, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 11, 2015,

Geography and climate

File:Canada Köppen.svg|thumb|upright=1.5|Köppen climate types of Canada]]Canada occupies much of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south, and the U.S. state of Alaska to the northwest. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean.WEB, The World Factbook, CIA,weblink Canada, May 16, 2006, May 23, 2011, live,weblink July 11, 2015, Greenland is to the northeast and to the southeast Canada shares a maritime boundary with the Republic of France's overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the last vestige of New France.BOOK, Alan, Gallay, Colonial Wars of North America, 1512–1763: An Encyclopedia,weblink 2015, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-317-48718-0, 429–, live,weblink March 20, 2018, By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. By land area alone, however, Canada ranks fourth, the difference being due to it having the world's largest proportion of fresh water lakes.BOOK, Robert A., Battram, Canada in Crisis: An Agenda for Survival of the Nation,weblink 2010, Trafford Publishing, 978-1-4269-3393-6, 1, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Of Canada's thirteen provinces and territories, only two are landlocked (Alberta and Saskatchewan) while the other eleven all directly border one of three oceans.Canada is home to the world's northernmost settlement, Canadian Forces Station Alert, on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island – latitude 82.5°N – which lies {{convert|817|km|mi}} from the North Pole.BOOK, Canadian Geographic, 2008, Royal Canadian Geographical Society, 20, Much of the Canadian Arctic is covered by ice and permafrost.NEWS,weblink Scientists shocked by Arctic permafrost thawing 70 years sooner than predicted, Reuters, 2019-06-18, The Guardian, 2019-07-02, 0261-3077, Canada has the longest coastline in the world, with a total length of {{convert|243042|km|mi}};WEB,weblink Geography,, March 4, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 7, 2016, additionally, its border with the United States is the world's longest land border, stretching {{convert|8891|km|mi}}.WEB, International Boundary Commission,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink August 1, 2008, The Boundary, 1985, May 17, 2012, Three of Canada's arctic islands, Baffin Island, Victoria Island and Ellesmere Island, are among the ten largest in the world.NEWS,weblink Canada Facts: 25 Interesting and Fun Facts – not only for Kids, June 27, 2018, Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield.BOOK, National Atlas of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, 2005, 978-0-7705-1198-2, 1, 42 percent of the land acreage of Canada is covered by forests, approximately 8 percent of the world's forested land, made up mostly of spruce, poplar and pine.BOOK, Martin K., Luckert, David, Haley, George, Hoberg, Policies for Sustainably Managing Canada's Forests: Tenure, Stumpage Fees, and Forest Practices,weblink 2012, UBC Press, 978-0-7748-2069-1, 1, Canada has over 2,000,000 lakes—563 greater than {{convert|100|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}—which is more than any other country, containing much of the world's fresh water.BOOK, Bailey, William G, Oke, TR, Rouse, Wayne R, The surface climates of Canada, McGill-Queen's University Press, 1997, 124,weblink 978-0-7735-1672-4, live,weblink April 12, 2016, WEB,weblink The Atlas of Canada – Physical Components of Watersheds, December 5, 2012, March 4, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink December 5, 2012, There are also fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies and the Coast Mountains.BOOK, Robert William, Sandford, Cold Matters: The State and Fate of Canada's Fresh Water,weblink 2012, Biogeoscience Institute at the University of Calgary, 978-1-927330-20-3, 11, live,weblink July 3, 2017, File:MountMeagerPlinthCapricorn.jpg|thumb|left|The Mount Meager massif as seen from the east near Pemberton. Summits left to right are Capricorn Mountain, Mount Meager and Plinth PeakPlinth PeakCanada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably Mount Meager massif, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley massif, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex.BOOK, Etkin, David, Haque, CE, Brooks, Gregory R, An Assessment of Natural Hazards and Disasters in Canada, Springer Publishing, Springer, April 30, 2003, 569, 582, 583, 978-1-4020-1179-5, The volcanic eruption of the Tseax Cone in 1775 was among Canada's worst natural disasters, killing an estimated 2,000 Nisga'a people and destroying their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia.WEB,weblink Canada's Worst Natural Disasters of All Time, Adam, Shoalts, Canadian Geographic, 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 23, 2016, The eruption produced a {{convert|22.5|km|adj=on}} lava flow, and, according to Nisga'a legend, blocked the flow of the Nass River.BOOK, Jessop, A, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5906,weblink Natural Resources Canada, 18–, GGKEY:6DLTQFWQ9HG, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary from region to region. Winters can be harsh in many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 Â°C (5 Â°F), but can drop below {{convert|-40|°C|°F|abbr=on}} with severe wind chills.WEB, The Weather Network,weblink Statistics, Regina SK, January 18, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink January 5, 2009, The Weather Network, In noncoastal regions, snow can cover the ground for almost six months of the year, while in parts of the north snow can persist year-round. Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter. On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from {{convert|25|to|30|C|F}}, with temperatures in some interior locations occasionally exceeding {{convert|40|°C|°F|abbr=on}}.WEB, Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010, Environment Canada,weblink Regina International Airport, May 12, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 18, 2015, September 25, 2013,

Government and politics

File:Canadian parliament MAM.JPG|thumb|alt=A building with a central clock tower rising from a block|Parliament Hill, home of the federal government in Canada's capital city, OttawaOttawaCanada is described as a "full democracy",WEB,weblink Democracy Index 2017– The Economist Intelligence Unit,, November 29, 2017, with a tradition of liberalism,BOOK, Anne, Westhues, Brian, Wharf, Canadian Social Policy: Issues and Perspectives,weblink 2014, Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press, 978-1-55458-409-3, 10–11, and an egalitarian,BOOK, James, Bickerton, Alain, Gagnon, Canadian Politics,weblink 2009, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-0121-5, 56, moderate political ideology.BOOK, David, Johnson, Thinking Government: Public Administration and Politics in Canada, Fourth Edition,weblink 2016, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-3521-0, 13–23, most Canadian governments, especially at the federal level, have taken a moderate, centrist approach to decision making, seeking to balance growth, stability, and governmental efficiency and economy..., An emphasis on social justice has been a distinguishing element of Canada's political culture.BOOK, Katherine, Fierlbeck, Political Thought in Canada: An Intellectual History,weblink 2006, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-55111-711-9, 87, Peace, order, and good government, alongside an implied bill of rights are founding principles of the Canadian government.BOOK, John, Dixon, Robert, P. Scheurell, Social Welfare in Developed Market Countries,weblink March 17, 2016, Routledge, 978-1-317-36677-5, 48, BOOK, Janina, Boughey, Human Rights and Judicial Review in Australia and Canada: The Newest Despotism?,weblink 2017, Bloomsbury Publishing, 978-1-5099-0788-5, 105, At the federal level, Canada has been dominated by two relatively centrist parties practicing "brokerage politics",{{efn| name=politics|"Brokerage politics: A Canadian term for successful big tent parties that embody a pluralistic catch-all approach to appeal to the median Canadian voter ... adopting centrist policies and electoral coalitions to satisfy the short-term preferences of a majority of electors who are not located on the ideological fringe."BOOK, Alex, Marland, Thierry, Giasson, Jennifer, Lees-Marshment, Political Marketing in Canada,weblink 2012, UBC Press, 978-0-7748-2231-2, 257, }}BOOK, Stephen, Brooks, Canadian Democracy: An Introduction,weblink 2004, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-541806-4, 265, two historically dominant political parties have avoided ideological appeals in favour of a flexible centrist style of politics that is often labelled brokerage politics, BOOK, David, Johnson, Thinking Government: Public Administration and Politics in Canada, Fourth Edition,weblink 2016, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-3521-0, 13–23, ...most Canadian governments, especially at the federal level, have taken a moderate, centrist approach to decision making, seeking to balance growth, stability, and governmental efficiency and economy..., BOOK, Miriam, Smith, Group Politics and Social Movements in Canada: Second Edition,weblink 2014, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-0695-1, 17, Canada's party system has long been described as a "brokerage system" in which the leading parties (Liberal and Conservative) follow strategies that appeal across major Cleavage (politics), social cleavages in an effort to defuse potential tensions., WEB, Plurality-Majority Electoral Systems: A Review,weblink Elections Canada, First Past the Post in Canada has favoured broadly-based, accommodative, centrist parties..., Elections Canada, 2018, the centre-left Liberal Party of Canada and the centre-right Conservative Party of Canada (or its predecessors).BOOK, Donald C., Baumer, Howard J., Gold, Parties, Polarization and Democracy in the United States,weblink 2015, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-317-25478-2, 152, The historically predominant Liberal Party position themselves at the centre of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned on the right and the New Democratic Party occupying the left.BOOK, Amanda, Bittner, Royce, Koop, Parties, Elections, and the Future of Canadian Politics,weblink March 1, 2013, UBC Press, 978-0-7748-2411-8, 300, BOOK, Geoffrey, Evans, Nan Dirk, de Graaf, Political Choice Matters: Explaining the Strength of Class and Religious Cleavages in Cross-National Perspective,weblink 2013, OUP Oxford, 978-0-19-966399-6, 166–167, BOOK, Richard, Johnston, The Canadian Party System: An Analytic History,weblink 2017, UBC Press, 978-0-7748-3610-4, Far-right and far-left politics have never been a prominent force in Canadian society.JOURNAL, 10.1080/13537113.2015.1032033, Canadian Multiculturalism and the Absence of the Far Right, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 21, 2, 213–236, 2015, Ambrose, Emma, Mudde, Cas, NEWS,weblink Canada's Secret to Resisting the West's Populist Wave, The New York Times, 2017, Taub, Amanda, Five parties had representatives elected to the federal parliament in the 2019 election—the Liberal Party, who currently form the government; the Conservative Party, who are the official opposition; the New Democratic Party; the Bloc Québécois; and the Green Party of Canada.WEB,weblink CBC News: Election 2015 roundup, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 22, 2015, {{Multiple image| direction = horizontal| align = left| caption_align = center| total_width = 340| image1 = Queen Elizabeth II in March 2015.jpg| image2 = Julie Payette - JSC2009e123567 - cropped.jpg| image3 = Trudeau visit White House for USMCA (cropped).jpgElizabeth IIMonarchy of Canada>MonarchJulie PayetteGovernor General of Canada>Governor GeneralJustin TrudeauPrime Minister of Canada>Prime Minister| alt1 = Elizabeth II| alt2 = Julie Payette| alt3 = Justin Trudeau}}Canada has a parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional monarchy—the monarchy of Canada being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.WEB, March 29, 1867, Constitution Act, 1867: Preamble, Queen's Printer,weblink May 23, 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 3, 2010, NEWS, Smith, David E, The Crown and the Constitution: Sustaining Democracy?, The Crown in Canada: Present Realities and Future Options, 6, Queen's University, June 10, 2010,weblinkweblink June 17, 2010, May 23, 2011, BOOK, MacLeod, Kevin S, Kevin S. MacLeod, A Crown of Maples, Queen's Printer for Canada, 16, 2nd,weblink 978-0-662-46012-1, 2012, harv, March 8, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink February 4, 2016, The reigning monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who is also monarch of 15 other Commonwealth countries and each of Canada's 10 provinces. The person who is the Canadian monarch is the same as the British monarch, although the two institutions are separate.BOOK, David, Johnson, Battle Royal: Monarchists vs. Republicans and the Crown of Canada,weblink 2018, Dundurn, 978-1-4597-4015-0, 196, live,weblink March 20, 2018, The Queen appoints a representative, the governor general (at present Julie Payette), to carry out most of her federal royal duties in Canada.WEB, The Governor General of Canada: Roles and Responsibilities,weblink Queen's Printer, May 23, 2011, BOOK, Commonwealth public administration reform 2004, Commonwealth Secretariat, 2004, 54–55,weblink 978-0-11-703249-1, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The direct participation of the monarch and the governor general in areas of governance is limited.BOOK, Forsey, Eugene, Eugene Forsey, How Canadians Govern Themselves, 1, 16, 26, 6th, Queen's Printer, 2005, 978-0-662-39689-5,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink December 29, 2009, May 23, 2011, WEB,weblink Marleau, Robert, Montpetit, Camille, House of Commons Procedure and Practice: Parliamentary Institutions, Queen's Printer, May 23, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink August 28, 2011, In practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Cabinet, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the elected House of Commons of Canada and chosen and headed by the prime minister (at present Justin Trudeau),WEB,weblink 'A cabinet that looks like Canada:' Justin Trudeau pledges government built on trust, November 4, 2015, Toronto Star, live,weblink January 28, 2017, the head of government. The governor general or monarch may, though, in certain crisis situations exercise their power without ministerial advice. To ensure the stability of government, the governor general will usually appoint as prime minister the individual who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Commons.BOOK, Johnson, David, Thinking government: public sector management in Canada, University of Toronto Press, 2006, 2nd, 134–135, 149, 978-1-55111-779-9, The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) is thus one of the most powerful institutions in government, initiating most legislation for parliamentary approval and selecting for appointment by the Crown, besides the aforementioned, the governor general, lieutenant governors, senators, federal court judges, and heads of Crown corporations and government agencies. The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check.WEB, The Opposition in a Parliamentary System,weblink Library of Parliament, May 23, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink November 25, 2010, File:Cansenate.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Canadian Senate chamber long hall with two opposing banks of seats with historical paintings|The Senate chamber within the Centre Block on Parliament HillParliament HillEach of the 338 members of parliament in the House of Commons is elected by simple plurality in an electoral district or riding. General elections must be called by the governor general, either on the advice of the prime minister or if the government loses a confidence vote in the House.WEB,weblink About Elections and Ridings, September 3, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 24, 2016, WEB, O'Neal, Brian, Bédard, Michel, Spano, Sebastian, April 11, 2011, Government and Canada's 41st Parliament: Questions and Answers,weblink Library of Parliament, June 2, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 22, 2011, Constitutionally, an election may be held no more than five years after the preceding election, although the Canada Elections Act limits this to four years with a fixed election date in October. The 105 members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis, serve until age 75.BOOK, Ann L., Griffiths, Karl, Nerenberg, Handbook of Federal Countries,weblink 2003, McGill-Queen's Press, 978-0-7735-7047-4, 116, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Canada's federal structure divides government responsibilities between the federal government and the ten provinces. Provincial legislatures are unicameral and operate in parliamentary fashion similar to the House of Commons. Canada's three territories also have legislatures, but these are not sovereign and have fewer constitutional responsibilities than the provinces.WEB,weblink Difference between Canadian Provinces and Territories, 2010, Intergovernmental Affairs Canada, November 23, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 1, 2015, The territorial legislatures also differ structurally from their provincial counterparts.WEB,weblink Differences from Provincial Governments, 2008, Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories, January 30, 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 3, 2014, The Bank of Canada is the central bank of the country. In addition, the minister of finance and minister of industry utilize the Statistics Canada agency for financial planning and economic policy development.WEB,weblink About, Statistics Canada, 2014, March 8, 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 15, 2015, The Bank of Canada is the sole authority authorized to issue currency in the form of Canadian bank notes.BOOK, Emily, Gilbert, Eric, Helleiner, Nation-States and Money: The Past, Present and Future of National Currencies,weblink 2003, Routledge, 978-1-134-65817-6, 39, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The bank does not issue Canadian coins; they are issued by the Royal Canadian Mint.BOOK, George S., Cuhaj, Thomas, Michael, Coins of the World: Canada,weblink 2011, Krause Publications, 978-1-4402-3129-2, 4, live,weblink April 12, 2016,


