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{{About|the U.S. state}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use mdy dates|date=January 2019}}

Dan Patrick (politician) (Republican Party (United States)>R)}}| Legislature = Texas LegislatureTexas Senate>SenateTexas House of Representatives>House of RepresentativesJohn Cornyn (Republican Party (United States))}}{{nowrap>Ted Cruz (R)}}Republican Party (United States)>Republicans13 Democrats| postal_code = TX| TradAbbreviation = Tex.| BorderingStates = Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, and OklahomaLanguages of Texas>Languages spoken in Texas)English language>English;Spanish language is spoken by a sizable minorityHTTPS://WWW.MLA.ORG/MAP_DATA_RESULTS&STATE_ID=48&MODE=STATE_TOPS&LL=ALL PUBLISHER=MLA, April 15, 2010, | area_rank = 2nd| area_total_sq_mi = 268,581| area_total_km2 = 696,241| area_land_sq_mi = 261,797| area_land_km2 = 678,051| area_water_sq_mi = 6,784| area_water_km2 = 17,574| area_water_percent = 2.5| population_rank = 2ndR}} est.)HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/QUICKFACTS/FACT/TABLE/TX,US/PST045218>TITLE=POPULATION AND HOUSING UNIT ESTIMATES ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 4, 2019, U.S. Census Bureau, | population_density_rank = 26th| 2000DensityUS = 108| 2000Density = 40.6TITLE=MEDIAN ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME, December 9, 2016, | IncomeRank = 24th| Total GDP = $1,065,891,000| Total GDP Rank = 2nd| Per capita GDP = $43,283| Per Capita GDP Rank = 16th| AdmittanceOrder = 28th| AdmittanceDate = December 29, 1845Central Time Zone (North America)>Central| utc_offset1 = -06:00Central Daylight Time>CDT| utc_offset1_DST = -05:00| timezone1_location = Majority of stateMountain Time Zone>Mountain| utc_offset2 = -07:00Mountain Daylight Time>MDT| utc_offset2_DST = -06:00El Paso County, Texas>El Paso, Hudspeth County, Texas, and northwestern Culberson County, Texas>Culberson counties| Latitude = 25° 50′ N to 36° 30′ N| Longitude = 93° 31′ W to 106° 39′ WPUBLISHER=TEXAS ALMANAC ACCESSDATE=JULY 3, 2018, | width_km = 1,244| length_mi = 790| length_km = 1,270Guadalupe PeakCD0994 ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 20, 2011, HTTPS://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML >TITLE=ELEVATIONS AND DISTANCES IN THE UNITED STATES UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY >YEAR=2001 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=JULY 22, 2012, Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.| elevation_max_ft = 8,751| elevation_max_m = 2667.4| elevation_ft = 1,700| elevation_m = 520| elevation_min_point = Gulf of Mexico| elevation_min_ft = 0| elevation_min_m = 0| iso_code = US-TX| ElectoralVotes = 34| website =}}

Texas ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|t|ɛ|k|s|ə|s}}, {{IPAc-en|local|ˈ|t|ɛ|k|s|ɪ|z}};{{Accents of English|551|hide1=y|hide2=y}} or Tejas, {{IPA-es|ˈtexas|pron|ES-pe - Texas.ogg}}) is the second largest state in the United States by area (after Alaska) and population (after California). Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U.S., while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U.S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U.S., and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico. The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texas state flag and on the Texan state seal.WEB,weblink Introduction to Texas,, April 11, 2010, The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha, which means "friends" in the Caddo language.BOOK, Hanson-Harding, Alexandra, Texas,weblink 2001, Children's Press, 978-0-516-22322-3, Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U.S. Southern and Southwestern regions.BOOK, Sansom, Andrew, Water in Texas: An Introduction,weblink 2008, University of Texas Press, 978-0-292-71809-8, 25, Although Texas is popularly associated with the U.S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert.BOOK, Dingus, Anne, The dictionary of Texas misinformation,weblink 1987, Texas Monthly Press, 978-0-87719-089-9, Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests, and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, and finally the desert and mountains of the Big Bend.The term "six flags over Texas"For example, as used by the large Grand Prairie–based national and international amusement park operator Six Flags refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim and control the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845,WEB, Resolutions, Twenty-ninth Congress, 1845,weblink Texas joined the union as the 28th state. The state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U.S. in early 1861, and officially joined the Confederate States of America on March 2 of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation.Historically four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton, timber, and oil.BOOK, Ramos, Mary G., Reavis, Dick J., Texas,weblink 2004, Fodor's Travel Publications, 978-0-676-90502-1, 125, Before and after the U.S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the later 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative. It was ultimately, though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits (Spindletop in particular) that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century. As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54.NEWS, Hackett, Robert, States with the most Fortune 500 companies,weblink Fortune, Time Inc., June 15, 2015, With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace, and biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U.S. in state export revenue since 2002, and has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world.


The name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ ({{IPA|/t'ajʃaʔ/}}) "friend", was applied, in the spelling or ,José Arlegui, Chronica de la provincia de N.S.P.S. Francisco de Zacatecas Front Cover (1737), p. 53. by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves, specifically the Hasinai Confederacy,BOOK, Caddo of Texas, Davis, Lucile, Rosen Publishing, 2003,weblink 5, 9780823964352, the final -s representing the Spanish plural.William Bright, Native American Placenames of the United States, University of Oklahoma Press (2004), p. 491.The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas.Weber, David J. (1992), The Spanish Frontier in North America, Yale Western Americana Series, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, p. 154.During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevas Filipinas (“New Philippines”) and Nuevo Reino de Filipinas ("New Kingdom of the Philippines"), or as provincia de los Tejas ("province of the Tejas"),Oakah L. Jones, Los Paisanos: Spanish Settlers on the Northern Frontier of New Spain, University of Oklahoma Press (1996), p. 277, citing a document dated 5 November 1730. later also provincia de Texas (or de Tejas), ("province of Texas").Joseph de Laporte, El viagero universal: Ó, Noticia del mundo antiguo y nuevo vol. 27 (1799), p. 114.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, Teja, Jesús de la, New Philippines, usn01, June 15, 2010, It was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, and declared a republic in 1836. The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings, Tejas and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U.S. State of Texas."Texas. Grafía recomendada para el nombre de este estado norteamericano. Su pronunciación correcta es [téjas], no [téksas]. Se recomienda escribir asimismo con x el gentilicio correspondiente: texano. Son también válidas las grafías con j (Tejas, tejano), de uso mayoritario en España." Diccionario panhispánico de dudas, Real Academia Española (2005), s.v. Texas.The English pronunciation with {{IPA|/ks/}} is unetymological, and based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements.Charles Dimitry, "American Geographical Nomenclature", Appletons' Journal 15 (1876), 758f. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett.


File:Sam Rayburn Reservoir.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Sam Rayburn ReservoirSam Rayburn ReservoirFile:Texas Hill Country 187N-2.JPG|thumb|upright=1.15|Texas Hill CountryTexas Hill CountryTexas is the second-largest U.S. state, after Alaska, with an area of {{convert|268820|sqmi|km2}}. Though 10% larger than France and almost twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Chile and Zambia.Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers. The Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south. The Red River forms a natural border with Oklahoma and Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east. The Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western border with New Mexico at 103° W. El Paso lies on the state's western tip at 32° N and the Rio Grande.With 10 climatic regions, 14 soil regions and 11 distinct ecological regions, regional classification becomes problematic with differences in soils, topography, geology, rainfall, and plant and animal communities.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink June 3, 2008, Tx Environmental Profiles, July 14, 2006, One classification system divides Texas, in order from southeast to west, into the following: Gulf Coastal Plains, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, and Basin and Range Province.The Gulf Coastal Plains region wraps around the Gulf of Mexico on the southeast section of the state. Vegetation in this region consists of thick piney woods. The Interior Lowlands region consists of gently rolling to hilly forested land and is part of a larger pine-hardwood forest.File:Martin-Dies-Jr-State-Park.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Steinhagen ReservoirSteinhagen ReservoirThe Great Plains region in central Texas spans through the state's panhandle and Llano Estacado to the state's hill country near Austin. This region is dominated by prairie and steppe. "Far West Texas" or the "Trans-Pecos" region is the state's Basin and Range Province. The most varied of the regions, this area includes Sand Hills, the Stockton Plateau, desert valleys, wooded mountain slopes and desert grasslands.Texas has 3,700 named streams and 15 major rivers,WEB,weblink Rivers in Texas,, November 16, 2007, April 11, 2010, HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, Hal P., Bybee, rnr07, Rivers, June 15, 2010, with the Rio Grande as the largest. Other major rivers include the Pecos, the Brazos, Colorado, and Red River. While Texas has few natural lakes, Texans have built over 100 artificial reservoirs.WEB,weblink Alphabetical List of Texas Lakes,, January 28, 2010, April 11, 2010, The size and unique history of Texas make its regional affiliation debatable; it can be fairly considered a Southern or a Southwestern state, or both. The vast geographic, economic, and cultural diversity within the state itself prohibits easy categorization of the whole state into a recognized region of the United States. Notable extremes range from East Texas which is often considered an extension of the Deep South, to Far West Texas which is generally acknowledged to be part of the interior Southwest.NEWS,weblink Texas Monthly, Is Texas Southern, Western, or Truly a Lone Star?, Nova Lomax, John, March 3, 2015, September 6, 2016,


File:Palo Duro landscape IMG 0101.JPG|thumb|upright=1.15|Palo Duro CanyonPalo Duro CanyonFile:Summitanthonysnose1b.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Franklin Mountains State ParkFranklin Mountains State ParkFile:Big Bend National Park PB112599.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Big Bend National ParkBig Bend National ParkTexas is the southernmost part of the Great Plains, which ends in the south against the folded Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. The continental crust forms a stable Mesoproterozoic craton which changes across a broad continental margin and transitional crust into true oceanic crust of the Gulf of Mexico. The oldest rocks in Texas date from the Mesoproterozoic and are about 1,600 million years old.These Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the state, and are exposed in three places: Llano uplift, Van Horn, and the Franklin Mountains, near El Paso. Sedimentary rocks overlay most of these ancient rocks. The oldest sediments were deposited on the flanks of a rifted continental margin, or passive margin that developed during Cambrian time.This margin existed until Laurasia and Gondwana collided in the Pennsylvanian subperiod to form Pangea. This is the buried crest of the Appalachian Mountains–Ouachita Mountains zone of Pennsylvanian continental collision. This orogenic crest is today buried beneath the Dallas–Waco—Austin–San Antonio trend.The late Paleozoic mountains collapsed as rifting in the Jurassic period began to open the Gulf of Mexico. Pangea began to break up in the Triassic, but seafloor spreading to form the Gulf of Mexico occurred only in the mid and late Jurassic. The shoreline shifted again to the eastern margin of the state and the Gulf of Mexico passive margin began to form. Today {{convert|9|to|12|mi|km|0|}} of sediments are buried beneath the Texas continental shelf and a large proportion of remaining US oil reserves are here. At the start of its formation, the incipient Gulf of Mexico basin was restricted and seawater often evaporated completely to form thick evaporite deposits of Jurassic age. These salt deposits formed salt dome diapirs, and are found in East Texas along the Gulf coast.CONFERENCE, Muzzafar, Asif, Timing of Diapir Growth and Cap Rock Formation, Davis Hill Salt Dome, Coastal Texas,weblink GSA Annual Meeting, November 5–8, 2001, The Geological Society of America, July 22, 2008, East Texas outcrops consist of Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments which contain important deposits of Eocene lignite. The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian sediments in the north; Permian sediments in the west; and Cretaceous sediments in the east, along the Gulf coast and out on the Texas continental shelf contain oil. Oligocene volcanic rocks are found in far west Texas in the Big Bend area. A blanket of Miocene sediments known as the Ogallala formation in the western high plains region is an important aquifer.WEB,weblink Ogallala Aquifer, July 23, 2008, North Plains Groundwater Conservation District,weblink" title="">weblink July 4, 2008, dead, Located far from an active plate tectonic boundary, Texas has no volcanoes and few earthquakes.WEB,weblink Earthquakes, July 23, 2008, Jackson School of Geosciences – University of Texas,weblink" title="">weblink May 1, 2008,


{{see also|List of mammals of Texas|List of birds of Texas|List of reptiles of Texas|List of amphibians of Texas}}A wide range of animals and insects live in Texas. It is the home to 65 species of mammals, 213 species of reptiles and amphibians, and the greatest diversity of bird life in the United States—590 native species in all.WEB,weblink Texas Wildlife Identification & Viewing Guide,, December 3, 2010, April 18, 2013, At least 12 species have been introduced and now reproduce freely in Texas.WEB,weblink Texas Mammals, The Mammals of Texas - Online Edition, Natural Science Research Laboratory - Museum of Texas Tech University, April 18, 2013, Texas plays host to several species of wasps. Texas is one of the regions that has the highest abundance of Polistes exclamans.JOURNAL, Mary Jane, West, 1968, Range Extension and Solitary nest founding in Polistes Exclamans, Psyche (entomological journal), Psyche, 75, 2, 118–123, 10.1155/1968/49846, Additionally, Texas has provided an important ground for the study of Polistes annularis.During the spring Texas wildflowers such as the state flower, the bluebonnet, line highways throughout Texas. During the Johnson Administration the first lady, Lady Bird Johnson, worked to draw attention to Texas wildflowers.


(File:Texas Köppen.svg|thumb|Köppen climate types in Texas)The large size of Texas and its location at the intersection of multiple climate zones gives the state highly variable weather. The Panhandle of the state has colder winters than North Texas, while the Gulf Coast has mild winters. Texas has wide variations in precipitation patterns. El Paso, on the western end of the state, averages {{convert|8.7|in|mm}} of annual rainfall,WEB,weblink El Paso, Texas Travel Weather Averages, Weatherbase, April 18, 2013, while parts of southeast Texas average as much as {{convert|64|in|mm}} per year.WEB,weblink Mauriceville, Texas Travel Weather Averages, Weatherbase, April 18, 2013, Dallas in the North Central region averages a more moderate {{convert|37|in|mm}} per year.Snow falls multiple times each winter in the Panhandle and mountainous areas of West Texas, once or twice a year in North Texas, and once every few years in Central and East Texas. Snow falls south of San Antonio or on the coast in rare circumstances only. Of note is the 2004 Christmas Eve snowstorm, when {{convert|6|in|mm}} of snow fell as far south as Kingsville, where the average high temperature in December is 65 Â°F.WEB,weblink History : Weather Underground,, December 24, 2008, April 11, 2010, Maximum temperatures in the summer months average from the 80s °F (26 Â°C) in the mountains of West Texas and on Galveston Island to around {{convert|100|°F|°C|0}} in the Rio Grande Valley, but most areas of Texas see consistent summer high temperatures in the {{convert|90|°F|°C|0}} range.Night-time summer temperatures range from the upper 50s °F (14 Â°C) in the West Texas mountainsWEB, Monthly Averages for Marfa, Texas, The Weather Channel,weblink October 15, 2008, to {{convert|80|°F|°C|0}} in Galveston.WEB, Monthly Averages for Galveston, Texas, The Weather Channel,weblink October 15, 2008, The table below consists of averages for August (generally the warmest month) and January (generally the coldest) in selected cities in various regions of the state. El Paso and Amarillo are exceptions with July and December respectively being the warmest and coldest months respectively, but with August and January only being narrowly different.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin:auto;"!Location!August (°F)!August (°C)!January (°F)!January (°C)Houston, Texas>Houston 94/75 34/24 63/54 17/12San Antonio, Texas>San Antonio 96/74 35/23 63/40 17/5Dallas, Texas>Dallas 96/77 36/25 57/37 16/3Austin, Texas>Austin 97/74 36/23 61/45 16/5El Paso, Texas>El Paso 92/67 33/21 57/32 14/0Laredo, Texas>Laredo 100/77 37/25 67/46 19/7Amarillo, Texas>Amarillo 89/64 32/18 50/23 10/–4Brownsville, Texas>Brownsville 94/76 34/24 70/51 21/11


Thunderstorms strike Texas often, especially the eastern and northern portions of the state. Tornado Alley covers the northern section of Texas. The state experiences the most tornadoes in the United States, an average of 139 a year. These strike most frequently in North Texas and the {{webarchive|url= |date=April 23, 2017 }} National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved on October 24, 2006. Tornadoes in Texas generally occur in the months of April, May, and June.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, yzw01, Weather, George W., Bomar, June 15, 2010, Some of the most destructive hurricanes in U.S. history have impacted Texas. A hurricane in 1875 killed about 400 people in Indianola, followed by another hurricane in 1886 that destroyed the town. These events allowed Galveston to take over as the chief port city. The 1900 Galveston hurricane subsequently devastated that city, killing about 8,000 people or possibly as many as 12,000. This makes it the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history.WEB, Blake, Eric S., Rappaport, Edward N., Landsea, Christopher W., The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones From 1851 to 2006, National Weather Service: National Hurricane Center, April 15, 2007,weblink In 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall in Rockport as a Category 4 Hurricane, causing significant damage there. The storm stalled over land for a very long time, allowing it to drop unprecedented amounts of rain over the Greater Houston area and surrounding counties. The result was widespread and catastrophic flooding that inundated hundreds of thousands of homes. Harvey ultimately became the costliest hurricane worldwide, causing an estimated $198.6 billion in damage, surpassing the cost of Hurricane Katrina.REPORT, Michael, Hicks, Mark, Burton, Ball State University, September 8, 2017, November 1, 2017, Hurricane Harvey: Preliminary Estimates of Commercial and Public Sector Damages on the Houston Metropolitan Area,weblink Other devastating Texas hurricanes include the 1915 Galveston hurricane, Hurricane Audrey in 1957 which killed over 600 people, Hurricane Carla in 1961, Hurricane Beulah in 1967, Hurricane Alicia in 1983, Hurricane Rita in 2005, and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Tropical storms have also caused their share of damage: Allison in 1989 and again during 2001, and Claudette in 1979 among them.

