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iOS
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{{About|the mobile operating system developed by Apple|the router/switch OS developed by Cisco Systems|Cisco IOS|other uses|IOS (disambiguation)}}{{pp-protected|small=yes}}{{short description|Mobile operating system by Apple}}{{Use mdy dates|date=July 2017}}{{lowercasetitle}}







factoids
HTTPS://WWW.APPLE.COM/IPAD-MINI-4/SPECS/ PUBLISHER=APPLE URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 24, 2015 PUBLISHER=APPLEURL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 26, 2015PUBLISHER=APPLEURL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=JANUARY 4, 2019, mdy-all, Cocoa Touch (multi-touch, graphical user interface>GUI)| license = Proprietary software except for open-source componentsweblink}}| bodystyle = width:315px;| working_state = CurrentProprietary software>Closed source| marketing_target = Smartphones, tablet computers, portable media playersC (programming language)>C, C++, Objective-C, SwiftiTunes (formerly) or Over-the-air programming>OTA {{small|(iOS 5 or later)}}

}}
Hybrid kernel>Hybrid (XNU)| support_status = Supported}}iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that presently powers many of the company's mobile devices, including the iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch. It is the second most popular mobile operating system globally after Android.Originally unveiled in 2007 for the iPhone, iOS has been extended to support other Apple devices such as the iPod Touch (September 2007) and the iPad (January 2010). {{As of|2018|3|df=US}}, Apple's App Store contains more than 2.1 million iOS applications, 1 million of which are native for iPads.NEWS,weblink Charting The Explosive Growth of the App Store, Lifewire, 2018-10-15, en, These mobile apps have collectively been downloaded more than 130 billion times.The iOS user interface is based upon direct manipulation, using multi-touch gestures. Interface control elements consist of sliders, switches, and buttons. Interaction with the OS includes gestures such as swipe, tap, pinch, and reverse pinch, all of which have specific definitions within the context of the iOS operating system and its multi-touch interface. Internal accelerometers are used by some applications to respond to shaking the device (one common result is the undo command) or rotating it in three dimensions (one common result is switching between portrait and landscape mode). Apple has been significantly praised for incorporating thorough accessibility functions into iOS, enabling users with vision and hearing disabilities to properly use its products.Major versions of iOS are released annually. The current version, iOS 12, was released on September 17, 2018. It is available for all iOS devices with 64-bit processors; the iPhone 5S and later iPhone models, the iPad (2017), the iPad Air and later iPad Air models, all iPad Pro models, the iPad Mini 2 and later iPad Mini models, and the sixth-generation iPod Touch. On all recent iOS devices, iOS regularly checks on the availability of an update, and if one is available, will prompt the user to permit its automatic installation.Coming in the fall of 2019, iOS 13 will be released to the public, introducing user interface tweaks and a dark mode, along with features such as a redesigned Reminders app, a swipe keyboard, and an enhanced Photos app. iOS 13 does not support devices with less than 2GB of RAM, including the iPhone 5s, iPod Touch (6th generation), and the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus, which still make up over 10% of all iOS devices.WEB,weblink Apple’s iOS 13 update won’t be released to phones older than iPhone 6s - National {{!, Globalnews.ca|date=2019-06-05|website=globalnews.ca|language=en|access-date=2019-06-06}} iOS 13 is exclusively for the iPhone and iPod touch as the iPad variant is now called iPadOS. As with iOS 13, iPadOS 13 also does not support iPads that have less than 2 GB of RAM, such as the iPad Air, iPad mini 2 and iPad mini 3.