The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law of the country, and consists of written text and unwritten conventions.BOOK, Adam, Dodek, The Canadian Constitution,weblink 2016, Dundurn – University of Ottawa Faculty of Law., 978-1-4597-3505-7, 13, live,weblink September 20, 2017, The Constitution Act, 1867 (known as the British North America Act prior to 1982), affirmed governance based on parliamentary precedent and divided powers between the federal and provincial governments.BOOK, Andrea, Olive, The Canadian Environment in Political Context,weblink 2015, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-0871-9, 41–42, live,weblink September 20, 2017, The Statute of Westminster 1931 granted full autonomy and the Constitution Act, 1982, ended all legislative ties to Britain, as well as adding a constitutional amending formula and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.BOOK, Dr. Vishnoo, Bhagwan, Dr. Rajani R., Shirur, Bhushan, Vidya, 2, World Constitutions,weblink 2004, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 978-81-207-1937-8, 549–550, live,weblink September 20, 2017, The Charter guarantees basic rights and freedoms that usually cannot be over-ridden by any government—though a notwithstanding clause allows the federal parliament and provincial legislatures to override certain sections of the Charter for a period of five years.BOOK, Bakan, Joel, Elliot, Robin M, Canadian Constitutional Law, Emond Montgomery Publications, 2003, 3–8, 683–687, 699, 978-1-55239-085-6, File:Medal-Viki.jpg|thumb|alt=Two sides of a silver medal: the profile of Queen Victoria and the inscription "Victoria Regina" on one side, a man in European garb shaking hands with an Aboriginal with the inscription Indian Treaty No. 187 on the other|The Indian Chiefs Medal, presented to commemorate the Numbered TreatiesNumbered TreatiesThe Indian Act, various treaties and case laws were established to mediate relations between Europeans and native peoples.REPORT, Aboriginal roundtable on Kelowna Accord: Aboriginal policy negotiations 2004–2006, Patterson, Lisa Lynne,weblink 1, 2004, 3, Parliamentary Information and Research Service, Library of Parliament, harv, October 23, 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 26, 2014, Most notably, a series of eleven treaties known as the Numbered Treaties were signed between the Indigenous peoples and the reigning monarch of Canada between 1871 and 1921.WEB, Treaty areas, Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, October 7, 2002,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink January 7, 2009, May 23, 2011, These treaties are agreements with the Canadian Crown-in-Council, administered by Canadian Aboriginal law, and overseen by the minister of Crown–Indigenous Relations. The role of the treaties and the rights they support were reaffirmed by Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982. These rights may include provision of services, such as health care, and exemption from taxation.BOOK, Gary Brent, Madison, Is There a Canadian Philosophy?: Reflections on the Canadian Identity,weblink 2000, University of Ottawa Press, 978-0-7766-0514-2, 128, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The legal and policy framework within which Canada and First Nations operate was further formalized in 2005, through the First Nations–Federal Crown Political Accord.File:Ottawa - ON - Oberster Gerichtshof von Kanada.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Supreme Court of Canada building|The Supreme Court of CanadaSupreme Court of CanadaCanada's judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the power to strike down Acts of Parliament that violate the constitution. The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court and final arbiter and has been led since December 18, 2017 by Chief Justice Richard Wagner.WEB,weblink Current and Former Chief Justices, December 18, 2017, Supreme Court of Canada,weblink" title="">weblink January 16, 2018, live, January 16, 2018, Its nine members are appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the prime minister and minister of justice. All judges at the superior and appellate levels are appointed after consultation with non-governmental legal bodies. The federal Cabinet also appoints justices to superior courts in the provincial and territorial jurisdictions.BOOK, Richard, Yates, Penny, Bain, Ruth, Yates, Introduction to law in Canada, 2000, Prentice Hall Allyn and Bacon Canada, 978-0-13-792862-0, 93,weblink Common law prevails everywhere except in Quebec, where civil law predominates. Criminal law is solely a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout Canada.BOOK, Sworden, Philip James, An introduction to Canadian law, Emond Montgomery Publications, 2006, 22, 150, 978-1-55239-145-7, Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is officially a provincial responsibility, conducted by provincial and municipal police forces.WEB,weblink Ontario Provincial Police, OPP official website, 2009, October 24, 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink August 26, 2016, However, in most rural areas and some urban areas, policing responsibilities are contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 6, 2011, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Keeping Canada and Our Communities Safe and Secure, Queen's Printer, May 23, 2011, {{clear}}