Greenhouse gases

Texas emits the most greenhouse gases in the U.S.NEWS, Blame Coal: Texas Leads in Overall Emissions, Borenstein, Seth, USA Today, June 4, 2007,weblink June 6, 2007, NEWS, Texas No. 1 producer of greenhouse gases,weblink Associated Press, The Dallas Morning News, June 3, 2007, June 11, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 19, 2008, NEWS, Texas Is No. 1 Carbon Polluter In U.S., Associated Press, January 16, 2008,weblink CBS News, The state emits nearly 1.5 trillion pounds (680 billion kg) of carbon dioxide annually. As an independent nation, Texas would rank as the world's seventh-largest producer of greenhouse gases. Causes of the state's vast greenhouse gas emissions include the state's large number of coal power plants and the state's refining and manufacturing industries. In 2010, there were 2,553 "emission events" which poured 44.6 million pounds of contaminants into the Texas sky.WEB,weblink Living, and coughing, downwind of Texas smoke stacks, November 10, 2011, Raw Story, Agence France-Presse,


Pre-European era

{{Texas History}}{{Further|Pre-Columbian Mexico}}Texas lies between two major cultural spheres of Pre-Columbian North America: the Southwestern and the Plains areas. Archaeologists have found that three major indigenous cultures lived in this territory, and reached their developmental peak before the first European contact. These were:Richardson (2005), p. 9. When Europeans arrived in the Texas region, there were several races of Native peoples divided into many smaller tribes. They were Caddoan, Atakapan, Athabaskan, Coahuiltecan and Uto-Aztecan. The Uto-Aztecan Puebloan peoples lived neared the Rio Grande in the western portion of the state, the Athabaskan-speaking Apache tribes lived throughout the interior, the Caddoans controlled much of the Red River region and the Atakapans were mostly centered along the Gulf Coast. At least one tribe of Coahuiltecans, the Aranama, lived in southern Texas. This entire culture group, primarily centered in northeastern Mexico, is now extinct. It is difficult to say who lived in the northwestern region of the state originally. By the time the region came to be explored, it belonged to the fairly well-known Comanche, another Uto-Aztecan people who had transitioned into a powerful horse culture, but it is believed that they came later and did not live there during the 16th century. It may have been claimed by several different peoples, including Uto-Aztecans, Athabaskans, or even Dhegihan Siouans.No culture was dominant in the present-day Texas region, and many peoples inhabited the area. Native American tribes that lived inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include the Alabama, Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Aranama, Comanche, Choctaw, Coushatta, Hasinai, Jumano, Karankawa, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Tonkawa, and Wichita.Richardson (2005), pp 10–16HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, bzi04, Indians, George, Klos, June 15, 2010, The name Texas derives from táyshaʔ, a word in the Caddoan language of the Hasinai, which means "friends" or "allies".BOOK, Facts, 2010–2011, Texas Almanac,weblink Robert, Plocheck, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 28, 2011, November 20, 2017, HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, Fry, Phillip L., Texas, Origin of Name, pft04, July 15, 2010, March 7, 2016, Richardson, p 1WEB,weblink Texas, February 25, 2007, Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper, Wallace Chafe, p.c.The region was primarily controlled by the Spanish for the first couple centuries of contact, until the Texas Revolution. They were not particularly kind to their native populations—even less so with the Caddoans, who were not trusted as their culture was split between the Spanish and the French. When the Spanish briefly managed to conquer the Louisiana colony, they decided to switch tactics and attempt being exceedingly friendly to the Indians, which they continued even after the French took back the colony. After the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, the United States inherited this odd circumstance. The Caddoans preferred the company of Americans{{According to whom|date=March 2019}} and almost the entire population of them migrated into the states of Louisiana and Arkansas. The Spanish felt jilted after having spent so much time and effort and began trying to lure the Caddo back, even promising them more land. Seemingly without actually knowing how they came by it,{{According to whom|date=March 2019}} the United States (who had begun convincing tribes to self-segregate from whites by selling everything and moving west ever since they gained the Louisiana Purchase) faced an overflow of native peoples in Missouri and Arkansas and were able to negotiate with the Caddoans to allow several displaced peoples to settle on unused lands in eastern Texas. They included the Muscogee, Houma Choctaw, Lenape and Mingo Seneca, among others, who all came to view the Caddoans as saviors, making those peoples highly influential.Glover, William B. "A History of the Caddo Indians". Reprinted from 'The Louisiana Historical Quarterly'; Vol. 18, No. 4. October 1935Swanton, John R. Indians of the Southeastern United States (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1946) p. 139Whether a Native American tribe was friendly or warlike was critical to the fates of European explorers and settlers in that land.Richardson, p 10 Friendly tribes taught newcomers how to grow indigenous crops, prepare foods, and hunt wild game. Warlike tribes made life difficult and dangerous for Europeans through their attacks and resistance to the newcomers.BOOK, Rupert N., Richardson, Adrian, Anderson, Cary D., Wintz, Ernest, Wallace, Texas: the Lone Star State, 9th, Prentice Hall, 978-0-1318-3550-4, 10–16, 2005, During the Texas Revolution, the U.S. became heavily involved. Prior treaties with the Spanish forbade either side from militarizing its native population in any potential conflict between the two nations. At that time, several sudden outbreaks of violence between Caddoans and Texans started to spread. The Caddoans were always clueless{{speculation inline|date=March 2019}} when questioned, The Texan and American authorities in the region could never find hard evidence linking them to it and often it was so far flung from Caddoan lands, it barely made any sense. It seems most likely that these were false-flag attacks meant to start a cascading effect to force the natives under Caddoan influence into armed conflict without breaking any treaties—preferably on the side of the Spanish. While no proof was found as to who the culprit was, those in charge of Texas at the time attempted multiple times to publicly blame and punish the Caddoans for the incidents with the U.S. government trying to keep them in check. Furthermore, the Caddoans never turned to violence because of it, excepting cases of self-defense.By the 1830s, the U.S. had drafted the Indian Removal Act, which was used to facilitate the Trail of Tears. Fearing retribution of other native peoples, Indian Agents all over the eastern U.S. began desperately trying to convince all their native peoples to uproot and move west. This included the Caddoans of Louisiana and Arkansas. Following the Texas Revolution, the Texans chose to make peace with their Native peoples, but did not honor former land claims or agreements. This began the movement of Native populations north into what would become Indian Territory—modern day Oklahoma.


File:Six Flags over Texas.jpg|thumb|upright=1.2|Flags of the six nations that have had sovereignty over some or all of the current territory of Texas]]The first historical document related to Texas was a map of the Gulf Coast, created in 1519 by Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda.{{harvp|Chipman|1992|p=243}}; {{harvp|Weber|1992|p=34}} Nine years later, shipwrecked Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his cohort became the first Europeans in what is now Texas.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, fca06, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Donald E., Chipman, June 12, 2010, August 3, 2017, HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, nps01, Spanish Texas, Donald E., Chipman, June 15, 2010, January 23, 2017, Cabeza de Vaca reported that in 1528, when the Spanish landed in the area, "half the natives died from a disease of the bowels and blamed us."WEB,weblink The Journey of Alvar Nuńez Cabeza de Vaca, American Journeys, Wisconsin Historical Society, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 5, 2012, Cabeza de Vaca also made observations about the way of life of the Ignaces Natives of Texas:}}Francisco Vázquez de Coronado describes his 1541 encounter with:}}European powers ignored the area until accidentally settling there in 1685. Miscalculations by René-Robert Cavelier de La Salle resulted in his establishing the colony of Fort Saint Louis at Matagorda Bay rather than along the Mississippi River.{{sfnp|Weber|1992|p=149}} The colony lasted only four years before succumbing to harsh conditions and hostile natives.{{Sfnp|Chipman|1992|p=83}}File:Map of Texas 1718.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.1|A 1718 map of Texas by Guillaume de L'IsleGuillaume de L'IsleIn 1690 Spanish authorities, concerned that France posed competitive threat, constructed several missions in East Texas.{{sfnp|Chipman|1992|p=89}} After Native American resistance, the Spanish missionaries returned to Mexico.{{sfnp|Weber|1992|p=155}} When France began settling Louisiana, mostly in the southern part of the state, in 1716 Spanish authorities responded by founding a new series of missions in East Texas.{{harvp|Chipman|1992|pp=111–112}}; {{harvp|Weber|1992|p=160}} Two years later, they created San Antonio as the first Spanish civilian settlement in the area.{{sfnp|Weber|1992|p=163}}(File:LaFora 1771 2.jpg|thumb|upright=1.3|Nicolas de La Fora's 1771 map of the northern frontier of New Spain clearly shows the Provincia de los Tejas.BOOK, Bolton, Herbert Eugene, 1915, Texas in the Middle 18th Century, Berkeley, University of California Press, facing p. 382,weblink )Hostile native tribes and distance from nearby Spanish colonies discouraged settlers from moving to the area. It was one of New Spain's least populated provinces.{{sfnp|Chipman|1992|p=205}} In 1749, the Spanish peace treaty with the Lipan Apache{{sfnp|Weber|1992|p=193}} angered many tribes, including the Comanche, Tonkawa, and Hasinai.{{sfnp|Weber|1992|p=189}} The Comanche signed a treaty with Spain in 1785{{sfnp|Weddle|1995|p=163}} and later helped to defeat the Lipan Apache and Karankawa tribes.{{harvp|Weddle|1995|p=164}}; {{harvp|Chipman|1992|p=200}} With more numerous missions being established, priests led a peaceful conversion of most tribes. By the end of the 18th century only a few nomadic tribes had not converted to Christianity.{{sfnp|Chipman|1992|p=202}}File:Stephen f austin.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.8|Stephen F. Austin was the first American empresario given permission to operate a colony within Mexican TexasMexican TexasFile:Mexico 1824 (equirectangular projection).png|thumb|upright=1.3|Mexico in 1824. Coahuila y TejasCoahuila y TejasWhen the United States purchased Louisiana from France in 1803, American authorities insisted the agreement also included Texas. The boundary between New Spain and the United States was finally set at the Sabine River in 1819, at what is now the border between Texas and Louisiana.{{sfnp|Weber|1992|pp=291–299}} Eager for new land, many United States settlers refused to recognize the agreement. Several filibusters raised armies to invade the area west of the Sabine River.{{sfnp|Davis|2006|p=46}} In 1821, the Mexican War of Independence included the Texas territory, which became part of Mexico.{{sfnp|Weber|1992|p=300}} Due to its low population, Mexico made the area part of the state of Coahuila y Tejas.{{sfnp|Manchaca|2001|p=162}}Hoping more settlers would reduce the near-constant Comanche raids, Mexican Texas liberalized its immigration policies to permit immigrants from outside Mexico and Spain.{{sfnp|Manchaca|2001|p=164}} Under the Mexican immigration system, large swathes of land were allotted to empresarios, who recruited settlers from the United States, Europe, and the Mexican interior. The first grant, to Moses Austin, was passed to his son Stephen F. Austin after his death.Austin's settlers, the Old Three Hundred, made places along the Brazos River in 1822.{{sfnp|Manchaca|2001|p=198}} Twenty-three other empresarios brought settlers to the state, the majority of whom were from the United States.{{sfnp|Manchaca|2001|pp=198-199}} The population of Texas grew rapidly. In 1825, Texas had about 3,500 people, with most of Mexican descent.{{sfnp|Edmondson|2000|p=75}} By 1834, the population had grown to about 37,800 people, with only 7,800 of Mexican descent.{{sfnp|Manchaca|2001|p=172, 201}} Most of these early settlers who arrived with Austin and soon after were persons less than fortunate in life, as Texas was devoid of the comforts found elsewhere in Mexico and the United States during that time. Early Texas settler David B. Edwards described his fellow Texans as being "banished from the pleasures of life"weblink{{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}Many immigrants openly flouted Mexican law, especially the prohibition against slavery. Combined with United States' attempts to purchase Texas, Mexican authorities decided in 1830 to prohibit continued immigration from the United States.{{sfnp|Edmondson|2000|p=78}} New laws also called for the enforcement of customs duties angering both native Mexican citizens (Tejanos) and recent immigrants.{{sfnp|Davis|2006|p=77}}The Anahuac Disturbances in 1832 were the first open revolt against Mexican rule and they coincided with a revolt in Mexico against the nation's president.{{sfnp|Davis|2006|p=85}} Texians sided with the federalists against the current government and drove all Mexican soldiers out of East Texas.{{sfnp|Davis|2006|pp=86–89}} They took advantage of the lack of oversight to agitate for more political freedom. Texians met at the Convention of 1832 to discuss requesting independent statehood, among other issues.{{sfnp|Davis|2006|p=92}} The following year, Texians reiterated their demands at the Convention of 1833.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, mjc10, Convention of 1833, Ralph W., Steen, June 12, 2010,


Within Mexico, tensions continued between federalists and centralists. In early 1835, wary Texians formed Committees of Correspondence and Safety.BOOK, Huson, Hobart, Captain Phillip Dimmitt's Commandancy of Goliad, 1835–1836: An Episode of the Mexican Federalist War in Texas, Usually Referred to as the Texian Revolution, Austin, Texas, Von Boeckmann-Jones Co., 1974, 4,weblink The unrest erupted into armed conflict in late 1835 at the Battle of Gonzales.{{sfnp|Hardin|1994|p=12}} This launched the Texas Revolution, and over the next two months, the Texians defeated all Mexican troops in the region.Barr (1990), p. 64.{{full citation needed|date=March 2018}} Texians elected delegates to the Consultation, which created a provisional government.{{sfnp|Winders|2004|p=72}} The provisional government soon collapsed from infighting, and Texas was without clear governance for the first two months of 1836.{{harvp|Winders|2004|pp=90, 92}}{{harvp|Hardin|1994|p=109}}File:SantaAnnaSurrender.jpg|thumb|upright=1.5|left|William Henry Huddle: Surrender of Santa Anna (1886; Texas State Capitol, AustinAustinDuring this time of political turmoil, Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna personally led an army to end the revolt.{{sfnp|Hardin|1994|p=102}} The Mexican expedition was initially successful. General José de Urrea defeated all the Texian resistance along the coast culminating in the Goliad massacre.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, Roell, Craig H., Coleto, Battle of, June 12, 2010, July 12, 2016, qec01, Santa Anna's forces, after a thirteen-day siege, overwhelmed Texian defenders at the Battle of the Alamo. News of the defeats sparked panic among Texas settlers.{{sfnp|Todish|Todish|Spring|1998|p=68}}File:Wpdms republic of texas.svg|thumb|right|The present-day outlines of the U.S. states superimposed on the boundaries of the 1836–1845 Republic of TexasRepublic of TexasThe newly elected Texian delegates to the Convention of 1836 quickly signed a Declaration of Independence on March 2, forming the Republic of Texas. After electing interim officers, the Convention disbanded.Roberts and Olson (2001), p. 144. The new government joined the other settlers in Texas in the Runaway Scrape, fleeing from the approaching Mexican army.{{sfnp|Todish|Todish|Spring|1998|p=68}} After several weeks of retreat, the Texian Army commanded by Sam Houston attacked and defeated Santa Anna's forces at the Battle of San Jacinto.{{sfnp|Todish|Todish|Spring|1998|p=69}} Santa Anna was captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco, ending the war.{{sfnp|Todish|Todish|Spring|1998|p=70}}While Texas had won its independence, political battles raged between two factions of the new Republic. The nationalist faction, led by Mirabeau B. Lamar, advocated the continued independence of Texas, the expulsion of the Native Americans, and the expansion of the Republic to the Pacific Ocean. Their opponents, led by Sam Houston, advocated the annexation of Texas to the United States and peaceful co-existence with Native Americans. The conflict between the factions was typified by an incident known as the Texas Archive War.WEB, The Archives War, Texas Treasures- The Republic, The Texas State Library and Archives Commission, November 2, 2005,weblink January 3, 2009, Mexico launched two small expeditions into Texas in 1842. The town of San Antonio was captured twice and Texans were defeated in battle in the Dawson massacre. Despite these successes, Mexico did not keep an occupying force in Texas, and the republic survived.BOOK, Calvert, Robert A., León, Arnoldo De, Cantrell, Gregg, The History of Texas,weblink 2002, Harlan Davidson, 978-0-88295-966-5, The republic's inability to defend itself added momentum to Texas's eventual annexation into the United States.


