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Gibraltar
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{{about|the British Overseas Territory}}{{Use British English|date=April 2013}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2018}}{{short description|British Overseas Territory}}







factoids
region_color=dark grey European Union >subregion_color=green}}| image_map2 = Gibraltar map-en-edit2.svg| map2_width = 250px| map_caption2 = Map of Gibraltarlaitalics=off}}{{smallPUBLISHER =GIBRALTAR.GOV.GIARCHIVE-URL =HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20141113200625/HTTPS://WWW.GIBRALTAR.GOV.GI/NATIONAL-SYMBOLSDEAD-URL =YES, dmy-all, }}God Save the Queen" {{small>(official)}} (File:United States Navy Band - God Save the Queen.ogg)"Gibraltar Anthem" {{smallWORK=CIA WORLD FACTBOOK CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY >ACCESSDATE=25 SEPTEMBER 2011, National anthem: name: "Gibraltar Anthem" ... note: adopted 1994; serves as a local anthem; because Gibraltar is a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" remains official (see United Kingdom), British Overseas Territory}}English language>English| languages_type = Spoken languagesEnglish language>English Spanish Llanito| capital = Gibraltar36N21type:city}}(by population)}}Westside, Gibraltar>WestsideGibraltarian people>Gibraltarian{{ref labela}} British MaghrebisGibraltarian peopleLlanito {{small>(colloquial)}}}}Representative democracy>Representative democratic Parliamentary system Dependent territory>dependency under constitutional monarchyMonarchy of the United Kingdom>Monarch| leader_name1 = Elizabeth IIGovernor of Gibraltar>GovernorEd Davis}}Chief Minister of Gibraltar>Chief Minister| leader_name3 = Fabian PicardoMayor of Gibraltar>Mayor| leader_name4 = Kaiane AldorinoGovernment of the United Kingdom>UK government minister{{ref labelb}}Alan Duncan Member of Parliament>MPGibraltar Parliament>Parliament| area_rank = | area_km2 = 6.7| area_sq_mi = 2.6 | percent_water = 0TITLE=CENSUS OF GIBRALTARWEBSITE=GIBRALTAR.GOV.GI, 3 August 2017, | population_estimate_rank = 222nd| population_estimate_year = 2015| population_census = | population_census_year = 2012| population_density_km2 = 4,328| population_density_sq_mi = 11,320 | population_density_rank = 5th| GDP_PPP = £1.64 billion| GDP_PPP_rank = | GDP_PPP_year = 2013| GDP_PPP_per_capita = £50,941| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = n/aHistory of Gibraltar>FormationCapture of Gibraltar>Captured| established_date1 = 4 August 1704Gibraltar was captured on 24 July 1704 Old Style or 4 August 1704 New Style.Treaty of Utrecht>CededOld Style or 11 April 1713 New Style ((:s:Peace and Friendship Treaty of Utrecht between France and Great Britain>Peace and Friendship Treaty of Utrecht between France and Great Britain)).Gibraltar National Day>National Day| established_date3 = 10 September 1967European Economic Community>EECnote_c|c}}| Gini_year = | Gini_change = | Gini = | Gini_ref = | Gini_rank = | HDI_year = 2015| HDI_change = | HDI = 0.961 | HDI_ref =Quality of Life, Balance of Powers, and Nuclear Weapons (2015) Avakov, Aleksandr Vladimirovich. Algora Publishing, 1 April 2015.| HDI_rank = 5thGibraltar pound (Pound sign>£){{ref labeld}}| currency_code = GIPCentral European Time>CET| utc_offset = +1Central European Summer Time>CEST| utc_offset_DST = +2| date_format = dd/mm/yyyynote_e|e}}+350{{ref label>note_f|f}}Bernard of Clairvaux |Our Lady of Europe}}.gi{{ref label>note_g|g}}note_a}} Of mixed Genoa, Maltese people>Maltese, Portuguese people and Spanish people>Spanish descent.note_b}} Minister of State in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office with responsibility for Europe and the Americas.note_c}} As a Special Member State territory of the United Kingdom.note_d}} Coins and sterling notes are issued by the Government of Gibraltar.note_e}} Unlike all other UK dependencies except the British Indian Ocean Territory, since 16 June 1929.note_f}} 9567 from Spain before 10 February 2007.note_g}} The .eu domain is also used, shared with other European Union member states. (Postcodes in the United Kingdom#Overseas territoriesWEBSITE=UPU.INT, 3 August 2017, }}(File:DIMG 6206 (1873188899).jpg|thumb|267px|Gibraltar)Gibraltar ({{IPAc-en|dÊ’|ɪ|ˈ|b|r|ɔː|l|t|É™|(|r|)}}; {{IPA-es|xiβɾalˈtaɾ}}) is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.Dictionary.com: GibraltarThe Free Dictionary: Gibraltar It has an area of {{convert|2.6|sqmi|km2|abbr=on|order=flip}} and is bordered to the north by Spain. The landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar at the foot of which is a densely populated town area, home to over 30,000 people, primarily Gibraltarians.WEB, Statistics Office, Abstract of Statistics 2009, Statistics Office of the Government of Gibraltar, 2, 2009,weblink The civilian population includes Gibraltarian residents, other British residents (including the wives and families of UK-based servicemen, but not the servicemen themselves) and non-British residents. Visitors and transients are not included.In 2009, this broke down into 23,907 native-born citizens, 3,129 UK British citizens and 2,395 others, making a total population of 29,431. On census night, there were 31,623 people present in Gibraltar.In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar from Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne. The territory was ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During World War II it was an important base for the Royal Navy as it controlled the entrance and exit to the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar, which is only {{convert|8|mi}} wide at this naval choke point. It remains strategically important, with half the world's seaborne trade passing through the strait.WEB, Brexit makes Gibraltar even more important to the UK,weblink British Foreign Policy Group, 24 November 2016, 2 April 2017, WEB, Gibraltar: what is at stake?,weblink Telegraph, 21 July 2009, 2 April 2017, WEB, Inside the rock: Gibraltar's strategic and military importance is complemented by financial and gaming leadership,weblink City AM, 12 November 2015, 2 April 2017, Today Gibraltar's economy is based largely on tourism, online gambling, financial services and cargo ship refuelling.WEB, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Country Profiles: Gibraltar,weblink , Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 6 May 2010; retrieved 16 April 2015{{es icon}} Informe sobre la cuestión de Gibraltar, Spanish Foreign Ministry. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100325220954weblink |date=25 March 2010 }}Daniel Boffey and Sam Jones (November 2017) "Gibraltar heading for abrupt exit from single market, says Spain" The GuardianWEB, Rahir, Patrick, Cancela-Kieffer, Michaela, Spain makes pledge on Gibraltar: 'Brexit won't change anything',weblink The Local, 19 March 2018,weblink 8 February 2018, 8 February 2018, The sovereignty of Gibraltar is a point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations because Spain asserts a claim to the territory.WEB, History and Legal Aspects of the Dispute,weblink The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, European Union and Cooperation, 23 July 2018, Gibraltarians rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum and, in a 2002 referendum, the idea of shared sovereignty was also rejected.

History

File:The Moorish Castle.jpg|thumb|left|upright|View of the northern face of the Moorish CastleMoorish Castle

Prehistory and ancient history

Evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar from around 50,000 years ago has been discovered at Gorham's Cave.WEB,weblink Gibraltar, 8 January 2010, Choi, Charles, 2006, MSNBC, The caves of Gibraltar continued to be used by Homo sapiens after the final extinction of the Neanderthals. Stone tools, ancient hearths and animal bones dating from around 40,000 years ago to about 5,000 years ago have been found in deposits left in Gorham's Cave.BOOK, Finlayson, J. C., Barton, R. N. E., Stringer, C. B., The Gibraltar Neanderthals and their Extinction, Les Premiers Hommes Modernes de la Peninsule Iberique. Actes du Colloque de la Commission VIII de l'UISPP, 978-972-8662-00-4, 2001, 48, Instituto Português de Arqueologia, Lisbon, Numerous potsherds dating from the Neolithic period have been found in Gibraltar's caves, mostly of types typical of the Almerian culture found elsewhere in Andalusia, especially around the town of Almería, from which it takes its name.Devenish, David (2003). Gibraltar before the British. London: Unpublished proof copy held by the British Library. OCLC 499242153. p. 49 There is little evidence of habitation in the Bronze Age, when people had largely stopped living in caves.Devenish, p. 55During ancient times, Gibraltar was regarded by the peoples of the Mediterranean as a place of religious and symbolic importance. The Phoenicians were present for several centuries since around 950 BC, apparently using Gorham's Cave as a shrine to the genius loci,Padró i Parcerisa, p. 128 as did the Carthaginians and Romans after them. Gibraltar was known as Mons Calpe, a name perhaps of Phoenician origin.BOOK, Hills, Hills, George, George Hills (historian), Rock of Contention: A history of Gibraltar, 13, Robert Hale & Company, 1974, London, 0-7091-4352-4, Mons Calpe was considered by the ancient Greeks and Romans as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the Greek legend of the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar by Heracles. There is no known archaeological evidence of permanent settlements from the ancient period.Hills, p. 19 They settled at the head of the bay in what is today known as the Campo (hinterland) of Gibraltar.{{sfn|Jackson|p=22}} The town of Carteia, near the location of the modern Spanish town of San Roque, was founded by the Phoenicians around 950 BC on the site of an early settlement of the native Turdetani people.Shields, p. ix