Foreign relations and military

File:Public Domain Image of Canadian UN delegation.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Canadian Delegation to the United Nations seated around conference table|The Canadian Delegation to the United Nations Conference on International OrganizationUnited Nations Conference on International OrganizationCanada is recognized as a middle power for its role in international affairs with a tendency to pursue multilateral solutions.BOOK, Adam, Chapnick, The Middle Power Project: Canada and the Founding of the United Nations,weblink 2011, UBC Press, 978-0-7748-4049-1, 2–5, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Canada's foreign policy based on international peacekeeping and security is carried out through coalitions and international organizations, and through the work of numerous federal institutions.BOOK, Allen, Sens, Peter, Stoett, Global Politics 5e,weblink 2013, Nelson Education, 978-0-17-648249-7, 6, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Canada's peacekeeping role during the 20th century has played a major role in its global image.BOOK, Richard, Sobel, Eric, Shiraev, Robert, Shapiro, International Public Opinion and the Bosnia Crisis,weblink 2002, Lexington Books, 978-0-7391-0480-4, 21, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The strategy of the Canadian government's foreign aid policy reflects an emphasis to meet the Millennium Development Goals, while also providing assistance in response to foreign humanitarian crises.WEB,weblink Millennium Development Goals: A sprint to 2015 and the way forward, Canadian Government Executive, 2014, November 12, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 13, 2016, Canada was a founding member of the United Nations and has membership in the World Trade Organization, the G20 and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Canada is also a member of various other international and regional organizations and forums for economic and cultural affairs.WEB,weblink International Organizations and Forums, Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, 2013, March 3, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink February 27, 2014, Canada acceded to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1976.BOOK, Dominique, Clément, Human Rights in Canada: A History,weblink 2016, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 978-1-77112-164-4, 98, live,weblink January 18, 2017, Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and hosted the OAS General Assembly in 2000 and the 3rd Summit of the Americas in 2001.BOOK, Peter, McKenna, Canada Looks South: In Search of an Americas Policy,weblink 2012, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-1108-5, 91, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC).BOOK, IBP USA, Canada Intelligence, Security Activities and Operations Handbook Volume 1 Intelligence Service Organizations, Regulations, Activities,weblink Int'l Business Publications, 978-0-7397-1615-1, 27, live,weblink April 12, 2016, July 31, 2015, File:President Donald Trump and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau Joint Press Conference, February 13, 2017.jpg|thumb|Prime Minister Trudeau and U.S. President TrumpTrumpCanada and the United States share the world's longest undefended border, co-operate on military campaigns and exercises, and are each other's largest trading partner.JOURNAL, Haglung, David G, Autumn 2003, North American Cooperation in an Era of Homeland Security, Orbis (journal), Orbis, 47, 4, 675–691, 10.1016/S0030-4387(03)00072-3, WEB,weblink Canada, United States Department of State, 2014, February 13, 2015, Canada nevertheless has an independent foreign policy, most notably maintaining full relations with Cuba, and declining to officially participate in the 2003 invasion of Iraq.BOOK, James, Bickerton, Alain-G., Gagnon, Canadian Politics: Sixth Edition,weblink 2014, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-0703-3, 423, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Canada also maintains historic ties to the United Kingdom and France and to other former British and French colonies through Canada's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the Francophonie.BOOK, James, Patrick, Handbook of Canadian Foreign Policy, Michaud, Nelson, O'Reilly, Marc J, Lexington Books, 2006, 213–214, 349–362, 978-0-7391-1493-3, Canada is noted for having a positive relationship with the Netherlands, owing, in part, to its contribution to the Dutch liberation during World War II.Canada's strong attachment to the British Empire and Commonwealth led to major participation in British military efforts in the Second Boer War, World War I and World War II.BOOK, Karl R., DeRouen, Defense and Security: A Compendium of National Armed Forces and Security Policies,weblink 2005, University of Alabama Press, 978-1-85109-781-4, 90, live,weblink July 3, 2017, Since then, Canada has been an advocate for multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations.JOURNAL, Teigrob, Robert, 'Which Kind of Imperialism?' Early Cold War Decolonization and Canada–US Relations, Canadian Review of American Studies, September 2010, 37, 3, 403–430, 10.3138/cras.37.3.403, BOOK, Canada's international policy statement: a role of pride and influence in the world, Government of Canada, 2005, 978-0-662-68608-8, During the Cold War, Canada was a major contributor to UN forces in the Korean War and founded the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in co-operation with the United States to defend against potential aerial attacks from the Soviet Union.BOOK, Finkel, Alvin, Our lives: Canada after 1945, Lorimer, 1997, 105–107, 111–116, 978-1-55028-551-2, During the Suez Crisis of 1956, future Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson eased tensions by proposing the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force, for which he was awarded the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize.BOOK, Holloway, Steven Kendall, Canadian foreign policy: defining the national interest, University of Toronto Press, 2006, 102–103,weblink 978-1-55111-816-1, live,weblink April 12, 2016, As this was the first UN peacekeeping mission, Pearson is often credited as the inventor of the concept.BOOK, Terry M., Mays, Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping,weblink December 16, 2010, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-7516-6, 218–, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Canada has since served in over 50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN peacekeeping effort until 1989, and has since maintained forces in international missions in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and elsewhere; Canada has sometimes faced controversy over its involvement in foreign countries, notably in the 1993 Somalia Affair.NEWS,weblink Torture by Army Peacekeepers in Somalia Shocks Canada, Farnsworth, Clyde H, November 27, 1994, The New York Times, May 23, 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 1, 2011, File:GuardKandahar.jpg|thumb|alt=Canadian Grenadier Guards in Kandahar Province standing by a road with armoured car|Soldiers from the Canadian Grenadier Guards in Kandahar Province in Afghanistan, pictured, fought with Dutch soldiers against Afghan insurgents.]]In 2001, Canada deployed troops to Afghanistan as part of the U.S. stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-led International Security Assistance Force.BOOK, Jerome, Klassen, Greg, Albo, Empire's Ally: Canada and the War in Afghanistan,weblink January 10, 2013, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-6496-8, 3–, live,weblink April 12, 2016, In February 2007, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Russia announced their joint commitment to a $1.5-billion project to help develop vaccines for developing nations, and called on other countries to join them.NEWS,weblink Rich nations to sign $1.5 bln vaccine pact in Italy, Vagnoni, Giselda, February 5, 2007, Reuters, May 23, 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 22, 2010, In August 2007, Canada's territorial claims in the Arctic were challenged after a Russian underwater expedition to the North Pole; Canada has considered that area to be sovereign territory since 1925.NEWS, Blomfield, Adrian,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Russia claims North Pole with Arctic flag stunt, August 3, 2007, May 23, 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink April 28, 2011, The nation employs a professional, volunteer military force of approximately 79,000 active personnel and 32,250 reserve personnel.WEB, Global Firepower,weblink Military Strength of Canada, 2017, July 5, 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 25, 2017, The unified Canadian Forces (CF) comprise the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, and Royal Canadian Air Force. In 2013, Canada's military expenditure totalled approximately C$19 billion, or around one percent of the country's GDP.WEB,weblink Canadian military spending by the numbers, Ottawa Citizen, September 3, 2014, January 25, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 28, 2014, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink June 22, 2008, Military expenditure of Canada, SIPRI, 2011, May 3, 2012, Following the 2016 Defence Policy Review, the Canadian government announced a 70 percent increase to the country's defence budget over the next decade. The Canadian Forces will acquire 88 fighter planes and 15 naval surface combatants, the latter as part of the National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy. Canada's total military expenditure is expected to reach C$32.7 billion by 2027.WEB,weblink Murray, Brewster, More soldiers, ships and planes for military in Liberal defence plan, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, June 7, 2017, August 23, 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink August 22, 2017,

Provinces and territories

{{See also|Canadian federalism}}(File:Political map of Canada.png|upright=1.8|thumb|right|alt=Labelled map of Canada detailing its provinces and territories|A political map of Canada showing its 10 provinces and 3 territories|link=Provinces and territories of Canada)Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories. In turn, these may be grouped into four main regions: Western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada (Eastern Canada refers to Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together).BOOK, Pierre, Hamel, Roger, Keil, Suburban Governance: A Global View,weblink 2015, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-6357-2, 81, Provinces have more autonomy than territories, having responsibility for social programs such as health care, education, and welfare.BOOK, G. Bruce, Doern, Allan M., Maslove, Michael J., Prince, Canadian Public Budgeting in the Age of Crises: Shifting Budgetary Domains and Temporal Budgeting,weblink 2013, MQUP, 978-0-7735-8853-0, 1, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Together, the provinces collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world. Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in practice. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces.BOOK, Jason, Clemens, Niels, Veldhuis, Beyond Equalization: Examining Fiscal Transfers in a Broader Context,weblink 2012, Fraser Institute, 978-0-88975-215-3, 8, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.BOOK, Peter, Oliver, Patrick, Macklem, Nathalie, Des Rosiers, The Oxford Handbook of the Canadian Constitution,weblink 2017, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-066482-4, 498–499, The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada (the federal government) and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively.BOOK, John, Meligrana, Redrawing Local Government Boundaries: An International Study of Politics, Procedures, and Decisions,weblink 2004, UBC Press, 978-0-7748-0934-4, 75, A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government.BOOK, Norman L., Nicholson, The boundaries of the Canadian Confederation,weblink 1979, McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP, 978-0-7705-1742-7, 174–175, {{clear}}