As early as 1837, the Republic made several attempts to negotiate annexation with the United States.BOOK, Winders, Richard Bruce, Crisis in the Southwest: The United States, Mexico, and the Struggle Over Texas,weblink 2002, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-8420-2801-1, 41, Opposition within the republic from the nationalist faction, along with strong abolitionist opposition within the United States, slowed Texas's admission into the Union. Texas was finally annexed when the expansionist James K. Polk won the election of 1844.Buescher, John. "Senatorial Division",, accessed August 21, 2011. {{webarchive|url= |date=July 11, 2011 }} On December 29, 1845, Congress admitted Texas to the U.S. as a constituent state of the Union.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, mga02, Annexation, C. T., Neu, June 9, 2010, December 2, 2015, The population of the new state was quite small at first and there was a strong mix between the English-speaking American settlers that dominated in the state's eastern/northeastern portions and the Spanish-speaking former Mexicans that dominated in the state's southern and western portions. Statehood brought many new settlers. Because of the long Spanish presence in Mexico and various failed colonization efforts by the Spanish and Mexicans in northern Mexico, there were large herds of Longhorn cattle that roamed the state. Hardy by nature but also suitable for slaughtering and consumption, they represented an economic opportunity many entrepreneurs seized upon, thus creating the cowboy culture for which Texas is famous. While in the early days of the republic cattle and bison were slaughtered for their hides, soon a beef industry was established with cattle being shipped all over the U.S. and the Caribbean (within a few decades, beef had become a staple of the American diet).After Texas's annexation, Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the United States. While the United States claimed Texas's border stretched to the Rio Grande, Mexico claimed it was the Nueces River. While the former Republic of Texas could not enforce its border claims, the United States had the military strength and the political will to do so. President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor south to the Rio Grande on January 13, 1846. A few months later Mexican troops routed an American cavalry patrol in the disputed area in the Thornton Affair starting the Mexican–American War. The first battles of the war were fought in Texas: the Siege of Fort Texas, Battle of Palo Alto and Battle of Resaca de la Palma. After these decisive victories, the United States invaded Mexican territory ending the fighting in Texas.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, qdm02, Mexican War, K. Jack, Bauer, June 15, 2010, March 28, 2016, (File:Texas proposed boundaries.svg|thumb|upright|Proposals of 1850 for Texas northwestern boundary)After a series of United States victories, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the two-year war. In return, for US$18,250,000, Mexico gave the U.S. undisputed control of Texas, ceded the Mexican Cession in 1848, most of which today is called the American Southwest, and Texas's borders were established at the Rio Grande.The Compromise of 1850 set Texas's boundaries at their present form. U.S. Senator James Pearce of Maryland drafted the final proposal where Texas ceded its claims to land which later became half of present-day New Mexico, a third of Colorado, and small portions of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Wyoming to the federal government, in return for the assumption of $10 million of the old republic's debt.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, nbc02, Compromise of 1850, Roger A., Griffin, June 12, 2010, March 21, 2016, Post-war Texas grew rapidly as migrants poured into the cotton lands of the state.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, afc03, Cotton Culture, Karen Gerhardt, Britton, Fred C., Elliott, E. A., Miller, June 12, 2010, They also brought or purchased enslaved African Americans, whose numbers tripled in the state from 1850 to 1860, from 58,000 to 182,566.NEWS,weblink Susan, Schulte, Visualizing Slavery: A Map of Slavery Interactive Feature, The New York Times, December 9, 2010,

Civil War and Reconstruction (1860–1900)

File:Glory to the defeated - dignified resignation.jpg|thumb|upright|Civil war monument in Galveston, TexasGalveston, TexasTexas was at war again after the election of 1860. At this time, blacks comprised 30 percent of the state's population, and they were overwhelmingly enslaved.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, pkaan, W. Marvin, Dulaney, African Americans, June 9, 2010, July 25, 2016, When Abraham Lincoln was elected, South Carolina seceded from the Union. Five other Lower South states quickly followed. A State Convention considering secession opened in Austin on January 28, 1861. On February 1, by a vote of 166–8, the Convention adopted an Ordinance of Secession from the United States. Texas voters approved this Ordinance on February 23, 1861. Texas joined the newly created Confederate States of America on March 4, 1861 ratifying the permanent C.S. Constitution on March 23.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, mjs01, Secession Convention, Walter L., Buenger, June 15, 2010, March 8, 2011, Not all Texans favored secession initially, although many of the same would later support the Southern cause. Texas's most notable Unionist was the state Governor, Sam Houston. Not wanting to aggravate the situation, Houston refused two offers from President Lincoln for Union troops to keep him in office. After refusing to swear an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, Houston was deposed as governor.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, fho73, Houston, Samuel, Thomas H., Kreneck, June 15, 2010, March 30, 2017, While far from the major battlefields of the American Civil War, Texas contributed large numbers of men and equipment to the rest of the Confederacy.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, qdc02, Civil War, Ralph A., Wooster, June 12, 2010, January 30, 2017, Union troops briefly occupied the state's primary port, Galveston. Texas's border with Mexico was known as the "backdoor of the Confederacy" because trade occurred at the border, bypassing the Union blockade.BOOK, Federal Writers' Project, Texas, A Guide to the Lone Star State: Brownsville, Native American Books Distributor, December 1997, 206,weblink 978-0-403-02192-5, The Confederacy repulsed all Union attempts to shut down this route, but Texas's role as a supply state was marginalized in mid-1863 after the Union capture of the Mississippi River. The final battle of the Civil War was fought near Brownsville, Texas at Palmito RanchHANDBOOK OF TEXAS, qfp01, Palmito Ranch, Battle of, Jeffrey William, Hunt, June 15, 2010, April 4, 2016, with a Confederate victory.Texas descended into anarchy for two months between the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia and the assumption of authority by Union General Gordon Granger. Violence marked the early months of Reconstruction. Juneteenth commemorates the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation in Galveston by General Gordon Granger, almost two and a half years after the original announcement.WEB, Historical Barriers to Voting, Texas Politics, University of Texas,weblink October 13, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 2, 2008, HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, lkj01, Juneteenth, Teresa Palomo, Acosta, June 15, 2010, October 6, 2017, President Johnson, in 1866, declared the civilian government restored in Texas.BOOK, Johnson, Andrew, Andrew Johnson, August 20, 1866, Proclamation Declaring the Insurrection at an End, American Historical Documents, President of the United States,weblink April 28, 2008, Despite not meeting reconstruction requirements, Congress resumed allowing elected Texas representatives into the federal government in 1870. Social volatility continued as the state struggled with agricultural depression and labor issues.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, mzr01, Restoration, Carl H., Moneyhon, June 15, 2010, January 30, 2017, Like most of the South, the Texas economy was devastated by the War. However, since the state had not been as dependent on slaves as other parts of the South it was able to recover more quickly. The culture in Texas during the later 19th century exhibited many facets of a frontier territory. The state became notorious as a haven for people from other parts of the country who wanted to escape debt, criminal prosecution, or other problems. Indeed, "Gone to Texas" was a common expression for those fleeing the law in other states. Nevertheless, the state also attracted many businessmen and other settlers with more legitimate interests as well.The cattle industry continued to thrive though it gradually became less profitable. Cotton and lumber became major industries creating new economic booms in various regions of the state. Railroad networks grew rapidly as did the port at Galveston as commerce between Texas and the rest of the U.S. (and the rest of the world) expanded. As with some other states before, the lumber industry quickly decimated the forests of Texas such that by the early 20th century the majority of the forest population in Texas was gone (later conservation efforts restored some of it, but never to the level it once was).

Earlier 20th century

(File:Lucas gusher.jpg|thumb|upright|Spindletop, the first major oil gusher)In 1900, Texas suffered the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history during the Galveston hurricane. On January 10, 1901, the first major oil well in Texas, Spindletop, was found south of Beaumont. Other fields were later discovered nearby in East Texas, West Texas, and under the Gulf of Mexico. The resulting "oil boom" transformed Texas.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, dos03, Spindletop Oilfield, Robert, Wooster, Christine Moor, Sanders, June 15, 2010, July 26, 2016, Oil production eventually averaged three million barrels per day at its peak in 1972.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, doogz, Oil and Gas Industry, Roger M., Olien, June 15, 2010, August 19, 2016, In 1901, the Democratic-dominated state legislature passed a bill requiring payment of a poll tax for voting, which effectively disenfranchised most blacks, and many poor whites and Latinos. In addition, the legislature established white primaries, ensuring minorities were excluded from the formal political process. The number of voters dropped dramatically, and the Democrats crushed competition from the Republican and Populist parties.JOURNAL, 791091, Nixon v. Condon. Disfranchisement of the Negro in Texas, The Yale Law Journal, 41, 8, 1212–1221, June 1932, 10.2307/791091, WEB,weblink Texas Politics: Historical Barriers to Voting, University of Texas at Austin, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink April 2, 2008, The Socialist Party became the second-largest party in Texas after 1912,HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, was01, Socialist Party, Barr, Alwyn, June 15, 2010, coinciding with a large socialist upsurge in the United States during fierce battles in the labor movement and the popularity of national heroes like Eugene V. Debs. The Socialists' popularity soon waned after their vilification by the United States government for their opposition to US involvement in World War I.The Great Depression and the Dust Bowl dealt a double blow to the state's economy, which had significantly improved since the Civil War. Migrants abandoned the worst hit sections of Texas during the Dust Bowl years. Especially from this period on, blacks left Texas in the Great Migration to get work in the Northern United States or California and to escape the oppression of segregation. In 1940, Texas was 74 percent Anglo, 14.4 percent black, and 11.5 percent Hispanic.BOOK, Jillson, Cal, Texas Politics: Governing the Lone Star State,weblink 2011, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-203-82941-7, 11, World War II had a dramatic impact on Texas, as federal money poured in to build military bases, munitions factories, POW detention camps and Army hospitals; 750,000 young men left for service; the cities exploded with new industry; the colleges took on new roles; and hundreds of thousands of poor farmers left the fields for much better paying war jobs, never to return to agriculture.BOOK, Lee, James Ward, Barnes, Carolyn N., Bowman, Kent Adam, 1941: Texas Goes to War,weblink 1991, University of North Texas Press, 978-0-929398-29-7, BOOK, Fairchild, Louis, They Called It the War Effort: Oral Histories from World War II Orange, Texas,weblink second, 2012, Texas A&M University Press, 978-0-87611-259-5, Texas manufactured 3.1 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking eleventh among the 48 states.BOOK, Peck, Merton J., Whiz Kids (Department of Defense), Scherer, Frederic M., Frederic M. Scherer, The weapons acquisition process: an economic analysis,weblink 1962, Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, 111, Texas modernized and expanded its system of higher education through the 1960s. The state created a comprehensive plan for higher education, funded in large part by oil revenues, and a central state apparatus designed to manage state institutions more efficiently. These changes helped Texas universities receive federal research funds.JOURNAL, Blanton, Carlos Kevin, The Campus and the Capitol: John B. Connally and the Struggle over Texas Higher Education Policy, 1950–1970, Southwestern Historical Quarterly, 2005, 108, 468–497, 0038-478X, 4, On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.BOOK, Bradley S. Greenberg, Greenberg, Bradley S., Parker, Edwin B., The Kennedy Assassination and the American Public: Social Communication in Crisis,weblink 1965, Stanford University Press, 187,

Economic and political change (1950–present)

Beginning around the mid-20th century, Texas began to transform from a rural and agricultural state to one urban and industrialized.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, Calvert, Robert A., Texas Since World War II, npt02, June 15, 2010, January 30, 2017, The state's population grew quickly during this period, with large levels of migration from outside the state. As a part of the Sun Belt Texas experienced strong economic growth, particularly during the 1970s and early 1980s. Texas's economy diversified, lessening its reliance on the petroleum industry. By 1990, Hispanics overtook blacks to become the largest minority group in the state.During the late 20th century, the Republican Party replaced the Democratic Party as the dominant party in the state, as the latter became more politically liberal and as demographic changes favored the former.Many large mass shootings have occurred in Texas, including the University of Texas tower shooting, the Luby's shooting, the 2009 Fort Hood shooting, the Sutherland Springs church shooting, the Santa Fe High School shooting, and the 2019 El Paso shooting.

Government and politics

The current Texas Constitution was adopted in 1876. Like many states, it explicitly provides for a separation of powers. The state's Bill of Rights is much larger than its federal counterpart, and has provisions unique to Texas.WEB, Bill of Rights (Article 1), Texas Politics, University of Texas,weblink October 13, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 6, 2009,

State government

{{See also|List of Texas state agencies}}File:Texas State Capitol Night.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|The Texas State CapitolTexas State CapitolTexas has a plural executive branch system limiting the power of the governor, which is a weak executive compared to some other states. Except for the Secretary of State, voters elect executive officers independently; thus candidates are directly answerable to the public, not the governor.WEB, 2005, The Plural Executive, Texas Politics, University of Texas,weblink May 7, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 28, 2008, This election system has led to some executive branches split between parties and reduced the ability of the governor to carry out a program. When Republican President George W. Bush served as Texas's governor, the state had a Democratic lieutenant governor, Bob Bullock. The executive branch positions consist of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Comptroller of Public Accounts, Land Commissioner, Attorney General, Agriculture Commissioner, the three-member Texas Railroad Commission, the State Board of Education, and the Secretary of State.The bicameral Texas Legislature consists of the House of Representatives, with 150 members, and a Senate, with 31 members. The Speaker of the House leads the House, and the lieutenant governor, the Senate.WEB, 2005, Membership, Texas Politics, University of Texas,weblink June 17, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 2, 2009, The Legislature meets in regular session biennially for just over 100 days, but the governor can call for special sessions as often as desired (notably, the Legislature cannot call itself into session).WEB, 2005, Special Sessions, Texas Politics, University of Texas,weblink June 17, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 2, 2009, The state's fiscal year spans from the previous calendar year's September 1 to the current year's August 31. Thus, the FY 2015 dates from September 1, 2014 through August 31, 2015.The judiciary of Texas is one of the most complex in the United States, with many layers and overlapping jurisdictions. Texas has two courts of last resort: the Texas Supreme Court, for civil cases, and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals. Except for some municipal benches, partisan elections select judges at all levels of the judiciary; the governor fills vacancies by appointment.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, jzj01, Judiciary, Paul, Womack, June 15, 2010, Texas is notable for its use of capital punishment, having led the country in executions since capital punishment was reinstated in the Gregg v. Georgia case (see Capital punishment in Texas).The Texas Ranger Division of the Texas Department of Public Safety is a law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction. Over the years, the Texas Rangers have investigated crimes ranging from murder to political corruption. They have acted as riot police and as detectives, protected the Texas governor, tracked down fugitives, and functioned as a paramilitary force both for the republic and the state. The Texas Rangers were unofficially created by Stephen F. Austin in 1823 and formally constituted in 1835. The Rangers were integral to several important events of Texas history and some of the best-known criminal cases in the history of the Old West.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, met04, Texas Rangers, Ben H., Procter, June 15, 2010, February 8, 2018, The Texas constitution defines the responsibilities of county governments, which serve as agents of the state. What are called commissioners court and court judges are elected to serve as the administrative arm. Most cities in the state, those over 5,000 in population, have home-rule governments. The vast majority of these have charters for council-manager forms of government, by which voters elect council members, who hire a professional city manager as operating officer.


{{further|Political party strength in Texas}}

Political history

File:Lbj2.jpg|thumb|upright|Lyndon B. JohnsonLyndon B. JohnsonIn the 1870s, white Democrats wrested power back in the state legislature from the biracial coalition at the end of Reconstruction. In the early 20th century, the legislature passed bills to impose poll taxes, followed by white primaries; these measures effectively disfranchised most blacks, poor whites and Mexican Americans. In the 1890s, 100,000 blacks voted in the state; by 1906, only 5,000 could vote.BOOK, African-American Pioneers of Texas: From the Old West to the New Frontiers (Teacher's Manual), Museum of Texas Tech University: Education Division, 25,weblink's%20manual.pdf, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 5, 2007, As a result, the Democratic Party dominated Texas politics from the turn of the century, imposing racial segregation and white supremacy. It held power until after passage in the mid-1960s of national civil rights legislation enforcing constitutional rights of all citizens.Although Texas was essentially a one-party state during this time and the Democratic primary was viewed as "the real election," the Democratic Party had conservative and liberal factions, which became more pronounced after the New Deal.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, Political Parties, wap02, June 15, 2010, Additionally, several factions of the party briefly split during the 1930s and 1940s.The state's conservative white voters began to support Republican presidential candidates by the mid-20th century. After this period, they supported Republicans for local and state offices as well, and most whites became Republican Party members.NEWS, Risen, Clay, March 5, 2006, How the South was won, The Boston Globe,weblink April 29, 2008, The party also attracted some minorities, but many have continued to vote for Democratic candidates. The shift to the Republican Party is much-attributed to the fact the Democratic Party became increasingly liberal during the 20th century, and thus increasingly out-of-touch with the average Texas voter.WEB, History of Texas Voters,weblink November 8, 2016, NewsChannel10, KFDA-TV, December 16, 2016, As Texas was always a conservative state, voters switched to the GOP, which now more closely reflected their beliefs.WEB, How Texas Became a "Red" State, Frontline,weblink April 12, 2005, PBS, December 16, 2016, Commentators have also attributed the shift to Republican political consultant Karl Rove, who managed numerous political campaigns in Texas in the 1980s and 1990s. Other stated reasons included court-ordered redistricting and the demographic shift in relation to the Sun Belt that favored the Republican Party and conservatism.The 2003 Texas redistricting of Congressional districts led by Republican Tom DeLay, was called by The New York Times "an extreme case of partisan gerrymandering".NEWS, The Texas Gerrymander, The New York Times, March 1, 2006,weblink A group of Democratic legislators, the "Texas Eleven", fled the state in a quorum-busting effort to prevent the legislature from acting, but was unsuccessful.NEWS, Ridder, Knight, 11 Texas Senate Democrats Take Cue from House, Bolt to Avoid Redistricting, Houston Chronicle, July 29, 2003,weblink January 7, 2009, {{dead link|date=January 2011}} The state had already redistricted following the 2000 census. Despite these efforts, the legislature passed a map heavily in favor of Republicans, based on 2000 data and ignoring the estimated nearly one million new residents in the state since that date. Career attorneys and analysts at the Department of Justice objected to the plan as diluting the votes of African American and Hispanic voters, but political appointees overrode them and approved it. Legal challenges to the redistricting reached the national Supreme Court in the case League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry (2006), but the court ruled in favor of the state (and Republicans).NEWS, The Associated Press,weblink Justices Back Most G.O.P. Changes to Texas Districts, The New York Times, June 28, 2006, In the 2014 Texas elections, the Tea Party movement made large gains, with numerous Tea Party favorites being elected into office, including Dan Patrick as lieutenant governor,NEWS, Fernandez, Manny, Lieutenant Governor Loses Texas Runoff as Tea Party Holds Sway,weblink May 27, 2014, The New York Times, NEWS, Koppel, Nathan, Texas Lt. Gov. Dan Patrick Moves Quickly to Advance Conservative Agenda,weblink January 21, 2015, The Wall Street Journal, Ken Paxton as attorney general,NEWS, Grissom, Brandi, Tea Party Conservatives Win Top GOP Runoff Contests,weblink May 28, 2014, The Texas Tribune, in addition to numerous other candidates including conservative Republican Greg Abbott as governor.NEWS, Fernandez, Manny, Texas' New Governor Echoes the Plans of Perry,weblink January 20, 2015, The New York Times,