History

{{multiple image
| direction = horizontal
| footer = Original iOS logo, used until 2013 (left) and logo used 2013–17 (right)
| footer_align = center
| total_width = 250
| image1 = Apple iOS.svg
| image2 = Apple iOS new.svg
}}In 2005, when Steve Jobs began planning the iPhone, he had a choice to either "shrink the Mac, which would be an epic feat of engineering, or enlarge the iPod". Jobs favored the former approach but pitted the Macintosh and iPod teams, led by Scott Forstall and Tony Fadell, respectively, against each other in an internal competition, with Forstall winning by creating the iPhone OS. The decision enabled the success of the iPhone as a platform for third-party developers: using a well-known desktop operating system as its basis allowed the many third-party Mac developers to write software for the iPhone with minimal retraining. Forstall was also responsible for creating a software development kit for programmers to build iPhone apps, as well as an App Store within iTunes.WEB, Adam, Satariano, Peter, Burrows, Brad, Stone, Scott Forstall, the Sorcerer's Apprentice at Apple,weblink Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg L.P., October 14, 2011, April 1, 2017, live,weblink April 7, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Arnold, Kim, Scott Forstall's Personality, Origins of iOS, and Lost iPhone 4 Prototype,weblink MacRumors, October 12, 2011, April 1, 2017, live,weblink April 2, 2017, mdy-all, The operating system was unveiled with the iPhone at the Macworld Conference & Expo on January 9, 2007, and released in June of that year.WEB, Owen, Thomas, Apple: Hello, iPhone,weblink CNN Money, CNN, January 9, 2007, April 1, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170402081508weblink">weblink April 2, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Lisa, Eadicicco, Watch Steve Jobs Unveil the First iPhone 10 Years Ago Today,weblink Time (magazine), Time, January 9, 2017, April 1, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170402080922weblink">weblink April 2, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Mathew, Honan, Apple unveils iPhone,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, January 9, 2007, April 1, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170126161949weblink">weblink January 26, 2017, mdy-all, At the time of its unveiling in January, Steve Jobs claimed: "iPhone runs OS X" and runs "desktop class applications",WEB, Ryan, Block, Ryan Block, Live from Macworld 2007: Steve Jobs keynote,weblink Engadget, AOL, January 9, 2007, April 1, 2017, live,weblink March 24, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Mic, Wright, The original iPhone announcement annotated: Steve Jobs’ genius meets Genius,weblink The Next Web, September 9, 2015, April 1, 2017, live,weblink April 1, 2017, mdy-all, but at the time of the iPhone's release, the operating system was renamed "iPhone OS".WEB, iOS: A visual history,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, September 16, 2013, April 1, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170412015548weblink">weblink April 12, 2017, mdy-all, Initially, third-party native applications were not supported. Jobs' reasoning was that developers could build web applications through the Safari web browser that "would behave like native apps on the iPhone".WEB, Antone, Gonsalves, Apple Launches iPhone Web Apps Directory,weblink InformationWeek, UBM plc, October 11, 2007, April 1, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170220092434weblink">weblink February 20, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Jobs’ original vision for the iPhone: No third-party native apps,weblink 9to5Mac, October 21, 2011, April 1, 2017, live,weblink April 1, 2017, mdy-all, In October 2007, Apple announced that a native Software Development Kit (SDK) was under development and that they planned to put it "in developers' hands in February".WEB, Nik, Fletcher, Apple: "we plan to have an iPhone SDK in developers' hands in February",weblink Engadget, AOL, October 17, 2007, April 1, 2017, live,weblink April 2, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Daniel, Eran Dilger, Nine Years of Apple's iOS SDK generated $60 billion, 1.4 million jobs,weblink AppleInsider, March 7, 2017, April 1, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170402081011weblink">weblink April 2, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Philip, Elmer-DeWitt, Steve Jobs: Apple Will Open iPhone to 3rd Party Apps in February,weblink Fortune (magazine), Fortune, Time Inc., October 17, 2007, April 1, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170402080842weblink">weblink April 2, 2017, mdy-all, On March 6, 2008, Apple held a press event, announcing the iPhone SDK.WEB, Ryan, Block, Ryan Block, Live from Apple's iPhone SDK press conference,weblink Engadget, AOL, March 6, 2008, April 1, 2017, live,weblink January 27, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Jim, Dalrymple, Jason, Snell, Apple: iPhone SDK, enterprise announcement next week,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, February 27, 2008, April 1, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170402081039weblink">weblink April 2, 2017, mdy-all, The iOS App Store was opened on July 10, 2008 with an initial 500 applications available.WEB, Thomas, Ricker, Jobs: App Store launching with 500 iPhone applications, 25% free,weblink Engadget, AOL, July 10, 2008, April 1, 2017, live,weblink March 30, 2017, mdy-all, This quickly grew to 3,000 in September 2008,WEB, App Store Downloads Top 100 Million Worldwide,weblink Apple Press Info, Apple Inc., September 9, 2008, April 1, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170401111744weblink">weblink April 1, 2017, mdy-all, 15,000 in January 2009,WEB, Rik, Myslewski, iPhone App Store breezes past 500 million downloads,weblink The Register, Situation Publishing, January 16, 2009, April 1, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170505165333weblink">weblink May 5, 2017, mdy-all, 50,000 in June 2009,WEB, MG, Siegler, State Of The iPhone Ecosystem: 40 Million Devices and 50,000 Apps,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, June 8, 2009, April 1, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090610235745weblink">weblink June 10, 2009, mdy-all, 100,000 in November 2009,WEB, Dan, Moren, App Store officially passes 100,000 app mark,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, November 4, 2009, March 29, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170330013112weblink">weblink March 30, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Dan, Frommer, iPhone App Store Passes 100,000 Apps,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, November 4, 2009, March 29, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170330000058weblink">weblink March 30, 2017, mdy-all, 250,000 in August 2010,WEB, Matt, Brian, Apple’s App Store Now Features 250,000 Apps,weblink The Next Web, August 28, 2010, March 29, 2017, live,weblink March 29, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Philip, Elmer-DeWitt, Apple App Store: 250,000 and counting,weblink Fortune (magazine), Fortune, Time Inc., August 28, 2010, March 29, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170330000653weblink">weblink March 30, 2017, mdy-all, 650,000 in July 2012,WEB, Jordan, Crook, Apple App Store Hits 650,000 Apps: 250,000 Designed For iPad, $5.5B Paid Out To Devs,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, July 24, 2012, March 29, 2017, live,weblink March 30, 2017, mdy-all, 1 million in October 2013,WEB, Nathan, Ingraham, Apple announces 1 million apps in the App Store, more than 1 billion songs played on iTunes radio,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, October 22, 2013, March 29, 2017, live,weblink May 12, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Seth, Fiegerman, Apple's App Store Tops 1 Million Apps,weblink Mashable, October 22, 2013, March 29, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170330012049weblink">weblink March 30, 2017, mdy-all, 2 million in June 2016,WEB, Jordan, Golson, Apple’s App Store now has over 2 million apps,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, June 13, 2016, March 29, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170210135527weblink">weblink February 10, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Kellen, Beck, Apple's App Store now has over 2 million apps,weblink Mashable, June 13, 2016, March 29, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170330012051weblink">weblink March 30, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Erin, Carson, Apple by the numbers: 2 million apps, 15 million Apple Music subscribers,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, June 13, 2016, March 29, 2017, live,weblink March 30, 2017, mdy-all, and 2.2 million in January 2017.WEB, Lauren, Goode, Apple's App Store just had the most successful month of sales ever,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, January 5, 2017, March 29, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170128232821weblink">weblink January 28, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Larry, Dignan, Apple's App Store 2016 revenue tops $28 billion mark, developers net $20 billion,weblink ZDNet, CBS Interactive, January 5, 2017, March 29, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170330055612weblink">weblink March 30, 2017, mdy-all, {{As of|2016|3}}, 1 million apps are natively compatible with the iPad tablet computer.WEB, Jacob, Kastrenakes, There are now 1 million iPad apps,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, March 21, 2016, April 1, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170330011925weblink">weblink March 30, 2017, mdy-all, These apps have collectively been downloaded more than 130 billion times. App intelligence firm Sensor Tower has estimated that the App Store will reach 5 million apps by the year 2020.WEB, Sarah, Perez, App Store to reach 5 million apps by 2020, with games leading the way,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, August 10, 2016, March 29, 2017, live,weblink March 30, 2017, mdy-all, In September 2007, Apple announced the iPod Touch, a redesigned iPod based on the iPhone form factor.WEB, Eric, Bangeman, The iPod meets the iPhone: a review of the iPod touch,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, September 17, 2007, June 21, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160618215925weblink">weblink June 18, 2016, mdy-all, In January 2010, Apple announced the iPad, featuring a larger screen than the iPhone and iPod Touch, and designed for web browsing, media consumption, and reading.WEB, Dan, Miller, Apple announces iPad,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, January 27, 2010, June 21, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170703125014weblink">weblink July 3, 2017, mdy-all, In June 2010, Apple rebranded iPhone OS as "iOS". The trademark "IOS" had been used by Cisco for over a decade for its operating system, IOS, used on its routers. To avoid any potential lawsuit, Apple licensed the "IOS" trademark from Cisco.WEB, Tartakoff, Joseph, paidContent,weblink Apple Avoids iPhone-Like Trademark Battle Thanks To Cisco, FaceTime Deals, June 7, 2010, February 2, 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511200002weblink">weblink May 11, 2011, mdy-all, In October 2016, Apple opened its first iOS Developer Academy in Naples inside University of Naples Federico II's new campus.WEB, Juli Clover, Apple's First iOS Developer Academy Opens October 6 at University of Naples,weblink MacRumors, October 5, 2016, December 22, 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161223132037weblink">weblink December 23, 2016, mdy-all, WEB, Mike Wuerthele, Apple's first European iOS Developer Academy opening on Thursday in Naples, Italy,weblink AppleInsider, October 5, 2016, December 22, 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161221205057weblink">weblink December 21, 2016, mdy-all,

Software updates

{{See also|iPhone OS 1|iPhone OS 2|iPhone OS 3|iOS 4|iOS 5|iOS 6|iOS 7|iOS 8|iOS 9|iOS 10|iOS 11|iOS 12|iOS 13}}{{pie chart| thumb = rightApp Store (iOS)>App Store on August 6, 2019.HTTPS://DEVELOPER.APPLE.COM/SUPPORT/APP-STORE/>TITLE=APP STORE - SUPPORT - APPLE DEVELOPERACCESS-DATE=2019-09-06, | label1 = iOS 12| value1 = 90| color1 = #79CDF8| label2 = iOS 11| value2 = 7| color2 = #B3E1FB| label3 = Earlier| value3 = 3| color3 = #FFFFFF}}Apple provides major updates to the iOS operating system annually via iTunes and also, for iOS 5 and later, over-the-air.WEB, Serenity, Caldwell, Up close with iOS 5: Wireless syncing and updating,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, October 15, 2011, June 20, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170808112956weblink">weblink August 8, 2017, mdy-all, The latest version is iOS 12, released on September 17, 2018.WEB, Juli, Clover, Apple Releases iOS 12 With Faster Performance, Memoji, Siri Shortcuts, Screen Time, Revamped Maps App, ARKit 2.0, and More,weblink MacRumors, September 17, 2018, September 18, 2018, mdy-all,weblink September 17, 2018, live, It is available for iPhone 5S and later, iPad Air and later, iPad Pro, iPad Mini 2 and later, and sixth-generation iPod Touch.WEB, Samuel, Axon, iOS 12, thoroughly reviewed,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, September 17, 2018, September 18, 2018, mdy-all,weblink September 17, 2018, live, iOS 13 was announced at WWDC19 and is currently in beta. It will be released to the public in fall 2019.Originally, iPod Touch users had to pay for system software updates. This was due to accounting rules making the device not a "subscription device" like iPhone or Apple TV, and significant enhancements to the device required payments.WEB, About that $20 upgrade...,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, January 15, 2008, June 20, 2017, live,weblink October 31, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Jim, Dalrymple, Accounting rules behind iPod touch update charge,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, February 7, 2008, June 20, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170708074832weblink">weblink July 8, 2017, mdy-all, The requirement to pay to upgrade caused iPod Touch owners to stay away from updates.WEB, Sam, Oliver, Upgrade fee sees few iPod touch users updating to 3.0 software,weblink AppleInsider, June 25, 2009, June 20, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170305192021weblink">weblink March 5, 2017, mdy-all, However, in September 2009, a change in accounting rules won tentative approval, significantly affecting both Apple's earnings and stock price, and allowing iPod Touch updates to be delivered for free.WEB, Chris, Foresman, Accounting rules change could end iPod touch update fee,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, September 14, 2009, June 20, 2017, live,weblink July 8, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Philip, Elmer-DeWitt, Accounting rule change in Apple’s favor,weblink Fortune (magazine), Fortune, Time Inc., September 14, 2009, June 20, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170711122406weblink">weblink July 11, 2017, mdy-all,