Canada is the world's tenth-largest economy {{As of|2018|lc=y|}}, with a nominal GDP of approximately US$1.73 trillion.WEB,weblink World Economic Outlook Database, April 2, 2019, International Monetary Fund, It is one of the least corrupt countries in the world,BOOK, Robert I., Rotberg, David, Carment, Canada's Corruption at Home and Abroad,weblink 2018, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-351-57924-7, 12, and is one of the world's top ten trading nations, with a highly globalized economy.WEB, World Trade Organization,weblink Latest release, April 17, 2008, May 23, 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 5, 2011, WEB,weblink KOF, Index of Globalization 2010, May 22, 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 31, 2012, Canada has a mixed economy ranking above the U.S. and most western European nations on The Heritage Foundation's index of economic freedom,WEB, 2013, The Heritage Foundation-The Wall Street Journal, Index of Economic Freedom,weblink June 27, 2013, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 29, 2013, and experiencing a relatively low level of income disparity.WEB,weblink Jonathan Kay: The key to Canada's economic advantage over the United States? Less income inequality, National Post, December 13, 2012, December 14, 2012, live,, May 15, 2016, The country's average household disposable income per capita is "well above" the OECD average.BOOK, OECD, Better Policies Policies for Stronger and More Inclusive Growth in Canada,, June 16, 2017, OECD Publishing, 978-92-64-27794-6, 3–, The Toronto Stock Exchange is the ninth-largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization, listing over 1,500 companies with a combined market capitalization of over US$2 trillion.WEB,weblink Monthly Reports - World Federation of Exchanges, WFE, {{asof|2018|November|lc=y}}(File:Canada Exports Treemap 2017.svg|upright=1.4|thumb|alt=Chart of exports of Canada by value with percentages|Tree-map of Canada's goods exports in 2017)In 2018, Canadian trade in goods and services reached {{CAD|1.5}} trillion. Canada's exports totalled over {{CAD|585}} billion, while its imported goods were worth over {{CAD|607}} billion, of which approximately {{CAD|391}} billion originated from the United States, {{CAD|216}} billion from non-U.S. sources.WEB,weblink Canada's State of Trade 2019, 2019, Global Affairs Canada, 20, 2562-8313, PDF version The country's 2019 trade surplus totalled {{CAD|762}} billion, compared with a {{CAD|46.9}} billion surplus in 2008.WEB,weblink Canada posts C$762 mln trade surplus in 2019, Financial post, 2019, Since the early 20th century, the growth of Canada's manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy to an urbanized, industrial one.BOOK, R. Cole, Harris, Geoffrey J., Matthews, Historical Atlas of Canada: Addressing the twentieth century, 1891–1961,weblink 1987, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-3448-9, 2, live,weblink March 20, 2018, Like many other developed countries, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three-quarters of the country's workforce.WEB,weblink Statistics Canada, Employment by Industry, January 8, 2009, May 23, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 24, 2011, However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of its primary sector, in which the forestry and petroleum industries are two of the most prominent components.BOOK, Toshiyuki, Sueyoshi, Mika, Goto, Environmental Assessment on Energy and Sustainability by Data Envelopment Analysis,weblink 2018, Wiley, 978-1-118-97933-4, 496, Canada is one of the few developed nations that are net exporters of energy.BOOK, Brown, Charles E, World energy resources, Springer, 2002, 323, 378–389, 978-3-540-42634-9, Atlantic Canada possesses vast offshore deposits of natural gas, and Alberta also hosts large oil and gas resources. The vastness of the Athabasca oil sands and other assets results in Canada having a 13 percent share of global oil reserves, comprising the world's third-largest share after Venezuela and Saudi Arabia.BOOK, Marcela, Lopez-Vallejo, Reconfiguring Global Climate Governance in North America: A Transregional Approach,weblink 2016, Routledge, 978-1-317-07042-9, 82, Canada is additionally one of the world's largest suppliers of agricultural products; the Canadian Prairies are one of the most important global producers of wheat, canola, and other grains.WEB,weblink Trade Ranking Report: Agriculture, FCC Ag Economics, 2017, Canada's Department of Natural Resources provides statistics regarding its major exports; the country is a leading exporter of zinc, uranium, gold, nickel, platinoids, aluminum, steel, iron ore, coking coal, lead, copper, molybdenum, cobalt, and cadmium.BOOK, Swapan Kumar Haldar, Platinum-Nickel-Chromium Deposits: Geology, Exploration and Reserve Base,weblink 2016, Elsevier Science, 978-0-12-802086-9, 108, Many towns in northern Canada, where agriculture is difficult, are sustainable because of nearby mines or sources of timber. Canada also has a sizeable manufacturing sector centred in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics representing particularly important industries.WEB,weblink Mapping Canada's Top Manufacturing Industries : Industry Insider,, Canada's economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since World War II.BOOK, Dr David, Mosler, Pr Bob, Catley, The American Challenge: The World Resists US Liberalism,weblink 2013, Ashgate Publishing, 978-1-4094-9852-0, 38, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The Automotive Products Trade Agreement of 1965 opened Canada's borders to trade in the automobile manufacturing industry.BOOK, William, Kerr, Nicholas, Perdikis, The Economics of International Commerce,weblink 2014, Edward Elgar Publishing, 978-1-78347-668-8, 96, live,weblink September 20, 2017, In the 1970s, concerns over energy self-sufficiency and foreign ownership in the manufacturing sectors prompted Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's Liberal government to enact the National Energy Program (NEP) and the Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA).BOOK, Morck, Randall, Tian, Gloria, Yeung, Bernard, Governance, multinationals, and growth, Eden, Lorraine, Dobson, Wendy, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005, 50, Who owns whom? Economic nationalism and family controlled pyramidal groups in Canada,weblink 978-1-84376-909-5, live,weblink April 13, 2016, In the 1980s, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney's Progressive Conservatives abolished the NEP and changed the name of FIRA to Investment Canada, to encourage foreign investment.JOURNAL, Hale, Geoffrey, The Dog That Hasn't Barked: The Political Economy of Contemporary Debates on Canadian Foreign Investment Policies, Canadian Journal of Political Science, October 2008, 41, 3, 719–747, 10.1017/S0008423908080785, 25166298, The Canada â€“ United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) of 1988 eliminated tariffs between the two countries, while the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) expanded the free-trade zone to include Mexico in 1994.BOOK, Joel, Krieger, The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World,weblink 2, 2001, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-511739-4, 569, Canada has a strong cooperative banking sector, with the world's highest per-capita membership in credit unions.BOOK, Christopher, Kobrak, Joe, Martin, From Wall Street to Bay Street: The Origins and Evolution of American and Canadian Finance,weblink 2018, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-1625-7, 220,

Science and technology

File:STS-116 Payload (NASA S116-E-05364).jpg|thumb|alt=A shuttle in space, with Earth in the background. A mechanical arm labelled "Canada" rises from the shuttle.|The Canadarm robotic manipulator in action on Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-116STS-116In 2018, Canada spent approximately C$34.5 billion on domestic research and development, of which around $7 billion was provided by the federal and provincial governments.WEB,weblink The Daily – Spending on research and development, 2018 intentions, Government of Canada, Statistics, Canada,, September 19, 2019, December 22, 2018, {{As of|2018}}, the country has produced fourteen Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry, and medicine,WEB, Canadian Nobel Prize in Science Laureates,weblink, September 19, 2019, and was ranked fourth worldwide for scientific research quality in a major 2012 survey of international scientists.NEWS,weblink Anne, McIlroy, Canada ranked fourth in the world for scientific research, The Globe and Mail, September 26, 2012, October 17, 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 4, 2012, It is furthermore home to the headquarters of a number of global technology firms.WEB,weblink Top 250 Canadian Technology Companies, 2014, Branham Group Inc, February 13, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 15, 2015, Canada has one of the highest levels of Internet access in the world, with over 33 million users, equivalent to around 94 percent of its total 2014 population.WEB,weblink Internet Usage and Population in North America, Internet World Stats, June 2014, February 7, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 7, 2015, The Canadian Space Agency operates a highly active space program, conducting deep-space, planetary, and aviation research, and developing rockets and satellites.WEB,weblink Canadian Space Milestones, Canadian Space Agency, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 8, 2009, Canada was the third country to design and construct a satellite after the Soviet Union and the United States, with the 1962 Alouette 1 launch.BOOK, Joseph A., Angelo, Encyclopedia of Space and Astronomy,weblink 2009, Infobase Publishing, 978-1-4381-1018-9, 22, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Canada is a participant in the International Space Station (ISS), and is a pioneer in space robotics, having constructed the Canadarm, Canadarm2 and Dextre robotic manipulators for the ISS and NASA's Space Shuttle.BOOK, Philippe, Bidaud, Erick, Dupuis, Field Robotics: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines,weblink 2012, World Scientific, University Pierre Et Marie Curie (UPMC), Paris, France, September 6–8, 2011, 978-981-4374-27-9, 35–37, An overview of Canadian space robotics activities, live,weblink September 20, 2017, Since the 1960s, Canada's aerospace industry has designed and built numerous marques of satellite, including Radarsat-1 and 2, ISIS and MOST.WEB,weblink The Canadian Aerospace Industry praises the federal government for recognizing Space as a strategic capability for Canada, Newswire, May 23, 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 9, 2011, Canada has also produced one of the world's most successful and widely used sounding rockets, the Black Brant; over 1,000 Black Brants have been launched since the rocket's introduction in 1961.BOOK, Andrew B., Godefroy, The Canadian Space Program: From Black Brant to the International Space Station,weblink 2017, Springer, 978-3-319-40105-8, 41,


File:Quebec-Windsor Corridor.svg|thumb|alt=Two-colour map of Windsor area with towns along the St. Lawrence river|The (Quebec City–Windsor Corridor]] is the most densely populated and heavily industrialized region of Canada, spanning {{convert|1200|km|mi|abbr=on}}.BOOK, Peter H., McMurry, Marjorie F., Shepherd, James S., Vickery, Particulate Matter Science for Policy Makers: A NARSTO Assessment,weblink 2004, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-84287-7, 391, live,weblink April 12, 2016, )The 2016 Canadian Census enumerated a total population of 35,151,728, an increase of around 5.0 percent over the 2011 figure.WEB,weblink Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver now home to one-third of Canadians: census, Press, Jordan, February 8, 2017, CTV News, February 8, 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 8, 2017, WEB,weblink 2016 Census: Population and dwelling counts, February 8, 2017, Statistics Canada, February 8, 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 11, 2017, Between 2011 and May 2016, Canada's population grew by 1.7 million people, with immigrants accounting for two-thirds of the increase.NEWS, Campion-Smith, Bruce, February 8, 2017, Canada's population grew 1.7M in 5 years, latest census shows,weblink Toronto Star, Toronto, February 8, 2017, live,weblink February 8, 2017, Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent overall growth.WEB,weblink Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada, 1990 to 2008, Natural Resources Canada, 2011, December 13, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 22, 2015, The main drivers of population growth are immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth.BOOK, Barry, Edmonston, Eric, Fong, The Changing Canadian Population,weblink 2011, McGill-Queen's Press, 978-0-7735-3793-4, 181, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Canada has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world,BOOK,weblink 51, Canada, Karla, Zimmerman, Lonely Planet, 2008, 10th, 978-1-74104-571-0, live,weblink April 12, 2016, driven mainly by economic policy and, to a lesser extent, family reunification.BOOK, Roderic P., Beaujot, Donald W., Kerr, The Changing Face of Canada: Essential Readings in Population,weblink 2007, Canadian Scholars' Press, 978-1-55130-322-2, 178, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The Canadian public, as well as the major political parties, support the current level of immigration.BOOK, James, Hollifield, Philip, Martin, Pia, Orrenius, Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective, Third Edition,weblink 2014, Stanford University Press, 978-0-8047-8627-0, 11, live,weblink January 6, 2017, BOOK, Gary P., Freeman, Randall, Hansen, David L., Leal, Immigration and Public Opinion in Liberal Democracies,weblink 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-21161-4, 8, live,weblink January 6, 2017, In 2014, a total of 260,400 immigrants were admitted to Canada, mainly from Asia.WEB,weblink Permanent and temporary immigration to Canada from 2012 to 2014, Government of Canada, Statistics, Canada,, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 16, 2017, June 18, 2014, The Canadian government anticipated between 280,000 and 305,000 new permanent residents in the following years,WEB,weblink Supplementary Information to the 2016 Immigration Levels Plan, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, March 8, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 11, 2016, March 8, 2016, WEB,weblink 2017 Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration,, Government of Canada, November 2017, a similar number of immigrants as in recent years.WEB,weblink Immigration overview – Permanent and temporary residents, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, February 11, 2014, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink September 4, 2010, India, Philippines and China are the top three countries of origin for immigrants moving to Canada.NEWS, Is Canada asking countries for a million immigrants?,weblink BBC News, June 6, 2019, New immigrants settle mostly in major urban areas such as Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.BOOK, Herbert G., Grubel, The Effects of Mass Immigration on Canadian Living Standards and Society,weblink 2009, Fraser Institute, 978-0-88975-246-7, 5, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees,WEB,weblink Government of Canada Tables 2011 Immigration Plan, Canada News Centre, December 12, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink December 3, 2010, accounting for over 10 percent of annual global refugee resettlements.BOOK, Alan, Simmons, Immigration and Canada: Global and Transnational Perspectives,weblink 2010, Canadian Scholars' Press, 978-1-55130-362-8, 92, live,weblink April 12, 2016, WEB, Jason, Markusoff, Canada now brings in more refugees than the U.S.,weblink, Rogers Media, January 23, 2019, Canada's population density, at {{convert|3.7|PD/km2}}, is among the lowest in the world.WEB,weblink Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2011 and 2006 censuses, Government of Canada, Statistics, Canada,, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 6, 2014, Canada spans latitudinally from the 83rd parallel north to the 41st parallel north, and approximately 95 percent of the population is found south of the 55th parallel north. About four-fifths of the population lives within {{convert|150|km|mi}} of the border with the contiguous United States.BOOK, Custred, Glynn, Immigration policy and the terrorist threat in Canada and the United States, Moens, Alexander, Fraser Institute, 2008, 96, Security Threats on America's Borders,weblink 978-0-88975-235-1, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The most densely populated part of the country, accounting for nearly 50 percent, is the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor in Southern Quebec and Southern Ontario along the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River.BOOK, OECD, OECD Environmental Performance Reviews OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Canada 2004,weblink 2014, OECD Publishing, 978-92-64-10778-6, 142–, live,weblink September 3, 2016, An additional 30 percent live along the British Columbia Lower Mainland, and the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor in Alberta.WEB,weblink Urban-rural population as a proportion of total population, Canada, provinces, territories and health regions, 2001, Statistics Canada, May 23, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink June 10, 2011, The majority of Canadians (69.9 percent) live in family households, 26.8 percent report living alone, and those living with unrelated persons reported at 3.7 percent.WEB,weblink Changing Families, New Understandings, Vanier institute (York University), 6 (PDF p 12), 2011, Meg, Luxton, February 2, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 4, 2016, The average size of a household in 2006 was 2.5 people.{{Largest metropolitan areas of Canada}}{{-}}