Texas politics today

Texas voters lean toward fiscal conservatism, while enjoying the benefits of huge federal investment in the state in military and other facilities achieved by the power of the Solid South in the 20th century. They also tend to have socially conservative values.WEB, Texas Political Culture – Introduction, Texas Politics, University of Texas,weblink May 29, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 20, 2008, WEB, Texas Political Culture – Low Taxes, Low Services Political Culture, Texas Politics, University of Texas,weblink October 13, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 30, 2009, Since 1980, most Texas voters have supported Republican presidential candidates. In 2000 and 2004, Republican George W. Bush won Texas with respectively 59.3 and 60.1 percent of the vote, partly due to his "favorite son" status as a former governor of the state. John McCain won the state in 2008, but with a smaller margin of victory compared to Bush at 55 percent of the vote. Austin, Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio consistently lean Democratic in both local and statewide elections.Residents of counties along the Rio Grande closer to the Mexico-United States border, where there are many Latino residents, generally vote for Democratic Party candidates, while most other rural and suburban areas of Texas have shifted to voting for Republican Party candidates.WEB,weblink 2000 Presidential General Election Results – Texas, US Election Atlas, July 22, 2008, WEB,weblink 2004 Presidential General Election Results – Texas,, July 22, 2007, As of the general elections of 2014, a large majority of the members of Texas's U.S. House delegation are Republican, along with both U.S. Senators. In the 114th United States Congress, of the 36 Congressional districts in Texas, 24 are held by Republicans and 11 by Democrats. One seat is vacant. Texas's Senators are John Cornyn and Ted Cruz. Since 1994, Texans have not elected a Democrat to a statewide office. The state's Democratic voters are made up primarily by liberal and minority groups in Austin, Beaumont, Dallas, El Paso, Houston and San Antonio as well as minority voters in East and South Texas.Texas has banned sanctuary cities,WEB,weblink Florida is about to ban sanctuary cities. At least 11 other states have, too, CNN, Catherine E. Shoichet, CNN, May 9, 2019, but Houston Mayor Sylvester Turner has vowed that the city will not assist ICE agents.NEWS, U.S. Cities Prepare For Planned ICE Raids,weblink NPR, July 13, 2019, {| border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" style="margin: 1em 1em 1em 0; background: #f9f9f9; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 98%;" style="background:#e9e9e9;"! colspan="7" | United States presidential election in Texas, 2016WEB, Race Summary Report, 2016 General Election,weblink Texas Secretary of State, December 1, 2016, style="background:#eee; text-align:center;"! colspan="2" style="width: 15em" |Party! style="width: 10em" |Candidate! style="width: 10em" |Running mate! style="width: 5em" |Votes! style="width: 5em" |Percentage! style="width: 5em" |Electoral votes! style="background:#f33; width:3px;"| Republican| Donald Trump| Mike Pence 4,685,047 52.23% 36! style="background:#33f; width:3px;"| Democratic| Hillary Clinton| Tim Kaine 3,877,868 43.24% 0! style="background:gold; width:3px;"| Libertarian| Gary Johnson| William Weld 283,492 3.16% 0! style="background:#0bda51; width:3px;"| Green| Jill Stein| Ajamu Baraka 71,558 0.80% 0! style="background:grey; width:3px;"| Write-in| Various candidates| Various candidates51,261 0.57% 0! style="background:#f33; width:3px;"| RepublicanJohn Kasich{{efn>name=Elector|Did not run and was not a candidate, but received one electoral vote by a faithless elector.}}Carly Fiorina{{efn>name=Elector}} 0 0.0% 1! style="background:gold; width:3px;"| LibertarianRon Paul{{efn>name=Elector}}| Mike Pence 0 0.0% 1 style="background:#eee; text-align:right;" Totals 8,969,226 100.00% 38 style="background:#eee; text-align:right;" Voter turnout (voting age population)

Administrative divisions

{{See also|List of Texas counties}}Texas has 254 counties— the most nationwide. Each county runs on Commissioners' Court system consisting of four elected commissioners (one from each of four precincts in the county, roughly divided according to population) and a county judge elected at large from the entire county. County government runs similar to a "weak" mayor-council system; the county judge has no veto authority, but votes along with the other commissioners.Although Texas permits cities and counties to enter "interlocal agreements" to share services, the state does not allow consolidated city-county governments, nor does it have metropolitan governments. Counties are not granted home rule status; their powers are strictly defined by state law. The state does not have townships— areas within a county are either incorporated or unincorporated. Incorporated areas are part of a municipality. The county provides limited services to unincorporated areas and to some smaller incorporated areas. Municipalities are classified either "general law" cities or "home rule".THESIS, McDonald, John V., An Analysis of Texas' Municipal Home Rule Charters Since 1994", August 2000, Texas State University,weblink A municipality may elect home rule status once it exceeds 5,000 population with voter approval.Texas also permits the creation of "special districts", which provide limited services. The most common is the school district, but can also include hospital districts, community college districts, and utility districts (one utility district near Austin was the plaintiff in a landmark Supreme Court case involving the Voting Rights Act).Municipal, school district, and special district elections are nonpartisan,WEB, Run for Party Nomination to Public Office, Texas Politics, University of Texas,weblink October 12, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 18, 2009, though the party affiliation of a candidate may be well-known. County and state elections are partisan.

Criminal law

Texas has a reputation of very harsh criminal punishment for criminal offenses. It is one of the 32 states that practice capital punishment, and since the US Supreme Court allowed capital punishment to resume in 1976, 40% of all US executions have taken place in Texas.NEWS,weblink Texas executes 500th person since resuming death penalty, BBC News, June 27, 2013, July 8, 2013, As of 2008, Texas had the 4th highest incarceration rate in the US.JOURNAL,weblink Prisoners in 2008, William J., Sabol, Heather C., West, Matthew, Cooper, Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin, December 2009, Texas also has strong self defense laws, allowing citizens to use lethal force to defend themselves, their families, or their property.WEB,weblink TEX PE. CODE ANN. § 9.42 : Texas Statutes – Section 9.42: DEADLY FORCE TO PROTECT PROPERTY,, July 8, 2013,


{{See also|Texas locations by per capita income}}File:NASA Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory Astronaut Training.jpg|thumb|Astronaut training at the Johnson Space Center in HoustonHoustonAs of 2018, Texas had a gross state product (GSP) of $1.8 trillion, the second highest in the U.S.WEB,weblink May 1, 2019, Gross Domestic Product by State, Annual 2018, Bureau of Economic Analysis, June 9, 2019, Its GSP is greater than the GDPs of Canada, Russia, South Korea and Spain, which are the world's 10th-, 11th-, 12th- and 13th-largest economies, respectively.WEB,weblink Report for Selected Countries and Subjects, International Monetary Fund, June 8, 2019, Texas's economy is the fourth-largest of any country subdivision globally, behind England (as part of the UK), California, and Japan's Kantō region. Its per capita personal income in 2009 was $36,484, ranking 29th in the nation.WEB, Economic Geography, Texas Politics, University of Texas,weblink October 13, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 30, 2009, (File:Geo Map of Income by Location in Texas (2014).png|thumb|A geomap depicting the income, by county, in Texas as of 2014)Texas's large population, abundance of natural resources, thriving cities and leading centers of higher education have contributed to a large and diverse economy. Since oil was discovered, the state's economy has reflected the state of the petroleum industry. In recent times, urban centers of the state have increased in size, containing two-thirds of the population in 2005. The state's economic growth has led to urban sprawl and its associated symptoms.As of April 2013, the state's unemployment rate is 6.4 percent.WEB, Local Area Unemployment Statistics,weblink Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 7, 2011, In 2010, Site Selection Magazine ranked Texas as the most business-friendly state in the nation, in part because of the state's three-billion-dollar Texas Enterprise Fund.WEB, Site Selection Rankings,weblink October 10, 2011, Texas has the joint-highest number of Fortune 500 company headquarters in the United States, along with California.NEWS,weblink Fortune 500 2010: States: Texas Companies, FORTUNE on, CNN, May 3, 2010, August 15, 2011, NEWS,weblink Fortune 500 2010: States: California Companies, FORTUNE on, CNN, May 3, 2010, August 15, 2011, In 2010, there were 346,000 millionaires in Texas, constituting the second-largest population of millionaires in the nation.Second to CaliforniaNEWS, Walter, Scott, Personality Parade, Parade Magazine, 2, May 2, 2010,


Texas has a "low taxes, low services" reputation. According to the Tax Foundation, Texans' state and local tax burdens rank among the lowest in the nation, 7th lowest nationally; state and local taxes cost $3,580 per capita, or 8.4 percent of resident incomes.WEB, Texas, Research Areas, The Tax Foundation, 2010,weblink October 15, 2010, Texas is one of seven states that lack a state income tax.WEB, State Individual Income Taxes, Federation of Tax Administrators,weblink October 12, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink October 3, 2008, Instead, the state collects revenue from property taxes (though these are collected at the county, city, and school district level; Texas has a state constitutional prohibition against a state property tax) and sales taxes. The state sales tax rate is 6.25 percent,WEB,weblink Why does Texas (Taxus) have the highest property taxes and 3rd highest sales tax?,, May 9, 2011, August 15, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink July 7, 2011, dead, but local taxing jurisdictions (cities, counties, special purpose districts, and transit authorities) may also impose sales and use tax up to 2 percent for a total maximum combined rate of 8.25 percent.WEB,weblink FAQ: Texas Sales Tax,, January 10, 2011, Texas is a "tax donor state"; in 2005, for every dollar Texans paid to the federal government in federal income taxes, the state got back about $0.94 in benefits. To attract business, Texas has incentive programs worth $19 billion per year (2012); more than any other US state.NEWS,weblink Lines Blur as Texas Gives Industries a Bonanza, Louise, Story, The New York Times, December 1, 2012, NEWS,weblink UNITED STATES OF SUBSIDIES, Texas, The New York Times, December 1, 2012,

Agriculture and mining

(File:West Texas Cotton.jpg|right|thumb|Cotton modules after being harvested in West Texas)(File:Oil well.jpg|thumb|An oil well)File:GreenMountainWindFarm Fluvanna 2004.jpg|right|thumb|Brazos Wind FarmBrazos Wind FarmFile:GodPod.jpg|thumb|Electronic Data Systems headquarters in Plano ]]Texas has the most farms and the highest acreage in the United States. The state is ranked {{Numero|1}} for revenue generated from total livestock and livestock products. It is ranked {{Numero|2}} for total agricultural revenue, behind California.WEB, The Texas Economy,, June 5, 2007,weblink April 29, 2008, At $7.4 billion or 56.7 percent of Texas's annual agricultural cash receipts, beef cattle production represents the largest single segment of Texas agriculture. This is followed by cotton at $1.9 billion (14.6 percent), greenhouse/nursery at $1.5 billion (11.4 percent), broilers at $1.3 billion (10 percent), and dairy products at $947 million (7.3 percent).WEB, Electronic Municipal Market Access, Electronic Municipal Market Access, Appendix A, The State of Texas, Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board (MSRB), Washington, D.C., 2013,weblink October 23, 2016, Texas leads the nation in the production of cattle, horses, sheep, goats, wool, mohair and hay. The state also leads the nation in production of cottonWEB, Crop Production: 2014 Summary,weblink2010s/2015/CropProdSu-01-12-2015.pdf, United States Department of Agriculture, July 23, 2015, 48–49, which is the number one crop grown in the state in terms of value.WEB, Carmack, Liz, The Legacy of 'King Cotton',, County, Texas Association of Counties, July 23, 2015, June 21, 2013, The state grows significant amounts of cereal crops and produce. Texas has a large commercial fishing industry. With mineral resources, Texas leads in creating cement, crushed stone, lime, salt, sand and gravel.Texas throughout the 21st century has been hammered by drought. This has cost the state billions of dollars in livestock and crops.NEWS, Marsh, Wendell, No relief in sight for Texas heat and drought,weblink January 13, 2013, Reuters, August 5, 2011,


{{See also|Deregulation of the Texas electricity market}}Ever since the discovery of oil at Spindletop, energy has been a dominant force politically and economically within the state.WEB,weblink Oil and Texas: A Cultural History, July 3, 2018, Ramos, Mary G., Texas Almanac 2000–2001, The Texas State Historical Association, November 29, 2017, If Texas were its own country it would be the sixth largest oil producer in the world.NEWS, The 10 Most Oil-Rich States, Alexander Kent, 24/7 Wall Street, July 28, 2014,weblink August 5, 2014, The Railroad Commission of Texas, contrary to its name, regulates the state's oil and gas industry, gas utilities, pipeline safety, safety in the liquefied petroleum gas industry, and surface coal and uranium mining. Until the 1970s, the commission controlled the price of petroleum because of its ability to regulate Texas's oil reserves. The founders of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) used the Texas agency as one of their models for petroleum price control.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, mdr01, Railroad Commission, David F., Prindle, June 15, 2010, Texas has known petroleum deposits of about {{convert|5|Goilbbl|m3}}, which makes up about one-fourth of the known U.S. reserves. The state's refineries can process {{convert|4.6|Moilbbl|m3}} of oil a day. The Port Arthur Refinery in Southeast Texas is the largest refinery in the U.S. Texas also leads in natural gas production, producing one-fourth of the nation's supply. Several petroleum companies are based in Texas such as: Occidental Petroleum, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil, Halliburton, Marathon Oil, Tesoro, Valero Energy, and Western Refining.According to the Energy Information Administration, Texans consume, on average, the fifth most energy (of all types) in the nation per capita and as a whole, following behind Wyoming, Alaska, Louisiana, North Dakota, and Iowa.WEB, Petroleum Profile: Texas, Energy Information Administration,weblink December 13, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink February 4, 2011, dead, Unlike the rest of the nation, most of Texas is on its own alternating current power grid, the Texas Interconnection. Texas has a deregulated electric service. Texas leads the nation in total net electricity production, generating 437,236 MWh in 2014, 89% more MWh than Florida, which ranked second.WEB, Texas State Energy Profile: Electricity,weblink U.S. Energy Information Administration, July 23, 2015, Texas produces more electricity than any other state, generating almost twice as much as the next largest generating state., WEB, Electricity Data Browser: Net generation from electricity plants for all fuels, annual,weblink Energy Information Administration, As an independent nation, Texas would rank as the world's eleventh-largest producer of electricity, after South Korea, and ahead of the United Kingdom.The state is a leader in renewable energy commercialization; it produces the most wind power in the nation.WEB, Souder, Elizabeth, Texas leads nation in wind power capacity, The Dallas Morning News, January 2008,weblink In 2014, 10.6% of the electricity consumed in Texas came from wind turbines.NEWS,weblink Hold Onto Your Bonnets! Breezes and Sunshine to Power Georgetown, TX, Stacy, Clark, Huffington Post, December 6, 2017, The Roscoe Wind Farm in Roscoe, Texas, is one of the world's largest wind farms with a 781.5 megawatt (MW) capacity.NEWS, O'Grady, Eileen, E.ON completes world's largest wind farm in Texas,weblink August 26, 2010, Reuters, October 1, 2009, The Energy Information Administration states the state's large agriculture and forestry industries could give Texas an enormous amount biomass for use in biofuels. The state also has the highest solar power potential for development in the nation.