Middle Ages

After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Gibraltar came briefly under the control of the Vandals, who crossed into Africa at the invitation of Boniface, the Count (or commander) of the territory.The area later formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania for almost 300 years, from 414 until 711 AD.Following a raid in 710, a predominantly Berber army under the command of Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed from North Africa in April 711 and landed somewhere in the vicinity of Gibraltar (though most likely not in the bay or at the Rock itself).Hills, p. 30{{sfn|Jackson|pp=21–5}} Tariq's expedition led to the Islamic conquest of most of the Iberian peninsula. Mons Calpe was renamed Jebel Tariq (جبل طارق), the Mount of Tariq, subsequently corrupted into Gibraltar.In 1160 the Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built. It received the name of Medinat al-Fath (City of the Victory).JOURNAL, Norris, H.T., The Early Islamic Settlement in Gibraltar, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1961, 2844467, 91, 39–51, 10.2307/2844467, The Tower of Homage of the Moorish Castle remains standing today.From 1274 onwards, the town was fought over and captured by the Nasrids of Granada (in 1237 and 1374), the Marinids of Morocco (in 1274 and 1333) and the kings of Castile (in 1309).

Modern era

In 1462 Gibraltar was captured by Juan Alonso de Guzmán, 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia.WEB,weblink The History of Gibraltar and of Its Political Relation to Events in Europe, From the Commencement of the Moorish Dynasty in Spain to the Last Morocco War, Mocavo, After the conquest, Henry IV of Castile assumed the additional title of King of Gibraltar, establishing it as part of the comarca of the Campo Llano de Gibraltar.BOOK, Gibraltar. A History, Maurice Harvey, Spellmount Limited, 1996, 1-86227-103-8, 50–51, Six years later, Gibraltar was restored to the Duke of Medina Sidonia, who sold it in 1474 to a group of 4350 conversos (Christian converts from Judaism) from Cordova and Seville and in exchange for maintaining the garrison of the town for two years, after which time they were expelled, returning to their home towns or moving on to other parts of Spain.JOURNAL, Almoraima. Revista de Estudios Campogibraltareños, Instituto de Estudios Gibraltareños, Spanish,weblink 3 (Suplemento 'La compra de Gibraltar por los conversos andaluces (1474–1476)'), Asentamiento en Gibraltar en 1474 y expulsión en 1476, 1 April 1990, Diego, Lamelas Oladán, 25, In 1501 Gibraltar passed back to the Spanish Crown, and Isabella I of Castile issued a Royal Warrant granting Gibraltar the coat of arms that it still uses.In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, a combined Anglo-Dutch fleet, representing the Grand Alliance, captured the town of Gibraltar on behalf of the Archduke Charles of Austria in his campaign to become King of Spain. Subsequently most of the population left the town with many settling nearby.BOOK, Gibraltar. A History, Maurice Harvey, Spellmount Limited, 1996, 1-86227-103-8, 68, As the Alliance's campaign faltered, the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht was negotiated, which ceded control of Gibraltar to Britain to secure Britain's withdrawal from the war. Unsuccessful attempts by Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of 1727 and again with the Great Siege of Gibraltar (1779 to 1783), during the American War of Independence.Gibraltar became a key base for the Royal Navy and played an important role prior to the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) and during the Crimean War of 1854–56, because of its strategic location. In the 18th century, the peacetime military garrison fluctuated in numbers from a minimum of 1,100 to a maximum of 5,000. The first half of the 19th century saw a significant increase of population to more than 17,000 in 1860, as people from Britain and all around the Mediterranean (Italian, Portuguese, Maltese, Jewish and French) took up residence in the town.BOOK, Stephen, Constantine, 2009, Community and identity. The making of modern Gibraltar since 1704, Manchester University Press, 978-0-7190-8054-8, Its strategic value increased with the opening of the Suez Canal, as it lay on the sea route between the UK and the British Empire east of Suez. In the later 19th century, major investments were made to improve the fortifications and the port.BOOK, William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson, CITEREFJackson, The Rock of the Gibraltarians: A History of Gibraltar,weblink 18 April 2011, 1990, Gibraltar Books, 978-0-948466-14-4, 257,

Contemporary history

{{See also|Military history of Gibraltar during World War II}}File:Douglas DC-3 of BOAC at Gibraltar, silhouetted by searchlights on the Rock.jpg|thumb|left|Shown here during the Second World War, a Douglas Dakota of BOACBOAC During the Second World War, most of Gibraltar's civilian population was evacuated, mainly to London, but also to parts of Morocco and Madeira and to Gibraltar Camp in Jamaica. The Rock was strengthened as a fortress. On 18 July, 1940, the Vichy French air force attacked Gibraltar in retaliation for the British bombing of the Vichy navy. The naval base and the ships based there played a key role in the provisioning and supply of the island of Malta during its long siege. As well as frequent short runs (known as 'Club Runs') towards Malta to fly off aircraft reinforcements (initially Hurricanes, but later, notably from the USN aircraft carrier Wasp, Spitfires), the critical Operation Pedestal convoy was run from Gibraltar in August 1942. This resupplied the island at a critical time in the face of concentrated air attacks from German and Italian forces. Spanish dictator Francisco Franco's reluctance to allow the German Army onto Spanish soil frustrated a German plan to capture the Rock, codenamed Operation Felix.File:Gibraltar Naval dockyard and South Mole.JPG|upright=1.15|thumb|Buildings of the former HM Dockyard, GibraltarHM Dockyard, GibraltarIn the 1950s, Franco renewed Spain's claim to sovereignty over Gibraltar and restricted movement between Gibraltar and Spain. Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain under British sovereignty in the Gibraltar sovereignty referendum, 1967, which led to the passing of the Gibraltar Constitution Order in 1969. In response, Spain completely closed the border with Gibraltar and severed all communication links.WEB,weblink Gibraltar, 20 December 2007, Cahoon, Ben, 2000, WorldStatesmen, The border with Spain was partially reopened in 1982 and fully reopened in 1985 before Spain's accession to the European Community.In a referendum held in 2002, Gibraltarians rejected by an overwhelming majority (99%) a proposal of shared sovereignty on which Spain and Britain were said to have reached "broad agreement".NEWS,weblink Regions and territories: Gibraltar, 20 December 2007, 18 July 2007, British Broadcasting Corporation, NEWS,weblink Gibraltar, Mark Oliver, 20 December 2007, Sally Bolton, Jon Dennis, Matthew Tempest, 4 August 2004, The Guardian, London, The British government has committed itself to respecting the Gibraltarians' wishes.Corrected transcript of evidence taken before the Foreign Affairs Select Committee; 28 March 2008; Answer to Question 257 by Jim Murphy: [T]he UK Government will never – "never" is a seldom-used word in politics – enter into an agreement on sovereignty without the agreement of the Government of Gibraltar and their people. In fact, we will never even enter into a process without that agreement. WEB,weblink Archived copy, 30 July 2008, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303183041weblink">weblink 3 March 2016, A new Constitution Order was approved in referendum in 2006. A process of tripartite negotiations started in 2006 between Spain, Gibraltar and the UK, ending some restrictions and dealing with disputes in some specific areas such as air movements, customs procedures, telecommunications, pensions and cultural exchange.WEB,weblink World Factbook, CIA, 15 June 2010, In the British referendum on membership of the European Union 96% of Gibraltarians voted to remain on an 82% turnout.WEB,weblink EU referendum: Who are the Gibraltar 823?, BBC News, en-GB, 26 June 2016, Spain renewed calls for joint Spanish–British control of the peninsula;WEB,weblink Brexit: Spain calls for joint control of Gibraltar, BBC News, en-GB, 26 June 2016, these were strongly rebuffed by Gibraltar's Chief Minister.WEB,weblink Chief Minister Fabian Picardo says 'British Means British' at National Day political rally, Joe Duggan, (Reporter), 12 September 2016, On 18 October, 2018, however, Spain seemed to have reached an agreement with the United Kingdom in relation to its objections to Gibraltar leaving the EU with the UK, with Spain's prime minister Pedro Sánchez stating, "Gibraltar will no longer be a problem in arriving at a Brexit deal."WEB,weblink Spain says agreement reached on Gibraltar status in Brexit..., 18 October 2018, www.reuters.com,