Features

Home screen

The home screen, rendered by SpringBoard, displays application icons and a dock at the bottom where users can pin their most frequently used apps. The home screen appears whenever the user unlocks the device or presses the physical "Home" button whilst in another app.WEB, Home button – Apple,weblink help.apple.com, May 24, 2015, Before iOS 4 on the iPhone 3GS (or later), the screen's background could be customized only through jailbreaking, but can now be changed out-of-the-box. The screen has a status bar across the top to display data, such as time, battery level, and signal strength. The rest of the screen is devoted to the current application. When a passcode is set and a user switches on the device, the passcode must be entered at the Lock Screen before access to the Home screen is granted.WEB, About iOS passcodes – Apple Support,weblink support.apple.com, May 24, 2015, live,weblink April 28, 2015, mdy-all, In iPhone OS 3, Spotlight was introduced, allowing users to search media, apps, emails, contacts, messages, reminders, calendar events, and similar content. In iOS 7 and later, Spotlight is accessed by pulling down anywhere on the home screen (except for the top and bottom edges that open Notification Center and Control Center).WEB,weblink Apple's iOS 7 brings quick Spotlight search access to every app page, AppleInsider, June 10, 2013, September 18, 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131007171934weblink">weblink October 7, 2013, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Search on iPad with iOS 7, October 21, 2013, March 1, 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150113004543weblink">weblink January 13, 2015, mdy-all, In iOS 9, there are two ways to access Spotlight. As with iOS 7 and 8, pulling down on any homescreen will show Spotlight. However, it can also be accessed as it was in iOS 3 – 6. This gives a Spotlight endowed with Siri suggestions, which include app suggestions, contact suggestions and news.WEB,weblink Hands-on with the new, proactive Spotlight in iOS 9, September 16, 2015, October 17, 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151019134121weblink">weblink October 19, 2015, mdy-all, In iOS 10, Spotlight is at the top of the now-dedicated "Today" panel.WEB, Dan, Seifert, iOS 10 will make you love your lock screen,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, September 13, 2016, April 1, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170210155903weblink">weblink February 10, 2017, mdy-all, Since iOS 3.2, users are able to set a background image for the Home screen. This feature is only available on third-generation devices—iPhone 3GS, third-generation iPod touch (iOS 4.0 or newer), all iPad models (since iOS 3.2)—or newer.Researchers found that users organize icons on their homescreens based on usage-frequency and relatedness of the applications, as well as for reasons of usability and aesthetics.Matthias Böhmer, Antonio Krüger. A Study on Icon Arrangement by Smartphone Users {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130512183243weblink |date=May 12, 2013 }}. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '13). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2137–2146.

System font

iOS originally used Helvetica as the system font. Apple switched to Helvetica Neue exclusively for the iPhone 4 and its Retina Display, and retained Helvetica as the system font for older iPhone devices on iOS 4.WEB, John, Gruber, 4,weblink John Gruber, Daring Fireball, June 29, 2010, October 15, 2017, live,weblink October 9, 2017, mdy-all, With iOS 7, Apple announced that they would change the system font to Helvetica Neue Light, a decision that sparked criticism for inappropriate usage of a light, thin typeface for low-resolution mobile screens. Apple eventually chose Helvetica Neue instead.WEB, Elizabeth, Stinson, Why Apple abandoned the world's most beloved typeface,weblink Wired (website), Wired, Condé Nast, June 9, 2015, October 15, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150613012051weblink">weblink June 13, 2015, mdy-all, WEB, John, Koetsier, Apple ‘fontgate’ ends with thicker Helvetica Neue in iOS 7 beta 3,weblink VentureBeat, July 9, 2013, October 15, 2017, live,weblink October 15, 2017, mdy-all, The release of iOS 7 also introduced the ability to scale text or apply other forms of text accessibility changes through Settings.WEB, Sarah, Guarino, iOS 7 How-to: Make text more readable/larger on your iPad and iPhone,weblink 9to5Mac, September 21, 2013, October 15, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160731183723weblink">weblink July 31, 2016, mdy-all, WEB, Allyson, Kazmucha, How to increase or decrease font sizes on iPhone and iPad in iOS 7 with Dynamic Type,weblink iMore, November 20, 2013, October 15, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170508115332weblink">weblink May 8, 2017, mdy-all, With iOS 9, Apple changed the font to San Francisco, an Apple-designed font aimed at maximum legibility and font consistency across its product lineup.WEB, Adario, Strange, All hail Apple's new iOS 9 font, San Francisco,weblink Mashable, September 17, 2015, October 15, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171221035219weblink">weblink December 21, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Apple drops Helvetica for San Francisco in iOS 9,weblink AppleInsider, September 16, 2015, October 15, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170306092414weblink">weblink March 6, 2017, mdy-all,

Folders

iOS 4 introduced folders, which can be created by dragging an application on top of another, and from then on, more items can be added to the folder using the same procedure. A title for the folder is automatically selected by the category of applications inside, but the name can also be edited by the user.WEB, Dan, Frakes, Hands on with iOS 4 folders,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, June 21, 2010, October 15, 2017, live,weblink November 1, 2017, mdy-all, When apps inside folders receive notification badges, the individual numbers of notifications are added up and the total number is displayed as a notification badge on the folder itself. Originally, folders on an iPhone could include up to 12 apps, while folders on iPad could include 20.WEB, Lex, Friedman, How to create and organize iOS folders,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, June 20, 2011, October 15, 2017, live,weblink October 15, 2017, mdy-all, With increasing display sizes on newer iPhone hardware, iOS 7 updated the folders with pages similar to the home screen layout, allowing for a significant expansion of folder functionality. Each page of a folder can contain up to nine apps, and there can be 15 pages in total, allowing for a total of 135 apps in a single folder.WEB, Sam, Costello, How Many Apps and Folders Can an iPhone Have?,weblink Lifewire, Dotdash, March 20, 2017, October 15, 2017, live,weblink August 6, 2017, mdy-all, In iOS 9, Apple updated folder sizes for iPad hardware, allowing for 16 apps per page, still at 15 pages maximum, increasing the total to 240 apps.WEB, Chance, Miller, iOS 9 lets you store 105 more apps per folder on the iPad,weblink 9to5Mac, July 8, 2015, October 15, 2017, live,weblink October 15, 2017, mdy-all,

Notification Center

Before iOS 5, notifications were delivered in a modal window and couldn't be viewed after being dismissed. In iOS 5, Apple introduced Notification Center, which allows users to view a history of notifications. The user can tap a notification to open its corresponding app, or clear it.WEB,weblink iPhone 4S – Always know what's up in Notification Center, Apple Inc.,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120214123941weblink">weblink February 14, 2012, dead, mdy-all, Notifications are now delivered in banners that appear briefly at the top of the screen. If a user taps a received notification, the application that sent the notification will be opened. Users can also choose to view notifications in modal alert windows by adjusting the application's notification settings. Introduced with iOS 8, widgets are now accessible through the Notification Center, defined by 3rd parties.When an app sends a notification while closed, a red badge appears on its icon. This badge tells the user, at a glance, how many notifications that app has sent. Opening the app clears the badge.

