SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

Americas

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Americas
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{short description|Landmass comprising the continents of North America and South America}}{{other uses|America (disambiguation)}}{{pp-pc1|small=yes}}{{Use American English|date=December 2015}}{{Use mdy dates|date=February 2017}}







factoids
|GDP_per_capita=$28,428TITLE=CONTINENTAL COMPARISON OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI)VOLUME=4, 2017, American (word)>American, New Worlder{{OED#English>usage)|countries = 35|list_countries =|dependencies =Spanish language in the Americas>Spanish, North American English, Brazilian Portuguese>Portuguese, Canadian French, Haitian Creole, Quechua languages>Quechua, Guaraní language, Aymara language>Aymara, Nahuatl, Surinamese Dutch and #Languages>many othersUTC±0>UTCList of metropolitan areas in the Americas>Largest metropolitan areasLargest cities{{collapsible list
| list_style = text-align:left;
|1.São Paulo
|2.Lima
|3.Mexico City
|4.New York City
|5.Bogotá
|6.Rio de Janeiro
|7.Santiago
|8.Los Angeles
|9.Caracas
|10.Buenos Aires
}}|m49 = 019 – Americas001 – World
}}File:N&SAmerica-pol.jpg|right|thumb|upright=1.05|1990s CIA political map of the Americas in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projectionLambert azimuthal equal-area projectionThe Americas (also collectively called America; , , Spanish and Portuguese: América) comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America.Webster's New World College Dictionary, 2010 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio.BOOK, Merriam Webster dictionary, 2013, Merriam-Webster, Incorporated,weblink March 23, 2016, "continent n. 5. a." (1989) Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press ; "continent1 n." (2006) The Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 11th edition revised. (Ed.) Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press; "continent1 n." (2005) The New Oxford American Dictionary, 2nd edition. (Ed.) Erin McKean. Oxford University Press; "continent [2, n] 4 a" (1996) Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. ProQuest Information and Learning ; "continent" (2007) Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 14, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere and comprise the New World.Along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earth's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast. The flatter eastern side of the Americas is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence River / Great Lakes basin, Mississippi, and La Plata. Since the Americas extend {{convert|14000|km|mi|-2|abbr=on}} from north to south, the climate and ecology vary widely, from the arctic tundra of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska, to the tropical rain forests in Central America and South America.Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 42,000 and 17,000 years ago. A second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed later from Asia. The subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is generally regarded as the settlement by the indigenous peoples of the Americas.The first known European settlement in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Erikson.NEWS,weblink Leif Erikson (11th century), BBC, November 20, 2011, However, the colonization never became permanent and was later abandoned. The Spanish voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted in permanent contact with European (and subsequently, other Old World) powers, which led to the Columbian exchange and inaugurated a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization whose effects and consequences persist to the present.Diseases introduced from Europe and West Africa devastated the indigenous peoples, and the European powers colonized the Americas.BOOK, Taylor, Alan, American Colonies, 2001, Penguin Books, New York, 9780142002100, Mass emigration from Europe, including large numbers of indentured servants, and importation of African slaves largely replaced the indigenous peoples.Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution in the 1770s and largely ended with the Spanish–American War in the late 1890s. Currently, almost all of the population of the Americas resides in independent countries; however, the legacy of the colonization and settlement by Europeans is that the Americas share many common cultural traits, most notably Christianity and the use of Indo-European languages: primarily Spanish, English, Portuguese, French, and to a lesser extent Dutch.The Americas are home to over a billion inhabitants, two-thirds of which reside in the United States, Brazil, or Mexico. It is home to eight megacities (metropolitan areas with ten million inhabitants or more): New York City (23.9 million), Mexico City (21.2 million), São Paulo (21.2 million), Los Angeles (18.8 million), Buenos Aires (15.6 million),WEB,weblink Censo 2010. Resultados provisionales: cuadros y grá, 25 February 2011, Spanish, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101220143832weblink">weblink 20 December 2010, Rio de Janeiro (13.0 million), Bogotá (10.4 million), and Lima (10.1 million).

Etymology and naming

File:Amerigo Vespucci (with turban).jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|America is named after Italian explorer Amerigo VespucciAmerigo VespucciThe name America was first recorded in 1507. Christie's auction house says a two-dimensional globe created by Martin Waldseemüller was the earliest recorded use of the term.NEWS,weblink Oldest map to use word 'America' up for sale, Lawless, Jill, News and Record, Associated Press, November 7, 2017, November 30, 2017, {{dead link|date=January 2018}} The name was also used (together with the related term Amerigen) in the Cosmographiae Introductio, apparently written by Matthias Ringmann, in reference to South America.WEB,weblink The Map That Named America (September 2003) - Library of Congress Information Bulletin, www.loc.gov, It was applied to both North and South America by Gerardus Mercator in 1538. America derives from Americus, the Latin version of Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first name. The feminine form America accorded with the feminine names of Asia, Africa, and Europa.Toby Lester, "Putting America on the Map", Smithsonian, 40:9 (December 2009)In modern English, North and South America are generally considered separate continents, and taken together are called AmericaSee for example: america – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved on January 27, 2008; "dictionary.reference.com america". Dictionary.com. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Accessed: January 27, 2008.Marjorie Fee and Janice MacAlpine, Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage (2008) page 36 says "In Canada, American is used almost exclusively in reference to the United States and its citizens." Others, including The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary, The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, The Australian Oxford Dictionary and The Concise Oxford English Dictionary all specify both the Americas and the United States in their definition of "American"."America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language ({{ISBN|0-19-214183-X}}). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: "[16c: from the feminine of Americus, the Latinized first name of the explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1454–1512). The name America first appeared on a map in 1507 by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller, referring to the area now called Brazil]. Since the 16c, a name of the western hemisphere, often in the plural Americas and more or less synonymous with the New World. Since the 18c, a name of the United States of America. The second sense is now primary in English: ... However, the term is open to uncertainties: ..." or the Americas in the plural. When conceived as a unitary continent, the form is generally the continent of America in the singular. However, without a clarifying context, singular America in English commonly refers to the United States of America.Historically, in the English-speaking world, the term America used to refer to a single continent until the 1950s (as in Van Loon's Geography of 1937): According to historians Kären Wigen and Martin W. Lewis,WEB,weblink The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography (Chapter 1), University of California Press, August 14, 2018, This shift did not seem to happen in Romance-speaking countries (including France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Romania, and the Romance-speaking countries of Latin America and Africa), where America is still considered a continent encompassing the North America and South America subcontinents,WEB,weblink The Continents of the World, nationsonline.org, Africa, the Americas, Antarctica, Asia, Australia together with Oceania, and Europe are considered to be Continents., September 2, 2016, WEB,weblink Map And Details Of All 7 Continents, worldatlas.com, In some parts of the world students are taught that there are only six continents, as they combine North America and South America into one continent called the Americas., September 2, 2016, as well as Central America.WEB,weblink CENTRAL AMERICA, central-america.org, Central America is not a continent but a subcontinent since it lies within the continent America., September 18, 2016, WEB, Six or Seven Continents on Earth,weblink December 18, 2016, English, "In Europe and other parts of the world, many students are taught of six continents, where North and South America are combined to form a single continent of America. Thus, these six continents are Africa, America, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, and Europe."WEB, Continents,weblink December 18, 2016, English, "six-continent model (used mostly in France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Romania, Greece, and Latin America) groups together North America+South America into the single continent America."WEB, AMÉRIQUE,weblink December 18, 2016, French, WEB, America,weblink December 18, 2016, Italian,