With large universities systems coupled with initiatives like the Texas Enterprise Fund and the Texas Emerging Technology Fund, a wide array of different high tech industries have developed in Texas. The Austin area is nicknamed the "Silicon Hills" and the north Dallas area the "Silicon Prairie". Texas has the headquarters of many high technology companies, such as Dell, Inc., Texas Instruments, Perot Systems, Rackspace and AT&T.The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (NASA JSC) in Southeast Houston, sits as the crown jewel of Texas's aeronautics industry. Fort Worth hosts both Lockheed Martin's Aeronautics division and Bell Helicopter Textron.WEB, Locations, Lockheed Martin, May 22, 2008,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink April 22, 2008, WEB, About Bell Helicopter, Bell Helicopter, May 22, 2008,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink June 2, 2008, dead, Lockheed builds the F-16 Fighting Falcon, the largest Western fighter program, and its successor, the F-35 Lightning II in Fort Worth.NEWS, Rosenwald, Michael S., December 17, 2007, Downside of Dominance?, The Washington Post,weblink May 22, 2008,


Texas's affluence stimulates a strong commercial sector consisting of retail, wholesale, banking and insurance, and construction industries. Examples of Fortune 500 companies not based on Texas traditional industries are AT&T, Kimberly-Clark, Blockbuster, J. C. Penney, Whole Foods Market, and Tenet Healthcare.MAGAZINE, Texas, Fortune (magazine), Fortune Magazine, April 30, 2007,weblink May 3, 2008, Nationally, the Dallas–Fort Worth area, home to the second shopping mall in the United States, has the most shopping malls per capita of any American metropolitan area.WEB, Dallas Shopping, Dallas Convention & Visitors Bureau,weblink June 26, 2016, Mexico, the state's largest trading partner, imports a third of the state's exports because of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). NAFTA has encouraged the formation of controversial maquiladoras on the Texas–Mexico border.WEB, Recent Economic Transformations, Texas Politics, University of Texas,weblink October 13, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 30, 2009,


{{US Census population|1850= 212592|1860= 604215|1870= 818579|1880= 1591749|1890= 2235527|1900= 3048710|1910= 3896542|1920= 4663228|1930= 5824715|1940= 6414824|1950= 7711194|1960= 9579677|1970= 11196730|1980= 14229191|1990= 16986510|2000= 20851820|2010= 25145561|estimate= 28701845|estyear= 2018|align-fn=centerTITLE=RESIDENT POPULATION DATA – 2010 CENSUS ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 22, 2012 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20131019160532/HTTP://2010.CENSUS.GOV/2010CENSUS/DATA/APPORTIONMENT-POP-TEXT.PHP, October 19, 2013, 2018 Estimate}}(File:Texas population map.png|thumb|upright=1.6|Texas population density map)The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of Texas was 28,701,845 on July 1, 2018, a 14.14 percent increase since the 2010 United States Census.WEB,weblink Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018, January 4, 2019, U.S. Census Bureau, January 4, 2019, As of 2004, the state had 3.5 million foreign-born residents (15.6 percent of the state population), of which an estimated 1.2 million are illegal immigrants. Texas from 2000 to 2006 had the fastest growing illegal immigration rate in the nation.WEB,weblink Politics, poverty, immigration entangle Texas health care, Roberson, Jason, December 4, 2007, The Dallas Morning News, In 2010, illegal immigrants constituted an estimated 6.0 percent of the population. This was the fifth highest percentage of any state in the country.NEWS, Peter, Slevin, New Arizona law puts police in 'tenuous' spot,weblink Washington Post, A4, April 30, 2010, behind Nevada, Arizona, California, and New Jersey In 2015, the population of illegal immigrants living in Texas was around 800,000.NEWS, Jones, Susan, February 23, 2015, Texas Governor: Since Jan. 1, 'We Have Had More Than 20,000 People Come Across the Border',weblink CNS News, February 24, 2015, NEWS, Face the Nation Transcripts February 22, 2015: Johnson, Abbott, McCain,weblink CBS News, February 22, 2015, February 23, 2015, Texas's Rio Grande Valley has seen significant migration from across the U.S.–Mexico border. During the 2014 crisis, many Central Americans, including unaccompanied minors traveling alone from Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, reached the state, overwhelming Border Patrol resources for a time. Many sought asylum in the United States.NEWS, Hennessy-Fiske, Molly, Carcamo, Cindy, In Texas' Rio Grande Valley, a seemingly endless surge of immigrants,weblink June 16, 2014, Los Angeles Times, NEWS, Nick, Miroff, Joshua, Partlow,weblink Central American migrants overwhelm Border Patrol station in Texas, Washington Post, June 12, 2014, In 2009, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security estimated 1.68 million illegal immigrants lived in Texas.NEWS, Jeff, Salamon,weblink Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Illegal Immigration (But Didn't Know Who to Ask), Texas Monthly, November 2010, While the number of illegal immigrants living in the U.S. has declined since 2009, in Texas there was no change in population between 2009 and 2014.NEW, Jens Manuel, Krogstad, Jeffrey S., Passel, D’Vera, Cohn,weblink Fact Tank - Our Lives in Numbers: 5 facts about illegal immigration in the U.S., Pew Research Center, April 27, 2017, Texas's population density is 90.5 people per square mile (34.9/km2) which is slightly higher than the average population density of the U.S. as a whole, at 80.6 people per square mile (31.1/km2). In contrast, while Texas and France are similarly sized geographically, the European country has a population density of 301.8 people per square mile (116.5/km2).Two-thirds of all Texans live in a major metropolitan area such as Houston. The Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area is the largest in Texas. While Houston is the largest city in Texas and the fourth largest city in the United States, the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area is larger than Houston.


As of the 2015 Texas Population Estimate Program, the population of the state was 27,469,114; non-Hispanic whites 11,505,371 (41.9%); Black Americans 3,171,043 (11.5%); other races 1,793,580 (6.5%); and Hispanics and Latinos (of any race) 10,999,120 (40.0%).{{citation|title=Estimates of the Population by Age, Sex, and Race/Ethnicity for July 1, 2015 for State of Texas. Texas Demographic Center, U.S. Bureau of the Census State Data Center Program|date=July 15, 2015|accessdate=June 8, 2017|url=|archive-url=|archive-date=May 4, 2017|url-status=dead|df=mdy-all}}According to the 2010 United States census, the racial composition of Texas was the following:WEB,weblink American FactFinder – Results, Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS),, In addition, 37.6 percent of the population are Hispanic or Latino (of any race) (31.6 percent Mexican, 0.9 percent Salvadoran, 0.5 percent Puerto Rican, 0.4 percent Honduran, 0.3 percent Guatemalan 0.3 percent Spaniard, 0.2 percent Colombian, 0.2 percent Cuban)WEB,weblink US Census Bureau: Table QT-P10 Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010,, October 5, 2010, August 2, 2014, As of 2011, 69.8% of the population of Texas younger than age 1 were minorities (meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white).NEWS,weblink Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot, Exner, Rich, June 3, 2012, The Plain Dealer, {| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"|+ Texas racial breakdown of population! Racial composition !! 1970 !! 1990WEB,weblink Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States,, August 2, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 25, 2008, !! 2000Population of Texas: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts{{dead link|date=August 2014}}!! 2010WEB, 2010 Census Data,weblink 2010 Census Data,, August 2, 2014, White American>White 86.8% 75.2% 71.0% 70.4%African American>Black 12.5% 11.9% 11.5% 11.9%Asian American>Asian 0.2% 1.9% 2.7% 3.8%Native Americans in the United States>Native 0.2% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7%Native Hawaiian andPacific Islander>other Pacific Islander – – 0.1% 0.1%Race and ethnicity in the United States Census>Other race 0.4% 10.6% 11.7% 10.5%Multiracial American>Two or more races – – 2.5% 2.7%File:Comanche Osage fight.jpg|thumb|right|War on the plains. Comanche (right) trying to lance an Osage warrior. Painting by George CatlinGeorge CatlinGerman, Irish, and English Americans are the three largest European ancestry groups in Texas. German Americans make up 11.3 percent of the population, and number over 2.7 million members. Irish Americans make up 8.2 percent of the population, and number over 1.9 million members. There are roughly 600,000 French Americans and 472,000 Italian Americans residing in Texas; these two ethnic groups make up 2.5 percent and 2.0 percent of the population respectively. In the 1980 United States Census the largest ancestry group reported in Texas was English with 3,083,323 Texans citing they were of English or mostly English ancestry making them 27 percent of the state at the time.WEB,weblink Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 – Table 3, July 8, 2013, Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies (the census of 1790 gives 48% of the population of English ancestry; together 12% Scots and Scots-Irish; 4.5% Irish South 90% were Protestant and 3% Welsh = 67.5% British; 13% were German, Swiss, Dutch and French Huguenots; 19% African-American, Colin Bonwick, The American Revolution, 1991, p. 254) and thus many of them today identify as "American" in ancestry, though they are of predominantly British stock.JOURNAL, Stanley, Lieberson, yes, Mary C., Waters, Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 487, 79, 1986, 82–86, 10.1177/0002716286487001004, BOOK, David Hackett, Fischer, David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, New York, Oxford University Press, 1989, 633–639, 978-0-19-503794-4, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, There are nearly 200,000 Czech-Americans living in Texas, the largest number of any state.WEB,weblink Czech language, U.S. English (organization), U.S. English, May 11, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 4, 2012, African Americans are the largest racial minority in Texas. Their proportion of population has declined since the early 20th century, after many left the state in the Great Migration. Blacks of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin make up 11.5 percent of the population; blacks of non-Hispanic origin form 11.3 percent of the populace. African Americans of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin number at roughly 2.7 million individuals.Native Americans are a smaller minority in the state. Native Americans make up 0.5 percent of Texas's population, and number over 118,000 individuals. Native Americans of non-Hispanic origin make up 0.3 percent of the population, and number over 75,000 individuals. Cherokee made up 0.1 percent of the population, and numbered over 19,400 members. In contrast, only 583 identified as Chippewa.File:Emory-El Paso.jpg|thumb|El Paso, founded by Spanish settlers in 1659]]Asian Americans are a sizable minority group in Texas. Americans of Asian descent form 3.8 percent of the population, with those of non-Hispanic descent making up 3.7 percent of the populace. They total more than 808,000 individuals. Non-Hispanic Asians number over 795,000. Just over 200,000 Indian Americans make Texas their home. Texas is also home to over 187,000 Vietnamese and 136,000 Chinese. In addition to 92,000 Filipinos and 62,000 Koreans, there are 18,000 Japanese Americans living in the state. Lastly, over 111,000 people are of other Asian ancestry groups, such as Cambodian, Thai, and Hmong. Sugar Land, a city within the Houston metropolitan area, and Plano, within the Dallas metropolitan area, both have high concentrations of ethnic Chinese and Korean residents. The Houston and Dallas areas, and to a lesser extent, the Austin metropolitan area, all contain substantial Vietnamese communities.Americans with origins from the Pacific are the smallest minority in Texas. According to the survey, only 18,000 Texans are Pacific Islanders; 16,400 are of non-Hispanic descent. There are roughly 5,400 Native Hawaiians, 5,300 Guamanians, and 6,400 people from other groups. Samoan Americans were scant; only 2,920 people were from this group. The city of Euless, a suburb of Fort Worth, contains a sizable population of Tongan Americans, at nearly 900 people, over one percent of the city's population. Killeen has a sufficient population of Samoans and Guamanian, and people of Pacific Islander descent surpass one percent of the city's population.Multiracial individuals are also a visible minority in Texas. People identifying as multiracial form 1.9 percent of the population, and number over 448,000 people. Almost 80,000 Texans claim African and European heritage, and make up 0.3 percent of the population. People of European and American Indian ancestry number over 108,800 (close to the number of Native Americans), and make up 0.5 percent of the population. People of European and Asian ancestry number over 57,600, and form just 0.2 percent of the population. People of African and Native American ancestry were even smaller in number (15,300), and make up just 0.1 percent of the total population.File:Bundesarchiv Bild 137-005007, Zeichnung, Deutscher Einwandererzug in Texas.jpg|thumb|German trek on its way to New Braunfels ]]Hispanics and Latinos are the second-largest group in Texas after non-Hispanic European Americans. Over 8.5 million people claim Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. This group forms over 37 percent of Texas's population. People of Mexican descent alone number over 7.9 million, and make up 31.6 percent of the population. The vast majority of the Hispanic/Latino population in the state is of Mexican descent, the next two largest groups are Salvadorans and Puerto Ricans. There are over 222,000 Salvadorans and over 130,000 Puerto Ricans in Texas. Other groups with large numbers in Texas include Hondurans, Guatemalans, Nicaraguans and Cubans, among others.WEB,weblink Texas – ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006–2008,, January 10, 2011, WEB,weblink Texas – Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2006–2008,, January 10, 2011, The Hispanics in Texas are more likely than in some other states (such as California) to identify as white; according to the 2010 U.S. Census, Texas is home to 6,304,207 White Hispanics and 2,594,206 Hispanics of "some other race" (usually mestizo).File:Praha texas.jpeg|thumb|right|Welcome to Praha, TexasPraha, TexasGerman descendants inhabit much of central and southeast-central Texas. Over one-third of Texas residents are of Hispanic origin; while many have recently arrived, some Tejanos have ancestors with multi-generational ties to 18th century Texas. The African American population in Texas is increasing due to the New Great Migration.REPORT, William H., Frey, The New Great Migration: Black Americans' Return to the South, 1965–2000, May 2004, The Brookings Institution, 1,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink April 28, 2008, WEB,weblink Texas –, In addition to the descendants of the state's former slave population, many African American college graduates have come to the state for work recently in the New Great Migration. Recently, the Asian population in Texas has grown—primarily in Houston and Dallas. Other communities with a significantly growing Asian American population is in Austin, Corpus Christi, San Antonio, and the Sharyland area next McAllen, Texas. Three federally recognized Native American tribes reside in Texas: the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe, and the Ysleta del Sur Pueblo.In 2010, 49 percent of all births were Hispanics; 35 percent were non-Hispanic whites; 11.5 percent were non-Hispanic blacks, and 4.3 percent were Asians/Pacific Islanders.NEWS, Juan, Castillo,weblink Hispanics make up nearly half of all Texas births in 2010, U.S. says, Austin American-Statesman, November 17, 2011, November 20, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink November 20, 2011, dead, Based on Census Bureau data released on February 2011, for the first time in recent history, Texas's white population is below 50 percent (45 percent) and Hispanics grew to 38 percent. Between 2000 and 2010, the total population growth by 20.6 percent, but Hispanics growth by 65 percent, whereas non-Hispanic whites only grew by 4.2 percent.NEWS,weblink Majority of Texas' population growth is Hispanic, USA Today, Rick, Jervis, February 23, 2011, Texas has the fifth highest rate of teenage births in the nation and a plurality of these are to Hispanics.WEB,weblink Texas Adolescent Reproductive Health Facts, US Department of Health and Human Services, August 2, 2014,

Cities, towns, and metropolitan areas

{{See also|List of cities in Texas|List of counties in Texas|List of Texas metropolitan areas|List of cities in Texas by population}}{|class="wikitable floatleft" style="text-align:center;"! colspan="2" | Largest city in Texas by yearWEB,weblink 100 Largest Cities by Decade, U.S. Bureau of the Census, June 15, 1998, ! Year(s)! CitySan AntonioHDS02 FIRST=T. R. DATE=MARCH 30, 2017, Galveston, Texas>GalvestonHDG01 >TITLE=GALVESTON, TX LAST=MCCOMB DATE=MAY 5, 2016, | Dallas| San AntonioHoustonHDH03 FIRST=DAVID G. ORIG-YEAR=JUNE 15, 2010, February 15, 2017, The state has three cities with populations exceeding one million: Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas.WEB,weblink Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2006 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006, comma-separated values, CSV, 2005 Population Estimates, United States Census Bureau, Population Division, June 10, 2008, June 10, 2008, {{dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}} These three rank among the 10 most populous cities of the United States. As of 2010, six Texas cities had populations greater than 600,000 people. Austin, Fort Worth, and El Paso are among the 20 largest U.S. cities. Texas has four metropolitan areas with populations greater than a million: {{nowrap|Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington}}, {{nowrap|Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown}}, {{nowrap|San Antonio–New Braunfels}}, and {{nowrap|Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos}}. The Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas number about 6.3 million and 5.7 million residents, respectively.Three interstate highways—I-35 to the west (Dallas–Fort Worth to San Antonio, with Austin in between), I-45 to the east (Dallas to Houston), and I-10 to the south (San Antonio to Houston) define the Texas Urban Triangle region. The region of {{convert|60000|sqmi|km2|sigfig=2}} contains most of the state's largest cities and metropolitan areas as well as 17 million people, nearly 75 percent of Texas's total population.WEB, Neuman, Michael, The Texas Urban Triangle: Framework for Future Growth, Southwest Region University Transportation Center (SWUTC),weblink October 14, 2008, dead,weblink July 5, 2009, Houston and Dallas have been recognized as beta world cities.WEB, GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2008, Globalization and World Cities Research Network, March 1, 2009,weblink These cities are spread out amongst the state. Texas has 254 counties, which is more than any other state by 95 (Georgia).BOOK,weblink Historical Gazetteer of the United States, Georgia, Paul T., Hellmann, February 14, 2006accessdate=February 16, 2017, 978-1135948597, In contrast to the cities, unincorporated rural settlements known as colonias often lack basic infrastructure and are marked by poverty.WEB,weblink Colonias FAQ's (Frequently Asked Questions), October 12, 2008, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas Office of Community Affairs, Texas Secretary of State, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 9, 2008, The office of the Texas Attorney General stated, in 2011, that Texas had about 2,294 colonias and estimates about 500,000 lived in the colonias. Hidalgo County, as of 2011, has the largest number of colonias.Grinberg, Emmanuella. "Impoverished border town grows from shacks into community". CNN. July 8, 2011. Retrieved on July 9, 2011. Texas has the largest number of people of all states, living in colonias.{{Largest cities| name = Largest cities| country = TexasLAST1=BRINKHOFF DATE=FEBRUARY 19, 2011 PUBLISHER=CITY POPULATION, May 28, 2012, | list_by_pop =| class = nav| div_name =| div_link = Counties of Texas{{!}}County| city_1 = Houston| div_1 = Harris County, Texas{{!}}Harris| pop_1 = 2,303,482| img_1 = Panoramic Houston skyline.jpg| city_2 = San Antonio| div_2 = Bexar County, Texas{{!}}Bexar| pop_2 = 1,492,510| img_2 = South Texas Medical Center (seen from downtown San Antonio).jpg| city_3 = Dallas| div_3 = Dallas County, Texas{{!}}Dallas| pop_3 = 1,317,929| img_3 = Downtown Dallas from the Trinity River.jpg| city_4 = Austin| div_4 = Travis County, Texas{{!}}Travis| pop_4 = 947,890| img_4 = AustinSkylineLouNeffPoint-2010-03-29-b.JPG| city_5 = Fort Worth| div_5 = Tarrant County, Texas{{!}}Tarrant| pop_5 = 854,113| img_5 =| city_6 = El Paso| div_6 = El Paso County, Texas{{!}}El Paso| pop_6 = 683,080| img_6 =| city_7 = Arlington, Texas{{!}}Arlington| div_7 = Tarrant County, Texas{{!}}Tarrant| pop_7 = 392,772| img_7 =| city_8 = Corpus Christi, Texas{{!}}Corpus Christi| div_8 = Nueces County, Texas{{!}}Nueces| pop_8 = 325,733| img_8 =| city_9 = Plano, Texas{{!}}Plano| div_9 = Collin County, Texas{{!}}Collin| pop_9 = 286,057| img_9 =| city_10 = Laredo, Texas{{!}}Laredo| div_10 = Webb County, Texas{{!}}Webb| pop_10 = 257,156| img_10 =}}