Governance

{{See also|Disputed status of Gibraltar|Political development in modern Gibraltar}}File:The convent in Gibraltar 7.jpg|thumb|Main Street entrance to the Governor's Residence, The Convent ]]File:Gibraltar Parliament at dusk.jpg|thumb|John Mackintosh Square entrance to the Gibraltar ParliamentGibraltar ParliamentUnder its current constitution, Gibraltar has almost complete internal self-governance through a parliamentParliament.uk, UK House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee 2007–2008 Report, p. 16Telegraph.co.uk, David Blair, Gibraltar makes plans for self-government, Daily Telegraph, 28 February 2002 "Gibraltar's parliament approved an ambitious package of constitutional reform yesterday designed to give the colony almost complete self-government."WEB,weblink Laws of Gibraltar – On-line Service, Gibraltarlaws.gov.gi, 13 May 2011, elected for a term of up to four years. The unicameral parliament presently consists of 17 elected members, and the Speaker who is not elected, but appointed by a resolution of the parliament.WEB,weblink The Gibraltar Parliament, Gibraltar.gov.gi, 13 May 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100324222206weblink">weblink 24 March 2010, The government consists of 10 elected members. The head of state is the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, who is represented by the Governor of Gibraltar. The governor enacts day-to-day matters on the advice of the Gibraltar Parliament, but is responsible to the British government in respect of defence, foreign policy, internal security and general good governance.Judicial and other appointments are made on behalf of the monarch in consultation with the head of the elected government.PriceWaterhouseCoopers, "About Gibraltar"Gibraltar.gov.gi, Gibraltar Chief Minister's address at the United Nations Committee of 24 on 5 June 2007: The new Constitution "maximises self Government in all areas of Governance except defence, external affairs and internal security which, under our own Constitution vest in the Governor as a matter of distribution of powers."BBC News website, Regions and territories: Gibraltar "Gibraltar is self-governing in all areas except defence and foreign policy."The 2011 election was contested by the Gibraltar Social Democrats (GSD), Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party (GSLP)-Gibraltar Liberal Party (GLP) Alliance and the Progressive Democratic Party (PDP). The PDP was a new party, formed in 2006 and fielded candidates in the 2007 election, but none were elected. The head of government is the Chief Minister ({{as of|2011|December|lc=y}}, Fabian Picardo). All local political parties oppose any transfer of sovereignty to Spain, instead supporting self-determination. The main UK opposition parties also support this policy, and it is British government policy not to engage in talks about the sovereignty of Gibraltar without the consent of the people of Gibraltar.WEB, The Committee Office, House of Commons,weblink Statement by the Minister for Europe, Publications.parliament.uk, 13 May 2011, Gibraltar is part of the European Union, having joined through the European Communities Act 1972 (UK), which gave effect to the Treaty of Accession 1972, as a dependent territory of the United Kingdom under what was then article 227(4) of the Treaty Establishing the European Community covering special member state territories, with exemption from some areas such as the European Union Customs Union, Common Agricultural Policy and the Schengen Area. It is the only British Overseas Territory which is part of the European Union. After a 10-year campaign for the right to vote in European elections, since 2004 the people of Gibraltar have participated in elections for the European Parliament as part of the South West England constituency.WEB,weblink Gibraltar should join South West for elections to European Parliament, 20 December 2007, 28 August 2003, Electoral Commission (United Kingdom), Electoral Commission,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071205011910weblink">weblink 5 December 2007, yes, On 23 June 2016 Gibraltar voted along with the United Kingdom in the EU referendum; 96% of its population voted to remain, but the overall United Kingdom result gave a 51.9% majority to leaving the EU.NEWS, Withnall, Adam, Gibraltar overwhelmingly backs Remain in first result of the night,weblink The Independent, Independent Digital News & Media, 23 June 2016, 23 June 2016, Nevertheless, Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez stated on 18 October 2018 that the Gibraltar protocol had been "resolved" and that Spain will hold no objection when Gibraltar leaves the EU with Britain.WEB,weblink At Brussels summit, Spain’s PM is hopeful of progress on Gibraltar, Susana, Urra, 18 October 2018, elpais.com, WEB,weblink UK, Spain reach Brexit deal over Gibraltar: Spanish PM, 18 October 2018, www.digitaljournal.com, Gibraltar was nominated to be included on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories by the United Kingdom when the list was created in 1946WEB,weblink Gibraltar Profile, UN, 6 November 2016, and has been listed ever since.WEB,weblink Gibraltar Territorial status, United Nations Committee on Decolonization, 28 June 2014, The government of Gibraltar has actively worked to have Gibraltar removed from the list,Gibraltar: Time to get off the fence; Second Report of Session 2014–15; HC 461. Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Foreign Affairs Committee. Paragraph 83, p. 46 and in 2008 the British government declared Gibraltar's continued presence on the list an anachronism.Parliament.uk, UK House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee 2007–2008 Report, p. 5Gibraltar is not a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in its own right and is represented by the United Kingdom but was granted Associate Membership of the Commonwealth Foundation in 2004. Gibraltar has competed in the Commonwealth Games since 1958.{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"! colspan=2| Party! colspan=2|Members of Parliament! colspan=4|Party! colspan=4|MEPs{{Party name with colour|Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party}} 7! colspan=3|{{Party name with colour|Conservative Party (UK)}}(Gibraltar Conservatives) 2{{Party name with colour|Gibraltar Social Democrats}} 6! colspan=3|{{Party name with colour|Brexit Party}} 1! colspan=2|{{Party name with colour|Independent (politician)}} 1{{Party name with colour|Liberal Party of Gibraltar}} 3! colspan=3|{{Party name with colour|Labour Party (UK)}} 1{{Party name with colour|Together Gibraltar}} 1! colspan=3|{{Party name with colour|Green Party of England and Wales}} 1! colspan=2| Total! 17! colspan=5 | Total! colspan=6 | 6

Geography

{{See also|Rock of Gibraltar|Bay of Gibraltar|Strait of Gibraltar|Gibraltar Artificial Reef}}File:Rock of Gibraltar from the Mediterranean Steps.jpg|thumb|left|View of the Rock of Gibraltar from the Mediterranean StepsMediterranean Steps(File:Gibraltar aerial view looking northwest.jpg|right|thumb|Gibraltar from the air, looking north-west)Gibraltar's territory covers {{convert|6.7|km2|sqmi}} and shares a {{convert|1.2|km|mi|adj=on}} land border with Spain. The town of La Línea de la Concepción, a municipality of the province of Cádiz, lies on the Spanish side of the border. The Spanish hinterland forms the comarca of Campo de Gibraltar (literally "Countryside of Gibraltar"). The shoreline measures {{convert|12|km|mi}} in length. There are two coasts ("Sides") of Gibraltar: the East Side, which contains the settlements of Sandy Bay and Catalan Bay; and the Westside, where the vast majority of the population lives. Gibraltar has no administrative divisions but is divided into seven Major Residential Areas.Having negligible natural resources and few natural freshwater resources, limited to natural wells in the north, until recently Gibraltar used large concrete and/or natural rock water catchments to collect rainwater. Fresh water from the boreholes is supplemented by two desalination plants: a reverse osmosis plant, constructed in a tunnel within the rock, and a multi-stage flash distillation plant at North Mole.WEB,weblink Gibraltar Water Supply, 20 December 2007, AquaGib, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071110021022weblink">weblink 10 November 2007, Gibraltar's terrain consists of the {{convert|426|m|ft|adj=mid|-high}} Rock of GibraltarWEB,weblink Visit Gibraltar – Upper Rock, 9 January 2014, made of Jurassic limestone, and the narrow coastal lowland surrounding it. It contains many tunnelled roads, most of which are still operated by the military and closed to the general public.{{Geographic locationGIB}} GibraltarESP}} La Línea de la Concepción, Spain|East=Mediterranean SeaStrait of Gibraltar; {{flagicon>MAR}} Morocco; {{flagicon|ESP}} CeutaESP}} Algeciras, Spain; Bay of Gibraltar}{{wide image|View from top of Gib rock.jpg|1000px|Morocco (top far left across Strait); Spain: Algeciras (top centre across Bay of Gibraltar) and La Linea (right); Gibraltar cruise port and airport runway (right foreground); from the Rock}}