History

Settlement

{{details|topic=theories of Paleo-Indian migration|Settlement of the Americas}}File:Spreading homo sapiens la.svg|thumb|upright=1.35|Map of early human migrations based on the Out of Africa theory.BOOK, Göran, Burenhult, Die ersten Menschen, Weltbild Verlag, 2000, 3-8289-0741-5, ]]The first inhabitants migrated into the Americas from Asia. Habitation sites are known in Alaska and the Yukon from at least 20,000 years ago, with suggested ages of up to 40,000 years.WEB, Introduction, Government of Canada, Parks Canada,weblink 2009, January 9, 2010, Canada's oldest known home is a cave in Yukon occupied not 12,000 years ago like the U.S. sites, but at least 20,000 years ago, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110424103401weblink">weblink April 24, 2011, WEB, Pleistocene Archaeology of the Old Crow Flats, Vuntut National Park of Canada,weblink 2008, January 10, 2010, However, despite the lack of this conclusive and widespread evidence, there are suggestions of human occupation in the northern Yukon about 24,000 years ago, and hints of the presence of humans in the Old Crow Basin as far back as about 40,000 years ago., yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081022085345weblink">weblink October 22, 2008, WEB,weblink Journey of mankind, Brad Shaw Foundation, November 17, 2009, Beyond that, the specifics of the Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion.WEB,weblink Atlas of the Human Journey-The Genographic Project, 1996–2008, National Geographic Society., October 6, 2009, yes,weblink May 1, 2011, Widespread habitation of the Americas occurred during the late glacial maximum, from 16,000 to 13,000 years ago.JOURNAL, Salzano, FM, 1997, A single and early migration for the peopling of the Americas supported by mitochondrial DNA sequence data, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, National Academy of Sciences, 94, 5, 1866–71, 10.1073/pnas.94.5.1866, 20009, 9050871, Bonatto, SL, 1997PNAS...94.1866B, File:Palazzo_Ferreria_statue_4_America.jpeg|thumb|left|Statue representing the Americas at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, MaltaMaltaThe traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into the Beringia land bridge between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska around 40,000–17,000 years ago,BOOK,weblink The Journey of Man – A Genetic Odyssey, Read, Mark, Random House, 2002, 0-8129-7146-9, 138–140, Digitised online by Google books, Spencer, Wells, November 21, 2009, when sea levels were significantly lowered during the Quaternary glaciation.WEB, Drs. William, Fitzhugh, Ives, Goddard, Steve, Ousley, Doug, Owsley, Dennis, Stanford,weblink Paleoamerican, Smithsonian Institution Anthropology Outreach Office, January 15, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090105215737weblink">weblink January 5, 2009, yes,
These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets.WEB,weblink The peopling of the Americas: Genetic ancestry influences health, Scientific American, November 17, 2009, Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America.JOURNAL, 1979, Alternate Migration Corridors for Early Man in North America, 44, 1, 55–69, 10.2307/279189, 279189, American Antiquity, Vol. 44, No. 1 (Jan., 1979), p2, Fladmark, K. R., Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea level rise of hundreds of meters following the last ice age.WEB,weblink 68 Responses to "Sea will rise 'to levels of last Ice Age'", Center for Climate Systems Research, Columbia University, November 17, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091027133849weblink">weblink October 27, 2009, no, Both routes may have been taken, although the genetic evidences suggests a single founding population.JOURNAL,weblink Earliest Americans took two paths, Nature, Ledford, Heidi, January 8, 2009, 10.1038/news.2009.7, The micro-satellite diversity and distributions specific to South American Indigenous people indicates that certain populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region.WEB, Summary of knowledge on the subclades of Haplogroup Q,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510204204weblink">weblink yes, May 10, 2011, Genebase Systems, 2009, November 22, 2009,
A second migration occurred after the initial peopling of the Americas;BOOK, Meltzer, David J., First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America,weblink May 27, 2009, University of California Press, 978-0-520-25052-9, 146, Na Dene speakers found predominantly in North American groups at varying genetic rates with the highest frequency found among the Athabaskans at 42% derive from this second wave.JOURNAL, Reich, David, August 16, 2012, Reconstructing Native American population history,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20130104022456weblink">weblink yes, January 4, 2013, Nature (journal), Nature, 488, 7411, 370–374, etal, 10.1038/nature11258, 3615710, 2012Natur.488..370R, 22801491, Linguists and biologists have reached a similar conclusion based on analysis of Amerindian language groups and ABO blood group system distributions.BOOK, An introduction to the languages of the world, Anatole, Lyovi,weblink 1997, Oxford University Press, 309, 0-19-508115-3, March 25, 2010, JOURNAL, Mithun, Marianne, 1990, Studies of North American Indian Languages,weblink Annual Review of Anthropology, 19, 1, 309–330, 10.1146/annurev.an.19.100190.001521, JOURNAL, Vajda, Edward, 2010, A Siberian link with Na-Dene languages,weblink Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska, 5, {{Dead link|date=November 2015}} Then the people of the Arctic small tool tradition a broad cultural entity that developed along the Alaska Peninsula, around Bristol Bay, and on the eastern shores of the Bering Strait around 2,500 BCE (4,500 years ago) moved into North America.BOOK, Fagan, Brian M., Ancient North America: The Archaeology of a Continent., 4, 2005, Thames & Hudson Inc., New York, 390, p396, 0-500-28148-3, The Arctic small tool tradition, a Paleo-Eskimo culture branched off into two cultural variants, including the Pre-Dorset, and the Independence traditions of Greenland. The descendants of the Pre-Dorset cultural group, the Dorset culture was displaced by the final migrants from the Bering sea coast line the ancestors of modern Inuit, the Thule people by 1000 Common Era (CE).BOOK, T. Kue Young, Peter Bjerregaard, Health Transitions in Arctic Populations,weblink June 28, 2008, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-9401-8, 121, Around the same time as the Inuit migrated into Greenland, Viking settlers began arriving in Greenland in 982 and Vinland shortly thereafter, establishing a settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows, near the northernmost tip of Newfoundland.WEB,weblink Vinland, Canadian Museum of Civilization, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101110020418weblink">weblink November 10, 2010, The Viking settlers quickly abandoned Vinland, and disappeared from Greenland by 1500.WEB,weblink The Norse settlers in Greenland – A short history, Greenland Guide – The Official Travel Index,

Pre-Columbian era

File:Parkin Mounds Aerial HRoe 2016.jpg|thumb|Parkin Site, a Mississippian site in Arkansas, circa 1539]]The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic to European colonization during the Early Modern period. The term Pre-Columbian is used especially often in the context of the great indigenous civilizations of the Americas, such as those of Mesoamerica (the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacano, the Zapotec, the Mixtec, the Aztec, and the Maya) and the Andes (Inca, Moche, Muisca, Cañaris).Many pre-Columbian civilizations established characteristics and hallmarks which included permanent or urban settlements, agriculture, civic and monumental architecture, and complex societal hierarchies. Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first permanent European arrivals (c. late 15th–early 16th centuries), and are known only through archeological investigations. Others were contemporary with this period, and are also known from historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya, had their own written records. However, most Europeans of the time viewed such texts as pagan, and much was destroyed in Christian pyres. Only a few hidden documents remain today, leaving modern historians with glimpses of ancient culture and knowledge.BOOK, Mann, Charles C., Charles C. Mann, 2005, (1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus), New York, Alfred A. Knopf, Knopf, 978-1-4000-4006-3, 56632601,