The most common accent or dialect spoken by natives throughout Texas is sometimes referred to as Texan English, which itself is a sub-variety of a broader category of American English known as Southern American English.WEB,weblink Do You Speak American . Sea to Shining Sea . American Varieties . Texan, PBS, November 29, 2003, August 2, 2014, WEB,weblink Do You Speak American . Sea to Shining Sea . American Varieties . Texan . Drawl, PBS, August 2, 2014, Creole language is spoken in East Texas.Kirstin Squint, A Linguistic and Cultural Comparison of Haitian Creole and Louisiana Creole,, Accessed March 11, 2014 In some areas of the state—particularly in the large cities – Western American English and General American English, have been on the increase. Chicano English—due to a growing Hispanic population—is widespread in South Texas, while African-American English is especially notable in historically minority areas of urban Texas.{| class="wikitable sortable plainrowheaders" style="margin-left:1em; float:center"|+ Top 10 Non-English languages spoken in Texas! scope="col" | Language! scope="col" | Percentage of population(as of 2010)! scope="row" | Spanish| 29.21%! scope="row" | Vietnamese| 0.75%! scope="row" | Chinese (including Mandarin and Cantonese)| 0.56%! scope="row" | German| 0.33%! scope="row" | Tagalog| 0.29%! scope="row" | French| 0.25%! scope="row" | Korean and Urdu (tied)| 0.24%! scope="row" | Hindi| 0.23%! scope="row" | Arabic| 0.21%! scope="row" | Niger-Congo languages of West Africa (Ibo, Kru, and Yoruba)| 0.15%As of 2010, 65.8% (14,740,304) of Texas residents age 5 and older spoke only English at home, while 29.2% (6,543,702) spoke Spanish, 0.75 percent (168,886) Vietnamese, and Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin) was spoken by 0.56% (122,921) of the population over the age of five.Other languages spoken include German (including Texas German) by 0.33% (73,137), Tagalog with 0.29% (64,272) speakers, and French (including Cajun French) was spoken by 0.25% (55,773) of Texans. Reportedly, Cherokee is the most widely spoken Native American language in Texas.WEB,weblink Blatt, Ben, Tagalog in California, Cherokee in Arkansas: What language does your state speak?, Data source: Census Bureau American Community Survey. Map by Ben Blatt/Slate., June 2, 2014, In total, 34.2% (7,660,406) of Texas's population aged five and older spoke a language at home other than English.WEB,weblink Texas, Modern Language Association, August 11, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 19, 2006, Religious affiliation in Texas (2014)Pew Research Center, "Religious Landscape Study: Texas"">

Religion{| class"wikitable sortable" style"font-size:80%;" Religious affiliation in Texas (2014)Pew Research Center, "Religious Landscape Study: Texas"

! Affiliation! colspan="2"|% of Texas populationChristianity>Christian '''{{bartable|background:darkblue}}''' Protestant '''{{bartable|background:mediumblue}}''' Evangelical Protestant '''{{bartable|background:lightblue}}''' Mainline Protestant '''{{bartable|background:lightblue}}''' Black church '''{{bartable|background:lightblue}}''' Catholic '''{{bartable|background:mediumblue}}''' Mormon '''{{bartable|background:mediumblue}}''' Jehovah's Witnesses '''{{bartable|background:mediumblue}}''' Eastern Orthodox '''{{bartable|background:mediumblue}}''' Other Christian '''{{bartable|background:mediumblue}}'''Irreligion>Unaffiliated '''{{bartable|background:purple}}''' Nothing in particular '''{{bartable|background:#A020F0}}''' Agnostic '''{{bartable|background:#A020F0}}''' Atheist '''{{bartable|background:#A020F0}}'''| Non-Christian faiths '''{{bartable|background:darkgreen}}''' Jewish '''{{bartable|background:lightgreen}}''' Muslim '''{{bartable|background:lightgreen}}''' Buddhist '''{{bartable|background:lightgreen}}''' Hindu '''{{bartable|background:lightgreen}}''' Other Non-Christian faiths '''{{bartable|background:lightgreen}}'''| Don't know/refused answer '''{{bartable|background:#A020F0}}'''Total >1002background:grey}}'''The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church (4,673,500); the Southern Baptist Convention (3,721,318); the United Methodist Church with (1,035,168); and Islam (421,972).WEB,weblink The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report,, December 12, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink February 9, 2014, dead, Known as the buckle of the Bible Belt, East Texas is socially conservative.WEB, Connolly, Ceci, January 21, 2003, Texas Teaches Abstinence, With Mixed Grades, Washington Post,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 3, 2005, April 28, 2008, A01, The Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex is home to three major evangelical seminaries and a host of Bible schools. Lakewood Church in Houston, boasts the largest attendance in the nation averaging more than 43,000 weekly.WEB,weblink Top 100 Largest Churches in America,, April 13, 2009, April 11, 2010, Adherents of many other religions reside predominantly in the urban centers of Texas. In 1990, the Islamic population was about 140,000 with more recent figures putting the current number of Muslims between 350,000 and 400,000.WEB,weblink Texas Online: Muslim growth adds to Texas diversity,, May 7, 2012, The Jewish population is around 128,000.BOOK, Twentieth-century Texas: a social and cultural history, Storey, John Woodrow, Kelley, Mary L., University of North Texas Press, 2008, 145, Around 146,000 adherents of religions such as Hinduism and Sikhism live in Texas.Lindsey, William D.; Silk, Mark: Religion and public life in the southern crossroads: showdown states, Altamira Press, 2004, pg. 48 It is the fifth-largest Muslim-populated state in the country.WEB,weblink Dallas Museum Lands a Rich Trove of Islamic Art, February 4, 2014, The New York Times, February 25, 2016,


{{See also|List of people from Texas|List of Texas symbols}}File:Mission San Antonio aka Alamo.jpg|thumb|right|The Alamo is one of the most recognized symbols of Texas.]]Historically, Texas culture comes from a blend of Southern (Dixie), Western (frontier), and Southwestern (Mexican/Anglo fusion) influences, varying in degrees of such from one intrastate region to another. Texas is placed in the Southern United States by the United States Census Bureau.WEB,weblink Census Regions and Divisions of the United States, United States Census Bureau, July 2, 2016, A popular food item, the breakfast burrito, draws from all three, having a soft flour tortilla wrapped around bacon and scrambled eggs or other hot, cooked fillings. Adding to Texas's traditional culture, established in the 18th and 19th centuries, immigration has made Texas a melting pot of cultures from around the world.Texas has made a strong mark on national and international pop culture. The entire state is strongly associated with the image of the cowboy shown in westerns and in country western music. The state's numerous oil tycoons are also a popular pop culture topic as seen in the hit TV series Dallas.The internationally known slogan "Don't Mess with Texas" began as an anti-littering advertisement. Since the campaign's inception in 1986, the phrase has become "an identity statement, a declaration of Texas swagger".NEWS, Fernandez, Manny, Not to Be, Um, Trifled With, Texas Guards Its Slogans,weblink December 29, 2013, The New York Times, September 14, 2013,

Texas self-perception

"Texas-sized" is an expression that can be used in two ways: to describe something that is about the size of the U.S. state of Texas,NEWS,weblink Texas-sized Hurricane Dean spins toward Yucatan,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 10, 2008, NEWS,weblink Floating, Texas-sized garbage patch threatens Pacific marine sanctuary, ars technica, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 3, 2008, or to describe something (usually but not always originating from Texas) that is large compared to other objects of its type.NEWS,weblink Texas-Sized Supercomputer to Break Computing Power Record,, June 26, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 11, 2014, NEWS,weblink Dems in Texas-sized showdown, ABC News, NEWS,weblink A Texas-Sized Battle: Evolution vs. ID,, Texas was the largest U.S. state, until Alaska became a state in 1959. The phrase "everything is bigger in Texas" has been in regular use since at least 1950;WEB, Popik, Barry, Everything's Bigger in Texas,weblink The Big Apple online etymological dictionary, April 7, 2015, and was used as early as 1913.WEB, Brown, Peter Jensen, Everything is Bigger in Texas – from New York City?,weblink Early Sports 'n' Pop-Culture History, February 23, 2016,


{{further|Music of Texas}}File:Big Tex.JPG|thumb|left|upright|Big Tex presided over every Texas State Fair since 1952 until it was destroyed by a fire in 2012.]]Houston is one of only five American cities with permanent professional resident companies in all of the major performing arts disciplines: the Houston Grand Opera, the Houston Symphony Orchestra, the Houston Ballet, and The Alley Theatre.WEB, About Houston Theater District, Houston Theater District,weblink April 28, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink February 29, 2008, Known for the vibrancy of its visual and performing arts, the Houston Theater District—a 17-block area in the heart of Downtown Houston— ranks second in the country in the number of theater seats in a concentrated downtown area, with 12,948 seats for live performances and 1,480 movie seats.Founded in 1892, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, also called "The Modern", is Texas's oldest art museum. Fort Worth also has the Kimbell Art Museum, the Amon Carter Museum, the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame, the Will Rogers Memorial Center, and the Bass Performance Hall downtown. The Arts District of Downtown Dallas has arts venues such as the Dallas Museum of Art, the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center, the Margot and Bill Winspear Opera House, the Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art, and the Nasher Sculpture Center.WEB, Dallas Arts District, Dallas Convention & Visitors Bureau, May 29, 2008,weblink The Deep Ellum district within Dallas became popular during the 1920s and 1930s as the prime jazz and blues hotspot in the Southern United States. The name Deep Ellum comes from local people pronouncing "Deep Elm" as "Deep Ellum".HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, hpd01, Deep Ellum, Lisa C., Maxwell, June 12, 2010, November 1, 2015, Artists such as Blind Lemon Jefferson, Robert Johnson, Huddie "Lead Belly" Ledbetter, and Bessie Smith played in early Deep Ellum clubs.WEB, Dallas History Items: Deep Ellum, Dallas Historical Society,weblink July 25, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 17, 2008, Austin, The Live Music Capital of the World, boasts "more live music venues per capita than such music hotbeds as Nashville, Memphis, Los Angeles, Las Vegas or New York City".WEB,weblink Live Music Capital of the World, June 12, 2007, City of Austin, The city's music revolves around the nightclubs on 6th Street; events like the film, music, and multimedia festival South by Southwest; the longest-running concert music program on American television, Austin City Limits; and the Austin City Limits Music Festival held in Zilker Park.WEB, Bernardini, Deb, Television's longest running concert series begins season 33 Tapings with performances by Norah Fones, Wilco, Femi Kuti, Arcade Fire and more,weblink October 15, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 28, 2008, Since 1980, San Antonio has evolved into "The Tejano Music Capital Of The World".WEB,weblink About The Texas Talent Musicians Association (TTMA), August 2, 2009, Texas Talent Musicians Association, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 10, 2009, The Tejano Music Awards have provided a forum to create greater awareness and appreciation for Tejano music and culture.WEB, Tejano Music Awards, Texas Talent Musicians Association, 2008,weblink May 12, 2008, {{Clear}}


The second president of the Republic of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, is the Father of Texas Education. During his term, the state set aside three leagues of land in each county for equipping public schools. An additional 50 leagues of land set aside for the support of two universities would later become the basis of the state's Permanent University Fund.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, khp02, Permanent University Fund, June 15, 2010, Vivian Elizabeth, Smyrl, Lamar's actions set the foundation for a Texas-wide public school system.BOOK, Hendrickson, Kenneth E., Jr., The Chief of Executives of Texas: From Stephen F. Austin to John B. Connally, Jr, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas, 1995, 978-0-89096-641-9, 37,weblink Between 2006 and 2007, Texas spent $7,275 per pupil ranking it below the national average of $9,389. The pupil/teacher ratio was 14.9, below the national average of 15.3. Texas paid instructors $41,744, below the national average of $46,593. The Texas Education Agency (TEA) administers the state's public school systems. Texas has over 1,000 school districts; all districts except the Stafford Municipal School District are independent from municipal government and many cross city boundaries.PRESS RELEASE, Comptroller Strayhorn to Review Stafford Municipal School District, Texas Comptroller Carole Keeton Strayhorn, September 16, 2003,weblink June 28, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2004, dead, School districts have the power to tax their residents and to assert eminent domain over privately owned property. Due to court-mandated equitable school financing for school districts, the state has a controversial tax redistribution system called the "Robin Hood plan". This plan transfers property tax revenue from wealthy school districts to poor ones.WEB, Saghaye-Biria, Hakimeh, Robin Hood Plan is Working, April 22, 2001, World Internet News Cooperative,weblink June 23, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 11, 2008, The TEA has no authority over private or home school activities.WEB, November 1, 2007, Home School Information Letter, Texas Education Agency,weblink June 24, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 13, 2008, Students in Texas take the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR) in primary and secondary school. STAAR assess students' attainment of reading, writing, mathematics, science, and social studies skills required under Texas education standards and the No Child Left Behind Act. The test replaced the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test in the 2011–2012 school year.NEWS,weblink End-of-Course (EOC) Assessments: Implementation, Texas Education Agency, Assessment Division, October 22, 2007, October 22, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 20, 2007, {{Clear}}Although unusual in the West, school corporal punishment is not uncommon in more conservative areas of the state, with 28,569 public school studentsPlease note this figure refers to only the number of students paddled, regardless of whether a student was spanked multiple times in a year, and does not refer to the number of instances of corporal punishment, which would be substantially higher. paddled at least one time, according to government data for the 2011–2012 school year. The rate of school corporal punishment in Texas is surpassed only by Mississippi, Alabama, and Arkansas.WEB,weblink Corporal punishment in US schools, World Corporal Punishment Research, Farrell, Colin, February 2016, April 4, 2016,

Higher education

File:The University of Texas at Austin - Littlefield Fountain and Main Building.jpg|thumb|The University of Texas at Austin ]]{{further|List of colleges and universities in Texas}}The state's two most widely recognized flagship universities are The University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University, ranked as the 52nd"University of Texas—Austin {{webarchive|url= |date=September 8, 2014 }}". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 17, 2013. and 69th"Texas A&M University—College Station {{webarchive|url= |date=September 8, 2014 }}". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 17, 2013. best universities in the nation according to the 2014 edition of U.S. News & World Report's "Best Colleges", respectively. Some observersWEB,weblink UH takes big step up to Tier One status, Houston Chronicle, July 6, 2011, also include the University of Houston and Texas Tech University as tier one flagships alongside UT Austin and A&M.WEB,weblink Carnegie Foundation Gives University of Houston its Highest Classification for Research Success, Elevating UH to Tier One Status, Bonnin, Richard, University of Houston, February 8, 2011, "Texas Tech University has quietly emerged as top-tier institution {{webarchive|url= |date=February 9, 2014 }}". San Angelo Standard-Times. Retrieved November 17, 2013. The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) ranks the state's public universities into three distinct tiers:"Tier One/Prop. 4 {{webarchive|url= |date=September 16, 2013 }}". The University of Texas System. Retrieved November 17, 2013. Texas's controversial alternative affirmative action plan, Texas House Bill 588, guarantees Texas students who graduated in the {{nowrap|top 10}} percent of their high school class automatic admission to state-funded universities. The bill encourages demographic diversity while avoiding problems stemming from the Hopwood v. Texas (1996) case.File:TAMUcampus.jpg|thumb|left|Texas A&M UniversityTexas A&M UniversityThirty-six (36) separate and distinct public universities exist in Texas, of which 32 belong to one of the six state university systems.NEWS, Heath, Ben, Daily Texan, July 7, 2003,weblink October 12, 2007, Bill requires review of university systems, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 5, 2009, WEB, Senate Subcommittee on Higher Education Testimony Regarding the Benefits of a Stand Alone Institution, Sam Houston State University, June 25, 2008,weblink October 12, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 28, 2008, Discovery of minerals on Permanent University Fund land, particularly oil, has helped fund the rapid growth of the state's two largest university systems: the University of Texas System and the Texas A&M System. The four other university systems: the University of Houston System, the University of North Texas System, the Texas State System, and the Texas Tech System are not funded by the Permanent University Fund.File:Ezekiel W. Cullen Building (Alternate).JPG|thumb|University of HoustonUniversity of HoustonThe Carnegie Foundation classifies three of Texas's universities as Tier One research institutions: The University of Texas at Austin, the Texas A&M University, and the University of Houston. The University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University are flagship universities of the state of Texas. Both were established by the Texas Constitution and hold stakes in the Permanent University Fund. The state has been putting effort to expand the number of flagship universities by elevating some of its seven institutions designated as "emerging research universities". The two expected to emerge first are the University of Houston and Texas Tech University, likely in that order according to discussions on the House floor of the 82nd Texas Legislature.WEB, Tier-One Prize Money Tentatively Passes House, April 27, 2011,weblink File:Lovett Hall.jpg|thumb|left|Rice UniversityRice UniversityThe state is home to various private institutions of higher learning—ranging from liberal arts colleges to a nationally recognized top-tier research university. {{nowrap|Rice University}} in Houston is one of the leading teaching and research universities of the United States and is ranked the nation's 17th-best overall university by U.S. News & World Report.WEB, Rice University, Best Colleges 2009, – US News and World Report, March 27, 2009,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 16, 2009, Trinity University, a private, primarily undergraduate liberal arts university in San Antonio, has ranked first among universities granting primarily bachelor's and select master's degrees in the Western United States for 20 consecutive years by U.S. News.WEB, Trinity University, Best Colleges 2011 – US News and World Report, January 6, 2012,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 19, 2012, Private universities include {{nowrap|Austin College}}, {{nowrap|Baylor University}}, {{nowrap|University of Mary Hardin–Baylor}}, and {{nowrap|Southwestern University}}.WEB, About Baylor, Baylor University, May 21, 2008,weblink WEB, Southwestern History, Southwestern University, October 12, 2008,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink October 24, 2007, WEB, History, Austin College, June 9, 2015,weblink Universities in Texas host three presidential libraries: George Bush Presidential Library at Texas A&M University, the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum at The University of Texas at Austin, and the George W. Bush Presidential Library at Southern Methodist University.{{Clear}}


{{See also|Healthcare in Texas|List of hospitals in Texas}}


In 2017, the United Healthcare Foundation ranked Texas as the 34th healthiest state in the United States.WEB,weblink Explore Health Measures in Texas {{!, 2017 Annual Report|website=America's Health Rankings|access-date=November 13, 2018}} Obesity, excessive drinking, maternal mortality, infant mortality, and vaccinations are among the major public health issues facing Texas.