Climate

Gibraltar has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa),CIA Factbook – Geographic locationThe Maltese Islands, Department of Information – Malta. with mild, rainy winters and warm, dry summers. As is the case for nearby Algeciras and Tarifa, summers are significantly cooler and annual temperature more constant than other cities on the southern coast of the Iberian peninsula because of its position on the Strait of Gibraltar. Rain occurs mainly in winter, with summer being generally dry. Its average annual temperature is about {{convert|22|°C|°F|abbr=on}} as a daily high and {{convert|15|°C|°F|abbr=on}} as the overnight low. In the coldest month, January, the high temperature averages {{convert|16.3|C|F}} and the overnight low is {{convert|11|C|F}} and the average sea temperature is {{convert|16|C|F}}. In the warmest month, August, the daily high temperature is {{convert|25|C|F}}, the overnight low is {{convert|20|°C|°F|abbr=on}}, and the average sea temperature is {{convert|22|°C|°F|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Moyennes 1981/2010 Gibraltar, Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world, Metéo Climat, French, 4 November 2017, WEB,weblink Gibraltar Climate Guide, 5 June 2009, {{Weather box|location= Gibraltar|metric first= yes|single line= yes|temperature colour=|Jan high C = 16.3|Feb high C = 16.8|Mar high C = 18.5|Apr high C = 20.0|May high C = 22.4|Jun high C = 25.6|Jul high C = 28.2|Aug high C = 28.4|Sep high C = 26.1|Oct high C = 22.6|Nov high C = 19.2|Dec high C = 17.0|year high C = |Jan mean C = 13.5|Feb mean C = 14.1|Mar mean C = 15.6|Apr mean C = 16.7|May mean C = 19.0|Jun mean C = 21.9|Jul mean C = 24.2|Aug mean C = 24.6|Sep mean C = 22.9|Oct mean C = 19.8|Nov mean C = 16.6|Dec mean C = 14.6|year mean C = |Jan low C = 10.8|Feb low C = 11.4|Mar low C = 12.6|Apr low C = 13.4|May low C = 15.6|Jun low C = 18.2|Jul low C = 20.2|Aug low C = 20.8|Sep low C = 19.6|Oct low C = 17.0|Nov low C = 14.0|Dec low C = 12.1|year low C =|Jan precipitation mm = 106.6|Feb precipitation mm = 99.0|Mar precipitation mm = 74.3|Apr precipitation mm = 65.9|May precipitation mm = 33.1|Jun precipitation mm = 8.6|Jul precipitation mm = 1.0|Aug precipitation mm = 8.8|Sep precipitation mm = 20.0|Oct precipitation mm = 80.7|Nov precipitation mm = 121.6|Dec precipitation mm = 173.8|year precipitation mm = 793|Jan precipitation days = 7|Feb precipitation days = 7|Mar precipitation days = 6|Apr precipitation days = 7|May precipitation days = 4|Jun precipitation days = 1|Jul precipitation days = 0|Aug precipitation days = 0|Sep precipitation days = 2|Oct precipitation days = 6|Nov precipitation days = 8|Dec precipitation days = 9|year precipitation days = 58|unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm|Jan sun = 147|Feb sun = 143|Mar sun = 204|Apr sun = 233|May sun = 289|Jun sun = 319|Jul sun = 326|Aug sun = 309|Sep sun = 240|Oct sun = 197|Nov sun = 135|Dec sun = 134|year sun = |source 1 = Metéo Climat 1981–2010 (sun Deutscher Wetterdienst, 1961–1990)WEB,weblink Station 08495 Gibraltar, Global station data 1961–1990 – Sunshine Duration, Deutscher WetterdienstStation ID for Gibraltar is 08495. Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration.}}}}

Flora and fauna

{{See also|List of mammals of Gibraltar|List of birds of Gibraltar|List of amphibians and reptiles of Gibraltar}}File:Iberis gibraltarica.JPG|thumb|Gibraltar candytuft growing at the Gibraltar Botanic GardensGibraltar Botanic GardensFile:Common dolphin taken by Graham Hesketh of Dolphin Safari.png|thumb|A common dolphin in the Bay of GibraltarBay of GibraltarOver 500 different species of flowering plants grow on the Rock. Gibraltar is the only place in Europe where the Gibraltar candytuft (Iberis gibraltarica) is found growing in the wild; the plant is otherwise native to North Africa. It is the symbol of the Upper Rock nature reserve. Olive and pine trees are among the most common of those growing around the Rock.Most of the Rock's upper area is covered by a nature reserve which is home to around 230 Barbary macaques, the famous "apes" of Gibraltar, which are actually monkeys. These are the only wild apes or monkeys found in Europe.C. Michael Hogan (2008) Barbary Macaque: Macaca sylvanus, Globaltwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120419033431weblink |date=19 April 2012 }} This species, known scientifically as Macaca sylvanus, is listed as endangered by the IUCN Red List and is declining. Three-quarters of the world population live in the Middle Atlas mountains of Morocco. Recent genetic studies and historical documents point to their presence on the Rock before its capture by the British, having possibly been introduced during the Islamic period. A superstition analogous to that of the ravens at the Tower of London states that if the apes ever leave, so will the British. In 1944, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, was so concerned about the dwindling population of apes that he sent a message to the Colonial Secretary requesting that something be done about the situation.NEWS, Casciani, Dominic,weblink Churchill sends telegram to protect apes, BBC News, 22 July 2004, 13 May 2011, Other mammals found in Gibraltar include rabbits, foxes and bats. Dolphins and whales are frequently seen in the Bay of Gibraltar. Migrating birds are very common and Gibraltar is home to the only Barbary partridges found on the European continent.In 1991, Graham Watson, Gibraltar's MEP, highlighted conservationists' fears that urban development, tourism and invasive plant species were threatening Gibraltar's own plants as well as birds and bat species.Bruno Waterfield Whitehall gaffe 'gives Gibraltar's shores to Spain. The Daily Telegraph (London), 7 November 2009

Environment

(File:RockofGibraltar.jpg|thumb|right|The Rock of Gibraltar (2010))In May 2016 a report by the World Health Organization showed that Gibraltar had the worst air quality in any British territory. The report concentrated on PM10 and PM2.5 pollutants in the air.WEB
,weblink
, Ambient (outdoor) air pollution database, by country and city 2016 – Excel format
, 25 May 2016,