European colonization

File:Landing of Columbus (2).jpg|thumb|Christopher ColumbusChristopher ColumbusAlthough there had been previous trans-oceanic contact, large-scale European colonization of the Americas began with the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492. The first Spanish settlement in the Americas was La Isabela in northern Hispaniola. This town was abandoned shortly after in favor of Santo Domingo de Guzmán, founded in 1496, the oldest American city of European foundation. This was the base from which the Spanish monarchy administered its new colonies and their expansion. Santo Domingo was subject to frequent raids by English and French pirates. On the continent, Panama City on the Pacific coast of Central America, founded on August 5, 1519, played an important role, being the base for the Spanish conquest of South America. The spread of new diseases brought by Europeans and Africans killed many of the inhabitants of North America and South America,JOURNAL, Thornton, Russell, 1997, Aboriginal North American Population and Rates of Decline, c.a. A.D. 1500–1900,weblink Current Anthropology, 38, 2, 310–315, 10.1086/204615, 00113204, {{dead link|date=November 2018|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}JOURNAL, Crosby, Alfred W., April 1976, Virgin Soil Epidemics as a Factor in the Aboriginal Depopulation in America, David and Mary Quarterly, 33, 2, 289–299, 10.2307/1922166, 1922166, with a general population crash of Native Americans occurring in the mid-16th century, often well ahead of European contact.JOURNAL, Dobyns, Henry F., 1993, Disease Transfer at Contact, Annual Review of Anthropology, 22, 1, 273–291, 10.1146/annurev.an.22.100193.001421, 2155849, Henry F. Dobyns, European immigrants were often part of state-sponsored attempts to found colonies in the Americas. Migration continued as people moved to the Americas fleeing religious persecution or seeking economic opportunities. Millions of individuals were forcibly transported to the Americas as slaves, prisoners or indentured servants.File:Americas independence map.PNG|thumb|right|Map showing the dates of independence from European powers. Black signifies areas that are dependent territories or parts of countries with a capital outside the Americas.]]Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution and the Haitian Revolution in the late 1700s. This was followed by numerous Latin American wars of independence in the early 1800s. Between 1811 and 1825, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Gran Colombia, the United Provinces of Central America, Mexico, Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia gained independence from Spain and Portugal in armed revolutions. After the Dominican Republic won independence from Haiti, it was re-annexed by Spain in 1861, but reclaimed its independence in 1865 at the conclusion of the Dominican Restoration War. The last violent episode of decolonization was the Cuban War of Independence which became the Spanish–American War, which resulted in the independence of Cuba in 1898, and the transfer of sovereignty over Puerto Rico from Spain to the United States.Peaceful decolonization began with the purchase by the United States of Louisiana from France in 1803, Florida from Spain in 1819, of Alaska from Russia in 1867, and the Danish West Indies from Denmark in 1916. Canada became independent of the United Kingdom, starting with the Balfour Declaration of 1926, Statute of Westminster 1931, and ending with the patriation of the Canadian Constitution in 1982. The Dominion of Newfoundland similarly achieved partial independence under the Balfour Declaration and Statute of Westminster, but was re-absorbed into the United Kingdom in 1934. It was subsequently confederated with Canada in 1949.The remaining European colonies in the Caribbean began to achieve peaceful independence well after World War II. Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago became independent in 1962, and Guyana and Barbados both achieved independence in 1966. In the 1970s, the Bahamas, Grenada, Dominica, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines all became independent of the United Kingdom, and Suriname became independent of the Netherlands. Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis achieved independence from the United Kingdom in the 1980s.

Geography

{{Further|Geography of North America|Geography of South America}}(File:Earth-DSCOVR-20150706-IFV.jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|Satellite photo of the Americas)

Extent

The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere.
  • {{citation|title=Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary|year=2001|quote=The part of the Earth comprising North and South America and surrounding waters; longitudes 20°W and 160°E are often considered its boundaries|page=1294|contribution=Western Hemisphere|edition=3rd|place=Springfield, MA|publisher=Merriam-Webster}}
  • BOOK, The Chambers Dictionary, 2011, Chambers Harrap Publishers, Ltd., 978-0-550-10237-9, 12, London, 1780, O'Neal, Mary,
  • BOOK,weblink The World Book Dictionary, 2003, World Book, Inc, 0-7166-0299-7, Chicago, 2377, Western Hemisphere, the half of the world that includes North and South America.,
  • BOOK, The American Heritage College Dictionary, 2010, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 978-0-618-83595-9, Fourth, Boston, 1557, Western Hemisphere The half of the earth comprising North America, Central America, and South America,
  • BOOK, New Oxford American Dictionary, 2010, Oxford University Press, Third, New York, 1963, The Half of the earth that contains the Americas, Stevenson, Angus, Lindberg, Christine A.,
  • BOOK, Webster's New World College Dictionary, 2014, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 978-0-544-16606-6, Fifth, Boston, Western Hemisphere that half of the earth which includes North & South America, The northernmost point of the Americas is Kaffeklubben Island, which is the most northerly point of land on Earth.NEWS, Burress, Charles,weblink Romancing the north Berkeley explorer may have stepped on ancient Thule, San Francisco Chronicle, June 17, 2004, The southernmost point is the islands of Southern Thule, although they are sometimes considered part of Antarctica.WEB,weblink South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Antarctica – Travel, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150219114729weblink">weblink February 19, 2015, The mainland of the Americas is the world's longest north-to-south landmass. The distance between its two polar extremities, the Boothia Peninsula in northern Canada and Cape Froward in Chilean Patagonia, is roughly {{convert|14000|km|mi|abbr=on}}.ENCYCLOPEDIA, America, The World Book Encyclopedia, 1, 407, World Book, Inc, 2006, 0-7166-0106-0, The mainland's most westerly point is the end of the Seward Peninsula in Alaska; Attu Island, further off the Alaskan coast to the west, is considered the westernmost point of the Americas. Ponta do Seixas in northeastern Brazil forms the easternmost extremity of the mainland, while Nordostrundingen, in Greenland, is the most easterly point of the continental shelf.

Geology

South America broke off from the west of the supercontinent Gondwana around 135 million years ago, forming its own continent.JOURNAL, Story, Brian C., September 28, 1995, The role of mantle plumes in continental breakup: case histories from Gondwanaland, Nature, 377, 6547, 301–309, 10.1038/377301a0, 1995Natur.377..301S, Around 15 million years ago, the collision of the Caribbean Plate and the Pacific Plate resulted in the emergence of a series of volcanoes along the border that created a number of islands. The gaps in the archipelago of Central America filled in with material eroded off North America and South America, plus new land created by continued volcanism. By three million years ago, the continents of North America and South America were linked by the Isthmus of Panama, thereby forming the single landmass of the Americas.WEB,weblink Land bridge: How did the formation of a sliver of land result in major changes in biodiversity, Public Broadcasting Corporation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011111949weblink">weblink October 11, 2007, The Great American Interchange resulted in many species being spread across the Americas, such as the cougar, porcupine, opossums, armadillos and hummingbirds.NEWS,weblink Panama: Isthmus that Changed the World, July 1, 2008, NASA Earth Observatory, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070802015424weblink">weblink August 2, 2007,

Topography

File:Aconcagua 13.JPG|thumb|Aconcagua, in ArgentinaArgentinaThe geography of the western Americas is dominated by the American cordillera, with the Andes running along the west coast of South AmericaWEB,weblink Andes Mountain Range, September 8, 2014, and the Rocky Mountains and other North American Cordillera ranges running along the western side of North America.WEB,weblink Rocky Mountains, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070714142008weblink">weblink July 14, 2007, The {{convert|2300|km|mi|adj=mid|-long|sp=us}} Appalachian Mountains run along the east coast of North America from Alabama to Newfoundland.WEB,weblink Appalachian Mountains, Ohio History Central, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070501041411weblink">weblink May 1, 2007, North of the Appalachians, the Arctic Cordillera runs along the eastern coast of Canada.WEB,weblink Arctic Cordillera, evergreen.ca, The largest mountain ranges are the Andes and Rocky Mountains. The Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Range reach similar altitudes as the Rocky Mountains, but are significantly smaller. In North America, the greatest number of fourteeners are in the United States, and more specifically in the U.S. state of Colorado. The highest peaks of the Americas are located in the Andes, with Aconcagua of Argentina being the highest; in North America Denali (Mount McKinley) in the U.S. state of Alaska is the tallest.Between its coastal mountain ranges, North America has vast flat areas. The Interior Plains spread over much of the continent, with low relief.WEB,weblink Interior Plains Region, September 8, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130809003610weblink">weblink August 9, 2013, mdy-all, The Canadian Shield covers almost 5 million km² of North America and is generally quite flat.WEB,weblink Natural History of Quebec, September 8, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110706185133weblink">weblink July 6, 2011, yes, mdy-all, Similarly, the north-east of South America is covered by the flat Amazon Basin.WEB,weblink Strategy, Amazon Conservation Association, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070403082802weblink">weblink April 3, 2007,
The Brazilian Highlands on the east coast are fairly smooth but show some variations in landform, while farther south the Gran Chaco and Pampas are broad lowlands.WEB,weblink South America images, September 8, 2014,