Healthcare in Canada is delivered through the provincial and territorial systems of publicly funded health care, informally called Medicare.BOOK, Karina, Aase, Justin, Waring, Lene, Schibevaag, Researching Quality in Care Transitions: International Perspectives,weblink 2017, Springer, 978-3-319-62346-7, 128–129, WEB,weblink Public vs. private health care, CBC News, December 1, 2006, It is guided by the provisions of the Canada Health Act of 1984,BOOK, Monique, Bégin, Medicare: Canada's Right to Health, 1988, Optimum Pub. International, 978-0-88890-219-1, Intro, and is universal.BOOK, Peggy, Leatt, Joseph, Mapa, Government Relations in the Health Care Industry,weblink 2003, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-1-56720-513-8, 81, Universal access to publicly funded health services "is often considered by Canadians as a fundamental value that ensures national health care insurance for everyone wherever they live in the country."WEB, The Health of Canadians – The Federal Role,weblink Parliament of Canada, January 5, 2017, 17.2 Universality, However, 30 percent of Canadians' healthcare is paid for through the private sector.BOOK, David J., Kroll, Capitalism Revisited: How to Apply Capitalism in Your Life,weblink 2012, Dorrance Publishing, 978-1-4349-1768-3, 126, This mostly goes towards services not covered or partially covered by Medicare, such as prescription drugs, dentistry and optometry. Approximately 65 to 75 percent of Canadians have some form of supplementary health insurance related to the aforementioned reasons; many receive it through their employers or utilizes secondary social service programs related to extended coverage for families receiving social assistance or vulnerable demographics, such as seniors, minors, and those with disabilities.BOOK, Tsai-Jyh, Chen, An International Comparison of Financial Consumer Protection,weblink 2018, Springer, 978-981-10-8441-6, 93, (File:Health care cost rise.svg|thumb|upright=1.3|Health care cost rise based on total expenditure on health as percent of GDP. Countries shown are the United States, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and Canada.)In common with many other developed countries, Canada is experiencing a cost increase due to a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2006, the average age was 39.5 years;WEB, Martel, Laurent, Malenfant, Éric Caron, 2006 Census: Portrait of the Canadian Population in 2006, by Age and Sex, Statistics Canada, September 22, 2009,weblink within twelve years it had risen to 42.4 years,{{citation |url= |title=The World FactBook – Canada |date=July 12, 2018 |work=The World Factbook}} with a life expectancy of 81.1 years.WEB, Thomas G., Weiss, Thomas G. Weiss,weblink Canadian Male and Female Life Expectancy Rates by Province and Territory, Disabled World, 2017, A 2016 report by the Chief Public Health Officer of Canada found that 88 percent of Canadians; one of the highest proportions of the population among G7 countries, indicated that they "had good or very good health".WEB,weblink Health Status of Canadians - How healthy are we? - Perceived health, Report of the Chief Public Health Officer - Public Health Agency of Canada, 2016, 80 percent of Canadian adults self-report having at least one major risk factor for chronic disease; smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy eating or excessive alcohol use.BOOK, David, Gregory, Tracey, Stephens, Christy, Raymond-Seniuk, Linda, Patrick, Fundamentals: Perspectives on the Art and Science of Canadian Nursing,weblink 2019, Wolters Kluwer Health, 978-1-4963-9850-5, 75, Canada has one of the highest rates of adult obesity among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries attributing to approximately 2.7 million cases of diabetes (types 1 and 2 combined). Four chronic diseases; cancer (leading cause of death), cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and diabetes account for 65 percent of deaths in Canada.WEB,weblink How Healthy are Canadians?, Public Health Agency of, Canada, 2017,, In 2017, the Canadian Institute for Health Information reported that healthcare spending reached $242{{nbsp}}billion, or 11.5 percent of Canada's gross domestic product (GDP) for that year.WEB,weblink Total health spending in Canada reaches $242{{nbsp, billion|year=2017|publisher=Canadian Institute for Health Information|quote=Spending on drugs is expected to outpace spending on hospitals and doctors.}} Canada's per-capita spending ranks it among the most expensive health-care systems in the OECD.Health expenditure and financing. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Choose options from dropdown menus. Canada has performed close to, or above the average on the majority of OECD health indicators since the early 2000s.WEB,weblink Health at a Glance 2017, OECD Publishing, 2017, In 2017 Canada ranked above the average on OECD indicators for wait-times and access to care, with average scores for quality of care and use of resources.WEB,weblink Health at a Glance - OECD Indicators by country, 2017, OECD Publishing,


According to a 2019 report by the OECD, Canada is one of the most educated countries in the world;WEB,weblink Most Educated Countries 2019, World Population Review, 2019, September 7, 2019, the country ranks first worldwide in the number of adults having tertiary education, with over 56 percent of Canadian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree. Canada spends about 5.3 percent of its GDP on education.WEB,weblink Government expenditure on education as % of GDP (%), World Bank, 2015, January 4, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 5, 2016, The country invests heavily in tertiary education (more than US$20,000 per student).WEB,weblink Financial and human resources invested in Education, OECD, 2011, July 4, 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 8, 2014, {{As of|2014}}, 89 percent of adults aged 25 to 64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, compared to an OECD average of 75 percent.WEB,weblink Canada, OECD Better Life Index, OECD, 2014, February 13, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 18, 2015, Since the adoption of section 23 of the Constitution Act, 1982, education in both English and French has been available in most places across Canada.BOOK, Irving, Epstein, The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Children's Issues Worldwide,weblink 2008, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-33617-1, 73, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Canadian provinces and territories are responsible for education provision.BOOK, Vicente, Montesinos, José, Manuel Vela, Innovations in Governmental Accounting,weblink 2013, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-1-4757-5504-6, 305, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The mandatory school age ranges between 5–7 to 16–18 years,WEB, Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, Overview of Education in Canada,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink February 14, 2010, October 20, 2010, contributing to an adult literacy rate of 99 percent. In 2002, 43 percent of Canadians aged 25 to 64 possessed a post-secondary education; for those aged 25 to 34, the rate of post-secondary education reached 51 percent.WEB, Department of Finance Canada, Creating Opportunities for All Canadians,weblink November 14, 2005, May 22, 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink April 23, 2010, The Programme for International Student Assessment indicates Canadian students perform well above the OECD average, particularly in mathematics, science, and reading.WEB,weblink Comparing countries' and economies' performances, OECD, 2009, May 22, 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 7, 2012, WEB,weblink Canadian education among best in the world: OECD, CTV News, December 7, 2010, February 15, 2013, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 28, 2013,


{{Pie chart|caption=Self-reported ethnic origins of Canadians based on geographic region (Census 2016)|label1=Indigenous North American|label2=Other North American {{efn| name=Other|1= Includes general responses indicating North American origins (e.g., 'North American') as well as more specific responses indicating North American origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Maritimer' or 'Quebecois').WEB,weblink Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables - Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Ingersoll, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data, Statistics Canada, Government of Canada, October 25, 2017,, }} |label3=Europe|label4=Caribbean and Central and South America|label5=Africa|label6=Asia|label7=Oceania|value1=5.06|value2=27.61|value3=46.74|value4=3.38|value5=2.54|value6=14.47|value7=0.20}}According to the 2016 Canadian Census, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is Canadian (accounting for 32 percent of the population),{{efn| name=Canadian|1=All citizens of Canada are classified as "Canadians" as defined by Canada's nationality laws. However, "Canadian" as an ethnic group has since 1996 been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestral origin or descent. "Canadian" was included as an example on the English questionnaire and "Canadien" as an example on the French questionnaire. "The majority of respondents to this selection are from the eastern part of the country that was first settled. Respondents generally are visibly European (Anglophones and Francophones), however no-longer self-identify with their ethnic ancestral origins. This response is attributed to a multitude or generational distance from ancestral lineage.BOOK, Kate, Bezanson, Michelle, Webber, Rethinking Society in the 21st Century, Fourth Edition: Critical Readings in Sociology,weblink 2016, Canadian Scholars' Press, 978-1-55130-936-1, 455–456, BOOK, Barry, Edmonston, Eric, Fong, The Changing Canadian Population,weblink 2011, McGill-Queen's Press, 978-0-7735-3793-4, 294–296, }} followed by English (18.3%), Scottish (13.9%), French (13.6%), Irish (13.4%), German (9.6%), Chinese (5.1%), Italian (4.6%), First Nations (4.4%), Indian (4.0%), and Ukrainian (3.9%).WEB,weblink Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables,, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 27, 2017, October 25, 2017, There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a total of 1,525,565 people.WEB, Aboriginal Identity (8), Sex (3) and Age Groups (12) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census â€“ 20% Sample Data, 2006 Census: Topic-based tabulations, Statistics Canada, June 12, 2008,weblink September 18, 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 18, 2011, Canada's Indigenous population is growing at almost twice the national rate, and four percent of Canada's population claimed an Indigenous identity in 2006. Another 22.3 percent of the population belonged to a non-Indigenous visible minority.WEB, Census Profile, 2016 Census, Statistics Canada, February 8, 2017,weblink February 16, 2018, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 15, 2017, In 2016, the largest visible minority groups were South Asian (5.6%), Chinese (5.1%) and Black (3.5%). Between 2011 and 2016, the visible minority population rose by 18.4 percent. In 1961, less than two percent of Canada's population (about 300,000 people) were members of visible minority groups.WEB,weblink Visible Minorities and Aboriginal Peoples in Vancouver's Labour Market, Pendakur, Krishna, Simon Fraser University,weblink" title="">weblink May 16, 2011, June 30, 2014, Indigenous peoples are not considered a visible minority under the Employment Equity Act,WEB, Classification of visible minority, Statistics Canada, Government of Canada, July 25, 2008,weblink September 18, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink July 14, 2011,
and this is the definition that Statistics Canada also uses.