Economy

File:Barbary macaque and tourists.jpg|thumb|upright|The semi-wild Barbary macaques are an integral feature in Gibraltar's tourism.]]The British military traditionally dominated Gibraltar's economy, with the naval dockyard providing the bulk of economic activity. This, however, has diminished over the last 20 years, and is estimated to account for only 7 percent of the local economy, compared to over 60 percent in 1984. Today, Gibraltar's economy is dominated by four main sectors: financial services, online gambling, shipping, and tourism, which includes duty-free retail sales to visitors.WEB,weblink Europe. Gibraltar (British Overseas Territory), Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 21 August 2012, 9 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120927034456weblink">weblink 27 September 2012, The territory also has a small manufacturing sector, with one company supplying ambulances produced from converted SUV vehicles to the United Nations and other agencies.WEB,weblink George Bassadone: Leading from the front, 23 October 2009, B2gibraltar.com, 3 August 2017, WEB,weblink In Gibraltar, British citizens worry about effects of Brexit, Pbs.org, 3 August 2017, In the early 2000s, many bookmakers and online gaming operators moved to Gibraltar to benefit from operating in a regulated jurisdiction with a favourable corporate tax regime. This corporate tax regime for non-resident controlled companies was phased out by January 2011 and replaced by a still favourable fixed corporate tax rate of 10 percent.WEB,weblink Tax Information, 9 May 2011, Government of Gibraltar, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120428023855weblink">weblink 28 April 2012, Tourism is also a significant industry. Gibraltar is a popular port for cruise ships and attracts day visitors from resorts in Spain. The Rock is a popular tourist attraction, particularly among British tourists and residents in the southern coast of Spain. It is also a popular shopping destination, and all goods and services are VAT free, but may be subject to Gibraltar taxes. Many of the large British high street chains have branches or franchises in Gibraltar including Morrisons, Marks & Spencer and Mothercare. Branches and franchises of international retailers such as Tommy Hilfiger and Sunglass Hut are also present in Gibraltar, as is the Spanish clothing company Mango.File:Queensway Quay in Gibraltar.jpg|thumb|left|Queensway Quay Marina, along with Ocean Village, are two exclusive residential districts]]A number of British and international banks have operations based in Gibraltar. Jyske Bank claims to be the oldest bank in the country, based on Jyske's acquisition in 1987 of Banco Galliano, which began operations in Gibraltar in 1855. An ancestor of Barclays, the Anglo-Egyptian Bank, entered in 1888, and Credit Foncier (now Crédit Agricole) entered in 1920.In 1967, Gibraltar enacted the Companies (Taxation and Concessions) Ordinance (now an Act), which provided for special tax treatment for international business.WEB,weblink Microsoft Word – 1983-13o.doc, PDF, 26 March 2013, This was one of the factors leading to the growth of professional services such as private banking and captive insurance management. Gibraltar has several attractive attributes as a financial centre, including a common law legal system and access to the EU single market in financial services. The Financial Services Commission (FSC),WEB,weblink Financial Services Commission, Fsc.gi, 13 May 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511223754weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, which was established by an ordinance in 1989 (now an Act) that took effect in 1991, regulates the finance sector.WEB,weblink Microsoft Word – 2007-03o.doc, PDF, 26 March 2013, In 1997, the Department of Trade and Industry established its Gibraltar Finance Centre (GFC) Division to facilitate the development the financial sector development. {{As of|2012}}, Gibraltar has 0.103 Big Four accounting firm offices per 1,000 population, the second highest in the world after the British Virgin Islands, and 0.6 banks per 1,000 people, the fifth most banks per capita in the world.Moran Harari, Markus Meinzer and Richard Murphy (October 2012) "Financial Secrecy, Banks and the Big 4 Firms of Accountants" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160407224017weblink |date=7 April 2016 }} Tax Justice Network pp. 21–24 {{as of|2017}}, there is very significant uncertainty on continuing access to the EU single market after the forthcoming Brexit.The currency of Gibraltar is the Gibraltar pound, issued by the Government of Gibraltar under the terms of the 1934 Currency Notes Act. These banknotes are legal tender in Gibraltar alongside Bank of England banknotes.European Central Bank Monthly Bulletin, April 2006, p. 96WEB,weblink Currency Notes Act, Section 6, 20 December 2007, 11 May 1934, Government of Gibraltar, In a currency board arrangement, these notes are issued against reserves of sterling.Managing a Global Enterprise, William R. Feist, James A. Heely, Min H. Lu, p. 40Currency Board Arrangements, Tomás J. T. Baliño, Charles Enoch, International Monetary Fund, page 1 Clearing and settlement of funds is conducted in sterling.WEB,weblink Gibraltar, 20 December 2007, Madge, A, A. Simons, June 2000, Guardian International Currency Corp,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011135336weblink">weblink 11 October 2007, yes, Coins in circulation follow British denominations but have separate designs. Unofficially, most retail outlets in Gibraltar accept the euro, though some payphones and the Royal Gibraltar Post Office, along with all other government offices, do not.Noble, John; Forsyth, Susan; Hardy, Paula; Hannigan, Des (2005). Andalucía. Lonely Planet. p. 221. {{ISBN|978-1-74059-676-3}}.

Demographics

File:Cathedral of St. Mary the Crowned west.jpg|thumb|The Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Mary the CrownedCathedral of St. Mary the CrownedFile:Gibraltar Hindu Temple altar.JPG|thumb|The Gibraltar Hindu TempleGibraltar Hindu TempleFile:Mosque of Gibraltar.jpg|thumb|The Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque was a gift from King Fahd of Saudi ArabiaSaudi ArabiaGibraltar is one of the most densely populated territories in the world, with a usually-resident population in 2012 of 32,194WEB,weblink Statistics Office, Government of Gibraltar: Abstract of Statistics Report 2011, Gibraltar.gov.gi, 3 August 2017, equivalent to approximately {{convert|4959|PD/sqkm|PD/sqmi}}. The growing demand for space is being increasingly met by land reclamation; reclaimed land currently comprises approximately one tenth of the territory's total area.

Ethnic groups

{{See also|Gibraltarian people}}The demographics of Gibraltar reflect the many European and other economic migrants who came to the Rock over 300 years ago, after almost all of the Spanish population left in 1704.Origin of surnames in the electoral roll by percentage is: British (27%), Spanish (26%, mostly Andalusian but also some 2% Menorcan), Genoese and other Italian (15%), Portuguese (15%), and Maltese (8%). There are also small (less than 1%) populations of other groups such as Moroccans, French, Austrians, Chinese, Japanese, Polish and Danish.Archer, Edward G.: Gibraltar, identity and empire. Routledge Advances in European Politics{|class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"|+ Usually-Resident Population and Persons Present in Gibraltar! Resident Census!data-sort-type="number"|1981!data-sort-type="number"|1991!data-sort-type="number"|2001!data-sort-type="number"|2012|79.0%|13.2%|1.6%|6.2%Gibraltar Census History {{webarchive >url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131114122436weblink |2.1%|1.6%
(*) Includes all nationalities different from Gibraltarian, UK and other British and Moroccan.

Language

The official language of Gibraltar is English, and is used by the government and in schools. Most locals are bilingual, also speaking Spanish. However, because of the varied mix of ethnic groups which reside there, other languages are also spoken on the Rock. Berber and Arabic are spoken by the Moroccan community, as are Hindi and Sindhi by the Indian community. Maltese is spoken by some families of Maltese descent.BOOK, E.G. Archer, Gibraltar, Identity and Empire,weblink 11 January 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-00550-3, 44–, Gibraltarians often converse in Llanito ({{IPA-es|ʎaˈnito|pron}}),WEB,weblink Culture of Gibraltar, Everyculture, 5 October 2007, a vernacular unique to Gibraltar. It is based on Andalusian Spanish with a strong mixture of British English and elements from languages such as Maltese, Portuguese, Genoese Italian and Haketia (a Judaeo-Spanish dialect). Llanito also often involves code-switching to English and Spanish.Gibraltarians often call themselves Llanitos.BOOK, Anja Kellermann, A New New English: Language, Politics, and Identity in Gibraltar,weblink 2001, BoD – Books on Demand, 978-3-8311-2368-1, 9–,

Religion

{{bar box|float=left|title=Percentage of population by religion|titlebar=#AAF|right2=Percentage|bars={{bar percent|Roman Catholic|#00FF00|72.1}}{{bar percent|Church of England |#FFFF00|7.7}}{{bar percent|None|#00FFFF|7.1}}{{bar percent|Other Christian|#1C39BB|3.8}}{{bar percent|Muslim|#FF0000|3.6}}{{bar percent|Jewish|#0000FF|2.4}}{{bar percent|Hindu|#800080|2.0}}{{bar percent|Other/not stated|#000000|1.3}}}}According to the 2012 census, approximately 72.1% of Gibraltarians are Roman Catholics.WEB,weblink 2001 Census, 10 April 2012, Official Government of Gibraltar London website, The 16th century Saint Mary the Crowned is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Gibraltar, and also the oldest Catholic church in the territory. Other Christian denominations include the Church of England (7.7%), whose Cathedral of the Holy Trinity is the cathedral of the Anglican Bishop of Gibraltar in Europe; the Gibraltar Methodist Church,WEB,weblink Gibraltar Methodist Church, 30 October 2007, The Methodist Church, Church of Scotland, various Pentecostal and independent churches mostly influenced by the House Church and Charismatic movements, as well as a Plymouth Brethren congregation. Several of these congregations are represented by the Gibraltar Evangelical Alliance. File:Cathedral of the Holy Trinity.jpg|thumb|Cathedral of the Holy Trinity ]] There is also a ward of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and two congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses. 7.1% advised that they have no religion.The third religion in size is Islam (3.6% of the population). There is also an established Hindu population (2%), members of the Bahá'í Faith and a long-established Jewish community, which, at 763 persons, accounts for 2.4% of the population. As a share of the total population, this is the second-largest Jewish population in the world, trailing only Israel. There are four functioning Orthodox synagogues in Gibraltar and several kosher establishments.