Climate

File:Americas Köppen Map.png|upright=1.1|right|thumb|Climate zones of the Americas in the Köppen climate classificationKöppen climate classificationThe climate of the Americas varies significantly from region to region. Tropical rainforest climate occurs in the latitudes of the Amazon, American cloud forests, Florida and Darien Gap. In the Rocky Mountains and Andes, dry and continental climates are observed. Often the higher altitudes of these mountains are snow-capped.Southeastern North America is well known for its occurrence of tornadoes and hurricanes, of which the vast majority of tornadoes occur in the United States' Tornado Alley.WEB,weblink Tornado Alley, USA, Perkins, Sid, May 11, 2002, Science News, 296–298,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060825011156weblink">weblink August 25, 2006, May 29, 2011, Often parts of the Caribbean are exposed to the violent effects of hurricanes. These weather systems are formed by the collision of dry, cool air from Canada and wet, warm air from the Atlantic.

Hydrology

With coastal mountains and interior plains, the Americas have several large river basins that drain the continents. The largest river basin in North America is that of the Mississippi, covering the second largest watershed on the planet.WEB,weblink Mississippi River, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070715014306weblink">weblink July 15, 2007, The Mississippi-Missouri river system drains most of 31 states of the U.S., most of the Great Plains, and large areas between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. This river is the fourth longest in the world and tenth most powerful in the world.In North America, to the east of the Appalachian Mountains, there are no major rivers but rather a series of rivers and streams that flow east with their terminus in the Atlantic Ocean, such as the Hudson River, Saint John River, and Savannah River. A similar instance arises with central Canadian rivers that drain into Hudson Bay; the largest being the Churchill River. On the west coast of North America, the main rivers are the Colorado River, Columbia River, Yukon River, Fraser River, and Sacramento River.The Colorado River drains much of the Southern Rockies and parts of the Great Basin and Range Province. The river flows approximately {{convert|1450|mi|km|sp=us}} into the Gulf of California,WEB, Kammerer, J.C., Largest Rivers in the United States,weblink United States Geological Survey, July 2, 2010, during which over time it has carved out natural phenomena such as the Grand Canyon and created phenomena such as the Salton Sea. The Columbia is a large river, {{convert|1243|mi|km}} long, in central western North America and is the most powerful river on the West Coast of the Americas. In the far northwest of North America, the Yukon drains much of the Alaskan peninsula and flows {{convert|1980|mi|km}}WEB,weblink Yukoninfo.com, Yukoninfo.com, January 30, 2012, from parts of Yukon and the Northwest Territory to the Pacific. Draining to the Arctic Ocean of Canada, the Mackenzie River drains waters from the Arctic Great Lakes of Arctic Canada, as opposed to the Saint-Lawrence River that drains the Great Lakes of Southern Canada into the Atlantic Ocean. The Mackenzie River is the largest in Canada and drains {{convert|1805200|km2|mi2|sp=us}}.WEB,weblink Mackenzie River, Encyclopædia Britannica, September 8, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081118141110weblink">weblink November 18, 2008, The largest river basin in South America is that of the Amazon, which has the highest volume flow of any river on Earth.WEB,weblink Greatest Places: Notes: Amazonia, The second largest watershed of South America is that of the Paraná River, which covers about 2.5 million km².WEB,weblink Great Rivers Partnership – Paraguay-Parana, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110105102114weblink">weblink January 5, 2011,

Ecology

North America and South America began to develop a shared population of flora and fauna around 2.5 million years ago, when continental drift brought the two continents into contact via the Isthmus of Panama. Initially, the exchange of biota was roughly equal, with North American genera migrating into South America in about the same proportions as South American genera migrated into North America. This exchange is known as the Great American Interchange. The exchange became lopsided after roughly a million years, with the total spread of South American genera into North America far more limited in scope than the spread on North American genera into South America.JOURNAL, Ecogeography and the Great American Interchange, Webb, S. David, Paleobiology, 17, 3, 1991, Paleontological Society, 2400869,