Canada is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of beliefs and customs. Canada has no official church, and the government is officially committed to religious pluralism.BOOK, Richard, Moon, Law and Religious Pluralism in Canada,weblink 2008, UBC Press, 978-0-7748-1497-3, 1–4, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Freedom of religion in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing individuals to assemble and worship without limitation or interference.BOOK, Jamie S., Scott, The Religions of Canadians,weblink 2012, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-0516-9, 345, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The practice of religion is now generally considered a private matter throughout society and the state.BOOK, Kevin, Boyle, Juliet, Sheen, Freedom of Religion and Belief: A World Report,weblink 2013, University of Essex – Routledge, 978-1-134-72229-7, 219, live,weblink April 12, 2016, With Christianity in decline after having once been central and integral to Canadian culture and daily life,BOOK, Lance W., Roberts, Recent Social Trends in Canada, 1960–2000,weblink 2005, McGill-Queen's Press, 978-0-7735-2955-7, 359, live,weblink April 13, 2016, Canada has become a post-Christian, secular state.BOOK, Paul, Bramadat, David, Seljak, Religion and Ethnicity in Canada,weblink 2009, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-1018-7, 3, live,weblink April 13, 2016, BOOK, Kurt, Bowen, Christians in a Secular World: The Canadian Experience,weblink 2004, McGill-Queen's Press, 978-0-7735-7194-5, 174, live,weblink April 12, 2016, BOOK, Derek, Gregory, Ron, Johnston, Geraldine, Pratt, Michael, Watts, Sarah, Whatmore, The Dictionary of Human Geography,weblink 2009, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-4443-1056-6, 672, live,weblink April 12, 2016, BOOK, Bruce J., Berman, Rajeev, Bhargava, Andre, Lalibert, Secular States and Religious Diversity,weblink 2013, UBC Press, 978-0-7748-2515-3, 103, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The majority of Canadians consider religion to be unimportant in their daily lives,BOOK, Betty Jane, Punnett, International Perspectives on Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management,weblink 2015, Routledge, 978-1-317-46745-8, 116, live,weblink January 7, 2016, but still believe in God.BOOK, David M., Haskell, Through a Lens Darkly: How the News Media Perceive and Portray Evangelicals,weblink 2009, Clements Publishing Group, 978-1-894667-92-0, 50, live,weblink April 13, 2016, According to the 2011 census, 67.3 percent of Canadians identify as Christian; of these, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 38.7 percent of the population. Much of the remainder is made up of Protestants, who accounted for approximately 27 percent in a 2011 survey.WEB,weblink Tabulation: Religion (108), Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (11), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey, Statistics Canada, January 7, 2016, November 15, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 20, 2016, WEB,weblink Canada's Changing Religious Landscape | Pew Research Center, Pew Research Center,, June 27, 2013, April 21, 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 10, 2017, The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada (accounting for 6.1% of Canadians), followed by Anglicans (5.0%), and Baptists (1.9%). Secularization has been growing since the 1960s.Hans Mol, "The secularization of Canada." Research in the social scientific study of religion (1989) 1:197–215.BOOK, Mark A., Noll, A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada,weblink 1992, 15–17, live,weblink April 12, 2016, 978-0-8028-0651-2, In 2011, 23.9 percent declared no religious affiliation, compared to 16.5 percent in 2001.NEWS,weblink 'No Religion' Is Increasingly Popular For Canadians: Report, HuffPost, May 15, 2013, May 19, 2013, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 9, 2013, The remaining 8.8 percent are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the largest of which are Islam (3.2%), Hinduism (1.5%) and Sikhism (1.4%).


File:Bilinguisme au Canada-fr.svg|thumb|alt=Map of Canada with English speakers and French speakers at a percentage|Approximately 98 percent of Canadians can speak either or both English and French:WEB,weblink 2006 Census: The Evolving Linguistic Portrait, 2006 Census: Highlights, (Statistics Canada]], {{Text, Dated 2006, |accessdate=October 12, 2010 |url-status=live|archiveurl=|archivedate=April 29, 2011}}{{Legend|#FFE400|English – 56.9%}}{{Legend|#D8A820|English and French – 16.1%}}{{Legend|#B07400|French – 21.3%}}{{Legend|#F5F5DC|Sparsely populated area ( < 0.4 persons per km2)}})A multitude of languages are used by Canadians, with English and French (the official languages) being the mother tongues of approximately 56 percent and 21 percent of Canadians, respectively.WEB,weblink Population by mother tongue and age groups (total), 2016 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 15, 2017, February 8, 2017, As of the 2016 Census, just over 7.3 million Canadians listed a non-official language as their mother tongue. Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese (1,227,680 first-language speakers), Punjabi (501,680), Spanish (458,850), Tagalog (431,385), Arabic (419,895), German (384,040), and Italian (375,645). Canada's federal government practices official bilingualism, which is applied by the Commissioner of Official Languages in consonance with Section 16 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Federal Official Languages Act English and French have equal status in federal courts, parliament, and in all federal institutions. Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French and official-language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories.WEB, Official Languages and You, Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages, June 16, 2009,weblink September 10, 2009, The 1977 Charter of the French Language established French as the official language of Quebec.JOURNAL, Bourhis, Richard Y, Montaruli, Elisa, Amiot, Catherine E, Language planning and French-English bilingual communication: Montreal field studies from 1977 to 1997, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, May 2007, 185, 187–224, 10.1515/IJSL.2007.031, 2007, Although more than 85 percent of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec, there are substantial Francophone populations in New Brunswick, Alberta, and Manitoba; Ontario has the largest French-speaking population outside Quebec.BOOK, Jeremy, Webber, The Constitution of Canada: A Contextual Analysis,weblink 2015, Bloomsbury Publishing, 978-1-78225-631-1, 214, live,weblink April 12, 2016, New Brunswick, the only officially bilingual province, has a French-speaking Acadian minority constituting 33 percent of the population.BOOK, Peter, Auer, Language and Space: An International Handbook of Linguistic Variation. Theories and methods,weblink 2010, Walter de Gruyter, 978-3-11-018002-2, 387, live,weblink April 12, 2016, There are also clusters of Acadians in southwestern Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island, and through central and western Prince Edward Island.BOOK, Hayday, Matthew, Bilingual Today, United Tomorrow: Official Languages in Education and Canadian Federalism, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005, 49,weblink 978-0-7735-2960-1, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and for other government services, in addition to English. Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec allow for both English and French to be spoken in the provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. In Ontario, French has some legal status, but is not fully co-official.BOOK, Heller, Monica, Crosswords: language, education and ethnicity in French Ontario, 2003, Mouton de Gruyter, 978-3-11-017687-2, 72, 74, There are 11 Indigenous language groups, composed of more than 65 distinct languages and dialects.WEB,weblink Aboriginal languages, Statistics Canada, October 5, 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink April 29, 2011, Several Indigenous languages have official status in the Northwest Territories.BOOK, Fettes, Mark, Norton, Ruth, Aboriginal education: fulfilling the promise, Castellano, Marlene Brant, Davis, Lynne, Lahache, Louise, UBC Press, 2001, 39, Voices of Winter: Aboriginal Languages and Public Policy in Canada, 978-0-7748-0783-8, Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut, and is one of three official languages in the territory.BOOK, Russell, Peter H, Unfinished constitutional business?: rethinking indigenous self-determination, Hocking, Barbara, Aboriginal Studies Press, 2005, 180, Indigenous Self-Determination: Is Canada as Good as it Gets?,weblink 978-0-85575-466-2, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Additionally, Canada is home to many sign languages, some of which are Indigenous.WEB,weblink Sign languages, Canadian Association of the Deaf – Association des Sourds du Canada, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 30, 2017, American Sign Language (ASL) is spoken across the country due to the prevalence of ASL in primary and secondary schools.BOOK, Jepsen, Julie Bakken, Clerck, Goedele De, Lutalo-Kiingi, Sam, Sign Languages of the World: A Comparative Handbook,weblink 2015, De Gruyter, 978-1-61451-817-4, 702, live,weblink January 6, 2017, Due to its historical relation to the francophone culture, Quebec Sign Language (LSQ) is spoken primarily in Quebec, although there are sizeable Francophone communities in New Brunswick, Ontario and Manitoba.BOOK, Bailey, Carole Sue, Dolby, Kathy, Campbell, Hilda Marian, The Canadian Dictionary of ASL Canadian Cultural Society of the Dead,weblink 2002, University of Alberta, 978-0-88864-300-1, 11, live,weblink January 6, 2017,