Education

(File:The Arms of The University of Gibraltar.JPG|thumb|The Arms of The University of Gibraltar)Education in Gibraltar generally follows the English model, operating within a three tier system. Schools in Gibraltar use the Key Stage modular approach to teach the National Curriculum. Gibraltar has 15 state schools, two private schools and a college of further education, Gibraltar College. Government secondary schools are Bayside Comprehensive School for boys and Westside School for girls, and Prior Park School Gibraltar is an independent coeducational secondary school.Home. Prior Park School Gibraltar. Retrieved on 28 October 2017.On 31 March 2015 the government of Gibraltar announced the adoption of the University of Gibraltar Act and The University of Gibraltar opened in September 2015.WEB,weblink Minister Licudi announces the adoption of the University of Gibraltar Act, WEB,weblink University of Gibraltar, Previously, there were no facilities in Gibraltar for full-time higher education, and consequently, all Gibraltarian students studied elsewhere at degree level or its equivalent and also for certain non-degree courses.WEB,weblink Education & Training, 20 December 2007, 7 April 2003, Government of Gibraltar,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20010302073311weblink">weblink 2 March 2001, The Government of Gibraltar operates a scholarship/grant system to provide funding for students studying in the United Kingdom. All Gibraltarian students used to follow the UK student loans procedure, applying for a loan from the Student Loans Company which was then reimbursed in full by the Government of Gibraltar. In August 2010, this system was replaced by the direct payment by the government of grants and tuition fees. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians continue their studies at university level.{{fact|reason=It would seem surprising if an overwhelming majority – so, not just 50%+1 but far more – of Gibraltarians go to university. A typical number internationally would be 40–50%.|date=January 2019}}

Health care

Culture

File:Gibraltar Tercentenary flag display.jpg|thumb|TercentenaryTercentenaryThe culture of Gibraltar reflects Gibraltarians' diverse origins. While there are Spanish (mostly from nearby Andalusia) and British influences, the ethnic origins of most Gibraltarians are not confined to these ethnicities. Other ethnicities include Genoese, Maltese, Portuguese, and German. A few other Gibraltar residents are Jewish of Sephardic origin, Moroccan, or Indians. British influence remains strong, with English being the language of government, commerce, education and the media.Gibraltar's first sovereignty referendum is celebrated annually on Gibraltar National Day (10 September). It is a public holiday, during which most Gibraltarians dress in their national colours of red and white. Until 2016, the tradition had been to also release 30,000 similarly coloured balloons, which represented the people of Gibraltar. However, this tradition has now been ended because of the threat that it poses to wildlife, particularly marine.NEWS, Gibraltar ends annual balloon release on environmental grounds,weblink 7 July 2016, The Guardian, Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies, April 2016, The 300th anniversary of Gibraltar's capture was celebrated in 2004 on Tercentenary Day (4 August), when in recognition of and with thanks for its long association with Gibraltar, the Royal Navy was given the Freedom of the City of Gibraltar and a human chain of Gibraltarians dressed in red, white and blue, linked hands to encircle the Rock. On 4 June 2012, the Gibraltar Diamond Jubilee Flotilla, inspired by the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant, celebrated sixty years of the Queen's reign.NEWS, Be a part of history in the Gibraltar Diamond Jubilee Flotilla,weblink 17 August 2012, Home and Lifestyle Magazine, 16 May 2012, The Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation operates a television and radio station on UHF, VHF and medium-wave. The radio service is also internet-streamed. Special events and the daily news bulletin are streamed in video. The other local radio service is operated by the British Forces Broadcasting Service which also provides a limited cable television network to HM Forces. The largest and most frequently published newspaper is the Gibraltar Chronicle, Gibraltar's oldest established daily newspaper and the world's second oldest English language newspaper to have been in print continuouslyWEB,weblink Gibraltar: Fact File, Birmingham UK International Directory – Gibraltar, 31 August 2007, with daily editions six days a week. Panorama is published on weekdays, and 7 Days, The New People, and Gibsport are weekly.File:Gibraltar National Day 027 (9719742224) (2).jpg|thumb|left|Thousands of Gibraltarians dress in their national colours of red and white during the 2013 Gibraltar National DayGibraltar National DayNative Gibraltarians have produced some literature of note. The first in fiction was probably Héctor Licudi's 1929 novel Barbarita, written in Spanish,JOURNAL, José Juan, Yborra Aznar, Eúphoros, 1575-0205, 7, 2004, 317–26, La ciudad perdida: Gibraltar en la obra de Héctor Licudi,weblink Spanish, chronicling the largely autobiographical adventures of a young Gibraltarian man. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, several anthologies of poetry were published by Leopoldo Sanguinetti, Albert Joseph Patron and Alberto Pizzarello. The 1960s were largely dominated by the theatrical works of Elio Cruz and his two highly acclaimed Spanish language plays La Lola se va pá Londre and Connie con cama camera en el comedor.{{Citation needed|date=May 2010}} In the 1990s, the Gibraltarian man-of-letters Mario Arroyo published Profiles (1994), a series of bilingual meditations on love, loneliness and death. Trino Cruz is a bilingual poet originally writing English but now mainly in Spanish, who also translates Maghreb poetry.JOURNAL, Espejos y espejismos: la poesía de Trino Cruz, José Juan, Yborra Aznar, Eúphoros, 2002, 23, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, 1575-0205, WEB, Luque, Alejandro, El gibraltareño Trino Cruz reúne dos décadas de su mejor poesía,weblink BOOK, Juan José Téllez, Yanitos. Viaje al corazón de Gibraltar (1713–2013),weblink 16 January 2013, Centro de Estudios Andaluces, 978-84-941817-5-7, 49–, Of late there have been works by the essayist Mary Chiappe, such as her volume of essays Cabbages and Kings (2006) and by M. G. Sanchez, author of the books Rock Black: Ten Gibraltarian Stories (2008) and Diary of a Victorian Colonial (2009). Mary Chiappe and Sam Benady have also published a series of detective books centred on the character of the nineteenth-century Gibraltarian sleuth Bresciano.Musicians from Gibraltar include Charles Ramirez, the first guitarist invited to play with the Royal College of Music Orchestra,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030909225847weblink">weblink 9 September 2003, Always a Pleasure to Perform in Gibraltar, 20 December 2007, Mascarenhas, Alice, The Gibraltar Chronicle, yes, successful rock bands like Breed 77, Melon Diesel and Taxi, while Gibraltarian bassist Glen Diani played for Irish/British nu metal group One Minute Silence. Albert Hammond had top 10 hits in the UK and US and has written many songs for international artists such as Whitney Houston, Tina Turner and Julio Iglesias.WEB,weblink Newsletter No 70, 30 March 2015, November 2004, Friends of Gibraltar Heritage Society, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071201121115weblink">weblink 1 December 2007, Gibraltarian cuisine is the result of a long relationship between the Andalusian Spaniards and the British, as well as the many foreigners who made Gibraltar their home over the past three centuries. The culinary influences include those from Malta, Genoa, Portugal, Andalusia and Britain. This marriage of tastes has given Gibraltar an eclectic mix of Mediterranean and British cuisine. Profiteroles, a French choux pastry ball with a sweet filling of whipped cream, is considered to be Gibraltar's national dish.NEWS,weblink Gibraltar: 7 reasons why you should pay it a visit, BT.com, 20 May 2017, en, These are often served after a meal including Calentita, a baked bread-like dish made with chickpea flour, water, olive oil, salt and pepper.

Sport

{{refimprove section|date=July 2011}}File:Gibraltar_starting_XI.jpg|thumb|The Gibraltar national football team lining up in their first official match, against Slovakia, in 2013]]In 2007, there were 18 Gibraltar sports associations with official recognition from their respective international governing bodies. Others have submitted applications for recognition which are being considered. The government supports the many sporting associations financially. Gibraltar also competes in the bi-annual Island Games, which it hosted in 1995.Football is a popular sport in Gibraltar. The Gibraltar Football Association applied for full membership of UEFA, but their bid was turned down in 2007 in a contentious decision.NEWS,weblink Gibraltar fail to get Uefa place, BBC Sport, 26 January 2007, Gibraltar was confirmed as UEFA's 54th member on 24 May 2013 as a result of Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) arbitration and played in Euro 2016 qualifications.WEB,weblink Gibraltar played in the qualifying program for the 2016 European Championship., NEWS,weblink Gibraltar given full Uefa membership at London Congress, BBC Sport, 24 May 2013, Their first match was a 0–0 draw against Slovakia. Gibraltar's national team won its first-ever match in UEFA competition on 13 October 2018, beating Armenia in the 2018–19 UEFA Nations League D.NEWS,weblink Gibraltar win competitive match for first time, beating Armenia 1-0, 2018-10-13, BBC Sport, 2018-10-14, en-GB, Subsequently, Gibraltar applied for FIFA membership but this bid was also turned down. On 2 May 2016 the CAS upheld the appeal filed by the Gibraltar Football Association regarding its request to become a full-time member of FIFA. CAS ordered FIFA to stop blocking Gibraltar's application for membership and allow it "without delay".NEWS,weblink CAS Upholds the Appeal Filed by the Gibraltar Football Association Regarding Its Request to Become a Full Member of FIFA, Cricket enjoys popularity in Gibraltar. The Gibraltar national cricket team won the European Cricket Championship Division Two in 2000 and 2002.Rugby union is fairly popular and one of the fastest growing team sports. Gibraltar Rugby Football Union applied for membership of Europe's governing body for rugby. Gibraltar is believed to be the birthplace of the rugby variant Tag Rugby.BOOK, Godwin, Terry, The Guinness Book of Rugby Facts & Feats, 1983, 2nd, Guinness Superlatives Ltd, Enfield, 186, 0-85112-264-7, {{NoteTag|Despite several sites reporting that tag rugby was invented by Perry Haddock in Australia around 1990 (this is OzTag, a variant of Tag Rugby), Godwin's wrote about the topic seven years prior. Godwin does not mention when the sport began on Gibraltar, but he does explicitly use the term "Tag Rugby" to describe the game.}}The Gibraltar Rifle Association (GRA) was Gibraltar's most successful team at the 2009 Island Games, earning four gold medals.Darts is also a popular sport, with the Gibraltar Darts Association (a full member of World Darts Federation since 1977) running leagues and other regular tournaments. In 2010, Gibraltar hosted and won the Mediterranean Cup, competing against France, Italy, Turkey, Malta and Cyprus.{{Citation needed|date=June 2012}}