Countries and territories

{{See also|List of sovereign states and dependent territories in the Americas}}There are 35 sovereign states in the Americas, as well as an autonomous country of Denmark, three overseas departments of France, three overseas collectivities of France,WEB,weblink Les Collectivités, Ministère des Outre-Mer, August 30, 2012, and one uninhabited territory of France, eight overseas territories of the United Kingdom, three constituent countries of the Netherlands, three public bodies of the Netherlands, two unincorporated territories of the United States, and one uninhabited territory of the United States.WEB,weblink Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings, September 20, 2011, August 30, 2012, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, {| class="wikitable sortable" style="border:1px solid #aaa;" style="background:#ececec;"! Country or territory! Area(km²)Unless otherwise noted, land area figures are taken from JOURNAL, 2008, Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density,weblink PDF, United Nations Statistics Division, October 14, 2010, ! PopulationSee List of countries by population for references.! Pop. density(per km²)! Languages (official in bold)! Capital (United Kingdom)}} {{nts|91}} {{nts|13452}} {{nts|164.8}}Languages of Anguilla>English The Valley }} {{nts|442}} {{nts|86295}} {{nts|199.1}}Languages of Antigua and Barbuda>Creole,KRAS >FIRST=SARA LOUISE PUBLISHER = MARSHALL CAVENDISH ISBN = 0-7614-2570-5, 95, English St. John's }} {{nts|2766890}} {{nts|42669500}} {{nts|14.3}}Languages of Argentina>Spanish Buenos Aires (Netherlands)}} {{nts|180}} {{nts|101484}} {{nts|594.4}}Languages of Aruba>Papiamentu, Spanish,HTTP://WWW.CBS.AW/CBS/MANAGEDOCUMENT.DO?DISPATCH=VIEW&ID=1621 > ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20121113145540/HTTP://WWW.CBS.AW/CBS/MANAGEDOCUMENT.DO?DISPATCH=VIEW&ID=1621 ARCHIVE-DATE = 2012-11-13 PUBLISHER = CENTRAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS, Dutch Oranjestad }} {{nts|13943}} {{nts|351461}} {{nts|24.5}}Languages of the Bahamas>Creole,LEWIS >FIRST=PAUL M. TITLE = LANGUAGES OF BAHAMAS YEAR = 2009, Dallas, English Nassau }} {{nts|430}} {{nts|285000}} {{nts|595.3}}Languages of Barbados>Bajan,HTTP://WWW.ETHNOLOGUE.COM/SHOW_COUNTRY.ASP?NAME=BB > TITLE = LANGUAGES OF BARBADOS YEAR = 2009 LOCATION = DALLAS, English Bridgetown }} {{nts|22966}} {{nts|349728}} {{nts|13.4}}Languages of Belize>Spanish, Kriol, EnglishHTTP://CELADE.CEPAL.ORG/CGIBIN/RPWEBENGINE.EXE/PORTALACTION?MODE=MAIN&BASE=CPVBLZ2000&MAIN=WEBSERVERMAIN.INL >TITLE=BELIZE 2000 HOUSING AND POPULATION CENSUS YEAR=2000 date=February 2019bot=medic}} Belmopan (United Kingdom)}} {{nts|54}} {{nts|64237}} {{nts|1203.7}}Languages of Bermuda>English Hamilton }} {{nts|1098580}} {{nts|10027254}} {{nts|8.4}}Languages of Bolivia>Spanish and 36 indigenous languages La Paz and Sucre La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia; Sucre is the judicial seat. (Netherlands)}} {{nts|294}} {{nts|12093}} {{nts|41.1}}Languages of Bonaire>Papiamentu, Spanish, DutchHTTP://WWW.CBS.CW/INDEX.PHP?OPTION=COM_CONTENT&VIEW=ARTICLE&ID=103:HOUSEHOLDS-BY-THE-MOST-SPOKEN-LANGUAGE-IN-THE-HOUSEHOLD&CATID=48:HOUSEHOLD-CHARACTERISTICS&ITEMID=82 >ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20121029064510/HTTP://WWW.CBS.CW/INDEX.PHP?OPTION=COM_CONTENT&VIEW=ARTICLE&ID=103%3AHOUSEHOLDS-BY-THE-MOST-SPOKEN-LANGUAGE-IN-THE-HOUSEHOLD&CATID=48%3AHOUSEHOLD-CHARACTERISTICS&ITEMID=82 ARCHIVE-DATE=OCTOBER 29, 2012 PUBLISHER=CENTRAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS, Kralendijk (Norway)}}Bouvet Island is part of South America according to the United Nations geoscheme. {{nts|49}} {{nts|0}} {{nts|0}}| Uninhabited  â€” }} {{nts|8514877}} {{nts|203106000}} {{nts|23.6}}Languages of Brazil>Portuguese Brasília (United Kingdom)}} {{nts|151}} {{nts|29537}} {{nts|152.3}}Languages of the British Virgin Islands>English Road Town }} {{nts|9984670}} {{nts|37,411,592}} 3.8Languages of Canada>English, French Ottawa (United Kingdom)}} {{nts|264}} {{nts|55456}} {{nts|212.1}}Languages of the Cayman Islands>English George Town }}Includes Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean, a Chilean territory frequently reckoned in Oceania. Santiago, Chile>Santiago is the administrative capital of Chile; Valparaíso is the site of legislative meetings. {{nts|756950}} {{nts|17773000}} {{nts|22}}Languages of Chile>Spanish Santiago (France)}} {{nts PUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES, CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, October 14, 2010, {{nts PUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES, CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, October 14, 2010, {{nts|0.0}}| Uninhabited  â€” }} {{nts|1138910}} {{nts|47757000}} {{nts|40}}Languages of Colombia>Spanish Bogotá }} {{nts|51100}} {{nts|4667096}} {{nts|89.6}}Languages of Costa Rica>Spanish San José }} {{nts|109886}} {{nts|11167325}} {{nts|102.0}}Languages of Cuba>Spanish Havana (Netherlands)}} {{nts|444}} {{nts|150563}} {{nts|317.1}}Languages of Curacao>Papiamentu, Dutch Willemstad }} {{nts|751}} {{nts|71293}} {{nts|89.2}}Languages of Dominica>French Patois, EnglishHTTP://WWW.ETHNOLOGUE.COM/SHOW_COUNTRY.ASP?NAME=DM > TITLE = LANGUAGES OF DOMINICA EDITOR2=M. PAUL PUBLISHER = ETHNOLOGUE: LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 30, 2012, Roseau }} {{nts|48671}} {{nts|10378267}} {{nts|207.3}}Languages of the Dominican Republic>Spanish Santo Domingo }} {{nts|283560}} {{nts|15819400}} {{nts|53.8}}Languages of Ecuador>Spanish, QuechuaLEVINSON >FIRST=DAVID PUBLISHER = GREENWOOD PUBLISHING GROUP ISBN = 1-57356-019-7, 347, Quito }} {{nts|21041}} {{nts|6401240}} {{nts|293.0}}Languages of El Salvador>Spanish San Salvador }} (United Kingdom)Claimed by Argentina. {{nts|12173}} {{nts|3000}} {{nts|0.26}}Languages of the Falkland Islands>English Stanley }} (France) {{nts|91000}} {{nts|237549}} {{nts|2.7}}Languages of French Guiana>French Cayenne (Denmark)}} {{nts|2166086}} {{nts|56483}} {{nts|0.026}}Languages of Greenland>Greenlandic, Danish Nuuk (GodthÃ¥b) }} {{nts|344}} {{nts|103328}} {{nts|302.3}}Languages of Grenada>English St. George's (France)}} {{nts|1628}} {{nts|405739}} {{nts|246.7}}Languages of Guadeloupe>French Basse-Terre }} {{nts|108889}} {{nts|15806675}} {{nts|128.8}}Languages of Guatemala>Spanish, Garifuna and 23 Mayan languages Guatemala City }} {{nts|214999}} {{nts|784894}} {{nts|3.5}}Languages of Guyana>English Georgetown }} {{nts|27750}} {{nts|10745665}} {{nts|361.5}}Languages of Haiti>Creole, French Port-au-Prince }} {{nts|112492}} {{nts|8555072}} {{nts|66.4}}Languages of Honduras>Spanish Tegucigalpa }} {{nts|10991}} {{nts|2717991}} {{nts|247.4}}Languages of Jamaica>Patois, English Kingston (France)}} {{nts|1128}} {{nts|392291}} {{nts|352.6}}Languages of Martinique>Patois,HTTP://WWW.ETHNOLOGUE.COM/SHOW_COUNTRY.ASP?NAME=MQ > TITLE = LANGUAGES OF MARTINIQUE EDITOR = PAUL M. LEWIS LOCATION = DALLAS, French Fort-de-France }} {{nts|1964375}} {{nts|119713203}} {{nts|57.1}}Languages of Mexico>Spanish, 68 indigenous languages Mexico City (United Kingdom)}} {{nts|102}} {{nts|4922}} {{nts|58.8}}Languages of Montserrat>Creole English, EnglishHTTP://WWW.ETHNOLOGUE.COM/SHOW_COUNTRY.ASP?NAME=MS > TITLE = LANGUAGES OF MONTSERRAT EDITOR = PAUL M. LEWIS LOCATION = DALLAS, Plymouth, Montserrat; Brades, Montserrat>BradesOngoing activity of the Soufriere Hills volcano beginning in July 1995 destroyed much of Plymouth; government offices were relocated to Brades. Plymouth remains the de jure capital. (United States)}} {{nts|5}} {{nts|0}} {{nts|0.0}}| Uninhabited  â€” }} {{nts|130373}} {{nts|6071045}} {{nts|44.1}}Languages of Nicaragua>Spanish Managua }} {{nts|75417}} {{nts|3405813}} {{nts|45.8}}Languages of Panama>Spanish Panama City }} {{nts|406750}} {{nts|6783374}} {{nts|15.6}}Languages of Paraguay>Guaraní, Spanish Asunción }} {{nts|1285220}} {{nts|30814175}} {{nts|22}}Languages of Peru>Spanish, Quechua, and other indigenous languages Lima (United States)}} {{nts|8870}} {{nts|3615086}} {{nts|448.9}}Languages of Puerto Rico>Spanish, English San Juan (Netherlands)}} {{nts|13}} {{nts URL=HTTP://WWW.CBS.AN/POPULATION/POPULATION_B2.ASP ARCHIVEDATE=JULY 6, 2011 ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 14, 2010, {{nts|118.2}}Languages of Saba>English, Dutch The Bottom (France)}} {{nts|21}} {{nts|8938}} {{nts|354.7}}Languages of Saint Barthélemy>French Gustavia }} {{nts|261}} {{nts|55000}} {{nts|199.2}}Languages of Saint Kitts and Nevis>English Basseterre }} {{nts|539}} {{nts|180000}} {{nts|319.1}}Languages of Saint Lucia>English, French Creole Castries (France)}} {{nts|54}} {{nts|36979}} {{nts|552.2}}Languages of Saint Martin>French Marigot {{nts|242}} {{nts|6081}} {{nts|24.8}}Languages of Saint Pierre and Miquelon>French Saint-Pierre }} {{nts|389}} {{nts|109000}} {{nts|280.2}}Languages of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines>English Kingstown (Netherlands)}} {{nts|21}} {{nts|2739}} {{nts|130.4}}Languages of Sint Eustatius>Dutch, English Oranjestad (Netherlands)}} {{nts|34}} {{nts|37429}} {{nts|1176.7}}Languages of Sint Maarten>English, Spanish, Dutch Philipsburg South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands>South Georgia andSouth Sandwich Islands (UK)}}Claimed by Argentina; the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean are commonly associated with Antarctica (for its proximity) and have no permanent population, only hosting a periodic contingent of about 100 researchers and visitors. {{nts|3093}} {{nts|20}} {{nts|0.01}}Languages of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands>English Grytviken }} {{nts|163270}} {{nts|534189}} {{nts|3}}Languages of Suriname>Dutch and othersLEWIS > FIRST = PAUL PUBLISHER = ETHNOLOGUE URL = HTTP://WWW.ETHNOLOGUE.COM/SHOW_COUNTRY.ASP?NAME=SR, Languages of Suriname, Paramaribo }} {{nts|5130}} {{nts|1328019}} {{nts|261.0}}Languages of Trinidad and Tobago>English Port of Spain (UK)}} {{nts|948}} {{nts|31458}} {{nts|34.8}}Languages of the Turks and Caicos Islands>Creole English, EnglishHTTP://WWW.ETHNOLOGUE.ORG.UK/SHOW_COUNTRY.ASP?NAME=TC > ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://ARCHIVE.TODAY/20121224000547/HTTP://WWW.ETHNOLOGUE.ORG.UK/SHOW_COUNTRY.ASP?NAME=TC ARCHIVE-DATE = 2012-12-24 FIRST = M. PAUL WORK = ETHNOLOGUE: LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD, SIXTEENTH EDITION LOCATION = DALLAS, SIL International, Cockburn Town Includes the states of Hawaii and Alaska which are both separated from the Contiguous United States>US mainland, with Hawaii is distant from the North American landmass in the Pacific Ocean and therefore more commonly associated with the other territories of Oceania while Alaska is located between Canada and Asia (Russia).}} {{nts|9629091}} {{nts|320206000}} {{nts|34.2}}Languages of the United States>English, Spanish Washington, D.C. (United States)}} {{nts|347}} {{nts|106405}} {{nts|317.0}}Languages of the United States Virgin Islands>English, Spanish Charlotte Amalie }} {{nts|176220}} {{nts|3286314}} {{nts|19.4}}Languages of Uruguay>Spanish Montevideo }} {{nts|916445}} {{nts|30206307}} {{nts|30.2}}Languages of Venezuela>Spanish and 40 indigenous languages Caracas class="sortbottom"! Total {{nts|42320985}} {{nts|973186925}} {{nts|21.9}}||