Accessibility

iOS offers various accessibility features to help users with vision and hearing disabilities. One major feature, VoiceOver, provides a voice reading information on the screen, including contextual buttons, icons, links and other user interface elements, and allows the user to navigate the operating system through gestures. Any apps with default controls and developed with a UIKit framework gets VoiceOver functionality built in.WEB, Mike, Tanasychuk, How to use VoiceOver on iPhone and iPad,weblink iMore, September 15, 2016, March 31, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161220131037weblink">weblink December 20, 2016, mdy-all, One example includes holding up the iPhone to take a photo, with VoiceOver describing the photo scenery.WEB, Shara, Tibken, Seeing eye phone: Giving independence to the blind,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, March 25, 2016, March 31, 2017, live,weblink April 1, 2017, mdy-all, As part of a "Made for iPhone" program, introduced with the release of iOS 7 in 2013, Apple has developed technology to use Bluetooth and a special technology protocol to let compatible third-party equipment connect with iPhones and iPads for streaming audio directly to a user's ears. Additional customization available for Made for iPhone products include battery tracking and adjustable sound settings for different environments.WEB, Shara, Tibken, Apple iPhone tech helps reinvent the hearing aid,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, November 3, 2016, March 31, 2017, live,weblink April 1, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Anthony, Wing Kosner, Made For iPhone Hearing Aids: Hands On With Halo, A Mission-Critical Wearable,weblink Forbes, August 16, 2014, March 31, 2017, live,weblink April 1, 2017, mdy-all, Apple made further efforts for accessibility for the release of iOS 10 in 2016, adding a new pronunciation editor to VoiceOver, adding a Magnifier setting to enlarge objects through the device's camera, software TTY support for deaf people to make phone calls from the iPhone, and giving tutorials and guidelines for third-party developers to incorporate proper accessibility functions into their apps.WEB, Steven, Aquino, Accessibility was all around this year’s WWDC,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, June 26, 2016, March 31, 2017, live,weblink April 1, 2017, mdy-all, In 2012, Liat Kornowski from The Atlantic wrote that "the iPhone has turned out to be one of the most revolutionary developments since the invention of Braille",WEB, Liat, Kornowski, How the Blind Are Reinventing the iPhone,weblink The Atlantic, Atlantic Media, May 2, 2012, March 31, 2017, live,weblink April 1, 2017, mdy-all, and in 2016, Steven Aquino of TechCrunch described Apple as "leading the way in assistive technology", with Sarah Herrlinger, Senior Manager for Global Accessibility Policy and Initiatives at Apple, stating that "We see accessibility as a basic human right. Building into the core of our products supports a vision of an inclusive world where opportunity and access to information are barrier-free, empowering individuals with disabilities to achieve their goals".WEB, Steven, Aquino, When it comes to accessibility, Apple continues to lead in awareness and innovation,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, May 19, 2016, March 31, 2017, live,weblink April 1, 2017, mdy-all,

Multitasking

Multitasking for iOS was first released in June 2010 along with the release of iOS 4.WEB, iOS 4 iPhone Update RELEASED: A Guide To iOS 4,weblink The Huffington Post, April 13, 2013, June 21, 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111229042916weblink">weblink December 29, 2011, mdy-all, WEB, Albanesius, Chloe, Apple iPhone iOS 4 Software Update Expected Monday,weblink PC Magazine, April 14, 2013, June 21, 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140623143241weblink">weblink June 23, 2014, mdy-all, Only certain devices—iPhone 4, iPhone 3GS, and iPod Touch 3rd generation—were able to multitask.WEB, Jacqui, Cheng, Ars reviews iOS 4: what’s new, notable, and what needs work,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, June 21, 2010, April 1, 2017, live,weblink April 2, 2017, mdy-all, The iPad did not get multitasking until iOS 4.2.1 in that November.WEB, Ray, Bill, iOS 4.2 multi-tasking comes to the iPad,weblink The Register, April 14, 2013, November 22, 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130613233244weblink">weblink June 13, 2013, mdy-all, Currently, multitasking is supported on iPhone 3GS+, iPod Touch 3rd generation+, and all iPad models.WEB,weblink iOS: Understanding multitasking, Apple, September 14, 2013, live,weblink September 6, 2013, mdy-all, Implementation of multitasking in iOS has been criticized for its approach, which limits the work that applications in the background can perform to a limited function set and requires application developers to add explicit support for it.WEB, Newman, Jared, Multitasking With iOS 4 is Horrible: Apple Blew It,weblink PC World, April 14, 2013, June 22, 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130629185931weblink">weblink June 29, 2013, mdy-all, Before iOS 4, multitasking was limited to a selection of the applications Apple included on the device. Users could, however "jailbreak" their device in order to unofficially multitask.WEB,weblink iOS 4 walkthrough, June 14, 2010, June 14, 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100615084457weblink">weblink June 15, 2010, mdy-all, Starting with iOS 4, on third-generation and newer iOS devices, multitasking is supported through seven background APIs:WEB,weblink Apple announces multitasking for iPhone OS 4 (iPhone 3GS/iPod touch G3 only), April 8, 2010, June 14, 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100613024710weblink">weblink June 13, 2010, mdy-all,
  1. Background audio – application continues to run in the background as long as it is playing audio or video contentWEB,weblink iOS Application Programming Guide – Background Execution, Developer.apple.com, September 4, 2015, live,weblink July 27, 2015, mdy-all,
  2. Voice over IP – application is suspended when a phone call is not in progress
  3. Background location – application is notified of location changes
  4. Push notifications
  5. Local notifications – application schedules local notifications to be delivered at a predetermined time
  6. Task completion – application asks the system for extra time to complete a given task
  7. Fast app switching – application does not execute any code and may be removed from memory at any time
In iOS 5, three new background APIs were introduced:
  1. Newsstand – application can download content in the background to be ready for the user
  2. External Accessory – application communicates with an external accessory and shares data at regular intervals
  3. Bluetooth Accessory – application communicates with a bluetooth accessory and shares data at regular intervals
In iOS 7, Apple introduced a new multitasking feature, providing all apps with the ability to perform background updates. This feature prefers to update the user's most frequently used apps and prefers to use WiFi networks over a cellular network, without markedly reducing the device's battery life.

Switching applications

In iOS 4.0 to iOS 6.x, double-clicking the home button activates the application switcher. A scrollable dock-like interface appears from the bottom, moving the contents of the screen up. Choosing an icon switches to an application. To the far left are icons which function as music controls, a rotation lock, and on iOS 4.2 and above, a volume controller.With the introduction of iOS 7, double clicking the home button also activates the application switcher. However, unlike previous versions it displays screenshots of open applications on top of the icon and horizontal scrolling allows for browsing through previous apps, and it is possible to close applications by dragging them up, similar to how WebOS handled multiple cards.WEB, Jon Rubinstein: OS X and iOS 7 borrow features from webOS,weblink September 23, 2013, Yoni Heisler, June 12, 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130928040445weblink">weblink September 28, 2013, mdy-all, With the introduction of iOS 9, the application switcher received a significant visual change; whilst still retaining the card metaphor introduced in iOS 7, the application icon is smaller, and appears above the screenshot (which is now larger, due to the removal of "Recent and Favorite Contacts"), and each application "card" overlaps the other, forming a rolodex effect as the user scrolls. Now, instead of the home screen appearing at the leftmost of the application switcher, it appears rightmost.WEB, Prabhu, Gautam, iOS 9 vs. iOS 8: A look at the UI changes in iOS 9,weblink iPhone Hacks, September 20, 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151107041632weblink">weblink November 7, 2015, mdy-all, In iOS 11, the application switcher receives a major redesign. In the iPad, the Control Center and app switcher are combined. The app switcher in the iPad can also be accessed by swiping up from the bottom. In the iPhone, the app switcher cannot be accessed if there are no apps in the RAM.