Obesity has quickly become a major health issue in Texas.JOURNAL, Texas Department of State Health Services, 2006, Strategic Plan for the Prevention of Obesity in Texas 2005-2010, In 2017, 33.6% of Texas adults were obese as compared to 29.9% of U.S. adults.WEB,weblink Obesity Data, Services, Texas Department of State Health,, October 21, 2018, WEB,weblink Explore Obesity in Texas {{!, 2017 Annual Report|website=America's Health Rankings|access-date=October 21, 2018}} In 2000 21.7% of adults were obese and in 1990 only 10.7% of adults were obese.NEWS,weblink State Briefs, The State of Obesity, October 21, 2018, In 2016, 33% of 10-17 year olds in Texas were obese. When separated out by gender, 34.6% of Texas females and 32.8% of Texas males were obese. When separated out by race, 31% of White adults, 41.7% of Black adults, and 37.8% of Hispanic adults were obese in Texas in 2016. Research shows that an increase in household income is correlated with a decrease in obesity rates. In 2014, Comptroller Susan Combs found that there are educational achievement patterns as well - 39% of the Texas population with less than a high school education was obese while only 23% of college graduates were obese.JOURNAL, Combs, Susan, 2014, The Hefty Price of Obesity in Texas, Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, Living in a rural area in Texas is also correlated with higher obesity rates.

Consequences of obesity

Obesity causes several chronic diseases including heart disease and diabetes.JOURNAL, Texas Department of State Health Services, 2006, Strategic Plan for the Prevention of Obesity in Texas 2005-2010, The three leading causes of death in Texas - heart disease, stroke, and cancer - are all linked to obesity. Additionally, obesity can cause type 2 diabetes, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. In 2010, Texas saw 1,261,654 cases of heart disease and is predicted to see 5,688,482 cases in 2030. In 2010, Texas saw 1,962,059 cases of diabetes and is predicted to see 2,851,697 cases in 2030. In 2010, Texas saw 4,300,252 cases of hypertension and is predicted to see 5,689,509 cases in 2030. In 2010, Texas saw 328,379 cases of obesity-related cancer and is predicted to see 810,806 cases in 2030.Obesity also has substantial impacts on the economy in Texas. Obesity costs Texas businesses $9.5 billion annually. 41% of this is due to obesity-related healthcare costs, 17% is due to absenteeism, and 37% is due to presenteeism.

Obesity treatment

Effective treatment for obesity is known to be expensive and difficult. For childhood obesity, programs tend to focus on creating lifestyle changes including a healthier diet and more exercise.JOURNAL, Texas Department of State Health Services, 2006, Strategic Plan for the Prevention of Obesity in Texas 2005-2010, Studies show that obesity treatment for children should aim more at changing the behavior of the family as a whole, especially the parents.JOURNAL, Golan, Moria, Kaufman, Vered, Shahar, Danit R., May 2006, Childhood obesity treatment: targeting parents exclusively v. parents and children, British Journal of Nutrition, 95, 5, 1008–1015, 10.1079/BJN20061757, 1475-2662, Comprehensive weight loss programs for children in Texas have had limited success in reducing weight. For example, only 20% of children finish the Weigh of Life Program and many of them are likely to gain the weight back later on.JOURNAL, Texas Department of State Health Services, 2006, Strategic Plan for the Prevention of Obesity in Texas 2005-2010, For adults, surgery is an effective long-term treatment but it comes with several risks and complications.JOURNAL, Waseem, Talat, Mogensen, Kris M., Lautz, David B., Robinson, Malcolm K., October 2007, Pathophysiology of Obesity: Why Surgery Remains the Most Effective Treatment, Obesity Surgery, 17, 10, 1389–1398, 10.1007/s11695-007-9220-1, 18000735, 0960-8923,

Obesity prevention

Environmental factors play a large role in obesity rates.JOURNAL, Kumanyika, S, Jeffery, RW, Morabia, A, Ritenbaugh, C, Antipatis, VJ, March 2002, Obesity prevention: the case for action, International Journal of Obesity, 26, 3, 425–436, 10.1038/sj.ijo.0801938, 11896500, 0307-0565, Studies have shown that people who live in the same socioeconomic contexts in Texas, regardless of race, tend to have similar rates of obesity.JOURNAL, Bleich, Sara N., Thorpe, Roland J., Sharif-Harris, Hamidah, Fesahazion, Ruth, LaVeist, Thomas A., May 1, 2010, Social context explains race disparities in obesity among women,weblink Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 64, 5, 465–469, 10.1136/jech.2009.096297, 0143-005X, 20445215, 3099623, Generally speaking, encouraging healthy habits, raising awareness, and educating people about portion sizes and nutritious requirements can help prevent obesity.JOURNAL, Texas Department of State Health Services, 2006, Strategic Plan for the Prevention of Obesity in Texas 2005-2010, Childhood prevention is key - a child who was overweight at 12 years of age has a 75% chance of being overweight as an adult.

Obesity policy

(File:School Lunch.jpg|thumb|Public School Lunch)In 2003, the Texas School Nutrition Policy Launch set nutrition standards with the intentions of discouraging obesity. This policy lowered the availability of foods of minimal nutritional value in schools, limited portion sizes, limited trans fats, and limited fried foods. Texas has also required early childhood education programs to encourage breastfeeding, provide drinking water access, and provide daily physical activity. The state also has a fund specifically for financing healthy food. In 2013, the Obesity Prevention Program was created after merging the Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Prevention (NPAOP) and Worksite Wellness Programs.WEB,weblink Obesity Prevention Program, Texas Department of State Health Services, This program supports healthy eating, physical activity, and policies that promote healthier lifestyles.

Alcohol use

The most commonly abused substance in Texas is alcohol.JOURNAL, Maxwell, Jane, June 2014, Substance Abuse Trends in Texas: June 2014, Community Epidemiology Workgroup at UT Austin, The rate of binge drinking in males in Texas is comparable to that of males in the United States. In 2017, 22.4% of adult males in Texas reported binge drinking, as compared to 22.1% of males in the United States.WEB,weblink Explore Binge Drinking in TX) {{!, 2017 Annual Report|website=America's Health Rankings|access-date=October 4, 2018}} Less than 12% of females adults in Texas reported binge drinking. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism can lead to a variety of health issues including liver damage, heart problems, cancer, and depression.WEB,weblink The Effects of Alcohol Use -,, October 4, 2018, Further, 61% of high school students in Texas have tried alcohol and 17% of Texas high school students had their first drink before the age of 13.WEB,weblink Youth Online: High School YRBS - Texas 2017 Results {{!, DASH {{!}} CDC||access-date=October 4, 2018}}

Alcohol policy

The Texas Ignition Interlock Law went into effect during September 2015. This law requires judges to order ignition interlocks for all drunk-drivers with a Blood Alcohol Level of 0.15% or greater.NEWS,weblink Take Action - Texas {{!, MADD|work=MADD|access-date=October 4, 2018}} Since the passing of this law, the drunk driving related death rate in Texas has decreased by 8.5%.

Maternal health

Texas has the highest maternal mortality rate in the developed world, and the rate by which Texas women died from pregnancy related complications doubled from 2010 to 2014, to 23.8 per 100,000. A rate unmatched in any other U.S. state or economically developed country.NEWS,weblink Texas has highest maternal mortality rate in developed world, study finds, Redden, Molly, August 20, 2016, The Guardian, December 23, 2016, 0261-3077, See Maternal healthcare in Texas.

Infant health

Texas has the seventh highest birth rate in the United States, with nearly 400,000 babies born each year.WEB,weblink Peristats {{!, March of Dimes||access-date=October 20, 2018}}NEWS,weblink Birth Rate per 1,000 Women Ages 15-44, June 1, 2018, The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, October 20, 2018, Over half of all Texas births are paid by Medicaid, totaling over $2.2 billion per year in birth and delivery-related services for mothers and infants.WEB,weblink Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Task Force, 2018, Texas Department of State Health Services, Studies have found that infant mortality is usually caused by birth defects, pre-term birth, low birth weight, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, and pregnancy complications.WEB,weblink What causes infant mortality?,weblink October 20, 2018, The average amount spent in the first year of life for a preterm birth with major complications (excluding extreme prematurity) is $19,059, and $4,019 for a preterm birth without major complications compared to $410 for an uncomplicated, term birth.

Rates of infant mortality

For decades the infant mortality rate in Texas was higher than the nationwide rate but that gap has slowly closed. In 2017, the infant mortality rate in Texas was identical to the nationwide rate: 5.9 deaths per 1,000 live births.WEB,weblink Explore Infant Mortality in TX) {{!, 2017 Annual Report|website=America's Health Rankings|access-date=October 20, 2018}} This rate is not identical across the state of Texas and studies have found significant disparities between zip codes. For example, the 76164 zip code has an infant mortality rate of 12.3 deaths per 1,000 live births while the neighboring 76107 zip code has a rate of 1.8 deaths per 1,000 live births.WEB,weblink Infant Mortality Rates in Texas, UT System Population Health, October 20, 2018, Additionally, Black families in Texas are disproportionately burdened by these rates. In 2015, the infant mortality rate for Black babies in Texas was 10.9 deaths per 1,000 births.JOURNAL, Kormondy, M., 2017, 2017 Healthy Texas Babies Data Book, Texas Department of State Health Services, These disparities can be explained by factors such as socioeconomic status, air pollution, and access to health care.

Preterm birth

A birth is considered preterm when it takes place more than 3 weeks before the estimated due date.JOURNAL, Callaghan, W. M., 2006, The Contribution of Preterm Birth to Infant Mortality Rates in United States, Pediatrics, 118, Preterm birth rates in Texas are consistently higher than the nationwide rate. In 2016, 10.4% of live births in Texas were preterm.JOURNAL, Kormondy, M., 2017, 2017 Healthy Texas Babies Data Book, Texas Department of State Health Services, The rate for Black mothers specifically was elevated - 13.6%.WEB,weblink Texas, 2008, State Data, Trust for America's Health, October 14, 2008, Numerous factors have been associated with premature birth, including lack of prenatal care,  race, obesity, smoking, and even air pollution.NEWS,weblink Premature Labor - American Pregnancy Association, April 26, 2012, American Pregnancy Association, October 20, 2018,

Low birth weight

(File:Incubator-tahrir.jpg|thumb|Preterm Baby in Incubator)A low birth weight is less than 2500 grams.JOURNAL, Kormondy, M., 2017, 2017 Healthy Texas Babies Data Book, Texas Department of State Health Services, The rate of low birth weight in Texas has always been higher than the nationwide rate. In 2016, 8.4% of live births in Texas had a low birth weight. The rate for Black mothers specifically was 13.5%. Babies of mothers who do not get prenatal care are 3 times more likely to have a low birth weight and 5 times more likely to die than those born to mothers who do get care.WEB,weblink Prenatal care {{!,||access-date=October 20, 2018}} As for long-term complications, low birth weight babies are at a higher risk for cerebral palsy, blindness, deafness, and developmental delay.WEB,weblink Content - Health Encyclopedia - University of Rochester Medical Center,, October 20, 2018,

Prenatal care

Prenatal care is the best way to prevent preterm births and low birth weight babies.NEWS,weblink Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk?, October 20, 2018,   Unfortunately, in 2016 only 65% of pregnant women in Texas had access to prenatal care in their first trimester.JOURNAL, Kormondy, M., 2017, 2017 Healthy Texas Babies Data Book, Texas Department of State Health Services, Women being unaware of their pregnancies, economic hardship due to inability to work during pregnancy, lack of knowledge or access to health services, and difficulty finding transportation are contributing factors to this alarmingly low rate.JOURNAL, Nepal, Vishnu P., Banerjee, Deborah, Perry, Mark, October 27, 2010, Prenatal Care Barriers in an Inner-city Neighborhood of Houston, Texas, Journal of Primary Care & Community Health, 2, 1, 33–36, 10.1177/2150131910385944, 23804660, 2150-1319, Texas has also seen significant disparities in who receives prenatal care - 75% of White women and only 55% of Black women received prenatal care during their first trimester. Although women covered by Medicaid are supposed to automatically transition into the Healthy Texas Women program for postpartum coverage, this transition does not always take place.WEB,weblink Improving Maternal Health in Harris County, Steering Committee for Reducing Maternal Mortality, 2018,


In 2017, 67.8% of children age 35 months in Texas completed the recommended vaccination schedule.WEB,weblink National Immunization Survey (NIS), 2018, The highest individual vaccine rate was for the polio virus: 93.1% of children age 35 months in Texas received this vaccine. The lowest individual vaccine rate was for hepatitis A: 62.6% of children age 35 months in Texas received this vaccine. Some children are under-vaccinated due to issues with accessing preventative care, vaccine delivery, or parental choice.JOURNAL, January 12, 2016, Completion and compliance of childhood vaccinations in the United States, Vaccine, 34, 3, 387–394, 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.11.011, 26597149, 0264-410X, Kurosky, Samantha K., Davis, Keith L., Krishnarajah, Girishanthy, The state has started to implement ImmTrac, a free vaccination record system.WEB,weblink IMMTRAC, Services, Texas Department of State Health,, October 20, 2018,

Vaccination policy

In 2013, Texas passed legislation that requires employees of child-care facilities to have certain vaccinations, unless the employee objects for reasons of conscience.WEB,weblink Archived copy, November 19, 2018,weblink November 20, 2018, dead, Texas has allowed for parents to exempt their children from vaccines by citing medical reasons since 1972. Further, Texas has allowed for parents to exempt their children from vaccines on the basis of religious belief since 2003.WEB,weblink$ext.TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&ti=25&ch=97&rl=62, Texas Administrative Code,, November 13, 2018,

Medical research

Texas has many research medical centers. The state has nine medical schools,WEB, Texas Medical Schools and Hospitals, Texas Medical Association, August 3, 2006,weblink April 28, 2008, three dental schools,WEB,weblink Dental Schools in the United States, October 31, 2008,, and two optometry schools.WEB,weblink Accreditation Council on Optometric Education, December 26, 2011, American Optometric Association, Texas has two Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories: one at The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston,WEB,weblink October 14, 2004, University Selects Bioscrypt for Biosafety Level 4 Lab, Bioscrypt, April 29, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink November 17, 2007, dead, and the other at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research in San Antonio—the first privately owned BSL-4 lab in the United States.WEB,weblink Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) Laboratory, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, April 29, 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 29, 2007, The Texas Medical Center in Houston, holds the world's largest concentration of research and healthcare institutions, with 47 member institutions.WEB, About the Texas Medical Center, The Texas Medical Center, April 11, 2009,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, August 10, 2007, Texas Medical Center performs the most heart transplants in the world.WEB, Background Statistics > People and Politics (most recent) by state, State Master, May 8, 2008,weblink May 8, 2008, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston is a highly regarded academic institution that centers around cancer patient care, research, education and prevention.WEB, About MD Anderson, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center,weblink April 28, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 24, 2008, San Antonio's South Texas Medical Center facilities rank sixth in clinical medicine research impact in the United States.JOURNAL, April 3, 2007, Health Science Center ranks sixth in clinical medicine, 7, XL, University of Texas Health Science Center,weblink April 28, 2008, The University of Texas Health Science Center is another highly ranked research and educational institution in San Antonio.WEB, International report gives Dental School high marks, HSC NEWS, May 15, 2008,weblink NEWS, Medical center's research ranks high, San Antonio Express-News, May 15, 2008,weblink {{dead link|date=January 2011}}Both the American Heart Association and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center call Dallas home. The Southwestern Medical Center ranks "among the top academic medical centers in the world".WEB, About UT Southwestern, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center,weblink April 28, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 9, 2008, The institution's medical school employs the most medical school Nobel laureates in the world.WEB, UT Southwestern Fact Sheet, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 2008,weblink April 28, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 13, 2008,