Demography

Population

{{Further|List of countries in the Americas by population}}In 2015 the total population of the Americas was about 985 million people, divided as follows:
  • North America: 569 million (includes Central America and the Caribbean)
  • South America: 416 million

Largest urban centers

{{See also|Largest cities in the Americas|List of metropolitan areas in the Americas by population}}There are three urban centers that each hold titles for being the largest population area based on the three main demographic concepts:WEB
,weblink
, Urban Settlement
, Working Paper No. 2010/12
, David E. Bloom, David Canning, Günther Fink, Tarun Khanna, Patrick Salyer
, Helsinki
, World Institute for Development Economics Research
, May 29, 2011
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110613200208weblink">weblink
, June 13, 2011
, yes
,

A city proper is the locality with legally fixed boundaries and an administratively recognized urban status that is usually characterized by some form of local government.WEB, Kästle, Klaus,weblink United States most populated cities, Nationsonline.org, August 31, 2009, July 26, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100722100011weblink">weblink July 22, 2010, no, WEB,weblink World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision Population Database, United Nations, July 26, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100822053414weblink">weblink August 22, 2010, yes, mdy-all, WEB,weblink United Nations Statistics Division – Demographic and Social Statistics, Millenniumindicators.un.org, July 26, 2010, BOOK, Demographic Yearbook 2005, Volume 57, 2008, United Nations, 92-1-051099-2, 756,weblink July 19, 2010, BOOK, United Nations. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, Demographic yearbook, 2000, 2002, United Nations Publications, 2002, 92-1-051091-7, 23,


An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations, but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages and hamlets. Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization and do not include large swaths of rural land, as do metropolitan areas.{{citation needed|date=October 2018}}


Unlike an urban area, a metropolitan area includes not only the urban area, but also satellite cities plus intervening rural land that is socio-economically connected to the urban core city, typically by employment ties through commuting, with the urban core city being the primary labor market.{{citation needed|date=October 2018}}
In accordance with these definitions, the three largest population centers in the Americas are: Mexico City, anchor to the largest metropolitan area in the Americas; New York City, anchor to the largest urban area in the Americas; and São Paulo, the largest city proper in the Americas. All three cities maintain Alpha classification and large scale influence.Angel de la Independencia Mexico City.jpg|Mexico City – The largest metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of 22,300,000 in 2017.{{citation needed|date=October 2018}}MarginalPinheiros.jpg|São Paulo – Largest city with a population of 12,038,175(city) in 2016.{{citation needed|date=October 2018}}Top of Rock Cropped.jpg|New York City – Largest urban area in the Americas, with a population of 18,351,295 in 2010.{{citation needed|date=October 2018}}{| class="sortable wikitable"!Country!City!City Population!Metro Area PopulationMexico}}Mexico CityWEBSITE=WORLD POPULATION STATISTICSACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 6, 2014, PUBLISHER=CONSEJO NACIONAL DE POBLACIóN (CONAPO)ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 9, 2016, Brazil}}São PauloWEBSITE=WORLD POPULATION STATISTICSACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 6, 2014, PUBLISHER=ESTADAOACCESS-DATE=AUGUST 30, 2016, United States}}New York CityWEBSITE=THE WALL STREET JOURNALACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 6, 2014, WEBSITE=CENSUS BUREAU ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 6, 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140815134909/HTTP://FACTFINDER2.CENSUS.GOV/FACES/TABLESERVICES/JSF/PAGES/PRODUCTVIEW.XHTML?SRC=BKMK DF=MDY, Argentina}}Buenos Aires|2,891,082|15,594,428United States}}Los Angeles|3,928,8641 Million Milestone US Census BureauAUTHORS=DATA ACCESS AND DISSEMINATION SYSTEMS (DADS) DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=AUGUST 15, 2014, mdy,

Ethnology

{{unreferenced section|date=June 2014}}The population of the Americas is made up of the descendants of four large ethnic groups and their combinations. The majority of the population live in Latin America, named for its predominant cultures, rooted in Latin Europe (including the two dominant languages, Spanish and Portuguese, both Romance languages), more specifically in the Iberian nations of Portugal and Spain (hence the use of the term Ibero-America as a synonym). Latin America is typically contrasted with Anglo-America, where English, a Germanic language, is prevalent, and which comprises Canada (with the exception of francophone Canada rooted in Latin Europe [France]—see Québec and Acadia) and the United States. Both countries are located in North America, with cultures deriving predominantly from Anglo-Saxon and other Germanic roots.