Ending tasks

In iOS 4.0 to iOS 6.x, briefly holding the icons in the application switcher makes them "jiggle" (similarly to the homescreen) and allows the user to force quit the applications by tapping the red minus circle that appears at the corner of the app's icon.WEB, iOS: Force an app to close,weblink Apple Inc., October 9, 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120930234318weblink">weblink September 30, 2012, mdy-all, Clearing applications from multitasking stayed the same from iOS 4.0 through 6.1.6, the last version of iOS 6.As of iOS 7, the process has become faster and easier. In iOS 7, instead of holding the icons to close them, they are closed by simply swiping them upwards off the screen. Up to three apps can be cleared at a time compared to one in versions up to iOS 6.1.6.WEB, iOS 7 multitasking,weblink Tuaw, March 21, 2014, September 18, 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140221045014weblink">weblink February 21, 2014, mdy-all,

Task completion

Task completion allows apps to continue a certain task after the app has been suspended.WEB, Snell, Jason, Inside iPhone 4.0's multitasking,weblink Macworld, April 14, 2013, April 8, 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130530231748weblink">weblink May 30, 2013, mdy-all, WEB, Kent, German, Apple iPhone 4 AT&T review,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, June 23, 2010, April 1, 2017, live,weblink April 2, 2017, mdy-all, As of iOS 4.0, apps can request up to ten minutes to complete a task in the background.WEB, Hollington, Jesse, Instant Expert: Secrets & Features of iOS 4,weblink iLounge, April 14, 2013, June 21, 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121221165136weblink">weblink December 21, 2012, mdy-all, This doesn't extend to background up- and downloads though (e.g. if you start a download in one application, it won't finish if you switch away from the application).

Siri

Siri ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|s|ɪər|i}}) is an intelligent personal assistant integrated into iOS. The assistant uses voice queries and a natural language user interface to answer questions, make recommendations, and perform actions by delegating requests to a set of Internet services. The software adapts to users' individual language usages, searches, and preferences, with continuing use. Returned results are individualized.Originally released as an app for iOS in February 2010,WEB, Erick, Schonfeld, Siri's IPhone App Puts A Personal Assistant In Your Pocket,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, February 4, 2010, June 21, 2017, live,weblink July 28, 2017, mdy-all, it was acquired by Apple two months later,WEB, Jenna, Wortham, Apple Buys a Start-Up for Its Voice Technology,weblink The New York Times, April 29, 2010, June 21, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170728084120weblink">weblink July 28, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Katie, Marsal, Apple acquires Siri, developer of personal assistant app for iPhone,weblink AppleInsider, April 28, 2010, June 21, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170527081510weblink">weblink May 27, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Leena, Rao, Confirmed: Apple Buys Virtual Personal Assistant Startup Siri,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, April 28, 2010, June 21, 2017, live,weblink June 23, 2017, mdy-all, and then integrated into iPhone 4S at its release in October 2011.WEB, Jordan, Golson, Siri Voice Recognition Arrives On the iPhone 4S,weblink MacRumors, October 4, 2011, June 21, 2017, live,weblink July 28, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Chris, Velazco, Apple Reveals Siri Voice Interface: The "Intelligent Assistant" Only For iPhone 4S,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, October 4, 2011, June 21, 2017, live,weblink July 28, 2017, mdy-all, At that time, the separate app was also removed from the iOS App Store.WEB, Greg, Kumparak, The Original Siri App Gets Pulled From The App Store, Servers To Be Killed,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, October 4, 2011, June 21, 2017, live,weblink August 31, 2012, mdy-all, Siri supports a wide range of user commands, including performing phone actions, checking basic information, scheduling events and reminders, handling device settings, searching the Internet, navigating areas, finding information on entertainment, and is able to engage with iOS-integrated apps.WEB, Sarah Jacobsson, Purewal, Jason, Cipriani, The complete list of Siri commands,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, February 16, 2017, June 21, 2017, live,weblink June 24, 2017, mdy-all, With the release of iOS 10 in 2016, Apple opened up limited third-party access to Siri, including third-party messaging apps, as well as payments, ride-sharing, and Internet calling apps.WEB, Husain, Sumra, Apple Opens Siri to Third-Party Developers With iOS 10,weblink MacRumors, June 13, 2016, June 21, 2017, live,weblink July 28, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Nathan, Olivarez-Giles, Apple iOS 10 Opens Up Siri and Messages, Updates Music, Photos and More,weblink The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, June 13, 2016, June 21, 2017, live,weblink July 28, 2017, mdy-all, {{subscription required}} With the release of iOS 11, Apple updated Siri's voices for more clear, human voices, it now supports follow-up questions and language translation, and additional third-party actions.WEB, Lucas, Matney, Siri gets language translation and a more human voice,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, June 5, 2017, June 21, 2017, live,weblink June 15, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Chaim, Gartenberg, Siri on iOS 11 gets improved speech and can suggest actions based on how you use it,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, June 5, 2017, June 21, 2017, live,weblink June 19, 2017, mdy-all,

Game Center

Game Center is an online multiplayer "social gaming network"WEB,weblink What's New in iOS 4, Apple, June 14, 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100617053052weblink">weblink June 17, 2010, mdy-all, released by Apple.NEWS,weblink Apple's Game Center debuts next week – Game Hunters: In search of video games and interactive awesomeness, USA Today, January 9, 2010, September 1, 2010,weblink" title="archive.is/20120525161111weblink">weblink May 25, 2012, live, mdy-all, It allows users to "invite friends to play a game, start a multiplayer game through matchmaking, track their achievements, and compare their high scores on a leaderboard." iOS 5 and above adds support for profile photos.Game Center was announced during an iOS 4 preview event hosted by Apple on April 8, 2010. A preview was released to registered Apple developers in August. It was released on September 8, 2010 with iOS 4.1 on iPhone 4, iPhone 3GS, and iPod Touch 2nd generation through 4th generation.WEB, Holt, Chris,weblink iOS 4.1's GameCenter to Hit iPhone Next Week – PCWorld Business Center, Pcworld.com, September 1, 2010, Game Center made its public debut on the iPad with iOS 4.2.1.WEB, iOS 4.2 Software Update for iPad,weblink Apple Inc., October 9, 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130306014058weblink">weblink March 6, 2013, mdy-all, There is no support for the iPhone 3G, original iPhone and the first-generation iPod Touch (the latter two devices did not have Game Center because they did not get iOS 4).WEB,weblink Game Center, 23 December 2010, Apple,weblink December 23, 2010, dead, mdy-all, However, Game Center is unofficially available on the iPhone 3G via a hack.WEB,weblink How to Install Game Center on iPhone 3G [Guide], A. Usman, October 31, 2012, Shoutpedia,

Hardware

The main hardware platform for iOS is the ARM architecture. iOS releases before iOS 7 can only be run on iOS devices with 32-bit ARM processors (ARMv6 and ARMv7-A architectures). In 2013, iOS 7 was released with full 64-bit support (which includes native 64-bit kernel, libraries, drivers as well as all built-in applications),WEB, Wollman, Dana,weblink iOS 7 will be 64-bit, just like the iPhone 5s' new A7 chip, Engadget, September 10, 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924141559weblink">weblink September 24, 2015, mdy-all, after Apple announced that they were switching to 64-bit ARMv8-A processors with the introduction of the Apple A7 chip.WEB, Souppouris, Aaron,weblink Why Apple's 64-bit iPhone chip is a bigger deal than you think, The Verge, September 12, 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170428174943weblink">weblink April 28, 2017, mdy-all, 64-bit support was also enforced for all apps in the App Store; All new apps submitted to the App Store with a deadline of February 2015, and all app updates submitted to the App Store with a deadline of June 1, 2015.WEB, Cunningham, Andrew,weblink The state of the 64-bit transition in iOS, and what's left to be done, Ars Technica, July 2, 2015, live,weblink January 31, 2017, mdy-all, iOS 11 drops support for all iOS devices with 32-bit ARM processors as well as 32-bit applications,WEB, Cunningham, Andrew,weblink iOS 11 drops the iPhone 5 and 5C and the fourth-gen iPad, Ars Technica, June 5, 2017, live,weblink June 5, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Mayo, Benjamin,weblink 32-bit apps will not launch on iOS 11, Mac App Store transition to 64-bit from 2018, Apple community#9to5Mac, 9to5Mac, June 6, 2017, live,weblink June 20, 2017, mdy-all, making iOS 64-bit only.WEB, Cunningham, Andrew,weblink What the death of 32-bit iOS could mean for Apple’s hardware and software, Ars Technica, April 13, 2017, live,weblink April 29, 2017, mdy-all,