Communications

(File:Telex1.jpg|thumb|A plaque in City Mill Lane marking the site of Gibraltar's first telephone exchange.)(File:Victorian Post Box of 1887 in use at Gibraltar in 2008.jpg|thumb|upright|A Victorian post box of standard 1887 UK design in use in Gibraltar's Main Street (2008).)Gibraltar has a digital telephone exchange supported by a fibre optic and copper infrastructure; the telephone operator Gibtelecom also operates a GSM network. Internet connectivity is available across the fixed network. Gibraltar's top-level domain code is .gi.International Direct Dialling (IDD) is provided, and Gibraltar was allocated the access code +350 by the International Telecommunication Union. This has been universally valid since 10 February 2007, when the telecom dispute was resolved.

Transport

File:Gibraltar Cable Car 2.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The Gibraltar Cable Car runs from outside the Gibraltar Botanic GardensGibraltar Botanic GardensWithin Gibraltar, the main form of transport is the car. Motorcycles are also very popular and there is a good modern bus service. Unlike in the UK and other British territories, traffic drives on the right and speed limits are in km/h, as the territory shares a land border with Spain. The E15 highway connecting Spain, France, and the United Kingdom is accessible from the Spanish side using the CA-34 autovía.There is a Gibraltar Cable Car that runs from ground level to the top of the Rock, with an intermediate station at Apes' Den.Restrictions on transport introduced by Spanish dictator Francisco Franco closed the land frontier in 1969 and also prohibited any air or ferry connections. In 1982, the land border was reopened. As the result of an agreement signed in Córdoba on 18 September 2006 between Gibraltar, the United Kingdom and Spain,WEB,weblink Communiqué of the ministerial meeting of the forum of dialogue on Gibraltar, 17 October 2008, 18 September 2006, Government of Gibraltar, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070322195006weblink">weblink 22 March 2007, the Spanish government agreed to relax border controls at the frontier that have plagued locals for decades; in return, Britain paid increased pensions to Spanish workers who lost their jobs when Franco closed the border.WEB,weblinkweblink 24 February 2010, Trilateral Forum. Ministerial Statement on Pensions, 17 October 2008, 18 September 2006, Government of Gibraltar, yes, Telecommunication restrictions were lifted in February 2007 and air links with Spain were restored in December 2006.WEB,weblink Press Release. Airport Agreement, 17 October 2008, 18 September 2006, Government of Gibraltar, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071124171815weblink">weblink 24 November 2007, NEWS,weblink Spain restores Gibraltar air link, 20 December 2007, 16 December 2006, British Broadcasting Corporation, The border control is the only road border control between two EU members that is expected to remain indefinitely (Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania have border controls which are expected to be removed around 2020), however Britain plans to leave the EU. Motorists and pedestrians crossing the border with Spain are occasionally subjected to very long delays.WEB, The Committee Office, House of Commons,weblink Frontier restrictions, Publications.parliament.uk, 13 May 2011, Spain has occasionally closed the border during disputes or incidents involving the Gibraltar authorities, such as the Aurora cruise ship incidentScotsman.com News: Spanish seal border as virus ship docks. Retrieved 16 October 2007 and when fishermen from the Spanish fishing vessel Piraña were arrested for illegal fishing in Gibraltar waters.WEB,weblink Fishermen block frontier, Panorama.gi, 13 May 2011,

Air

{{as of|2017}}, Gibraltar maintains regular flight connections with London, Manchester and Bristol in the UK, and with Casablanca and Tangier in Morocco.WEB, Gibraltar International Airport, Destinations,weblink 18 July 2017, GB Airways operated a service between Gibraltar and London and other cities for many years. The airline initially flew under the name "Gibraltar Airways". In 1989, and in anticipation of service to cities outside the UK, Gibraltar Airways changed its name to GB Airways with the belief that a new name would incur fewer political problems. As a franchise, the airline operated flights in full British Airways livery. In 2007, GB Airways was purchased by easyJet,WEB,weblinkweblink 24 February 2010, Press Release: Government of Gibraltar Reaction to GB Sale, Government of Gibraltar, 16 October 2008, yes, which began operating flights under their name in April 2008 when British Airways re-introduced flights to Gibraltar under their name. EasyJet have since added Bristol and Manchester and also operated flights to Liverpool between 2011 and 2012. Until entering administration in October 2017, Monarch Airlines operated the largest number of flights between the United Kingdom and Gibraltar, with scheduled services between Gibraltar and Luton, London Gatwick, Birmingham and Manchester. The Spanish national airline, Iberia, operated a daily service to Madrid which ceased for lack of demand. In May 2009, Ándalus Líneas Aéreas opened a Spanish service,WEB,weblink Regional Andalusia airline begins Gibraltar-Madrid airbridge, MercoPress, 9 March 2010, which also ceased operations in March 2010.WEB,weblink Andalus drops Gibraltar, Panorama.gi, 13 May 2011, An annual return charter flight to Malta is operated by Maltese national airline, Air Malta.(File:Gibraltar Airport Main Highway.jpg|thumb|right|The main road that crosses Gibraltar Airport.)(File:Gibraltar Airport New Terminal.jpg|thumb|right|The new terminal at Gibraltar Airport.)Gibraltar International Airport is unusual not only because of its proximity to the city centre resulting in the airport terminal being within walking distance of much of Gibraltar but also because the runway intersects Winston Churchill Avenue, the main north-south street, requiring movable barricades to close when aircraft land or depart. New roads and a tunnel, which will end the need to stop road traffic when aircraft use the runway, were planned to coincide with the building of a new airport terminal building with an originally estimated completion date of 2009,WEB, Press Release: New Air Terminal, tunnel under the runway and new road leading to all parts of Gibraltar north of the runway,weblinkweblink 24 February 2010, 17 October 2008, Government of Gibraltar, yes, and images of the proposals: WEB, Press Release: New Terminal Building,weblink 17 October 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081029161356weblink">weblink 29 October 2008, WEB,weblink The Chief Minister presented the plans for an ambitious new terminal building for Gibraltar Airport, 21 December 2007, 7 Days Gibraltar, although it has not been completed because of delays.The most popular alternative airport for Gibraltar is Málaga Airport in Spain, some {{convert|120|km}} to the east, which offers a wide range of destinations, second to Jerez Airport which is closer to Gibraltar. In addition, the Algeciras Heliport across the bay offers scheduled services to Ceuta.

Sea

Gibraltar Cruise Terminal receives a large number of visits from cruise ships. The Strait of Gibraltar is one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world.Passenger and cargo ships anchor in the Gibraltar Harbour. Also, a ferry links Gibraltar with Tangier in Morocco. The ferry between Gibraltar and Algeciras, which had been halted in 1969 when Franco severed communications with Gibraltar, was finally reopened on 16 December 2009, served by the Spanish company Transcoma.New ferry 'repairs 40 year gap' says Spanish Diplomat {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091218183902weblink |date=18 December 2009 }}, Gibraltar Chronicle, 17 December 2009Ferries by FRS running twice a week from Gibraltar to Tanger-Med port provide access to the Moroccan railway system.WEB,weblink Morocco Travel Information – Information About Traveling in Morocco, Goafrica.about.com, 6 September 2012, 9 December 2012, WEB, The Man in Seat 61...,weblink How to travel by train London to Morocco | Train travel in Morocco, Seat61.com, 9 December 2012,

Rail

While railway track extends to the outskirts of La Línea from an aborted rail expansion project in the 1970s,WEB,weblink La Línea lleva más de ochenta años esperando que pase el primer..., europasur.es, WEB, Andalusia,weblink Google Maps coordinates, Google Maps, 16 August 2013, the closest railway station in Spain is San Roque station, accessible via buses from La Línea.