Religion

{{further|Religion in Latin America|Religion in North America|Christianity in the Americas|Islam in the Americas}}The most prevalent faiths in the Americas are as follows:
  • Christianity (86 percent)WEB,weblink Pew, Global Christianity,
    • Roman Catholicism: Practiced by 69 percentWEB,weblink 2014 Religion in Latin America, November 16, 2014, of the Latin American population, 81 percent in Mexico and 61 percent in Brazil whose Roman Catholic population of 123 million is the greatest of any nation's; approximately 24 percent of the United States' populationWEB, United States, CIA World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, November 16, 2010,weblink November 30, 2010, and about 39 percent of Canada's.WEB,weblink Religions in Canada—Census 2011, Statistics Canada/Statistique Canada,
    • Protestantism: Practiced mostly in the United States, where half of the population are Protestant, Canada, with slightly more than a quarter of the population, and Greenland; there is a growing contingent of Evangelical and Pentecostal movements in predominantly Catholic Latin America.WEB,weblink The World Today – Catholics faced with rise in Protestantism, April 19, 2005, ABC, Australia, October 5, 2010,
    • Eastern Orthodoxy: Found mostly in the United States (1 percent) and Canada; this Christian group is growing faster than many other Christian groups in Canada and now represents roughly 3 percent of the Canadian population.
    • Non-denominational Christians and other Christians (some 1,000 different Christian denominations and sects practiced in the Americas).
  • Irreligion: About 12 percent, including atheists and agnostics, as well as those who profess some form of spirituality but do not identify themselves as members of any organized religion)
  • Islam: Together, Muslims constitute about 1 percent of the North American population and 0.3 percent of all Latin Americans. It is practiced by 3 percent of Canadians and 0.6 percent of the U.S. population. Argentina has the largest Muslim population in Latin America with up to 600,000 persons, or 1.9 percent of the population.WEB,weblink Argentina, International Religious Freedom Report, U.S. Department of State, 2006, September 1, 2009,
  • Judaism (practiced by 2 percent of North Americans—approximately 2.5 percent of the U.S. population and 1.2 percent of CanadiansWEB,weblink Canadian Jewry Today: Portrait of a Community in the Process of Change – Ira Robinson, Jcpa.org, October 5, 2010, —and 0.23 percent of Latin Americans—Argentina has the largest Jewish population in Latin America with 200,000 members)WEB, Segal, Naomi,weblink First Planeload of Jews Fleeing Argentina Arrives in Israel, Ujc.org, October 5, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080201175808weblink">weblink February 1, 2008,
Other faiths include Buddhism; Hinduism; Sikhism; Bahá'í Faith; a wide variety of indigenous religions, many of which can be categorized as animistic; new age religions and many African and African-derived religions. Syncretic faiths can also be found throughout the Americas.{{Clear}}{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align: right"|+ Religious Demographics According to 2010 censuses/estimates in each country style="background:#e8e8e8;"! Country! Christians! Catholics! Protestants! None/Atheists/Agnostics! Others {{flag|Argentina}}Primera Encuesta sobre Creencias y Actitudes Religiosas en Argentina| 2.5% {{flag|Bolivia}}| 1.0% {{flagTITLE=COR OU RAçA YEAR=2010, October 5, 2013, | 4.8% {{flag|Canada}}| 8.9% {{flagPUBLISHER=PLAZA PUBLICA CADEM DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=FEBRUARY 7, 2017, mdy-all, | 3.0% {{flagPUBLISHER=VANDERBILT.EDU, 17 January 2015, | 1.7% {{flagPUBLISHER=LATINOBARóMETRO ARCHIVEDATE=MAY 10, 2015 PAGE=6 FORMAT=PDF DEADURL=YES, | 4.3% {{flagWORK=UNHCRACCESSDATE=30 MARCH 2011, | 2.2% {{flagEl 80% de ecuatorianos es católico {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160527175350weblink |date=May 27, 2016 }}| 1.0% {{flagCID Gallup Poll Latinoamerica {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160307051137weblink |date=2016-03-07 }}| 1.2% {{flag|Guatemala}}Public Opinion Polls on Religious Affiliation in Guatemala.| 2.4% {{flag|Honduras}}Religion in Honduras - CID Gallup Poll 2007 US. State| 2.7% {{flaginegi.org.mx Religiones 2010.pdf {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151021230003weblink |date=October 21, 2015 }}| 2.9% {{flagPUBLISHER=, | 2.1% {{flag|Panama}}| 3.0% {{flag|Paraguay}}| 1.8% {{flag|Peru}}weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121114041408weblink">Dirección Técnica de Demografía y Estudios Sociales y Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo del INEI (original dead link:weblink| 1.4% {{flagARCHIVEDATE=27 SEPTEMBER 2013 WORK = NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS ACCESSDATE=7 SEPTEMBER 2013, es, | 1.5% {{flagARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/19990508145129/HTTP://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/PROD/WWW/RELIGION.HTM DEAD-URL=YES PUBLISHER=, | 5.0% {{flagPUBLISHER=, | 3.0%

Languages

(File:Languages of the American Continent.png|thumb|right|Languages spoken in the Americas)Various languages are spoken in the Americas. Some are of European origin, others are spoken by indigenous peoples or are the mixture of various languages like the different creoles.WEB, Las religiones en tiempos del Papa Francisco,weblink Latinobarómetro, April 4, 2015, May 10, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150510104033weblink">weblink 6, Spanish, PDF, April 2014, yes, The most widely spoken language in the Americas is Spanish.WEB,weblink Official Languages of the Americas and the Caribbean - Nations Online Project, klaus kästle -, nationsonline.org, www.nationsonline.org, The dominant language of Latin America is Spanish, though the most populous nation in Latin America, Brazil, speaks Portuguese. Small enclaves of French-, Dutch- and English-speaking regions also exist in Latin America, notably in French Guiana, Suriname, and Belize and Guyana respectively. Haitian Creole is dominant in the nation of Haiti, where French is also spoken. Native languages are more prominent in Latin America than in Anglo-America, with Nahuatl, Quechua, Aymara and Guaraní as the most common. Various other native languages are spoken with less frequency across both Anglo-America and Latin America. Creole languages other than Haitian Creole are also spoken in parts of Latin America.The dominant language of Anglo-America is English. French is also official in Canada, where it is the predominant language in Quebec and an official language in New Brunswick along with English. It is also an important language in Louisiana, and in parts of New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont. Spanish has kept an ongoing presence in the Southwestern United States, which formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, especially in California and New Mexico, where a distinct variety of Spanish spoken since the 17th century has survived. It has more recently become widely spoken in other parts of the United States because of heavy immigration from Latin America. High levels of immigration in general have brought great linguistic diversity to Anglo-America, with over 300 languages known to be spoken in the United States alone, but most languages are spoken only in small enclaves and by relatively small immigrant groups.The nations of Guyana, Suriname, and Belize are generally considered{{by whom|date=July 2012}} not to fall into either Anglo-America or Latin America because of their language differences from Latin America, geographic differences from Anglo-America, and cultural and historical differences from both regions; English is the primary language of Guyana and Belize, and Dutch is the primary language of Suriname.Most of the non-native languages have, to different degrees, evolved differently from the mother country, but are usually still mutually intelligible. Some have combined, however, which has even resulted in completely new languages, such as Papiamento, which is a combination of Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch (representing the respective colonizers), native Arawak, various African languages, and, more recently English. The lingua franca Portuñol, a mixture of Portuguese and Spanish, is spoken in the border regions of Brazil and neighboring Spanish-speaking countries.JOURNAL, 2006, Too Close for Comfort? The Genesis of "Portuñol/Portunhol",weblink Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium, 1–22, 978-1-57473-408-9, Lipski, John M., Timothy L. Face, Carol A. Klee), November 26, 2010, More specifically, Riverense Portuñol is spoken by around 100,000 people in the border regions of Brazil and Uruguay. Because of immigration, there are many communities where other languages are spoken from all parts of the world, especially in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica and Uruguay—very important destinations for immigrants.Juan Bialet Massé en su informe sobre "El estado de las clases obreras en el interior del país" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110927103010weblink |date=September 27, 2011 }}SOCIAL IDENTITY Marta Fierro Social Psychologist. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120220125802weblink |date=February 20, 2012 }}Etnicidad y ciudadanía en América Latina.