Development

The iOS SDK (Software Development Kit) allows for the development of mobile apps on iOS.While originally developing iPhone prior to its unveiling in 2007, Apple's then-CEO Steve Jobs did not intend to let third-party developers build native apps for iOS, instead directing them to make web applications for the Safari web browser.WEB, Jobs’ original vision for the iPhone: No third-party native apps,weblink 9to5Mac, October 21, 2011, June 21, 2017, live,weblink June 11, 2017, mdy-all, However, backlash from developers prompted the company to reconsider, with Jobs announcing in October 2007 that Apple would have a software development kit available for developers by February 2008.WEB, Geoff, Duncan, Apple confirms iPhone SDK coming next year,weblink Digital Trends, October 17, 2007, June 21, 2017, live,weblink August 28, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Steve Jobs confirms native iPhone SDK by February,weblink AppleInsider, October 17, 2007, June 21, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170828020104weblink">weblink August 28, 2017, mdy-all, The SDK was released on March 6, 2008.WEB, Jim, Dalrymple, Apple unveils iPhone SDK,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, March 6, 2008, June 21, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170828015010weblink">weblink August 28, 2017, mdy-all, WEB, Ryan, Block, Ryan Block, Live from Apple's iPhone SDK press conference,weblink Engadget, AOL, March 6, 2008, June 21, 2017, live,weblink June 14, 2017, mdy-all, The SDK is a free download for users of Mac personal computers.WEB, Jennifer, Guevin, FAQ: What does the iPhone SDK mean?,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, March 6, 2008, June 21, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160913135508weblink">weblink September 13, 2016, mdy-all, It is not available for Microsoft Windows PCs. The SDK contains sets giving developers access to various functions and services of iOS devices, such as hardware and software attributes.WEB, Arnold, Kim, Apple Releases iPhone SDK, Demos Spore, Instant Messaging,weblink MacRumors, March 6, 2008, June 21, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160311195044weblink">weblink March 11, 2016, mdy-all, It also contains an iPhone simulator to mimic the look and feel of the device on the computer while developing. New versions of the SDK accompany new versions of iOS.WEB, Benjamin, Mayo, Apple now allowing developers to submit iOS 9, OS X El Capitan and native Watch apps to the App Store,weblink 9to5Mac, September 11, 2015, June 21, 2017, live,weblink August 22, 2016, mdy-all, WEB, Steven, Sande, New iOS SDK features for developers,weblink Engadget, AOL, June 10, 2013, June 21, 2017, live,weblink January 15, 2018, mdy-all, In order to test applications, get technical support, and distribute apps through App Store, developers are required to subscribe to the Apple Developer Program.Combined with Xcode, the iOS SDK helps developers write iOS apps using officially supported programming languages, including Swift and Objective-C.WEB, Adam, Sinicki, Developing for Android vs developing for iOS – in 5 rounds,weblink Android Authority, June 9, 2016, June 21, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170626191841weblink">weblink June 26, 2017, mdy-all, Other companies have also created tools that allow for the development of native iOS apps using their respective programming languages.WEB, Ryan, Paul, MonoTouch drops .NET into Apple’s walled app garden,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, September 15, 2009, June 21, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151122123311weblink">weblink November 22, 2015, mdy-all, WEB, Jackie, Dove, Adobe unleashes Creative Suite 5,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, April 11, 2010, June 21, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140924005201weblink">weblink September 24, 2014, mdy-all,

Market share

iOS is the second most popular mobile operating system in the world, after Android. Sales of iPads in recent years are also behind Android, while, by web use (a proxy for all use), iPads (using iOS) are still most popular.WEB,weblink StatCounter Global Stats – Browser, OS, Search Engine including Mobile Usage Share, statcounter.com, February 19, 2017, live,weblink" title="archive.is/20120526weblink">weblink May 26, 2012, mdy-all, By the middle of 2012, there were 410 million devices activated.WEB,weblink iOS leapfrogs Android with 410 million devices sold and 650,000 apps, InsideMobileApps, July 24, 2012, July 24, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120727000853weblink">weblink July 27, 2012, mdy-all, At WWDC 2014, Tim Cook said 800 million devices had been sold by June 2014.WEB, Nathan, Ingraham, Apple has sold more than 800 million iOS devices, 130 million new iOS users in the last year,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, June 2, 2014, April 1, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170210135711weblink">weblink February 10, 2017, mdy-all, During Apple's quarterly earnings call in January 2015, the company announced that they had sold over one billion iOS devices since 2007.WEB, Joe, Rossignol, Tim Cook: Apple Has Sold More Than 1 Billion iOS Devices,weblink MacRumors, January 27, 2015, June 21, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160623144503weblink">weblink June 23, 2016, mdy-all, WEB, Jordan, Kahn, Apple announces 1 billion iOS devices sold,weblink 9to5Mac, January 27, 2015, June 21, 2017, live,weblink July 4, 2017, mdy-all, By late 2011, iOS accounted for 60% of the market share for smartphones and tablets.BOOK, The Mobile Wave: How Mobile Intelligence Will Change Everything, Saylor, Michael, 2012, Vanguard Press, 1-59315-720-7, 33, By the end of 2014, iOS accounted for 14.8% of the smartphone marketPRESS RELEASE,weblink Android and iOS Squeeze the Competition, Swelling to 96.3% of the Smartphone Operating System Market for Both 4Q14 and CY14, According to IDC, IDC, February 24, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150225074430weblink">weblink February 25, 2015, dead, mdy-all, and 27.6% of the tablet and two-in-one market.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Worldwide Tablet Growth Hits the Brakes, Slowing to the Low Single Digits in the Years Ahead, According to IDC, IDC, March 12, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150313224458weblink">weblink March 13, 2015, dead, mdy-all, In February 2015, StatCounter reported iOS was used on 23.18% of smartphones and 66.25% of tablets worldwide, measured by internet usage instead of sales.WEB,weblink StatCounter Global Stats: Top 7 Mobile Operating Systems on Feb 2015, March 6, 2015, live,weblink" title="archive.is/20120526weblink">weblink May 26, 2012, mdy-all, In the third quarter of 2015, research from Strategy Analytics showed that iOS adoption of the worldwide smartphone market was at a record-low 12.1%, attributed to lackluster performance in China and Africa. Android accounted for 87.5% of the market, with Windows Phone and BlackBerry accounting for the rest.WEB, Linda, Sui, Strategy Analytics: Android Captures Record 88 Percent Share of Global Smartphone Shipments in Q3 2016,weblink Strategy Analytics, November 2, 2016, November 27, 2016, live,weblink November 27, 2016, mdy-all, WEB, Joe, Rossignol, iOS Adoption Remains at Lowest Levels Since 2014 as Android Captures Record 87.5% Market Share,weblink MacRumors, November 2, 2016, November 27, 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161127215126weblink">weblink November 27, 2016, mdy-all,