Water supply and sanitation

Water supply and sanitation in Gibraltar have been major concerns for its inhabitants throughout its history. There are no rivers, streams, or large bodies of water on the peninsula. Gibraltar's water supply was formerly provided by a combination of an aqueduct, wells, and the use of cisterns, barrels and earthenware pots to capture rainwater. This became increasingly inadequate as Gibraltar's population grew in the 18th and 19th centuries and lethal diseases such as cholera and yellow fever began to spread. In the late 19th century, a Sanitary Commission instigated major improvements which saw the introduction of large-scale desalination and the use of giant water catchments covering over 2.5 million square feet (nearly 250,000 m2). Today Gibraltar's supply of drinking water comes entirely from desalination, with a separate supply of saltwater for sanitary purposes. Both supplies are delivered from huge underground reservoirs excavated under the Rock of Gibraltar.

Police

{{further|Royal Gibraltar Police|Gibraltar Defence Police}}(File:RGP_Patrol_Car.JPG|thumb|Royal Gibraltar Police car, 2012)File:K20P1600.JPG|thumb|right|Royal Gibraltar PoliceRoyal Gibraltar PoliceThe Royal Gibraltar Police (RGP), Gibraltar Defence Police (GDP) and Her Majesty's Customs (Gibraltar) are Gibraltar's principal civilian law enforcement agencies. Outside the United Kingdom, the RGP is the oldest police force of the former British Empire, formed shortly after the creation of London's Metropolitan Police in 1829 when Gibraltar was declared a crown colony on 25 June 1830.Judiciary and Law – Police, Gibraltar Government Website WEB,weblink Archived copy, 5 August 2013, yes,weblink 9 October 2013, In general, the Gibraltar force follows British police models in its dress and its mostly male constables and sergeants on foot patrol wear the traditional custodian helmet, the headgear of the British "bobby on the beat". The helmet is traditionally made of cork covered outside by felt or serge-like material that matches the tunic. The vehicles also appear virtually identical to typical UK police vehicles, but are left hand drive.The force, whose name received the prefix "Royal" in 1992, currently numbers over 220 officers divided into a number of units. These include the CID, drug squad, special branch, firearms, scene of crime examiners, traffic, marine and operations units, sections or departments.On 24 September 2015, the Freedom of the City of Gibraltar was conferred upon the RGP by the Mayor, Adolfo Canepa.

Armed forces

Gibraltar's defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom tri-services British Forces Gibraltar. In January 2007, the Ministry of Defence announced that the private company Serco would provide services to the base. The announcement resulted in the affected trade unions striking.
  • The Royal Gibraltar Regiment provides the army garrison with a detachment of the British Army, based at Devils Tower Camp.WEB,weblinkweblink 24 February 2010, HIVE Location overview – Gibraltar, Ministry of Defence, December 2007, 29 January 2010, yes, The regiment was originally a part-time reserve force until the British Army placed it on a permanent footing in 1990. The regiment includes full-time and part-time soldiers recruited from Gibraltar as well as British Army regulars posted from other regiments.
  • The Royal Navy maintains a squadron at the Rock. The squadron is responsible for the security and integrity of British Gibraltar Territorial Waters (BGTW). The shore establishment at Gibraltar is called HMS Rooke after Sir George Rooke, who captured the Rock for Archduke Charles (pretender to the Spanish throne) in 1704. The naval air base was named HMS Cormorant. Gibraltar's strategic position provides an important facility for the Royal Navy and Britain's allies. British and US nuclear submarines frequently visit the Z berths at Gibraltar.WEB,weblink House of Commons Hansard Written Answers, 20 December 2007, 9 November 1999, Parliament of the United Kingdom, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930030440weblink">weblink 30 September 2007, A Z berth provides the facility for nuclear submarines to visit for operational or recreational purposes and for non-nuclear repairs. During the Falklands War, an Argentine plan to attack British shipping in the harbour using frogmen (Operation Algeciras) was foiled.NEWS, Giles Tremlett,weblink Falklands war almost spread to Gibraltar, The Guardian, London, 24 July 2004, 9 December 2012, The naval base also played a part in supporting the task force sent by Britain to recover the Falklands.
  • The Royal Air Force station at Gibraltar forms part of Headquarters British Forces Gibraltar. Although aircraft are no longer permanently stationed at RAF Gibraltar, a variety of RAF aircraft make regular visits and the airfield also houses a section from the Met Office.
Gibraltar has an important role in UKSIGINT and provides a vital strategic part of the United Kingdom communications gathering and monitoring network in the Mediterranean and North Africa.WEB,weblink Submarine Cable Map, Submarinecablemap.com, 3 August 2017, Richard J. Aldrich, GCHQ: The Uncensored Story of Britain's Most Secret Intelligence Agency. Harper Press, 2010.File:Merlin Mk3s prove their mettle in day-long Gibraltar transit MOD 45160593.jpg|Merlin HC3 of 846 NAS with HMS ScimitarFile:Gibraltar navy.jpg|The Royal Navy's base in Gibraltar.

Twin towns and sister cities

{|class="wikitable sortable"! City! State/Region! Country|Goole|Yorkshire|United Kingdom|Ballymena|County Antrim|United Kingdom|Funchal|Madeira|PortugalKingston, Jamaica>Kingston|Jamaica|Jamaica

See also

Notes

{{NoteFoot}}

References

{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, Abulafia2011, Abulafia, David, 2011, The Great Sea: A Human History of the Mediterranean, London, Allen Lane, 978-0-7139-9934-1,weblink
  • BOOK, Bond, Peter, 300 Years of British Gibraltar 1704–2004, 1st, Peter-Tan Publishing Co., Gibraltar, 28–29, Gibraltar's Finest Hour The Great Siege 1779–1783, 2003,
  • BOOK, Chartrand, René, Patrice Courcelle, Gibraltar 1779–1783: The Great Siege,weblink 1st, Osprey Publishing, Gibraltar, 978-1-84176-977-6, July 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927003243weblink">weblink 27 September 2007,
  • Drinkwater, John: A history of the siege of Gibraltar, 1779–1783: With a description and account of that garrison from the earliest periods London, 1862.
  • Falkner, James: FIRE OVER THE ROCK: The Great Siege of Gibraltar 1779–1783, Pen and Sword, 2009
  • Harvey, Robert: A Few Bloody Noses: The American War of Independence, London, 2001
  • Rodger, N. A. M.: The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649–1815, London, 2006
  • Norwich, John Julius: The Middle Sea: a history of the Mediterranean, Random House, 2006
  • Sugden, John: Nelson: A Dream of Glory, London, 2004
  • Syrett, David: Admiral Lord Howe: A Biography, London, 2006.
  • Maria Monti, Ángel: Historia de Gibraltar: dedicada a SS. AA. RR., los serenisimos señores Infantes Duques de Montpensier, Imp. Juan Moyano, 1852
  • Maria Montero, Francisco: Historia de Gibraltar y de su campo, Imprenta de la Revista Médica, 1860
  • Uxó Palasí, José: Referencias en torno al bloqueo naval durante los asedios, Almoraima. n.º 34, 2007

External links

{hide}Geographic location
|Centre = {{flag|Gibraltar{edih}
|N = {{flag|Spain}}
|NE = Mediterranean Sea
|E = Mediterranean Sea
|SE = Mediterranean Sea
|S = Strait of Gibraltar{{flag|Morocco}}
|SW = Strait of Gibraltar{{flag|Morocco}}
|W = {{flag|Spain}}Bay of Gibraltar
|NW = {{flag|Spain}}
}}{{Gibraltar topics}}{{Navboxes|list ={{List of European capitals by region}}{{List of British Territories capitals}}{{Countries and territories bordering the Mediterranean Sea}}{{British dependencies}}{{British overseas territories}}{{Territorial disputes involving the United Kingdom}}{{Phoenician cities and colonies}}}}{{Subject bar|portal1=Gibraltar|portal2=United Kingdom|portal3=European Union|portal4=Europe|commons=yes|wikt=yes|n=yes|n-search=Category:Gibraltar|q=yes|s=yes|b=yes|voy=yes|v=yes|d=yes|d-search=Q1410}}{{Coord|36|07|54|N|05|21|06|W|scale:25000_type:landmark_region:GI|display=title}}{{Authority control}}

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