Legislative responses

The Trust for America's Health ranked Texas 15th highest in adult obesity, with 27.2 percent of the state's population measured as obese. The 2008 Men's Health obesity survey ranked four Texas cities among the top 25 fattest cities in America; Houston ranked 6th, Dallas 7th, El Paso 8th, and Arlington 14th.WEB,weblink America's Fittest Cities 2007, 2008, Men's Health,weblink" title="">weblink March 13, 2008, April 21, 2008, Texas had only one city, Austin, ranked 21st, in the top 25 among the "fittest cities" in America. The same survey has evaluated the state's obesity initiatives favorably with a "B+". The state is ranked forty-second in the percentage of residents who engage in regular, Accessed May 16, 2007Notwithstanding the concentration of elite medical centers in the state, The Commonwealth Fund ranks the Texas healthcare system the third worst in the nation.WEB,weblink Texas is Near Bottom of Healthcare Rankings, Perotin, Maria M., June 13, 2007, Fort Worth Star-Telegram, April 22, 2008, {{dead link|date=March 2017|bot=Beta7|fix-attempted=yes}} Texas ranks close to last in access to healthcare, quality of care, avoidable hospital spending, and equity among various groups. Causes of the state's poor rankings include politics, a high poverty rate, and the highest rate of illegal immigration in the nation. In May 2006, Texas initiated the program "code red" in response to the report the state had 25.1 percent of the population without health insurance, the largest proportion in the nation.WEB,weblink Code Red: The Critical Condition of Health in Texas,weblink" title="">weblink May 12, 2008, dead, April 28, 2008, Research shows that adolescents who see alcohol use in advertisements, television shows, and movies are more likely to start drinking alcohol at a younger age. Drinking at a young age is correlated with long-term alcohol abuse.JOURNAL, Moreno, Megan A., July 1, 2011, Media Influence on Adolescent Alcohol Use, Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 165, 7, 680, 10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.121, 21727285, 1072-4710,


File:High Five.jpg|thumb|upright|The High Five Interchange in DallasDallasTexans have historically had difficulties traversing Texas due to the state's large size and rough terrain. Texas has compensated by building both America's largest highway and railway systems in length. The regulatory authority, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) maintains the state's immense highway system, regulates aviation,WEB, Aviation Division, Texas Department of Transportation,weblink July 22, 2009, and public transportation systems.WEB, Transportation Division, Texas Department of Transportation,weblink April 29, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 1, 2008, Located centrally in North America, the state is an important transportation hub. From the Dallas/Fort Worth area, trucks can reach 93 percent of the nation's population within 48 hours, and 37 percent within 24 hours.WEB, 5 Reasons To Choose the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex As A Distribution Hub, JDF Distribution,weblink October 14, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 28, 2008, Texas has 33 foreign trade zones (FTZ), the most in the nation.WEB, August 2007, Texas and General Foreign Trade Zones Information, Office of the Governor of Texas,weblink June 21, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 14, 2015, In 2004, a combined total of $298 billion of goods passed through Texas FTZs.


(File:Welcome to Texas sign, 2008.jpg|thumb|"Welcome to Texas" road sign)The first Texas freeway was the Gulf Freeway opened in 1948 in Houston.WEB, Interstate 45 South, the Gulf Freeway,, May 28, 2001,weblink October 15, 2008, As of 2005, {{convert|79535|mi|km|0}} of public highway crisscrossed Texas (up from {{convert|71000|mi|km|0}} in 1984).WEB, LoneStarRoads – Highways of Texas, AARoads, February 9, 2008,weblink April 20, 2008, To fund recent growth in the state highways, Texas has 17 toll roads (see list) with several additional tollways proposed.WEB, Global List of Toll Facilities – United States, International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike Association, 2005,weblink April 20, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 13, 2009, In central Texas, the southern section of the State Highway 130 toll road has a speed limit of {{convert|85|mph|km/h}}, the highest in the nation.NEWS, Owens, Owens, Sunseri, Gina, Speeding Through Texas: Going 85 MPH on the Nation's Fastest Highway,, October 24, 2012,weblink October 28, 2012, All federal and state highways in Texas are paved.


{{See also|List of airports in Texas}}Texas has 730 airports, second-most of any state in the nation. Largest in Texas by size and passengers served, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) is the second-largest by area in the United States, and fourth in the world with {{convert|18076|acre|km2}}.WEB,weblink Facts about DFW, October 14, 2008, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 12, 2008, In traffic, DFW airport is the busiest in the state, the fourth busiest in the United States,WEB, 10 Great Places for Aviation and Aerospace, Jennifer LeClaire, Southern Business and Development,weblink April 28, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 16, 2011, and sixth worldwide.NEWS, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, USAToday,weblink April 28, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 30, 2007, American Airlines Group's American / American Eagle, the world's largest airline in total passengers-miles transported and passenger fleet size,WEB, Investor Relations,weblink American Airlines | Investor Relations | News Release,, August 2, 2014, uses DFW as its largest and main hub. It ranks as the largest airline in the United States by number of passengers carried domestically per year and the largest airline in the world by number of passengers carried.WEB,weblink Scheduled Passengers Carried, International Air Transport Association, June 10, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink September 28, 2007, dead, International Air Transport Association, Southwest Airlines, headquartered in Dallas, has its operations at Dallas Love Field.WEB,weblink We Weren't Just Airborne Yesterday, May 2, 2007, Southwest Airlines, June 9, 2007, Texas's second-largest air facility is Houston's George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH). It served as the largest hub for the former Continental Airlines, which was based in Houston; it serves as the largest hub for United Airlines, the world's third-largest airline, by passenger-miles flown.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, March 18, 2014, United Continental Holdings, Inc. – Investor Relations – News,, January 8, 2014, August 2, 2014, Based on the industry-standard measure of revenue passenger-kilometers/miles flown. IAH offers service to the most Mexican destinations of any U.S. airport.WEB, About George Bush Intercontinental Airport, Houston Airport System,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 13, 2007, June 28, 2008, PRESS RELEASE, Houston Emerges As The Premier Gateway In The U.S. For Travelers To Mexico, Houston Airport System, April 12, 2005,weblink December 30, 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 28, 2007, The next five largest airports in the state all serve over 3 million passengers annually; they include Austin-Bergstrom International Airport, William P. Hobby Airport, San Antonio International Airport, Dallas Love Field and El Paso International Airport. The smallest airport in the state to be designated an international airport is Del Rio International Airport.


Around 1,150 seaports dot Texas's coast with over {{convert|1000|mi|km}} of channels.WEB, About Texas Ports, Texas Ports Association,weblink May 7, 2008, Ports employ nearly one-million people and handle an average of 317 million metric tons.WEB, Benefits of Texas Ports, Texas Ports Association,weblink May 7, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink July 28, 2011, dead, mdy-all, Texas ports connect with the rest of the U.S. Atlantic seaboard with the Gulf section of the Intracoastal Waterway. The Port of Houston today is the busiest port in the United States in foreign tonnage, second in overall tonnage, and tenth worldwide in tonnage.WEB, March 31, 2008, General Information, The Port of Houston Authority,weblink May 7, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 9, 2008, The Houston Ship Channel spans {{convert|530|ft|m}} wide by {{convert|45|ft|m}} deep by {{convert|50|mi|km}} long."Welcome to the Houston-Galveston Navigation Channel Project Online Resource Center" (description), United States Army Corps of Engineers, December 2005, United States Army Corps of Engineers {{webarchive|url= |date=January 9, 2009 }}


{{See also|List of Texas railroads}}File:20110123 DFW terminal D.jpg|thumb|Terminal D at DFW Airport in Dallas]]File:Bush terminal E.jpg|thumb|Terminal E at George Bush Intercontinental AirportGeorge Bush Intercontinental AirportFile:Houston Ship Channel.jpg|thumb|Port of Houston along the Houston Ship ChannelHouston Ship ChannelPart of the state's tradition of cowboys is derived from the massive cattle drives which its ranchers organized in the nineteenth century to drive livestock to railroads and markets in Kansas, for shipment to the East. Towns along the way, such as Baxter Springs, the first cow town in Kansas, developed to handle the seasonal workers and tens of thousands of head of cattle being driven.The first railroad to operate in Texas was the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado Railway, opening in August 1853.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, George C., Werner, eqb16, Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado Railway, June 12, 2010, The first railroad to enter Texas from the north, completed in 1872, was the {{nowrap|Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad}}.HANDBOOK OF TEXAS, Donovan L., Hofsommer, eqm08, Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad, June 15, 2010, With increasing railroad access, the ranchers did not have to take their livestock up to the Midwest, and shipped beef out from Texas. This caused a decline in the economies of the cow towns.Since 1911, Texas has led the nation in length of railroad miles within the state. Texas railway length peaked in 1932 at {{convert|17078|mi|km}}, but declined to {{convert|14006|mi|km}} by 2000. While the Railroad Commission of Texas originally regulated state railroads, in 2005 the state reassigned these duties to TxDOT.WEB, Former Rail Division, Texas Railroad Commission, October 1, 2005,weblink May 4, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink May 6, 2008, dead, In the Dallas–Fort Worth area, three public transit agencies provide rail service: Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART), Denton County Transportation Authority (DCTA), and Trinity Metro. DART began operating the first light rail system in the Southwest United States in 1996.NEWS, Myerson, Allen R., June 14, 1996, Dallas Opening Southwest's First Rail Transit, New York Times,weblink May 11, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 19, 2008, The Trinity Railway Express (TRE) commuter rail service, which connects Fort Worth and Dallas, is provided by Trinity Metro and DART.WEB, Trinity Railroad Express,weblink June 11, 2008, Trinity Metro also operates the TEXRail commuter rail line, connecting downtown Fort Worth and Northeast Tarrant County to DFW Airport.NEWS, January 4, 2019, TEXRail to begin service Thursday after delay due to government shutdown, WFAA,weblink April 10, 2019, The A-train commuter rail line, operated by DCTA, acts as an extension of the DART Green line into Denton County.WEB, DART inMotion 2011,weblink April 10, 2019, In the Austin area, Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority operates a commuter rail service known as Capital MetroRail to the northwestern suburbs. The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas (METRO) operates light rail lines in the Houston area.Amtrak provides Texas with limited intercity passenger rail service. Three scheduled routes serve the state: the daily Texas Eagle {{nowrap|(Chicago–San Antonio)}}; the tri-weekly Sunset Limited {{nowrap|(New Orleans–Los Angeles)}}, with stops in Texas; and the daily Heartland Flyer {{nowrap|(Fort Worth–Oklahoma City)}}.


{{further|List of University Interscholastic League events}}File:Cowboys Stadium full view.jpg|thumb|AT&T Stadium, home of the Dallas CowboysDallas CowboysFile:Spurs vs. Lakers.jpg|thumb|Playoff game between the San Antonio Spurs and the Los Angeles LakersLos Angeles LakersFile:Rangers Ballpark in Arlington.jpg|thumb|Globe Life Park in Arlington, home of the Texas Rangers ]]While American football has long been considered "king" in the state, Texans enjoy a wide variety of sports.NEWS, Brady, Erik, Football still king, but hoops teams in Texas grab attention, USA TODAY, April 4, 2003,weblink April 11, 2008, Texans can cheer for a plethora of professional sports teams. Within the "Big Four" professional leagues, Texas has two NFL teams (the Dallas Cowboys and the Houston Texans), two Major League Baseball teams (the Houston Astros and the Texas Rangers), three NBA teams (the San Antonio Spurs, the Houston Rockets, and the Dallas Mavericks), and one National Hockey League team (the Dallas Stars). The Dallas – Fort Worth Metroplex is one of only twelve American metropolitan areas that hosts sports teams from all the "Big Four" professional leagues. Outside of the "Big Four" leagues, Texas also has a WNBA team, (the Dallas Wings) and two Major League Soccer teams (the Houston Dynamo and FC Dallas).Collegiate athletics have deep significance in Texas culture, especially football. The state has twelve Division I-FBS schools, the most in the nation. Four of the state's universities, the Baylor Bears, Texas Longhorns, TCU Horned Frogs, and Texas Tech Red Raiders, compete in the Big 12 Conference. The Texas A&M Aggies left the Big 12 and joined the Southeastern Conference in 2012, which led the Big 12 to invite TCU to join; TCU was previously in the Mountain West Conference. The Houston Cougars and the SMU Mustangs compete in the American Athletic Conference. The Texas State Bobcats and the UT Arlington Mavericks compete in the Sun Belt Conference. Four of the state's schools claim at least one national championship in football: the Texas Longhorns, the Texas A&M Aggies, the TCU Horned Frogs, and the SMU Mustangs.According to a survey of Division I-A coaches the rivalry between the University of Oklahoma and the University of Texas at Austin, the Red River Shootout, ranks the third best in the nation.NEWS,weblink UT-OU : Best Rivalry?, The Dallas Morning News, Davis, Brian, October 7, 2005, July 11, 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 30, 2007, The TCU Horned Frogs and SMU Mustangs also share a rivalry and compete annually in the Battle for the Iron Skillet. A fierce rivalry, the Lone Star Showdown, also exists between the state's two largest universities, Texas A&M University and the University of Texas at Austin. The athletics portion of the Lone Star Showdown rivalry has been put on hold after the Texas A&M Aggies joined the Southeastern Conference.The University Interscholastic League (UIL) organizes most primary and secondary school competitions. Events organized by UIL include contests in athletics (the most popular being high school football) as well as artistic and academic subjects.WEB, University Interscholastic League, University of Texas at Austin,weblink September 28, 2008, Texans also enjoy the rodeo. The world's first rodeo was hosted in Pecos, Texas.WEB,weblink's+First+Rodeo&class=5000, View Atlas Data,, April 11, 2010, The annual Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo is the largest rodeo in the world. It begins with trail rides that begin from several points throughout the state that convene at Reliant Park.WEB, Houston Rodeo Tickets, Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo, 2008,weblink April 20, 2008, The Southwestern Exposition and Livestock Show in Fort Worth is the oldest continuously running rodeo incorporating many of the state's most historic traditions into its annual events. Dallas hosts the State Fair of Texas each year at Fair Park.WEB, Fair Park, Texas, City of Dallas, May 22, 2008,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 14, 2008, Texas Motor Speedway hosts annual NASCAR Cup Series and IndyCar Series auto races since 1997. Since 2012, Austin's Circuit of the Americas plays host to a round of the Formula 1 World ChampionshipWEB, Formula One returns to the United States, Formula 1 Administration Ltd, May 25, 2010,weblink —the first at a permanent road circuit in the United States since the 1980 Grand Prix at Watkins Glen International—, as well as Grand Prix motorcycle racing, FIA World Endurance Championship and United SportsCar Championship races.

See also






  • BOOK, Chipman, Donald E., Spanish Texas, 1519–1821, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, 1992, 978-0-292-77659-3,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Davis, William C., Lone Star Rising, 2006, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, TX, 978-1-58544-532-5, harv, originally published 2004 by New York: Free Press {{google books|1yhVDgAAQBAJ|Lone Star Rising}}
  • BOOK, harv, Edmondson, J. R., Alamo Story: From Early History to Current Conflicts,weblink 2000, Republic of Texas Press, 978-1-55622-678-6,
  • BOOK, harv, Fehrenbach, T. R., Lone Star: A History of Texas and the Texans,weblink 2000, Open Road Media, 978-1-4976-0970-9, 1968,
  • BOOK, harv, Hardin, Stephen L., Texian Iliad: A Military History of the Texas Revolution, 1835-1836,weblink 1994, University of Texas Press, 978-0-292-79252-4,
  • BOOK, Lack, Paul D., The Texas Revolutionary Experience: A Political and Social History 1835–1836, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, TX, 1992, 978-0-89096-497-2,
  • BOOK, Manchaca, Martha, Recovering History, Constructing Race: The Indian, Black, and White Roots of Mexican Americans, The Joe R. and Teresa Lozano Long Series in Latin American and Latino Art and Culture, University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, 2001, 978-0-292-75253-5,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Todish, Timothy J., Todish, Terry, Spring, Ted, Alamo Sourcebook, 1836: A Comprehensive Guide to the Battle of the Alamo and the Texas Revolution, Eakin Press, 1998, Austin, Texas, 978-1-57168-152-2,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, The Warren Commission Report, IV, Warren Commission Hearings, National Archives, 978-0-312-08257-4,weblink Report of President's Commission on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy., 1992,
  • BOOK, Weber, David J., The Spanish Frontier in North America, Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, Yale Western Americana Series, 1992, 978-0-300-05198-8,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Weddle, Robert S., Changing Tides: Twilight and Dawn in the Spanish Sea, 1763–1803, Centennial Series of the Association of Former Students Number 58, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas, 1995, 978-0-89096-661-7,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Winders, Richard Bruce, Sacrificed at the Alamo: Tragedy and Triumph in the Texas Revolution, State House Press, Abilene, TX, 2004, 978-1-880510-80-3, Military History of Texas Series: Number Three,weblink harv,

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Texas}} State government
  • The State of Texas
  • Texas State Databases—Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Texas state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association.
  • Texas Politics. An online textbook from the College of Liberal Arts, The University of Texas.
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