Jailbreaking

Since its initial release, iOS has been subject to a variety of different hacks centered around adding functionality not allowed by Apple.WEB, Thomas, Ricker, iPhone Hackers: "we have owned the filesystem",weblink Engadget, AOL, July 10, 2007, April 1, 2017, live,weblink April 1, 2017, mdy-all, Prior to the 2008 debut of Apple's native iOS App Store, the primary motive for jailbreaking was to bypass Apple's purchase mechanism for installing the App Store's native applications.NEWS, Healey, Jon, Hacking the iPhone, Los Angeles Times, August 6, 2007,weblink August 6, 2007, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071106035917weblink">weblink November 6, 2007, mdy-all, Apple claimed that it will not release iOS software updates designed specifically to break these tools (other than applications that perform SIM unlocking); however, with each subsequent iOS update, previously un-patched jailbreak exploits are usually patched.WEB,weblink Apple's Joswiak: We Don't Hate iPhone Coders, September 11, 2007, February 19, 2017, live,weblink February 20, 2017, mdy-all, Since the arrival of Apple's native iOS App Store, and—along with it—third-party applications, the general motives for jailbreaking have changed.NEWS,weblink Apple's iPhone isn't perfect, but it's worthy of the hype, Baig, Edward C., USA Today, June 26, 2007, June 28, 2007, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070629012206weblink">weblink June 29, 2007, mdy-all, People jailbreak for many different reasons, including gaining filesystem access, installing custom device themes, and modifying SpringBoard. An additional motivation is that it may enable the installation of pirated apps. On some devices, jailbreaking also makes it possible to install alternative operating systems, such as Android and the Linux kernel. Primarily, users jailbreak their devices because of the limitations of iOS. Depending on the method used, the effects of jailbreaking may be permanent or temporary.WEB
, IPad
, MAX
, Jailbreaking Explained
, IPad Forums
, May 6, 2010
,weblink
, November 4, 2012
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121102053916weblink">weblink
, November 2, 2012
, mdy-all
, In 2010, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) successfully convinced the U.S. Copyright Office to allow an exemption to the general prohibition on circumvention of copyright protection systems under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). The exemption allows jailbreaking of iPhones for the sole purpose of allowing legally obtained applications to be added to the iPhone.WEB,weblink U.S. Declares iPhone Jailbreaking Legal, Over Apple's Objections, Kravets, David, Wired (magazine), Wired, July 26, 2010, December 13, 2011, live,weblink July 31, 2012, mdy-all, The exemption does not affect the contractual relations between Apple and an iPhone owner, for example, jailbreaking voiding the iPhone warranty; however, it is solely based on Apple's discretion on whether they will fix jailbroken devices in the event that they need to be repaired. At the same time, the Copyright Office exempted unlocking an iPhone from DMCA's anticircumvention prohibitions.WEB,weblink U.S. Copyright Office Final 2010 Anti-Circumvention Rulemaking, U.S. Copyright Office, July 27, 2010, August 21, 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120501085441weblink">weblink May 1, 2012, mdy-all, Unlocking an iPhone allows the iPhone to be used with any wireless carrier using the same GSM or CDMA technology for which the particular phone model was designed to operate.WEB
, Mobile
, Know Your
, Locked / Unlocked – a definition of the terms Locked and Unlocked from the Know Your Mobile mobile phone glossary
, Know Your Mobile
, May 19, 2010
,weblink
, November 4, 2012
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120831061738weblink">weblink
, August 31, 2012
, mdy-all
,

Unlocking

Initially most wireless carriers in the US did not allow iPhone owners to unlock it for use with other carriers. However AT&T allowed iPhone owners who have satisfied contract requirements to unlock their iPhone.WEB,weblink AT&T – What are the eligibility requirements for unlocking iPhone?, AT&T, August 21, 2012, live,weblink August 3, 2012, mdy-all, Instructions to unlock the device are available from Apple,WEB,weblink iPhone: About unlocking, Apple Inc. Website, May 22, 2012, August 21, 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121017021001weblink">weblink October 17, 2012, mdy-all, but it is ultimately the sole discretion of the carrier to authorize the device to be unlocked.WEB,weblink iPhone: Wireless Carrier Support and Features, Apple Inc. Website, April 12, 2013, May 13, 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130424042251weblink">weblink April 24, 2013, mdy-all, This allows the use of a carrier-sourced iPhone on other networks. Modern versions of iOS and the iPhone fully support LTE across multiple carriers despite where the phone was originally purchased from.NEWS,weblink New iPhones use LTE on any American carrier, despite the way they're listed, MacWorld, October 9, 2015, October 19, 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170713084749weblink">weblink July 13, 2017, mdy-all, There are programs to remove SIM lock restrictions, but are not supported by Apple and most often not a permanent unlock – a soft-unlock.WEB,weblink Unauthorized modification of iOS can cause security vulnerabilities, instability, shortened battery life, and other issues, Apple Inc. Website, February 9, 2013, May 13, 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130510123825weblink">weblink May 10, 2013, mdy-all,

Digital rights management

The closed and proprietary nature of iOS has garnered criticism, particularly by digital rights advocates such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation, computer engineer and activist Brewster Kahle, Internet-law specialist Jonathan Zittrain, and the Free Software Foundation who protested the iPad's introductory event and have targeted the iPad with their "Defective by Design" campaign.WEB,weblink iPad DRM endangers our rights, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120412122641weblink">weblink April 12, 2012, mdy-all, WEB, Nate, Anderson, Protestors: iPad is nothing more than a golden calf of DRM,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, January 27, 2010, April 1, 2017, live,weblink April 2, 2017, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Mobile Devices and the Next Computing Revolution, February 3, 2010, June 9, 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101201053215weblink">weblink December 1, 2010, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink Apple iPad will choke innovation, say open internet advocates, The Guardian, February 1, 2010, Bobbie Johnson, February 7, 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140316141036weblink">weblink March 16, 2014, mdy-all, Competitor Microsoft, via a PR spokesman, criticized Apple's control over its platform.WEB,weblink Microsoft PR spokesman condemns iPad for being "locked down", live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120305021357weblink">weblink March 5, 2012, mdy-all, At issue are restrictions imposed by the design of iOS, namely digital rights management (DRM) intended to lock purchased media to Apple's platform, the development model (requiring a yearly subscription to distribute apps developed for the iOS), the centralized approval process for apps, as well as Apple's general control and lockdown of the platform itself. Particularly at issue is the ability for Apple to remotely disable or delete apps at will.Some in the tech community have expressed concern that the locked-down iOS represents a growing trend in Apple's approach to computing, particularly Apple's shift away from machines that hobbyists can "tinker with" and note the potential for such restrictions to stifle software innovation.WEB,weblink Apple's Trend Away From Tinkering, Slashdot, January 31, 2010, June 9, 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100208164828weblink">weblink February 8, 2010, mdy-all, VIDEO
,weblink
, Campus Party Brasil 2011 – Geek Pride e Wozniak
, Steve Wozniak (Interviewee)
, January 22, 2011
, Fragoso, Victor
, March 7, 2011
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110512222742weblink">weblink
, May 12, 2011
, mdy-all
, Former Facebook developer Joe Hewitt protested against Apple's control over its hardware as a "horrible precedent" but praised iOS's sandboxing of apps.WEB,weblink Pundits On The iPad's Closed System: It's Doom For PCs, No It's Great, Leander Kahney, January 30, 2010, June 9, 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100515124959weblink">weblink May 15, 2010, mdy-all,

Kernel

The iOS kernel is the XNU kernel of Darwin. The original iPhone OS (1.0) up to iPhone OS 3.1.3 used Darwin 9.0.0d1. iOS 4 was based on Darwin 10. iOS 5 was based on Darwin 11. iOS 6 was based on Darwin 13. iOS 7 and iOS 8 are based on Darwin 14. iOS 9 is based on Darwin 15. iOS 10 is based on Darwin 16. iOS 11 is based on Darwin 17. iOS 12 is based on Darwin 18.Available in iOS 5 to iOS 7 via General > About > Diagnostics & Usage > Diagnostics & Usage Data >(date and time).panic.plist, after a kernel crash Available in iOS 8 to iOS 10 via Privacy > Diagnostics & Usage > Diagnostics & Usage Data > JetsamEvent-(date and time).ips, when low in memory Available in iOS 11 and 12 via Privacy > Analytics > Analytics Data > JetsamEvent-(date and time).ips, when low in memory

Security

iOS utilizes many security features in both hardware and software. Below are summaries of the most prominent features.