Terminology

{{Subdivisions of the Americas|100px}}{{Further|Americas (terminology)}}

English

Speakers of English generally refer to the landmasses of North America and South America as the Americas, the Western Hemisphere, or the New World.Burchfield, R. W. 2004. Fowler's Modern English Usage. ({{ISBN|0-19-861021-1}}) Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; p. 48. The adjective American may be used to indicate something pertains to the Americas,{{OED|American}} but this term is primarily used in English to indicate something pertaining to the United States.WEB,weblink American, The American Heritage Dictionary, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, September 8, 2014, Some non-ambiguous alternatives exist, such as the adjective Pan-American,BOOK,weblink Pan-American – Definition from the Merriam Webster dictionary, or New Worlder as a demonym for a resident of the closely related New World. Use of America in the hemispherical sense is sometimes retained, or can occur when translated from other languages.Reader's Digest Oxford Complete Wordfinder. 1993. ({{ISBN|0-276-42101-9}}) New York, USA: Reader's Digest Association; p. 45. For example, the Association of National Olympic Committees (ANOC) in Paris maintains a single continental association for "America", represented by one of the five Olympic rings.The Olympic symbols. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100731072159weblink |date=July 31, 2010 }} International Olympic Committee. 2002. Lausanne: Olympic Museum and Studies Centre. The five rings of the Olympic flag represent the five inhabited, participating continents: (Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100731072159weblink |date=July 31, 2010 }}).WEB,weblink Archived copy, February 4, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110822175428weblink">weblink August 22, 2011, mdy, American linguist H.L. Mencken said, " The Latin-Americans use Norteamericano in formal writing, but, save in Panama, prefer nicknames in colloquial speech."JOURNAL, Mencken, H. L., December 1947, Names for Americans, American Speech, American Speech, 22, 4, 241–256, 10.2307/486658, 486658, quote at p 243. To avoid "American" one can use constructed terms in their languages derived from "United States" or even "North America"."America." Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage. ({{ISBN|0-19-541619-8}}) Fee, Margery and McAlpine, J., ed., 1997. Toronto: Oxford University Press; p. 36."American." The Oxford Companion to the English Language ({{ISBN|0-19-214183-X}}); McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 35.WEB, Estados Unidos, Diccionario panhispánico de dudas, Real Academia Española, Spanish, October 2005,weblink November 30, 2010, In Canada, its southern neighbor is often referred to as "the United States", "the U.S.A.", or (informally) "the States", while U.S. citizens are generally referred to as "Americans". Most Canadians resent being referred to as "Americans".

Spanish

In Spanish, América is a single continent composed of the subcontinents of América del Sur and América del Norte, the land bridge of América Central, and the islands of the Antillas. Americano or americana in Spanish refers to a person from América in a similar way that europeo or europea refers to a person from Europa. The terms sudamericano/a, centroamericano/a, antillano/a and norteamericano/a can be used to more specifically refer to the location where a person may live.Citizens of the United States of America are normally referred to by the term estadounidense (rough literal translation: "United Statesian") instead of americano or americana which is discouraged,BOOK,weblink Diccionario panhispánico de dudas:Norteamérica, Real Academia Española, 2005, and the country's name itself is officially translated as Estados Unidos de América (United States of America), commonly abbreviated as Estados Unidos (EEUU).BOOK,weblink Diccionario panhispánico de dudas: Estados Unidos, Real Academia Española, 2005, "debe evitarse el empleo de americano para referirse exclusivamente a los habitantes de los Estados Unidos" ("the use of the term americano referring exclusively to the United States inhabitants must be avoided") Also, the term norteamericano (North American) may refer to a citizen of the United States. This term is primarily used to refer to citizens of the United States, and less commonly to those of other North American countries.

Portuguese

In Portuguese, (:pt:América|América)WEB,weblink Países da América, Brasil Escola, March 29, 2014, is a single continent composed of América do Sul (South America), América Central (Central America) and América do Norte (North America).WEB,weblink América, Mundo Educação, March 29, 2014, It can be ambiguous, as América can be used to refer to the United States of America, but is avoided in print and formal environments.WEB,weblink Estados Unidos, Itamaraty, March 29, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140222194657weblink">weblink February 22, 2014, mdy, WEB,weblink Estados Unidos, ESPN, March 29, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140330054909weblink">weblink March 30, 2014, mdy-all,

French

In French the word américain may be used for things relating to the Americas; however, similar to English, it is most often used for things relating to the United States. Panaméricain may be used as an adjective to refer to the Americas without ambiguity.WEB,weblink panaméricain, Office québéqois de la langue français, 1978, November 22, 2013, French speakers may use the noun Amérique to refer to the whole landmass as one continent, or two continents, Amérique du Nord and Amérique du Sud. In French, Amérique is also used to refer to the United States, making the term ambiguous. Similar to English usage, les Amériques or des Amériques is used to refer unambiguously to the Americas.

Dutch

In Dutch, the word Amerika mostly refers to the United States.WEB,weblink aadas.nl/, May 4, 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180504225404weblink">weblink May 4, 2018, yes, mdy-all, geheugenvannederland.nl Although the United States is equally often referred to as de Verenigde Staten ("the United States") or de VS ("the US"), Amerika relatively rarely refers to the Americas, but it is the only commonly used Dutch word for the Americas. This often leads to ambiguity; and to stress that something concerns the Americas as a whole, Dutch uses a combination, namely Noord- en Zuid-Amerika (North and South America).Latin America is generally referred to as Latijns Amerika or Midden-Amerika for Central America.The adjective Amerikaans is most often used for things or people relating to the United States. There are no alternative words to distinguish between things relating to the United States or to the Americas. Dutch uses the local alternative for things relating to elsewhere in the Americas, such as Argentijns for Argentine, etc.

Multinational organizations

The following is a list of multinational organizations in the Americas.{{div col|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}

Economy

{{see also|List of North American countries by GDP (nominal)|List of North American countries by GDP (PPP)}}{{see also|List of Latin American and Caribbean countries by GDP (PPP)}}{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: right; float:left; border:1px solid #aaa; margin:10px" style="background:#dbdbdb;"! Rank! Country! GDP (nominal, Peak Year)millions of USD 2018 October WEO database! Peak Year{{nowrapUnited States}}}} 20,513,000 2018{{flag| 2011{{flag| 2013{{flag| 2014{{flag| 2015{{flag| 2013{{flag| 2011{{flag| 2018{{flag| 2018{{flag| 2018{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: right; float:left; border:1px solid #aaa; margin:10px" style="background:#dbdbdb;"! Rank! Country! GDP (PPP, Peak Year)millions of USD! Peak Year{{nowrapUnited States}}}} 20,513,000 2018{{flag| 2018{{flag| 2018{{flag| 2018{{flag| 2017{{flag| 2018{{flag| 2013{{flag| 2018{{flag| 2018{{flag| 2015{{clear}}The U.S. has the fastest-growing economy in the Americas according to a 2016 study conducted by the International Monetary Fund (IMF),WEB,weblink International Monetary Fund, International Monetary Fund, List of South American countries by GDP per capita, World Economic Outlook, October 2016, September 25, 2017, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171010114728weblink">weblink yes, 2017-10-10, International Monetary Fund, International Monetary Fund, List of North American countries by GDP per capita, World Economic Outlook, October 2016, February 22, 2017, and has the highest GDP per capita in the Americas as well. Countries in the northern part of the Americas tend to have healthier and stronger economies than countries in the southern part of the Americas.In 2016, five to seven countries in the southern part of the Americas had weakening economies in decline, compared to only three countries in the northern part of the Americas. Haiti has the lowest GDP per capita in the Americas, although its economy was growing slightly {{as of|2016|lc=y}}.

See also

{{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}

Notes

{{Reflist|group=note}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

External links

{{Wiktionary}}{{commons|America}} {{coord|19|N|96|W|dim:30000000|display=title}}{{Navboxes|title = Americas|list ={{Countries of North America}}{{Countries of South America}}}}{{History of the Americas}}{{Regions of the world}}{{Continents of the world}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Americas" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 4:45pm EDT - Fri, Apr 19 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 18 AUG 2014
Wikinfo
Culture
CONNECT