File:Canflagcartoon.jpg|thumb|right|A political cartoon from 1910 on Canada's early European multicultural identity, depicting the French tricolour, the Union Jack, the maple leaf, and fleurs-de-lisfleurs-de-lisCanada's culture draws influences from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote a "just society" are constitutionally protected.BOOK, Samuel Victor, LaSelva, The Moral Foundations of Canadian Federalism: Paradoxes, Achievements, and Tragedies of Nationhood,weblink 1996, McGill-Queen's Press, 978-0-7735-1422-5, 86, BOOK, Rand, Dyck, Canadian Politics,weblink 2011, Cengage Learning, 978-0-17-650343-7, 88, live,weblink April 12, 2016, BOOK, Stephen L., Newman, Constitutional Politics in Canada and the United States,weblink 2012, SUNY Press, 978-0-7914-8584-2, 203, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Canada has placed emphasis on equality and inclusiveness for all its people.BOOK, Shibao, Guo, Lloyd, Wong, Revisiting Multiculturalism in Canada: Theories, Policies and Debates,weblink 2015, University of Calgary, 978-94-6300-208-0, 317, live,weblink April 13, 2016, Multiculturalism is often cited as one of Canada's significant accomplishments,BOOK, Sonia, Sikka, Multiculturalism and Religious Identity: Canada and India,weblink 2014, McGill-Queen's Press, 978-0-7735-9220-9, 237, live,weblink April 12, 2016, and a key distinguishing element of Canadian identity.BOOK, Azeezat, Johnson, Remi, Joseph-Salisbury, Beth, Kamunge, The Fire Now: Anti-Racist Scholarship in Times of Explicit Racial Violence,weblink 2018, Zed Books, 978-1-78699-382-3, 148, BOOK, Theodore, Caplow, Leviathan Transformed: Seven National States in the New Century,weblink 2001, McGill-Queen's Press, 978-0-7735-2304-3, 146, live,weblink April 12, 2016, In Quebec, cultural identity is strong, and many commentators speak of a French Canadian culture that is distinct from English Canadian culture.BOOK,weblink 61, Political culture and constitutionalism: a comparative approach, Daniel P, Franklin, Michael J, Baun, Sharpe, 1995, 978-1-56324-416-2, live,weblink April 12, 2016, However, as a whole, Canada is, in theory, a cultural mosaic—a collection of regional ethnic subcultures.JOURNAL, Garcea, Joseph, Kirova, Anna, Wong, Lloyd, Multiculturalism Discourses in Canada, Canadian Ethnic Studies, January 2009, 40, 1, 1–10, 10.1353/ces.0.0069, Canada's approach to governance emphasizing multiculturalism, which is based on selective immigration, social integration, and suppression of far-right politics, has wide public support.JOURNAL, Canadian Multiculturalism and the Absence of the Far Right – Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 21, 2, 213–236, 10.1080/13537113.2015.1032033, 2015, Emma, Ambrosea, Cas, Muddea, Government policies such as publicly-funded health care, higher taxation to redistribute wealth, the outlawing of capital punishment, strong efforts to eliminate poverty, strict gun control; alongside legislation with a social liberal attitude toward women's rights (like pregnancy termination), LGBTQ rights, assisted euthanasia and cannabis use are indicators of Canada's political and cultural values.BOOK, James, Hollifield, Philip L., Martin, Pia, Orrenius, Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective, Third Edition,weblink 2014, Stanford University Press, 978-0-8047-8735-2, 103, BOOK, Darrell, Bricker, John, Wright, What Canadians think about almost everything, Doubleday Canada, 2005, 978-0-385-65985-7, 8–28, WEB,weblink Exploring Canadian values, October 2016, Nanos Research, February 1, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink April 5, 2017, Canadians also identify with the country's foreign aid policies, peacekeeping roles, the National park system and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.WEB,weblink A literature review of Public Opinion Research on Canadian attitudes towards multiculturalism and immigration, 2006–2009, Government of Canada, 2011, December 18, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 22, 2015, WEB,weblink Focus Canada (Final Report), Queen's University, The Environics Institute, 2010, 4 (PDF page 8), December 12, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink February 4, 2016, File:Raven-and-the-first-men.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Bill Reid's 1980 sculpture Raven and The First Men. Raven crushing men under turtle shell.|Bill Reid's 1980 sculpture Raven and The First Men; the raven is a figure common to many of Canada's Indigenous mythologies.]]Historically, Canada has been influenced by British, French, and Indigenous cultures and traditions. Through their language, art and music, Indigenous peoples continue to influence the Canadian identity.BOOK,weblink 3–6, Aboriginal peoples of Canada: a short introduction, Paul R, Magocsi, University of Toronto Press, 2002, 978-0-8020-3630-8, live,weblink April 12, 2016, During the 20th century, Canadians with African, Caribbean and Asian nationalities have added to the Canadian identity and its culture.BOOK, Wisdom, Tettey, Korbla P., Puplampu, The African Diaspora in Canada: Negotiating Identity & Belonging,weblink 2005, University of Calgary, 978-1-55238-175-5, 100, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Canadian humour is an integral part of the Canadian identity and is reflected in its folklore, literature, music, art, and media. The primary characteristics of Canadian humour are irony, parody, and satire.BOOK, Tim, Nieguth, The Politics of Popular Culture: Negotiating Power, Identity, and Place,weblink 2015, MQUP, 978-0-7735-9685-6, 188, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Many Canadian comedians have achieved international success in the American TV and film industries and are amongst the most recognized in the world.BOOK, Katja, Lee, Lorraine, York, Celebrity Cultures in Canada,weblink 2016, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 978-1-77112-224-5, 180, live,weblink March 20, 2018, Canada has a well-developed media sector, but its cultural output; particularly in English films, television shows, and magazines, is often overshadowed by imports from the United States.BOOK, Mary, Vipond, The Mass Media in Canada,weblink 4, 2011, James Lorimer Company, 978-1-55277-658-2, 57, live,weblink April 12, 2016, As a result, the preservation of a distinctly Canadian culture is supported by federal government programs, laws, and institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).BOOK, Ryan, Edwardson, Canadian Content: Culture and the Quest for Nationhood,weblink 2008, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-9519-0, 59, live,weblink April 12, 2016,


File:Beaver sculpture, Centre Block.jpg|thumb|alt=The mother beaver sculpture outside the House of Commons|The mother beaver on the Canadian parliament's Peace Tower.WEB,weblink The mother beaver – Collection Profiles, The House of Commons Heritage, 2013, David, Monaghan, December 12, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 22, 2015, The five flowers on the shield each represent an ethnicity—Tudor rose: English; Fleur de lis: French; thistle: Scottish; shamrock: Irish; and leek: Welsh.]]Canada's national symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and Indigenous sources. The use of the maple leaf as a Canadian symbol dates to the early 18th century. The maple leaf is depicted on Canada's current and previous flags, and on the Arms of Canada. The Arms of Canada are closely modelled after the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom with French and distinctive Canadian elements replacing or added to those derived from the British version.BOOK, Barry M., Gough, Historical Dictionary of Canada,weblink 2010, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-7504-3, 71, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Other prominent symbols include the sports of ice hockey and lacrosse, the beaver, Canadian Goose, common loon, Canadian horse, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Canadian Rockies,BOOK, Canadian Heritage, Symbols of andCanada,weblink 2002, 978-0-660-18615-3, Canadian Government Publishing, and more recently the totem pole and Inuksuk.BOOK, Sociology in Action, Canadian Edition, 2nd ed.,weblink Nelson Education-McGraw-Hill Education, 978-0-17-672841-0, 92, Material items such as Canadian beer, maple syrup, tuques, canoes, nanaimo bars, butter tarts and the Quebec dish of poutine are defined as uniquely Canadian.BOOK, Hutchins, Donna, Hutchins, Nigel, The Maple Leaf Forever: A Celebration of Canadian Symbols, The Boston Mills Press, 2006, Erin, 978-1-55046-474-0, iix intro, Canadian coins feature many of these symbols: the loon on the loonie coin, the Arms of Canada on the 50¢ piece, the beaver on the nickel.BOOK, Allen G, Berman, Warman's Coins And Paper Money: Identification and Price Guide,weblink 2008, Krause Publications, 978-1-4402-1915-3, 137, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The penny, removed from circulation in 2013, featured the maple leaf.WEB,weblink Phasing out the penny, Royal Canadian Mint, 2015, December 11, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 12, 2015, The Queen' s image appears on bank notes, and on the obverse of all current Canadian coins.


Canadian literature is often divided into French- and English-language literatures, which are rooted in the literary traditions of France and Britain, respectively.BOOK, W. J., Keith, Canadian literature in English,weblink 2006, The Porcupine's Quill, 978-0-88984-283-0, 19, live,weblink April 12, 2016, There are four major themes that can be found within historical Canadian literature; nature, frontier life, Canada's position within the world, all three of which tie into the garrison mentality.BOOK, William H., New, Encyclopedia of Literature in Canada,weblink 2002, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-0761-2, 259–261, live,weblink April 12, 2016, By the 1990s, Canadian literature was viewed as some of the world's best.BOOK, K. V., Dominic, Studies in Contemporary Canadian Literature,weblink 2010, Pinnacle Technology, 978-1-61820-640-4, 9, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Canada's ethnic and cultural diversity are reflected in its literature, with many of its most prominent modern writers focusing on ethnic life.BOOK, K. V., Dominic, K. V. Dominic, Studies in Contemporary Canadian Literature,weblink 2010, Pinnacle Technology, 978-1-61820-640-4, 8, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Arguably, the best-known living Canadian writer internationally (especially since the deaths of Robertson Davies and Mordecai Richler) is Margaret Atwood, a prolific novelist, poet, and literary critic.BOOK, Reingard M., Nischik, Margaret Atwood: Works and Impact,weblink 2000, Camden House, 978-1-57113-139-3, 46, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Numerous other Canadian authors have accumulated international literary awards;BOOK, William H., New, Encyclopedia of Literature in Canada,weblink 2012, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-0761-2, 55, live,weblink April 12, 2016, including Nobel Laureate Alice Munro, who has been called the best living writer of short stories in English;BOOK, Broadview Anthology of British Literature, The. Concise Edition, Volume B,weblink 2006, Broadview Press, 1459, GGKEY:1TFFGS4YFLT, live,weblink April 12, 2016, and Booker Prize recipient Michael Ondaatje, who is perhaps best known for the novel The English Patient, which was adapted as a film of the same name that won the Academy Award for Best Picture.BOOK, Robert, Giddings, Erica, Sheen, From Page To Screen: Adaptations of the Classic Novel,weblink 2000, Manchester University Press, 978-0-7190-5231-6, 197, live,weblink April 13, 2016,

Visual arts

File:The Jack Pine, by Tom Thomson.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Oil on canvas painting of a tree dominating its rocky landscape during a sunset|The Jack Pine by Tom Thomson. Oil on canvas, 1916, in the collection of the National Gallery of CanadaNational Gallery of CanadaCanadian visual art has been dominated by figures such as Tom Thomson – the country's most famous painter – and by the Group of Seven.BOOK, Marylin J., McKay, Picturing the Land: Narrating Territories in Canadian Landscape Art, 1500–1950,weblink 2011, McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP, 978-0-7735-3817-7, 229, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Thomson's career painting Canadian landscapes spanned a decade up to his death in 1917 at age 39.JOURNAL, Brock, Richard, Envoicing Silent Objects: Art and Literature at the Site of the Canadian Landscape, Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 2008, 13, 2, 50–61,weblink live,weblink September 13, 2017, The Group of Seven were painters with a nationalistic and idealistic focus, who first exhibited their distinctive works in May 1920. Though referred to as having seven members, five artists—Lawren Harris, A. Y. Jackson, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald, and Frederick Varley—were responsible for articulating the Group's ideas. They were joined briefly by Frank Johnston, and by commercial artist Franklin Carmichael. A. J. Casson became part of the Group in 1926.BOOK, Hill, Charles C, The Group of Seven â€“ Art for a Nation, National Gallery of Canada, 1995, 15–21, 195, 978-0-7710-6716-7, Associated with the Group was another prominent Canadian artist, Emily Carr, known for her landscapes and portrayals of the Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.BOOK, Newlands, Anne, Emily Carr, Firefly Books, 1996, 8–9, 978-1-55209-046-6, Since the 1950s, works of Inuit art have been given as gifts to foreign dignitaries by the Canadian government.BOOK, Pamela R., Stern, Daily life of the Inuit,weblink June 30, 2010, ABC-CLIO, 978-0-313-36311-5, 151, live,weblink April 12, 2016,