Secure Boot

Before fully booting into iOS, there is low-level code that runs from the Boot ROM. Its task is to verify that the Low-Level Bootloader is signed by the Apple Root CA public key before running it. This process is to ensure that no malicious or otherwise unauthorized software can be run on an iOS device. After the Low-Level Bootloader finishes its tasks, it runs the higher level bootloader, known as iBoot. If all goes well, iBoot will then proceed to load the iOS kernel as well as the rest of the operating system.WEB,weblink iOS Security Guide, Apple Inc., May 2016, Apple.com, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160227071343weblink">weblink February 27, 2016, mdy-all,

Secure Enclave

The Secure Enclave is a coprocessor found in iOS devices that contain Touch ID or Face ID. It has its own secure boot process to ensure that it is completely secure. A hardware random number generator is also included as a part of this coprocessor. Each device's Secure Enclave has a unique ID that is given to it when it is made and cannot be changed. This identifier is used to create a temporary key that encrypts the memory in this portion of the system. The Secure Enclave also contains an anti-replay counter to prevent brute force attacks.

Passcode

iOS devices can have a passcode that is used to unlock the device, make changes to system settings, and encrypt the device's contents. Until recently, these were typically four numerical digits long. However, since unlocking the devices with a fingerprint by using Touch ID has become more widespread, six-digit passcodes are now the default on iOS with the option to switch back to four or use an alphanumeric passcode.

Touch ID

Touch ID is a fingerprint scanner that is embedded in the home button and can be used to unlock the device, make purchases, and log into applications among other functions. When used, Touch ID only temporarily stores the fingerprint data in encrypted memory in the Secure Enclave, as described above. There is no way for the device's main processor or any other part of the system to access the raw fingerprint data that is obtained from the Touch ID sensor.

Address Space Layout Randomization

Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR) is a low-level technique of preventing memory corruption attacks such as buffer overflows. It involves placing data in randomly selected locations in memory in order to make it harder to predict ways to corrupt the system and create exploits. ASLR makes app bugs more likely to crash the app than to silently overwrite memory, regardless of whether the behavior is accidental or malicious.WEB,weblink ASLR – The iPhone Wiki, Theiphonewiki.com, December 6, 2016, live,weblink December 23, 2016, mdy-all,

Non-Executable Memory

iOS utilizes the ARM architecture's Execute Never (XN) feature. This allows some portions of the memory to be marked as non-executable, working alongside ASLR to prevent buffer overflow attacks including return-to-libc attacks.

Encryption

As mentioned above, one use of encryption in iOS is in the memory of the Secure Enclave. When a passcode is utilized on an iOS device, the contents of the device are encrypted. This is done by using a hardware AES 256 implementation that is very efficient because it is placed directly between the flash storage and RAM.iOS, in combination with its specific hardware, uses crypto-shredding when erasing all content and settings by (wiktionary:en:obliterate|obliterating) all the keys in '(wiktionary:en:efface|effaceable) storage'. This renders all user data on the device cryptographically inaccessible.WEB,weblink Crypto-shredding using effaceable storage in iOS on stanford.edu, September 21, 2018,weblink September 11, 2018, live, mdy-all,

Keychain

The iOS keychain is a database of login information that can be shared across apps written by the same person or organization. This service is often used for storing passwords for web applications.WEB,weblink iOS Keychain Services Tasks, developer.apple.com, December 6, 2016, live,weblink December 20, 2016, mdy-all,

App Security

Third-party applications such as those distributed through the App Store must be code signed with an Apple-issued certificate. In principle, this continues the chain of trust all the way from the Secure Boot process as mentioned above to the actions of the applications installed on the device by users. Applications are also sandboxed, meaning that they can only modify the data within their individual home directory unless explicitly given permission to do otherwise. For example, they cannot access data that is owned by other user-installed applications on the device. There is a very extensive set of privacy controls contained within iOS with options to control apps' ability to access a wide variety of permissions such as the camera, contacts, background app refresh, cellular data, and access to other data and services. Most of the code in iOS, including third-party applications, runs as the "mobile" user which does not have root privileges. This ensures that system files and other iOS system resources remain hidden and inaccessible to user-installed applications.

App Store bypasses

Companies can apply to Apple for enterprise developer certificates. These can be used to sign apps such that iOS will install them directly (sometimes called "sideloading"), without the app needing to be distributed via the App Store. The terms under which they are granted make clear that they are only to be used for companies who wish to distribute apps directly to their employees.Circa January–February 2019, it emerged that a number of software developers were misusing enterprise developer certificates to distribute software directly to non-employees, thereby bypassing the App Store. Facebook was found to be abusing an Apple enterprise developer certificate to distribute an application to underage users that would give Facebook access to all private data on their devices.WEB,weblink Facebook pays teens to install VPN that spies on them, Social.techcrunch.com, February 20, 2019, WEB,weblink Apple has revoked Facebook's enterprise developer certificates after sideload violations [u], Malcolm Owen, Wednesday, January 30, 2019, 08:12 am, PT, AppleInsider, February 20, 2019, WEB,weblink Apple blocks Facebook from running its internal iOS apps, Tom, Warren, January 30, 2019, The Verge, February 20, 2019, Google was abusing an Apple enterprise developer certificate to distribute an app to adults to collect data from their devices, including unencrypted data belonging to third parties.WEB,weblink Google will stop peddling a data collector through Apple’s back door, Social.techcrunch.com, February 20, 2019, WEB,weblink Everything you need to know about Facebook, Google’s app scandal, Social.techcrunch.com, February 20, 2019, TutuApp, Panda Helper, AppValley, and TweakBox were abusing enterprise developer certificates to distribute apps that offered pirated software.WEB,weblink Loophole allows pirated apps to be installed on Apple iPhones, NBC News, February 20, 2019,

Network Security

iOS supports TLS with both low- and high-level APIs for developers. By default, the App Transport Security framework requires that servers use at least TLS 1.2. However, developers are free to override this framework and utilize their own methods of communicating over networks. When Wi-Fi is enabled, iOS uses a randomized MAC address so that devices cannot be tracked by anyone sniffing wireless traffic.

Two-Factor Authentication

Two-factor authentication is an option in iOS to ensure that even if an unauthorized person knows an Apple ID and password combination, they cannot gain access to the account. It works by requiring not only the Apple ID and password, but also a verification code that is sent to a device that is already known to be trusted. If an unauthorized user attempts to sign in using another user's Apple ID, the owner of the Apple ID receives a notification that allows them to deny access to the unrecognized device.NEWS,weblink Two-factor authentication for Apple ID, Apple Support, en-US, December 6, 2016, live,weblink December 20, 2016, mdy-all,

Devices

{{Timeline of iOS devices}}

See also

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Aaron, Hillegass, Jon, Conway, March 22, 2012, iOS Programming: The Big Nerd Ranch Guide
Pearson Education>Pearson, 3rd, 590, 978-0-321-82152-2,
  • BOOK, Kirby, Turner, December 19, 2011, Learning iPad Programming: A Hands-on Guide to Building iPad Apps with iOS 5
Pearson Education>Pearson, 1st, 816, 978-0-321-75040-2,
  • BOOK, Dave, Mark, Jeff, LaMarche, July 21, 2009, Beginning iPhone 3 Development: Exploring the iPhone SDK, Apress, 1st, 584, 1-4302-2459-2,weblink
,
  • BOOK, Dave, Mark, Jeff, LaMarche, December 29, 2009, More iPhone 3 Development: Tackling iPhone SDK 3, Apress, 1st, 552, 1-4302-2505-X,weblink
,

External links

{{Commons category|iOS (Apple Inc.)}} {{iOS}}{{iPod}}{{Apple Inc. operating systems}}{{Darwin derivations}}{{Unix-like}}{{Operating system}}{{Mobile operating systems}}{{Apple Inc.}}{{Authority control}}

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