The Canadian music industry is the sixth-largest in the world producing internationally renowned composers, musicians and ensembles.BOOK, Geoffrey P., Hull, Thomas William, Hutchison, Richard, Strasser, The Music Business and Recording Industry: Delivering Music in the 21st Century,weblink 2011, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-415-87560-8, 304, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Music broadcasting in the country is regulated by the CRTC.BOOK, Archibald Lloyd Keith, Acheson, Christopher John, Maule, Much Ado about Culture: North American Trade Disputes,weblink 2009, University of Michigan Press, 978-0-472-02241-0, 181, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences presents Canada's music industry awards, the Juno Awards, which were first awarded in 1970.BOOK,weblink 127, Canadian content, culture and the quest for nationhood, Ryan, Edwardson, University of Toronto Press, 2008, 978-0-8020-9759-0, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The Canadian Music Hall of Fame established in 1976 honours Canadian musicians for their lifetime achievements.BOOK, Frank, Hoffmann, Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound,weblink 2004, Routledge, 978-1-135-94950-1, 324, live,weblink April 12, 2016, Patriotic music in Canada dates back over 200 years as a distinct category from British patriotism, preceding the Canadian Confederation by over 50 years. The earliest, The Bold Canadian, was written in 1812.BOOK, Adam, Jortner, The Gods of Prophetstown: The Battle of Tippecanoe and the Holy War for the American Frontier,weblink 2011, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-976529-4, 217, live,weblink April 12, 2016, The national anthem of Canada, "O Canada", was originally commissioned by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, the Honourable Théodore Robitaille, for the 1880 St. Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony, and was officially adopted in 1980.WEB, Helmut Kallmann, Helmut, Kallmann, Gilles, Potvin,weblink O Canada, Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, November 27, 2013, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 3, 2013, Calixa Lavallée wrote the music, which was a setting of a patriotic poem composed by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The text was originally only in French before it was adapted into English in 1906.WEB, Hymne national du Canada, Canadian Heritage, June 23, 2008,weblink June 26, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink January 29, 2009,


File:Canada2010WinterOlympicsOTcelebration.jpg|thumb|alt=Hockey players and fans celebrating|Canada's ice hockey victory at the 2010 Winter Olympics2010 Winter OlympicsThe roots of organized sports in Canada date back to the 1770s.BOOK, Henry, Roxborough, The Beginning of Organized Sport in Canada, Canada, 1975, 30–43, Canada's official national sports are ice hockey and lacrosse.WEB, National Sports of Canada Act, Government of Canada, November 5, 2015,weblink November 23, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 24, 2015, Golf, soccer, baseball, tennis, skiing, badminton, volleyball, cycling, swimming, bowling, rugby union, canoeing, equestrian, squash and the study of martial arts are widely enjoyed at the youth and amateur levels.WEB,weblink Canadian sport participation – Most frequently played sports in Canada (2010),, 2013, 34, Canadian Heritage, January 27, 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 10, 2017, Canada shares several major professional sports leagues with the United States.BOOK, Sergiy, Butenko, Jaime, Gil-Lafuente, Panos M., Pardalos, Optimal Strategies in Sports Economics and Management,weblink 2010, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-3-642-13205-6, 42–44, live,weblink September 20, 2017, Canadian teams in these leagues include seven franchises in the National Hockey League, as well as three Major League Soccer teams and one team in each of Major League Baseball and the National Basketball Association. Other popular professional sports in Canada include Canadian football, which is played in the Canadian Football League, National Lacrosse League lacrosse, and curling.BOOK, Don, Morrow, Kevin B., Wamsley, Sport in Canada: A History, 2016, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-902157-4, xxI – intro, Canada has participated in almost every Olympic Games since its Olympic debut in 1900,BOOK, Bill, Mallon, Jeroen, Heijmans, Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement,weblink 2011, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-7522-7, 71, live,weblink March 20, 2018, and has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 1976 Summer Olympics,BOOK, Paul Charles, Howell, Montreal Olympics: An Insider's View of Organizing a Self-financing Games,weblink 2009, McGill-Queen's Press, 978-0-7735-7656-8, 3, live,weblink March 20, 2018, the 1988 Winter Olympics,BOOK, John, Horne, Garry, Whannel, Understanding the Olympics,weblink 2016, Routledge, 978-1-317-49519-2, 157, live,weblink September 20, 2017, the 1994 Basketball World Championship,BOOK, David, Blevins, The Sports Hall of Fame Encyclopedia: Baseball, Basketball, Football, Hockey, Soccer,weblink 2012, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-8108-6130-5, 1222, live,weblink June 27, 2016, the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup,BOOK, Milena M., Parent, Jean-Loup, Chappelet, Routledge Handbook of Sports Event Management,weblink February 20, 2015, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-135-10437-5, 464, the 2010 Winter OlympicsBOOK, United States Senate Subcommittee on Trade, Tourism, and Economic Development, The economic impact of the 2010 Vancouver, Canada, Winter Olympics on Oregon and the Pacific Northwest: hearing before the Subcommittee on Trade, Tourism, and Economic Development of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, first session, August 5, 2005,weblink January 2006, U.S. G.P.O., BOOK, Zuzana, Fromm, Economic Issues of Vancouver-Whistler 2010 Olympics,weblink 2006, Pearson Prentice Hall, 978-0-13-197843-0, and the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup.BOOK, Temporary Importations Using the FIFA Women?s World Cup Canada 2015 Remission Order,weblink 2015, Canada Border Services Agency, Most recently, Canada staged the 2015 Pan American Games and 2015 Parapan American Games, the former being the largest sporting event hosted by the country.NEWS, David, Peterson,weblink Why Toronto should get excited about the Pan Am Games, The Globe and Mail, July 10, 2014,

See also





Further reading

{| style="width:100%;" style="vertical-align:top;"Overview History
  • BOOK, J. M. S., Careless, Canada: A Story of Challenge,weblink revised, 2012, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-107-67581-0,
  • BOOK, Journeys: A History of Canada, RD, Francis, Richard, Jones, Donald B, Smith, Nelson Education, 2009, 978-0-17-644244-6,weblink
  • BOOK, Taylor, Martin Brook, Doug, Owram, 1994, Canadian History, 1 & 2, University of Toronto Press, {{ISBN|978-0-8020-5016-8}}, {{ISBN|978-0-8020-2801-3}}
Geography and climate Government and law
  • BOOK, Joseph W., Jacob, Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms: Democracy for the People and for Each Person,weblink 2007, Trafford Publishing, 978-1-4269-8016-9,
  • BOOK, Malcolmson, Patrick, 4th, Richard, Myers, 2009, The Canadian Regime: An Introduction to Parliamentary Government in Canada,weblink University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-0047-8,
  • BOOK, Morton, Frederick Lee, 2002, Law, politics, and the judicial process in Canada,weblink Frederick Lee, 978-1-55238-046-8,
Social welfare
  • BOOK, Alvin, Finkel, Social Policy and Practice in Canada: A History,weblink 2006, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 978-0-88920-475-1,
  • BOOK, Valerie D., Thompson, Health and Health Care Delivery in Canada,weblink 2015, Elsevier Health Sciences, 978-1-927406-31-1,
  • BOOK, Sara Z., Burke, Patrice, Milewski, Schooling in Transition: Readings in Canadian History of Education,weblink 2011, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-9577-0,
Foreign relations and military
  • BOOK, Patrick, James, Nelson, Michaud, Marc J., O'Reilly, Handbook of Canadian Foreign Policy,weblink 2006, Lexington Books, 978-0-7391-1493-3,
  • BOOK, John, Conrad, Scarce Heard Amid the Guns: An Inside Look at Canadian Peacekeeping,weblink 2011, Dundurn, 978-1-55488-981-5,
  • BOOK, Granatstein, J. L., Canada's Army: Waging War and Keeping the Peace,weblink 2011, 2nd, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-1178-8,
  • BOOK, W.T., Easterbrook, Hugh G. J., Aitken, Canadian Economic History,weblink 2015, University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 978-1-4426-5814-1,
  • BOOK, OECD Economic Surveys, 2018, Economic Survey of Canada 2018,weblink – (Previous surveys)
  • BOOK, Edward, Jones-Imhotep, Tina, Adcock, Made Modern: Science and Technology in Canadian History,weblink 2018, UBC Press, 978-0-7748-3726-2,
Demography and statistics
  • BOOK, Statistics Canada, Canada Year Book (CYB) annual 1867–1967, Federal Publications (Queen of Canada), 2008,weblink
  • BOOK, David, Carment, David, Bercuson, The World in Canada: Diaspora, Demography, and Domestic Politics,weblink 2008, MQUP, 978-0-7735-7854-8,
  • JOURNAL, Statistics Canada, Canada Year Book, Canada Yearbook, Federal Publications (Queen of Canada), December 2012, Catalogue no 11-402-XWE,weblink 0068-8142,
  • BOOK, Andrew Cohen (journalist), Andrew, Cohen, The Unfinished Canadian: The People We Are,weblink 2007, McClelland & Stewart, 978-0-7710-2181-7,
  • BOOK, Paul R, Magocsi, Encyclopedia of Canada's peoples, Society of Ontario, University of Toronto Press, 1999, 978-0-8020-2938-6,weblink
  • BOOK, Jonathan F., Vance, A History of Canadian Culture,weblink 2011, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-544422-3,

External links

{{Spoken Wikipedia|En-Canada.ogg|2008-01-04}}{{Scholia|topic}}{{Sister project links|collapsible=collapsed|voy=Canada|Canada}}Overviews Government Travel Studies {{Anchor|Related information}}{{Canada topics}}{{Navboxes|title=Related topics|list1={{Countries of North America}}{{The Commonwealth}}}}{{Featured article}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Canada" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 3:52pm EST - Sun, Nov 17 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott