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{{about|the religion|the history of Islamic civilization|History of Islam|other uses}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|An Abrahamic monotheistic religion}}{{Islam|expanded=all}}Islam ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|ɪ|s|l|ɑː|m}};There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is {{IPAc-en|z}} or {{IPAc-en|s}}, and whether the a is pronounced {{IPAc-en|ɑː}}, {{IPAc-en|æ}} or (when the stress is on the first syllable) {{IPAc-en|É™}} (Merriam Webster). The most common are {{IPAc-en|ɪ|z|ˈ|l|ɑː|m|,_|ɪ|s|'|l|ɑː|m|,_|ˈ|ɪ|z|l|É™|m|,_|ˈ|ɪ|s|l|É™|m}} (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and {{IPAc-en|ˈ|ɪ|z|l|ɑː|m|,_|ˈ|ɪ|s|l|ɑː|m}} (American Heritage Dictionary). {{IPA-ar|alʔɪsˈlaːm||ar-al_islam.ogg}}) is an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah), and that Muhammad is a messenger of God.BOOK, Al-Haqqani, Shaykh Muhammad Nazim Adil, Kabbani, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham, Muhammad, the Messenger of Islam: His Life & Prophecy,weblink 2002, ISCA, 978-1-930409-11-8, x, [Allah sent his message] through many prophets, including Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and our master Muhammad. [...], ENCYCLOPEDIA, John L. Esposito, Islam. Overview, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, John L. Esposito, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2009, Profession of Faith [...] affirms Islam's absolute monotheism and acceptance of Muḥammad as the messenger of God, the last and final prophet., 10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001, 9780195305135, ENCYCLOPEDIA, F.E. Peters, Allāh, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, John L. Esposito, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2009, the Muslims' understanding of Allāh is based [...] on the Qurʿān's public witness. Allāh is Unique, the Creator, Sovereign, and Judge of mankind. It is Allāh who directs the universe through his direct action on nature and who has guided human history through his prophets, Abraham, with whom he made his covenant, Moses, Jesus, and Muḥammad, through all of whom he founded his chosen communities, the 'Peoples of the Book.', 10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001, 9780195305135, It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.9 billion followers or 24.4% of the world's population,STUDY, Pew Research Center, The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010-2050,weblink commonly known as Muslims.According to Oxford Dictionaries, "Muslim is the preferred term for 'follower of Islam,' although Moslem is also widely used." Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.WEB,weblink World Religion, 1 January 2019, Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique,BOOK, Campo, Juan Eduardo, Encyclopedia of Islam, {{Google books, OZbyz_Hr-eIC, yes, |year=2009|publisher=Infobase Publishing|isbn=978-1-4381-2696-8|page=34|chapter=Allah}} and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ä°brahim Özdemir, Environment, Ibrahim Kalin, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014, When Meccan pagans demanded proofs, signs, or miracles for the existence of God, the Qurʾān's response was to direct their gaze at nature's complexity, regularity, and order. The early verses of the Qurʾān, therefore, reveal an invitation to examine and investigate the heavens and the earth, and everything that can be seen in the environment [...] The Qurʾān thus makes it clear that everything in Creation is a miraculous sign of God (āyah), inviting human beings to contemplate the Creator., 10.1093/acref:oiso/9780199812578.001.0001, 9780199812578, The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, believed to be the (:wikt:verbatim|verbatim) word of God, and the teachings and normative examples (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad ({{circa}} 570 – 8 June 632 CE).Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, according to Islamic tradition.Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses and Jesus,WEB,weblink People of the Book, (Islam: Empire of Faith), PBS, 2010-12-18, BOOK, Reeves, J. C., 2004, Bible and Qurʼān: Essays in scriptural intertextuality, Leiden, Brill Publishers, Brill, 177,weblink 9-0041-2726-7, NEWS,weblink Why Muslims celebrate a Jewish holiday, Moghul, Haroon, CNN, 2018-01-18, and the Quran in its Arabic to be the unaltered and final revelation of God.{{Harvtxt|Bennett |2010|p=101}} Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded in paradise and unrighteous punished in hell.WEB,weblink Eschatology – Oxford Islamic Studies Online,, en, 2018-01-18, WEB,weblink Paradise (Jannat),, 2016-04-26, Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law (sharia), which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.{{Harvtxt|Esposito|2002b|p=17}}* {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2002b| pp=111–112, 118}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Shari'ah, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,

The cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam.{{Citation|last=Trofimov|first=Yaroslav|title=The Siege of Mecca: The 1979 Uprising at Islam's Holiest Shrine|year=2008|page=79|place=New York|language=|isbn=978-0-307-47290-8}}
Aside from the theological narrative,BOOK, Esposito, John, Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.), 1998, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-511234-4, 9, 12, {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2002b|pp=4–5}}BOOK, Peters, F.E., Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians, 2003, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-11553-5, 9,weblink Islam is historically believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca,BOOK, {{google books, y, AQUZ6BGyohQC, 5, |title=Islam and the Integration of Society|last=Watt|first=William Montgomery|date=2003|publisher=Psychology Press|isbn=9780415175876|location=|pages=5|language=en}} and by the 8th century the Umayyad Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east. The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the historically Muslim world was experiencing a scientific, economic and cultural flourishing.George Saliba (1994), A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, pp. 245, 250, 256–257. New York University Press, {{ISBN|0-8147-8023-7}}.JOURNAL, 10.1086/353360, King, David A., 1983, The Astronomy of the Mamluks, Isis, 74, 4, 531–555, harv, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Hassan, Ahmad Y, Factors Behind the Decline of Islamic Science After the Sixteenth Century,weblink Islam and the Challenge of Modernity, Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium on Islam and the Challenge of Modernity: Historical and Contemporary Contexts, Kuala Lumpur, August 1–5, 1994, Sharifah Shifa Al-Attas, International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC), 1996, 351–399,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2015, The expansion of the Muslim world involved various states and dynasties such as the Ottoman Empire, trade and conversion to Islam by missionary activities (dawah).The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pp. 125–258Most Muslims are of one of two denominations; Sunni (75–90%) or Shia (10-20%). About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim-majority country;WEB,weblink 10 Countries With the Largest Muslim Populations, 2010 and 2050date=2015-04-02, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, 2017-02-07, {{#expr: 100 * 480/1570 round 0}}% of Muslims live in South Asia,BOOK, {{google books, y, kaubzRxh-U0C, |page=193 |title=South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today|last=Pechilis|first=Karen|last2=Raj|first2=Selva J.|date=2013|publisher=Routledge|isbn=9780415448512 |language=en}} the largest population of Muslims in the world;NEWS,weblink How South Asia Will Save Global Islam, Diplomat, Akhilesh Pillalamarri, The, The Diplomat, 2017-02-07, en-US, {{#expr: 100 * 315/1571 round 0 }}% in the Middle East–North Africa region,NEWS,weblink Middle East-North Africa Overview, 2009-10-07, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, 2018-01-18, en-US, where it is the dominant religion;WEB,weblink Region: Middle East-North Africa, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center, 22 December 2011, 2011-01-27, and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa.WEB,weblink Region: Sub-Saharan Africa, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center, 22 December 2011, 2011-01-27, Sizeable Muslim communities are also found in the Americas, Caucasus, Central Asia, China, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, Philippines, and Russia.WEB,weblink Muslim Population by Country, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center,weblink" title="">weblink 9 February 2011, dead, 22 December 2011, WEB,weblink Islam in Russia,, Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world.NEWS,weblink Main Factors Driving Population Growth, 2015-04-02, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, 2018-10-23, en-US, NEWS,weblink The world's fastest-growing religion is ..., Burke, Daniel, April 4, 2015, 18 April 2015, CNN, WEB,weblink No God But God, Lippman, Thomas W., Islam is the youngest, the fastest growing, and in many ways the least complicated of the world's great monotheistic faiths. It is based on its own holy book, but it is also a direct descendant of Judaism and Christianity, incorporating some of the teachings of those religions—modifying some and rejecting others., U.S. News & World Report, 2008-04-07, 2013-09-24,

Etymology and meaning

File:Kaaba Mirror like.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|The Kaaba in Mecca is the direction of prayer and MuslimMuslimIslām () is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission, sincerity, safeness, and peace.Dictionary listing for Siin roots derived from Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon via In a religious context, it means "voluntary submission to God".BOOK,weblink Lewis, Barnard, Churchill, Buntzie Ellis, Islam: The Religion and The People, Wharton School Publishing, 8, 9780132230858, 2009, WEB,weblink What does Islam mean?, The Friday Journal, 2011-02-06,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-03-14, (wikt:إسلام#Arabic|Islām) is the verbal noun of (wikt:أسلم#Arabic|Form IV) of the root, and means "submission to God" or "surrender to God". Muslim, the word applied to an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, and means "submitter to God" or "one who surrenders to God". The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam."
  • QURAN, 6, 125, ref, , QURAN, 61, 7, ref, , QURAN, 39, 22, ref,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Islam, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Gardet, L., Jomier, J., harv, 4, Islam literally means "submission (to God)"{{sup, 2, Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb of which Islām is the infinitive (see Islam (term){{sup|3,4}} }}

Other verses connect Islam and religion (dīn) together: "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."QURAN, 5, 3, ref, , QURAN, 3, 19, ref, , QURAN, 3, 83, ref, Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.
  • QURAN, 9, 74, ref, , QURAN, 49, 14, ref,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Islam, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Gardet, L., Jomier, J., harv, In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that also includes imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence).BOOK, Oxford University Press, 9780195107999, Esposito, John L., The Oxford History of Islam, 2000-04-06, 76–77,weblink BOOK, The mosque: the heart of submission, Rusmir, Mahmutćehajić, 2006, Fordham University Press, 978-0-8232-2584-2, 84,
Islam was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. This term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.WEB,weblink Buddhism: Buddhism at a glance, BBC – Religions, Some authors, however, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a (wikt:technical term|technical term) for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system.Kenneth G. Wilson, The Columbia Guide to Standard American English ({{ISBN|0231069898}}), p. 291: Muhammadan and Mohammedan are based on the name of the prophet Mohammed, and both are considered offensive.

Articles of faith

Faith (Iman) in the Islamic creed (Aqidah) is often represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel.

Concept of God

File:Istanbul, Hagia Sophia, Allah.jpg|thumb|right|Medallion showing "Allah" (God) in Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, TurkeyTurkeyIslam is often seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions. Its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd (). God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "Say, He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him" (QURAN, 112, 1–4, nosup, no, ).
  • QURAN, 112, 1, 4, ref,
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2002b|pp=74–76}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2004|p=22}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Griffith|Savage|2006|p=[{{google books |plainurl=y |id=KKZEyNRJMkcC|page=248}} 248]}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Allah, Tawhid, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, D. Gimaret, harv, Islam rejects polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, and reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus Muslims are not expected to anthropomorphise him.God Created the Universe with the Purpose to Serve Humankind: God Created ...

By Fateh Ullah Khan p. 298 [BOOK, Fateh Ullah, Khan, God Created the Universe with the Purpose to Serve Humankind: God Created Humankind to Worship Him and Appointed Him as Viceroy in Earth to See how He Behaves, {{google books, y, uGassqzOsDgC, 298, |year=2009|publisher=Fateh Ullah Khan Gandapur|isbn=978-969-9399-00-8|pages=298–}}BOOK, {{google books, yid=_ujcpilaYssC, 37, |title=Islamic Unity and Happiness|last=Turfe |first=Tallal Alie|page=37|publisher=TTQ, Inc.|year=1985|isbn=9780940368477}}BOOK, {{google books, y, Qr53qwS5cmcC, 37, |title=What is Islam? By Jamaal Zarabozo p. 37|accessdate=7 October 2014}}BOOK, {{google books, y, vC0r6JVvDIoC, 357, |last1=Agwan|first1=A.R. |last2=Khan |first2=N.K. |title=A–E|page=357|publisher=Global Vision Publishing|isbn=9788187746003|year=2000 }} God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful" (See Names of God in Islam).BOOK, Bentley, David, The 99 Beautiful Names for God for All the People of the Book, William Carey Library, 1999, 978-0-87808-299-5,
Islam teaches that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's command as expressed by the wording, "Be, and it is"
  • QURAN, 2, 117, ref,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Islām, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2010-08-25,

and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
  • WEB,weblink Human Nature and the Purpose of Existence,, 2011-01-29,
  • QURAN, 51, 56, ref,
David Leeming The Oxford Companion to World Mythology Oxford University Press 2005 {{ISBN|978-0-195-15669-0}} p. 209 He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in need or distress calls him.
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Islām, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2010-08-25,
  • QURAN, 2, 186, ref,

There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than (his) jugular vein."QURAN, 50, 16, ref, God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa.
Allāh is a term, with no plural or gender being ascribed, used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews in reference to God, while {{transl|ar|ISO|ʾilāh}} () is a term used for a deity or a god in general.
  • WEB,weblink God, Islam: Empire of Faith, PBS, 2010-12-18,
  • "Islam and Christianity", Encyclopedia of Christianity (2001): Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to God as Allāh.
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Allah, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, L. Gardet, harv,

Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu.


File:Mohammed_receiving_revelation_from_the_angel_Gabriel.jpg|thumb|right|Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307, IlkhanateIlkhanateBelief in angels is fundamental to Islam. The Quranic word for angel ( {{transl|ar|ALA|malak}}) derives either from Malaka, meaning "he controlled", due to their power to govern different affairs assigned to them,Syed Anwer Ali Qurʼan, the Fundamental Law of Human Life: Surat ul-Faateha to Surat-ul-Baqarah (sections 1–21) Syed Publications 1984 University of VirginiaDigitalized 22. Okt. 2010 p. 121. or from the root either from ’-l-k, l-’-k or m-l-k with the broad meaning of a "messenger", just like its counterparts in Hebrew (malʾákh) and Greek (angelos). Unlike their Hebrew counterpart, the term is exclusively used for heavenly spirits of the divine world, but not for human messengers. The Quran refers to both angelic and human messengers as "rasul" instead.S.R. Burge Journal of Qur'anic Studies The Angels in Sūrat al-Malāʾika: Exegeses of Q. 35:1 Sep 2011. vol. 10, no. 1 : pp. 50–70The Quran is the principal source for the Islamic concept of angels.Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 {{ISBN|978-1-136-50473-0}} p. 23. Some of them, such as Gabriel and Michael, are mentioned by name in the Quran, others are only referred to by their function. In hadith literature, angels are often assigned to only one specific phenomena.Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 {{ISBN|978-1-136-50473-0}} p. 79 Angels play a significant role in Mi'raj literature, where Muhammad encounters several angels during his journey through the heavens.Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 {{ISBN|978-1-136-50473-0}} p. 29 Further angels have often been featured in Islamic eschatology, Islamic theology and Islamic philosophy.Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 {{ISBN|978-1-136-50473-0}} p. 22 Duties assigned to angels include, for example, communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death.In Islam, just like in Judaism and Christianity, angels are often represented in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size or wearing heavenly articles.Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 {{ISBN|978-1-136-50473-0}} pp. 97–99. The Quran describes them as "messengers with wings—two, or three, or four (pairs)..."
  • QURAN, 35, 1, ref,
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2002b|pp=26–28}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Malā'ika, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, W. Madelung, harv,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Angel, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online, Gisela Webb, harv,

Common characteristics for angels are their missing needs for bodily desires, such as eating and drinking.Cenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO, 18 May 2017 {{ISBN|9781610692175}} p. 140. Their lack of affinity to material desires is also expressed by their creation from light: Angels of mercy are created from nur (cold light) in opposition to the angels of punishment created from nar (hot light).Jane Dammen McAuliffe Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān Volume 3 Georgetown University, Washington DC p. 45 Muslims do not generally share the perceptions of angelic pictorial depictions, such as those found in Western art.


{{See also|History of the Quran}}File:FirstSurahKoran_(fragment).jpg|thumb|right|The first chapter of the Quran, Al-FatihaAl-FatihaThe Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospel), had become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both.
  • Accad (2003): According to Ibn Taymiya, although only some Muslims accept the textual veracity of the entire Bible, most Muslims will grant the veracity of most of it.
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|1998|pp=6, 12}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2002b|pp=4–5}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Peters|2003|p=9}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Muhammad, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Buhl, F, Welch, A.T, harv, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Tahrif, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Hava Lazarus-Yafeh, harv,

The Quran (literally, "Recitation") is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal word of God and is widely regarded as the finest literary work in the classical Arabic language.Chejne, A. (1969) The Arabic Language: Its Role in History, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.Speicher, K. (1997) in: Edzard, L., and Szyska, C. (eds.) Encounters of Words and Texts: Intercultural Studies in Honor of Stefan Wild. Georg Olms, Hildesheim, pp. 43–66.
Muslims believe that the verses of the Quran were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl) on many occasions between 610 CE until his death on June 8, 632.{{Harvtxt|Esposito|2004|pp=17–18, 21}} While Muhammad was alive, all of these revelations were written down by his companions (sahabah), although the prime method of transmission was orally through memorization.JOURNAL, Al Faruqi, Lois Ibsen, The Cantillation of the Qur'an, Asian Music, 1987, Autumn – Winter 1987, 3–4, The Quran is divided into 114 chapters (suras) which combined, contain 6,236 verses (āyāt). The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and legal issues relevant to the Muslim community.
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Islam, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Qur'an, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,
The Quran is more concerned with moral guidance than legislation, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".{{Harvtxt|Esposito|2004|p=79}} Muslim jurists consult the hadith ("reports"), or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Quran and assist with its interpretation. The science of Quranic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2004|pp=79–81}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Tafsir, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,

The set of rules governing proper elocution of recitation is called tajwid.
Muslims usually view "the Quran" as the original scripture as revealed in Arabic and that any translations are necessarily deficient, which are regarded only as commentaries on the Quran.
  • {{Harvtxt|Teece|2003|pp=12–13}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Turner|2006|p=42}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Qur'an, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, harv, : The word Quran was invented and first used in the Qurʼan itself. There are two different theories about this term and its formation.

Prophets and sunnah

File:Medieval Persian manuscript Muhammad leads Abraham Moses Jesus.jpg|thumb|A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, JesusJesusMuslims identify the 'prophets' ( {{transl|ar|ALA|anbiyāʾ}} ) as those humans chosen by God at different times in the past, to convey his messages(warnings and glad tidings) ,teachings(way of personal life) and legislation(public life) to people while being in contact with God mostly through revelationWEB,weblink Surah An-Nisa [4:164], Surah An-Nisa [4:164], en, 2019-10-04, WEB,weblink Surah An-Nahl [16:36], Surah An-Nahl [16:36], en, 2019-10-04, WEB,weblink Surah At-Tahrim [66:1], Surah At-Tahrim [66:1], en, 2019-10-04, . According to the Quran, the prophets were instructed by God to bring the "will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the will of God. The Quran mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.
  • {{Harvtxt|Momem|1987|p=176}}{{cnf|date=December 2017}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Islam, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,
Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad as the last law-bearing prophet (Seal of the prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God). In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the sunnah (literally "trodden path"). Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives and the sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Quran.* Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2003), p. 666* ENCYCLOPEDIA, Hadith, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, J. Robson, harv, * ENCYCLOPEDIA, Sunna, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, D.W. Brown, harv, This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith, which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. Hadith Qudsi is a sub-category of hadith, regarded as verbatim words of God quoted by Muhammad but is not part of the Quran.A hadith involves two elements: a chain of narrators, called sanad, and the actual wording, called matn. Hadiths can be classified, by studying the narration, as "authentic" or "correct", called sahih (), "good", called hasan () or "weak", called daʻīf () among others. Muhammad al-BukhariRead, Study, Search Online. Sahih Bukhari. Retrieved on 2013-07-28. collected over 300,000 hadith, but only included 2,602 distinct hadith that passed veracity tests that codified them as authentic into his book Sahih al-Bukhari, which is considered by Sunnis to be the most authentic source after the Quran.[BOOK, Jonathan, Brown, The Canonization of Al-Bukh?r? and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunn? ?ad?th Canon, {{google books, y, nyMKDEAb4GsC, |date=2007|publisher=Brill|isbn=978-90-04-15839-9}}Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah, pp. 160–169 Dar al-Ma'aarif edition Another famous source(s) of hadiths is known as The Four Books, which Shias consider as the most authentic hadith reference.BOOK, Meri, Josef W., 2005, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, USA, Routledge, 978-0-415-96690-0, WEB,weblink Part 1,, WEB,weblink Chapter 4: The Hadith,,

Resurrection and judgment

Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", Yawm al-Qiyāmah () is also crucial for Muslims. They believe the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Quran and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The Quran emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.
  • "Resurrection", The New Encyclopedia of Islam (2003)
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Avicenna, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, harv, : Ibn SÄ«nā, AbÅ« Ê¿AlÄ« al-Ḥusayn b. Ê¿Abd Allāh b. SÄ«nā is known in the West as "Avicenna".
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Qiyama, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, L. Gardet, harv,
On Yawm al-Qiyāmah, Muslims believe all humankind will be judged on their good and bad deeds and consigned to Jannah (paradise) or Jahannam (hell). The Qurʼan in Surat al-Zalzalah describes this as, "So whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it (99:7) and whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it (99:8)." The Qurʼan lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief in God ( {{transl|ar|ALA|kufr}}), and dishonesty; however, the Qurʼan makes it clear God will forgive the sins of those who repent if he so wills. Good deeds, such as charity, prayer and compassion towards animals,Animals in Islam By Basheer Ahmad Masri p. 27What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Second Edition: By John L. Esposito p. 130 will be rewarded with entry to heaven. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and blessings, with Qurʼanic references describing its features. Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.
  • {{Harvtxt|Smith|2006|p=89}}; Encyclopedia of Islam and Muslim World, p. 565
  • "Heaven", The Columbia Encyclopedia (2000)
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Garden, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online, Asma Afsaruddin, harv,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Paradise, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,

Yawm al-Qiyāmah is also identified in the Quran as Yawm ad-Dīn (), "Day of Religion";QURAN, 1, 4, ref, as-sāʿah (), "the Last Hour";QURAN, 6, 31, ref, and al-Qāriʿah (), "The Clatterer".QURAN, 101, 1, ref,

Divine will

The concept of divine will is referred to as {{transl|ar|DIN|al-qadāʾ wa l-qadar}}, which literally derives from a root that means to measure. Everything, good and bad, is believed to have been decreed.*{{Harvtxt|Cohen-Mor|2001|p=4}}: "The idea of predestination is reinforced by the frequent mention of events 'being written' or 'being in a book' before they happen: 'Say: "Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us..." ' "* ENCYCLOPEDIA, Fate, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online, Ahmet T. Karamustafa, harv, : The verb qadara literally means "to measure, to determine". Here it is used to mean that "God measures and orders his creation".

Acts of worship

{{See also|Five Pillars of Islam}}There are five basic religious acts in Islam, collectively known as 'The Pillars of Islam' (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion"), which are considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the creed (Shahada), (2) daily prayers (Salah), (3) almsgiving (Zakat), (4) fasting during Ramadan (Sawm) and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) at least once in a lifetime.WEB, Hajj – ReligionFacts,weblink, 2015-11-21, Both Shia and Sunni sects agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.Pillars of Islam, Oxford Islamic Studies Online Apart from these, Muslims also perform other religious acts. Notable among them are charity (Sadaqah) and recitation of the Quran.


File:Silver Rupee Akbar.jpg|thumb|right|Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar the GreatAkbar the GreatThe Shahadah,Hossein Nasr The Heart of Islam, Enduring Values for Humanity (April., 2003), pp. 3, 39, 85, 27–272
which is the basic creed of Islam that must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "{{transl|ar|DIN|ʾašhadu ʾal-lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu wa ʾašhadu ʾanna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh}}", or "I testify that there is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God"N Mohammad (1985), The doctrine of jihad: An introduction, Journal of Law and Religion, 3(2): 381–397 (). This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.
  • Farah (1994), p. 135
  • Momen (1987), p. 178
  • "Islam", Encyclopedia of Religious Rites, Rituals, and Festivals (2004)


{{See also|Mosque|Jumu'ah}}File:Mosque.jpg|thumb|Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, DamascusDamascusRitual prayers are called Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt (Arabic: (Wikt:صلاة|صلاة)). Salat is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Performing prayers five times a day is compulsory but flexibility in the timing specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Quran.
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2002b|pp=18, 19}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Hedayetullah|2006|pp=53–55}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Kobeisy|2004|pp=22–34}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Momen|1987|p=178}}

The prayers are done with the chest in direction of the kaaba though in the early days of Islam, they were done in direction of Jerusalem. The act of supplicating is referred to as dua.
A Mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name masjid. A large mosque for gathering for Friday prayers or Eid prayers are called masjid jāmi.BOOK, Budge's Egypt: A Classic 19th century Travel Guide, Budge, E.A. Wallis, E. A. Wallis Budge, Courier Dover Publications, 2001, 123–128, 978-0-486-41721-9, Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. In Medina, Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, or the Prophet's Mosque, was also a place of refuge for the poor.BOOK, Rosemary, Skinner Keller, Rosemary Radford, Ruether, Marie Cantlon, Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America: Native American creation stories, {{google books, y, WPILfbtT5tQC, 615, |year=2006|publisher=Indiana University Press|isbn=978-0-253-34687-2|pages=615–}} Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Masdjid, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Pedersen, J., Hillenbrand, R., Burton-Page, J., J. Burton-Page, harv,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Mosque, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,

The means used to signal the approach of prayer time is a vocal call, known as the adhan.


"Zakāt" ( {{transl|ar|ALA|zakāh}} "(wikt:alms|alms)") is giving a fixed portion (2.5% annually)Medani Ahmed and Sebastian Gianci, Zakat, Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy, p. 479 of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy, such as for freeing captives or those in debt or (stranded) travellers, and for those employed to collect Zakat.Qurʼan, Surat al-Tawbah 9:60 "Zakat expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect (Zakat) and for bringing hearts together and for freeing captives and for those in debt (or bonded labour) and for the cause of Allah and for the (stranded) traveller—an obligation (imposed) by Allah . And Allah is Knowing and Wise."BOOK, Mohamed, Ariff, The Islamic Voluntary Sector in Southeast Asia: Islam and the Economic Development of Southeast Asia, {{google books, y, NP4ZL0TJ9s4C&, 55, |year=1991|publisher=Institute of Southeast Asian Studies|isbn=978-981-3016-07-1|pages=55–}} It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to supererogatory charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". Conservative estimates of annual zakat is estimated to be 15 times global humanitarian aid contributions.NEWS,weblink Analysis: A faith-based aid revolution in the Muslim world?, IRIN, 2013-09-24, 2012-06-01, The first Caliph Abu Bakr distributed Zakat as one of the first examples of a guaranteed minimum income, with each man, woman and child getting 10 to 20 dirhams annually.WEB,weblink Guaranteeing a Minimum Income Has Been a Utopian Dream for Centuries, Vice, 3 June 2019, 14 November 2013, Sadaqah means optional charity which is practiced as religious duty and out of generosity.BOOK, Said, Abdul Aziz, Contemporary Islam: Dynamic, Not Static, {{google books, y, 4bs7g0O4eLYC, 145, |year=2006 |publisher=Taylor & Francis |location= |isbn=9780415770118 |page=145|display-authors=etal}} Both the Quran and the hadith have put much emphasis on spending money for the welfare of needy people,BOOK, Matt Stefon, Islamic Beliefs and Practices, Britannica Educational Publishing, 2010, New York City, 978-1-61530-060-0, 72, and have urged the Muslims to give more as an act of optional charity.
  • QURAN, 2, 177, ref,
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2004|p=90}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Zakat, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Zakat, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online, harv,

The Quran says: "Spend something (in charity) out of the substance which We have bestowed on you, before Death should come to any of you" (QURAN, 63, 10, ns, n, ). One of the early teachings of Muhammad was that God expects men to be generous with their wealth and not to be miserly (Quran QURAN, 107, 1, 7, ns, n, ).BOOK, Holt, P.M., Ann K.S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis, Bernard Lewis, The Cambridge History of Islam, 2000, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-21946-4, 32, Accumulating wealth without spending it to address the needs of the poor is generally prohibited and admonished.BOOK, Matt Stefon, Islamic Beliefs and Practices, Britannica Educational Publishing, 2010, New York City, 978-1-61530-060-0, 93, Another kind of charity in Islam is waqf which means perpetual religious endowment.


File:Iftar for Ramadhan.jpg|thumb|220px|A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates ]]{{Further|Fasting during Ramadan}}Fasting ( {{transl|ar|ALA|á¹£awm}}) from food and drink, among other things, must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadan. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, develop self-control and restraint and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts must be compensated for later.
  • QURAN, 2, 184, ref,
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2004|pp=90,91}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Islam, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,


File:A packed house - Flickr - Al Jazeera English.jpg|thumb|right|Pilgrims at the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca during HajjHajjThe obligatory Islamic pilgrimage, called the {{transl|ar|ALA|ḥajj}} (), has to be performed during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include: spending a day and a night in the tents in the desert plain of Mina, then a day in the desert plain of Arafat praying and worshiping God, following the foot steps of Abraham; then spending a night out in the open, sleeping on the desert sand in the desert plain of Muzdalifah; then moving to Jamarat, symbolically stoning the Devil recounting Abraham's actions;BOOK, {{google books, y, 4xIijTTxX9UC, 279, |title=Getting the Best Out of Hajj By Abu Muneer Ismail Davids|accessdate=7 October 2014|isbn=9789960980300|author1=Davids|first1=Abu Muneer Ismail|year=2006}}BOOK, {{google books, y, HYJ2c9E9IM8C, 19, |title=Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians |page= 20|accessdate=7 October 2014|isbn=978-1400825486|author1=Peters|first1=F.E.|date=2009}}BOOK, Sayed / Farouq M., Alhuseini, Islam and the Glorious Ka'abah: none, {{google books, y, kz41FZmUivcC, 61, |date=2012|publisher=iUniverse|isbn=978-1-4697-8590-5|pages=61–}} then going to Mecca and walking seven times around the Kaaba which Muslims believe was built as a place of worship by Abraham; then walking seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah recounting the steps of Abraham's wife, Hagar, while she was looking for water for her son Ishmael in the desert before Mecca developed into a settlement.
  • {{Harvtxt|Farah|1994|pp=145–147}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Goldschmidt|2005|p=48}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Hajj, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,

Another form of pilgrimage, Umrah, can be undertaken at any time of the year.

Quranic recitation and memorisation

(File:Men reading the Koran in Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria.jpg|thumb|Muslim men reading the Quran)Muslims recite and memorize the whole or part of the Quran as acts of virtue. Reciting the Quran with elocution has been described as an excellent act of worship.BOOK, Nigosian, S.A., Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices, {{google books, y, my7hnALd_NkC, 70, |year=2004 |publisher=Indiana University Press |isbn= 978-0-253-21627-4 |page=70}} Pious Muslims recite the whole Quran at the month of Ramadan.BOOK, Matt Stefon, Islamic Beliefs and Practices, Britannica Educational Publishing, 2010, New York City, 978-1-61530-060-0, 42–43, In Islamic societies, any social program generally begins with the recitation of the Quran. One who has memorized the whole Quran is called a hafiz who, it is said, will be able to intercede for ten people on the Last Judgment Day. Apart from this, almost every Muslim memorizes some portion of the Quran because they need to recite it during their prayers.{{Listen|filename=112.AlIkhlas-MisharyRashedAlafasy.ogg|title=Al-Ikhlas|pos=left
Al-Ikhlas>Sincerity is the Quran's List of surahs in the Quranth}} chapter as recited by Imam Mishary Rashid Alafasy|format=Ogg}}{{clear}}


{{Fiqh}}{{See also|Logic in Islamic philosophy#Islamic law and theology}}Sharia is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.WEB, British & World English: sharia,weblink Oxford University Press, 4 December 2015, Oxford, It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its scholarly interpretations.ENCYCLOPEDIA, harv, Knut S., Vikør, Sharīʿah, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics, Oxford University Press, Emad El-Din Shahin, 2014,weblink 2017-05-15,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-06-04, dead, The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim traditionalists and reformists.Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of sharia: the Quran, sunnah (Hadith and Sira), qiyas (analogical reasoning), and ijma (juridical consensus).BOOK, John L., Esposito, John Esposito, Natana J., DeLong-Bas, Natana J. DeLong-Bas, Women in Muslim Family Law, {{google books, y, MOmaDq8HKCgC, 2, |year=2001|publisher=Syracuse University Press|isbn=978-0-8156-2908-5|pages=2–}} Quote: "[...], by the ninth century, the classical theory of law fixed the sources of Islamic law at four: the Quran, the Sunnah of the Prophet, qiyas (analogical reasoning), and ijma (consensus)." Different legal schools developed methodologies for deriving sharia rulings from scriptural sources using a process known as ijtihad (inference).ENCYCLOPEDIA, Islamic Law, John L. Esposito, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014,weblink Traditional jurisprudence distinguishes two principal branches of law, ʿibādāt (rituals) and muʿāmalāt (social relations), which together comprise a wide range of topics. Its rulings assign actions to one of five categories: mandatory, recommended, permitted, abhorred, and prohibited. Thus, some areas of sharia overlap with the Western notion of law while others correspond more broadly to living life in accordance with God's will.Historically, sharia was interpreted by independent jurists (muftis). Their legal opinions (fatwas) were taken into account by ruler-appointed judges who presided over qāḍī's courts, and by maẓālim courts, which were controlled by the ruler's council and administered criminal law. In the modern era, sharia-based criminal laws were widely replaced by statutes inspired by European models. The Ottoman Empire's 19th-century Tanzimat reforms lead to the Mecelle civil code and represented the first attempt to codify Sharia.Ashk Dahlen Islamic Law, Epistemology and Modernity: Legal Philosophy in Contemporary Iran Routledge 2004 {{ISBN|9781135943554}} While the constitutions of most Muslim-majority states contain references to sharia, its classical rules were largely retained only in personal status (family) laws. Legislative bodies which codified these laws sought to modernize them without abandoning their foundations in traditional jurisprudence.ENCYCLOPEDIA, harv, Ann Elizabeth, Mayer, Law. Modern Legal Reform, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, John L. Esposito, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2009,weblink The Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for full implementation of sharia. The role of sharia has become a contested topic around the world. There are ongoing debates as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and women's rights.BOOK, Abdullahi A, An-Na'im, Islamic Foundations of Religious Human Rights, {{Google books, aqyWwF5YA1gC, 337, yes, |title=Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective: Religious Perspectives |pages=337–359 |editor1-first=John |editor1-last=Witte |editor2-first=Johan D. |editor2-last=van der Vyver |year=1996 |isbn=978-90-411-0179-2 }}JOURNAL, Hajjar, Lisa, Religion, State Power, and Domestic Violence in Muslim Societies: A Framework for Comparative Analysis, Law & Social Inquiry, 29, 1, 2004, 1–38, 4092696, 10.1111/j.1747-4469.2004.tb00329.x, Al-Suwaidi, J. (1995). Arab and western conceptions of democracy; in Democracy, war, and peace in the Middle East (Editors: David Garnham, Mark A. Tessler), Indiana University Press, see Chapters 5 and 6; {{ISBN|978-0253209399}}{{page needed|date=April 2016}}


File:Карло Боссоли. Татарская школа для детей (cropped).jpg|thumb|right|232px|Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)]]Islam, like Judaism, has no clergy in the sacerdotal sense, such as priests who mediate between God and people. However, there are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam. In the broadest sense, the term ulema () is used to describe the body of Muslim scholars who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences. A jurist who interprets Islamic law is called a mufti () and often issues legal opinions, called fatwas. A scholar of jurisprudence is called a faqih (). Someone who studies the science of hadith is called a muhaddith. A qadi is a judge in an Islamic court. Honorific titles given to scholars include sheikh, mullah and mawlawi. Imam () is a leadership position, often used in the context of conducting Islamic worship services.

Schools of jurisprudence

File:Madhhab Map3.png|thumb|right|260px|Islamic schools of law in the Muslim worldMuslim worldA school of jurisprudence is referred to as a madhab (). The four major Sunni schools are the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and sometimes Ẓāhirī while the three major Shia schools are Ja'fari, Zaidi and Isma'ili. Each differ in their methodology, called Usul al-fiqh ("principles of jurisprudence"). The following of decisions by a religious expert without necessarily examining the decision's reasoning is called taqlid. The term ghair muqallid literally refers to those who do not use taqlid and by extension do not have a madhab.Encyclopedeia of Eminent Thinkers. p. 38, K.S. Bharathi. 1998 The practice of an individual interpretating law with independent reasoning is called ijtihad.{{Harvtxt|Weiss|2002|pp=3,161}}


To reduce the gap between the rich and the poor, Islamic economic jurisprudence encourages trade,
  • International Business Success in a Strange Cultural Environment By Mamarinta P. Mababaya p. 203
  • QURAN, 4, 29, ref,

discourages the hoarding of wealth and outlaws interest-bearing loans (usury; the term is riba in Arabic).BOOK, The Islamic Moral Economy: A Study of Islamic Money and Financial Instruments, Karim, Shafiel A., 2010, Brown Walker Press, Boca Raton, FL, 978-1-59942-539-9, Financial Regulation in Crisis?: The Role of Law and the Failure of Northern Rock By Joanna Gray, Orkun Akseli Page 97 Therefore, wealth is taxed through Zakat, but trade is not taxed. Usury, which allows the rich to get richer without sharing in the risk, is forbidden in Islam. Profit sharing and venture capital where the lender is also exposed to risk is acceptable.
  • Ibn Majah Vol 3 Hadith 2289
  • International Business Success in a Strange Cultural Environment By Mamarinta P. Mababaya p. 202
  • Islamic Capital Markets: Theory and Practice By Noureddine Krichene p. 119

Hoarding of food for speculation is also discouraged.
  • Abu Daud Hadith 2015
  • Ibn Majah Vold 3 Hadith 2154
  • The Stability of Islamic Finance: Creating a Resilient Financial Environment By Zamir Iqbal, Abbas Mirakhor, Noureddine Krichenne, Hossein Askari p. 75
The taking of land belonging to others is also prohibited. The prohibition of usury has resulted in the development of Islamic banking. During the time of Muhammad, any money that went to the state, was immediately used to help the poor. Then in 634, Umar formally established the welfare state Bayt al-mal. The Bayt al-mal or the welfare state was for the Muslim and Non-Muslim poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled. The Bayt al-mal ran for hundreds of years under the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century and continued through the Umayyad period and well into the Abbasid era. Umar also introduced Child Benefit and Pensions for the children and the elderly.BOOK, Muhammad, Al-Buraey, Administrative Development: An Islamic Perspective, {{google books, y, HJE9AAAAIAAJ, 254, |year=1985|publisher=KPI|isbn=978-0-7103-0333-2|pages=254–}}The challenge of Islamic renaissance By Syed Abdul QuddusBOOK, Muhammad, Al-Buraey, Administrative Development: An Islamic Perspective, {{google books, y, lT8OAAAAQAAJ, 252, |year=1985|publisher=KPI|isbn=978-0-7103-0059-1|pages=252–}}BOOK, Ahmed, Akgündüz, Said, Öztürk, Ottoman History: Misperceptions and Truths, {{google books, y, EnT_zhqEe5cC, 539, |year=2011|publisher=IUR Press|isbn=978-90-90-26108-9|accessdate=7 October 2014|pages=539–}}


Jihad means "to strive or struggle" (in the way of God). Jihad, in its broadest sense, is "exerting one's utmost power, efforts, endeavors, or ability in contending with an object of (wikt:disapprobation|disapprobation)". Depending on the object being a visible enemy, the Devil, and aspects of one's own self (such as sinful desires), different categories of jihad are defined.Firestone (1999) pp. 17–18 Jihad also refers to one's striving to attain religious and moral perfection.
  • {{Harvtxt|Brockopp|2003|pp=99–100}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2003|p=93}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, jihad, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,

When used without any qualifier, Jihad is understood in its military form.Reuven Firestone (1999), The Meaning of Jihād, pp. 17–18Britannica Encyclopedia, Jihad Some Muslim authorities, especially among the Shi'a and Sufis, distinguish between the "greater jihad", which pertains to spiritual self-perfection, and the "lesser jihad", defined as warfare.
  • {{Harvtxt|Firestone|1999|p=17}}
  • "Djihad", Encyclopedia of Islam Online.
Within Islamic jurisprudence, jihad is usually taken to mean military exertion against non-Muslim combatants.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Rudolph, Peters, David, Cook, Jihād, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014, 10.1093/acref:oiso/9780199739356.001.0001, 9780199739356, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Tyan, E., 2012, D̲j̲ihād, Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd, Brill, P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs, 10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0189, Jihad is the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law and may be declared against illegal works, terrorists, criminal groups, rebels, apostates, and leaders or states who oppress Muslims.{{Harvtxt|Firestone|1999|p=17}}ENCYCLOPEDIA, Djihād, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, harv, Most Muslims today interpret Jihad as only a defensive form of warfare.Knowing the Enemy: Jihadist Ideology and the War on Terror, Mary R. Habeck, Yale University Press, pp. 108–109, 118 Jihad only becomes an individual duty for those vested with authority. For the rest of the populace, this happens only in the case of a general mobilization. For most Twelver Shias, offensive jihad can only be declared by a divinely appointed leader of the Muslim community, and as such is suspended since Muhammad al-Mahdi's occultation in 868 AD.{{Harvtxt|Sachedina|1998|pp=105–106}}Seyyed Hossein Nasr The Heart of Islam, Enduring Values for Humanity (April., 2003), pp 72


{{See also|Sufi–Salafi relations}}File:Mevlana Konya.jpg|thumb|right|Tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi in KonyaKonyaSufism, or tasawwuf (), is a mystical-ascetic approach to Islam that seeks to find a direct personal experience of God. It is not a sect of Islam and its adherents belong to the various Muslim denominations. Classical Sufi scholars defined Tasawwuf as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God", by means of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use.Trimingham (1998), p. 1
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2003|p=302}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Malik|Hinnells|2006|p=3}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Turner|1998|p=145}}
  • WEB,weblink Library of Congress Country Studies, Afghanistan: A Country Study – Sufism, 1997, 2007-04-18,
Ahmed Zarruq, Zaineb Istrabadi, Hamza Yusuf Hanson. The Principles of Sufism. Amal Press. 2008. Sufis themselves claim that Tasawwuf is an aspect of Islam similar to sharia, inseparable from Islam and an integral part of Islamic belief and practice.Chittick (2008), pp. 3–4, 11Religiousity of early Sufi ascetics, such as Hasan al-Basri, emphazised fear to fail God's expectations of obedience, in contrast to later and more prominent Sufis, such as Mansur Al-Hallaj and Jalaluddin Rumi, whose religiousity is based on love towards God. For that reason, some academic scholars refuse to refer to the former as Sufis.Erik Hornung Andreas Schweizer Jenseitsreisen Eranos 2009/2010 Schwabe Verlag Basel 2011 (German) Nevertheless, is Hasan al-Basri often portrayed as one of the earliest Sufis in Sufi traditionsAlexander Knysh Islam in Historical Perspective Routledge, 30.09.2015 {{ISBN|978-1-317-34712-5}} p. 214 and his ideas were later developed by the influential theologian Al-Ghazali.{{Citation needed|date=April 2019}} Traditional Sufis, such as Bayazid Bastami, Jalaluddin Rumi, Haji Bektash Veli, Junaid Baghdadi, and Al-Ghazali, argued for Sufism as being based upon the tenets of Islam and the teachings of the prophet.BOOK, {{google books, y, LI0kjBlXS5UC, |title=Sufism: A Beginner's Guide|accessdate=17 January 2015|isbn=9781780740522|author1=Chittick|first1=William C|year=2008}}BOOK,weblink An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines, 17 January 2015, 9780791415153, Nasr, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, 1993, 192, Sufis played an important role in the formation of Muslim societies through their missionary and educational activities.WEB, Schimmel, Annemarie,weblink Sufism,, 2014-11-25, 2018-06-26, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Mysticism in Sufi Islam, 1, David Cook, Oxford Research Encyclopedias, 2015, 10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.93, Popular devotional practices such as veneration of Sufi saints have faced stiff opposition from followers of Wahhabism, who have sometimes physically attacked Sufis leading to deterioration in Sufi–Salafi relations. Sufism enjoyed a strong revival in Central Asia and South Asia; the Barelvi movement is Sufi influenced Sunni Islam with over 200 million followers,BOOK, 10.1093/acref/9780192800947.001.0001, 2000, 9780192800947, Bowker, John, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions,weblink largely in South Asia.Usha Sanyal. Generational Changes in the Leadership of the Ahl-e Sunnat Movement in North India during the Twentieth Century. Modern Asiantudies (1998), Cambridge University Press.JOURNAL, Ahl al-Sunnah wa'l-Jamaah,,weblink Sufism is also prominent is Central Asia, where different orders are the main religious sources,WEB, The Significant Role of Sufism in Central Asia, Farhat, Alvi,weblink JOURNAL, 20071709, Sufism in Southeast Asia: Reflections and Reconsiderations, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 26, 1, 169–183, Johns, Anthony H, 1995, 10.1017/S0022463400010560, as well as in African countries such as Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Senegal, Chad and Niger."Sufism and Religious Brotherhoods in Senegal", Babou, Cheikh Anta, The International Journal of African Historical Studies, v. 40 no. 1 (2007) pp. 184–186Mystical interpretations of Islam have also been developed by Ismaili Shias, as well as by the Illuminationist and Isfahan schools of Islamic philosophy.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Aminrazavi, Mehdi, Mysticism in Arabic and Islamic Philosophy, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Summer 2016, Edward N. Zalta,weblink 2016,


Family life

{{See also|Islam and children|Women in Islam|Marriage in Islam}}File:Minaret roof in constanta.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|The dome of the Carol I Mosque in Constanța, Romania, topped by the Islamic crescentIslamic crescentIn a Muslim family, the birth of a child is attended with some religious ceremonies. Immediately after the birth, the words of Adhan is pronounced in the right ear of the child.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Juan E. Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam, {{google books, y, OZbyz_Hr-eIC, 106, |publisher=Facts on File|year=2009 |isbn=978-0-8160-5454-1|page=106|title=Encyclopedia of Islam }} In the seventh day, the aquiqa ceremony is performed, in which an animal is sacrificed and its meat is distributed among the poor.BOOK, Nigosian, S.A., Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices, {{google books, y, my7hnALd_NkC, 120, |year=2004 |publisher=Indiana University Press |location=Indiana |isbn= 978-0-253-21627-4 |page=120}} The head of the child is also shaved, and an amount of money equaling the weight of the child's hair is donated to the poor. Apart from fulfilling the basic needs of food, shelter, and education, the parents or the elderly members of family also undertake the task of teaching moral qualities, religious knowledge, and religious practices to the children.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Juan E. Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam, {{google books, y, OZbyz_Hr-eIC, 136, |publisher=Facts on File |year=2009 |isbn=978-0-8160-5454-1|page=136|title=Encyclopedia of Islam }} Marriage, which serves as the foundation of a Muslim family, is a civil contract which consists of an offer and acceptance between two qualified parties in the presence of two witnesses. The groom is required to pay a bridal gift (mahr) to the bride, as stipulated in the contract.
  • {{Harvtxt|Waines|2003|pp=93–96}}
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (2003), p. 339
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|1998|p=79}}
Most families in the Islamic world are monogamous.BOOK, Newby, Gordon D., A concise encyclopedia of Islam, 2002, Oneworld, Oxford, 978-1851682959, 141, Repr.,weblink BOOK, Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, Islam : religion, history, and civilization, 2001, HarperOne, New York, 978-0060507145, 68,weblink Polyandry, a practice wherein a woman takes on two or more husbands is prohibited in Islam.WEB,weblink Why Can't a Woman have 2 Husbands?, 14 Publications, 27 December 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 December 2015, However, Muslim men are allowed to practice polygyny, that is, they can have more than one wife at the same time, up to a total of four, per Surah 4 Verse 3. A man does not need approval of his first wife for a second marriage as there is no evidence in the Qur'an or hadith to suggest this. With Muslims coming from diverse backgrounds including 49 Muslim-majority countries, plus a strong presence as large minorities throughout the world there are many variations on Muslim weddings. Generally in a Muslim family, a woman's sphere of operation is the home and a man's corresponding sphere is the outside world. However, in practice, this separation is not as rigid as it appears.BOOK, Eaton, Gai, Remembering God: Reflections on Islam, 2000, The Islamic Texts Society, Cambridge, 978-0946621842, 92–93, With regard to inheritance, a son's share is double that of a daughter's.Qur'an, {{Quran-usc|4|11}}.Certain religious rites are performed during and after the death of a Muslim. Those near a dying man encourage him to pronounce the Shahada as Muslims want their last word to be their profession of faith. After the death, the body is appropriately bathed by the members of the same gender and then enshrouded in a threefold white garment called kafan.BOOK, Matt Stefon, Islamic Beliefs and Practices, Britannica Educational Publishing, 2010, New York City, 978-1-61530-060-0, 83, Placing the body on a bier, it is first taken to a mosque where funeral prayer is offered for the dead person, and then to the graveyard for burial.

Etiquette and diet

Many practices fall in the category of adab, or Islamic etiquette. This includes greeting others with "as-salamu 'alaykum" ("peace be unto you"), saying bismillah ("in the name of God") before meals, and using only the right hand for eating and drinking. Islamic hygienic practices mainly fall into the category of personal cleanliness and health. Circumcision of male offspring is also practiced in Islam. Islamic burial rituals include saying the Salat al-Janazah ("funeral prayer") over the bathed and enshrouded dead body, and burying it in a grave. Muslims are restricted in their diet. Prohibited foods include pork products, blood, carrion, and alcohol. All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God by a Muslim, Jew, or Christian, with the exception of game that one has hunted or fished for oneself. Food permissible for Muslims is known as halal food.
  • QURAN, 5, 5, ref,
  • {{Harvtxt|Curtis|2005|p=164}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2002b|p=111}}
  • Ghamidi (2001): Customs and Behavioral Laws {{webarchive|url= |date=2013-09-23 }}
  • Ghamidi (2001): The Dietary Laws {{webarchive|url= |date=2007-05-02 }}
  • Ghamidi (2001): Various types of the prayer {{webarchive|url= |date=2013-09-23 }}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Slaughter, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online, Ersilia Francesca, harv,

Social responsibilities

In a Muslim society, various social service activities are performed by the members of the community. As these activities are instructed by Islamic canonical texts, a Muslim's religious life is seen incomplete if not attended by service to humanity.BOOK, Matt Stefon, Islamic Beliefs and Practices, Britannica Educational Publishing, 2010, New York City, 978-1-61530-060-0, 92, In fact, In Islamic tradition, the idea of social welfare has been presented as one of its principal values. The QURAN, 2, 177, ns, n, verse of the Quran is often cited to encapsulate the Islamic idea of social welfare.BOOK, John, Corrigan, Frederick, Denny, Martin S, Jaffee, Jews, Christians, Muslims: A Comparative Introduction to Monotheistic Religions, {{google books, y, VahYCwAAQBAJ, 245, |accessdate=22 January 2016 |year=2016 |publisher=Routledge |location= |isbn=9781317347002 |page=245}}The verse reads: 'It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces towards East or West; but it is righteousness to believe in Allah and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Book and the Messengers; to spend of your substance, out of love for Him, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the ransom of slaves; to be steadfast in prayer, and practice regular charity, to fulfill the contracts which we have made; and to be firm and patient, in pain (or suffering) and adversity, and throughout all periods of panic. Such are the people of truth, the God fearing' Similarly, duties to parents, neighbors, relatives, sick people, the old, and minorities have been defined in Islam. Respecting and obeying one's parents, and taking care of them especially in their old age have been made a religious obligation.Muhammad Shafi Usmani. Maariful Quran. English trans. By Muhammad Taqi Usmani A two-fold approach is generally prescribed with regard to duty to relatives: keeping good relations with them, and offering them financial help if necessary.BOOK, Al-Sheha, Abdur Rahman, Human Rights in Islam and Common Misconceptions, {{google books, y, ZRqe3iPwsTkC, 65, |location=Riyadh |pages=65}} Severing ties with them has been admonished. Regardless of a neighbor's religious identity, Islam teaches Muslims to treat neighboring people in the best possible manner and not to cause them any difficulty.BOOK, Abdelwahab, Bouhdiba, The Individual and Society in Islam: Volume 2 of The different aspects of Islamic culture, {{google books, y, xek6yZPAQjAC, 238, |accessdate= |year=1998 |publisher=UNESCO |location= |isbn=9789231027420 |page=238}}BOOK, al-Sheha, Abdur Rahman, Human Rights in Islam and Common Misconceptions, {{google books, y, ZRqe3iPwsTkC, 75, |accessdate= |year= |location=Riyadh |isbn= |pages=74–75}} Concerning orphaned children, the Quran forbids harsh and oppressive treatment to them while urging kindness and justice towards them. It also rebukes those who do not honor and feed orphaned children (Quran QURAN, 89, 17–18, ns, n, ).


File:Salat Eid al-Fitr, Tehran (113344343).jpg|thumb|210px|The Hijab represents modesty ]]The Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, social, political, and religious life. Proper moral conduct, good deeds, righteousness, and good character come within the sphere of the moral guidelines.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Juan E. Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam, {{google books, y, OZbyz_Hr-eIC, 216, |publisher=Facts on File |year=2009 |isbn=978-0-8160-5454-1|page=216|title=Encyclopedia of Islam }} In Islam, the observance of moral virtues is always associated with religious significance because it elevates the religious status of a believerBOOK, Nigosian, S.A., Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices, {{google books, y, my7hnALd_NkC, 116, |year=2004 |publisher=Indiana University Press |location=Indiana |isbn= 978-0-253-21627-4 |page=116}} and is often seen as a supererogatory act of worshipping.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Oliver Leaman, The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia, {{google books, y, isDgI0-0Ip4C, 140, |publisher=Routledge |year=2006 |isbn=9-78-0-415-32639-1|page=140|title= The Qur'an }} One typical Islamic teaching on morality is that imposing a penalty on an offender in proportion to their offense is permissible and just; but forgiving the offender is better. To go one step further by offering a favor to the offender is regarded the highest excellence. The Quran says: 'Repel (evil) with what is best' (QURAN, 41, 34, ns, n, ). Thus, a Muslim is expected to act only in good manners as bad manners and deeds earn vices.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Juan E. Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam, {{google books, y, OZbyz_Hr-eIC, 215, |year=2009 |isbn=978-0-8160-5454-1|page=215|title=Encyclopedia of Islam }} The fundamental moral qualities in Islam are justice, forgiveness, righteousness, kindness, honesty, and piety. Other mostly insisted moral virtues include but not limited to charitable activities, fulfillment of promise, modesty (haya) and humility, decency in speech, tolerance, trustworthiness, patience, truthfulness, anger management, and sincerity of intention.As a religion, Islam emphasizes the idea of having a good character as Muhammad said: 'The best among you are those who have the best manners and character' ({{Hadith-usc|bukhari|usc=yes|8|73|56}}). In Islam, justice is not only a moral virtue but also an obligation to be fulfilled under all circumstances.BOOK, Khadduri, Majid, The Islamic Conception of Justice, {{google books, y, td3XttHLGsEC, 10, |accessdate= |year=1984 |publisher= The Johns Hopkins University Press |location= |isbn=9780801869747 |page=10}} The Quran and the hadith describe God as being kind and merciful to His creatures, and tell people to be kind likewise. As a virtue, forgiveness is much celebrated in Islam, and is regarded as an important Muslim practice.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Oliver Leaman, The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia, {{google books, y, isDgI0-0Ip4C, 214, |publisher=Routledge |year=2006 |isbn=978-0-415-32639-1|page=214|title= The Qur'an }} About modesty, Muhammad is reported as saying: ' Every religion has its characteristic, and the characteristic of Islam is modesty'.Imam Kamil Mufti (2006). Modesty: An Overview. Retrieved 19 August 2016.


Mainstream Islamic law does not distinguish between "matters of church" and "matters of state"; the scholars function as both jurists and theologians. Currently no government conforms to Islamic economic jurisprudence, but steps have been taken to implement some of its tenets.BOOK, Nimat Hafez, Barazangi, M. Raquibuz, Zaman, Omar, Afzal, Islamic Identity and the Struggle for Justice, {{google books, y, 0QtcBRWs__AC, |year=1996|publisher=University Press of Florida|isbn=978-0-8130-1382-4}}BOOK, {{google books, y, sNvX7bg1Hq8C, 121, |title=Iran's Economy Under the Islamic Republic By Jahangir Amuzegar|accessdate=7 October 2014|isbn=9781860641046|author1=Amuzegar|first1=Jahangir|date=1997}}BOOK, Glenn E., Curtis, Eric, Hooglund, Iran: A Country Study,weblink 2008, Government Printing Office, 978-0-8444-1187-3, 196–, Sunni and Shia sectarian divide also effects intergovernmental Muslim relations such as between Saudi Arabia and Iran.NEWS,weblink Behind Stark Political Divisions, a More Complex Map of Sunnis and Shiites, Almukhtar, Sarah, January 5, 2016, The New York Times, January 6, 2016, Peçanha, Sergio, Wallace, Tim,


{{wide image|Madina_Haram_at_evening.jpg|1000px|align-cap=center|A panoramic view of Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet) in Medina, Hejaz region, today's Saudi Arabia, the second most sacred Mosque in Islam}}

Muhammad (610–632)

{{Muhammad}}{{See also|Early social changes under Islam}}Muslim tradition views Muhammad (c. 570 – June 8, 632) as the seal of the prophets.
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|1998|p=12}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2002b|pp=4–5}}
  • F.E. Peters (2003), p. 9
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Muhammad, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,

During the last 22 years of his life, beginning at age 40 in 610 CE, according to the earliest surviving biographies, Muhammad reported revelations that he believed to be from God, conveyed to him through the archangel Gabriel. Muhammad's companions memorized and recorded the content of these revelations, known as the Quran.
  • QURAN, 18, 110, ref,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Muhammad, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Buhl, F, Welch, A.T, harv,
During this time, Muhammad in Mecca preached to the people, imploring them to abandon polytheism and to worship one God. Although some converted to Islam, the leading Meccan authorities persecuted Muhammad and his followers. This resulted in the Migration to Abyssinia of some Muslims (to the Aksumite Empire). Many early converts to Islam were the poor, foreigners and former slaves like Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi who was black. The Meccan élite felt that Muhammad was destabilising their social order by preaching about one God and about racial equality, and that in the process he gave ideas to the poor and to their slaves.BOOK, Ali, Ünal, The Qurʼan with Annotated Interpretation in Modern English, {{google books, y, DyuqdDIjaswC, 1323, |year=2006|publisher=Tughra Books|isbn=978-1-59784-000-2|pages=1323–}}Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, Slaves and SlaveryBilal b. Rabah, Encyclopedia of IslamThe Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p. 36After 12 years of the persecution of Muslims by the Meccans and the Meccan boycott of the Hashemites, Muhammad's relatives, Muhammad and the Muslims performed the Hijra ("emigration") to the city of Medina (formerly known as Yathrib) in 622. There, with the Medinan converts (Ansar) and the Meccan migrants (Muhajirun), Muhammad in Medina established his political and religious authority. The Constitution of Medina was formulated, instituting a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, Christian and pagan communities of Medina, bringing them within the fold of one community—the Ummah.Serjeant (1978), p. 4.Watt. Muhammad at Medina. pp. 227–228 Watt argues that the initial agreement came about shortly after the hijra and that the document was amended at a later date—specifically after the battle of Badr (AH [anno hijra] 2, = AD 624). Serjeant argues that the constitution is in fact 8 different treaties which can be dated according to events as they transpired in Medina, with the first treaty written shortly after Muhammad's arrival. R.B. Serjeant. "The Sunnah Jâmi'ah, Pacts with the Yathrib Jews, and the Tahrîm of Yathrib: Analysis and Translation of the Documents Comprised in the so-called 'Constitution of Medina'." in The Life of Muhammad: The Formation of the Classical Islamic World: Volume iv. Ed. Uri Rubin. Brookfield: Ashgate, 1998, p. 151 and see same article in BSOAS 41 (1978): 18 ff. See also Caetani. Annali dell'Islam, Volume I. Milano: Hoepli, 1905, p. 393. Julius Wellhausen. Skizzen und Vorabeiten, IV, Berlin: Reimer, 1889, p 82f who argue that the document is a single treaty agreed upon shortly after the hijra. Wellhausen argues that it belongs to the first year of Muhammad's residence in Medina, before the battle of Badr in 2/624. Even Moshe Gil a skeptic of Islamic history argues that it was written within five months of Muhammad's arrival in Medina. Moshe Gil. "The Constitution of Medina: A Reconsideration." Israel Oriental Studies 4 (1974): p. 45.The Constitution established:
  • the security of the community
  • religious freedoms
  • the role of Medina as a sacred place (barring all violence and weapons)
  • the security of women
  • stable tribal relations within Medina
  • a tax system for supporting the community in time of conflict
  • parameters for exogenous political alliances
  • a system for granting protection of individuals
  • a judicial system for resolving disputes where non-Muslims could also use their own laws and have their own judges.R.B. Serjeant, "Sunnah Jami'ah, pacts with the Yathrib Jews, and the Tahrim of Yathrib: analysis and translation of the documents comprised in the so-called 'Constitution of Medina'", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (1978), 41: 1–42, Cambridge University Press.Watt. Muhammad at Medina and R.B. Serjeant "The Constitution of Medina." Islamic Quarterly 8 (1964) p. 4.WEB,weblink Constitution of Medina, 7 October 2014,
All the tribes signed the agreement to defend Medina from all external threats and to live in harmony amongst themselves. Within a few years, two battles took place against the Meccan forces: first, the Battle of Badr in 624—a Muslim victory, and then a year later, when the Meccans returned to Medina, the Battle of Uhud, which ended inconclusively.The Arab tribes in the rest of Arabia then formed a confederation and during the Battle of the Trench (March–April 627) besieged Medina, intent on finishing off Islam. In 628, the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was signed between Mecca and the Muslims and was broken by Mecca two years later. After the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah many more people converted to Islam. At the same time, Meccan trade routes were cut off as Muhammad brought surrounding desert tribes under his control.
  • {{Harvtxt|Peters|2003|pp=78–79, 194}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Lapidus|2002|pp=23–28}}

By 629 Muhammad was victorious in the nearly bloodless conquest of Mecca, and by the time of his death in 632 (at the age of 62) he had united the tribes of Arabia into a single religious polity.
ENCYCLOPEDIA, Muhammad, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Buhl, F, Welch, A.T, harv, The earliest three generations of Muslims are known as the Salaf, with the companions of Muhammad being known as the Sahaba. Many of them, such as the largest narrator of hadith Abu Hureyrah, recorded and compiled what would constitute the sunnah.

Caliphate and civil strife (632–750)

{{Further|Succession to Muhammad|The event of Ghadir Khumm|Saqifa|Muslim conquests|First Fitna|Second Fitna}}File:Mohammad adil-Rashidun empire-slide.gif|thumb|right|Rashidun and Umayyad expansion]]File:Dome of the Rock1.jpg|thumb|Dome of the Rock built by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second FitnaSecond FitnaWith Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. Abu Bakr, a companion and close friend of Muhammad, was made the first caliph. Under Abu Bakr, Muslims put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".
  • {{Harvtxt|Holt|1977a|p=57}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Hourani|2003|p=22}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Lapidus|2002|p=32}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Madelung|1996|p=43}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Tabatabaei|1979|pp=30–50}}

The Quran was compiled into a single volume at this time.
Abu Bakr's death in 634 resulted in the succession of Umar ibn al-Khattab as the caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan, Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hasan ibn Ali. The first four caliphs are known in Sunni Islam as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn ("Rightly Guided Caliphs").ENCYCLOPEDIA, Rightly Guided Caliphs, John L. Esposito, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014, 10.1093/acref/9780195125580.001.0001, 9780195125580,weblink Under them, the territory under Muslim rule expanded deeply into the parts of the Persian and Byzantine territories.See
  • {{Harvtxt|Holt|1977a|p=74}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Islam, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Gardet, L., Jomier, J., harv,
When Umar was assassinated by Persians in 644, the election of Uthman as successor was met with increasing opposition. The standard copies of the Quran were also distributed throughout the Islamic State. In 656, Uthman was also killed, and Ali assumed the position of caliph. This led to the first civil war (the "First Fitna") over who should be caliph. Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in 661. To avoid further fighting, the new caliph Hasan ibn Ali signed a peace treaty, abdicating to Mu'awiyah, beginning the Umayyad dynasty, in return that he not name his own successor.{{harvtxt|Holt|1977a|pp=67–72}} These disputes over religious and political leadership would give rise to schism in the Muslim community. The majority accepted the legitimacy of the first four leaders and became known as Sunnis. A minority disagreed, and believed that only Ali and some of his descendants should rule; they became known as the Shia.Waines (2003) p. 46 Mu'awiyah appointed his son, Yazid I, as successor and after Mu'awiyah's death in 680, the "Second Fitna" broke out, where Husayn ibn Ali was killed at the Battle of Karbala, a significant event in Shia Islam. Sunni Islam and Shia Islam thus differ in some respects.NEWS,weblink How Do Sunni and Shia Islam Differ?, Harney, John, January 3, 2016, The New York Times, January 4, 2016, The Umayyad dynasty conquered the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Narbonnese Gaul and Sindh.Donald Puchala, Theory and History in International Relations, p. 137. Routledge, 2003. Local populations of Jews and indigenous Christians, persecuted as religious minorities and taxed heavily to finance the Byzantine–Sassanid Wars, often aided Muslims to take over their lands from the Byzantines and Persians, resulting in exceptionally speedy conquests.Esposito (2010), p. 38Hofmann (2007), p. 86The generation after the death of Muhammad but contemporaries of his companions are known as the Tabi'un, followed by the Tabi‘ al-Tabi‘in. The Caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz set up the influential committee, "The Seven Fuqaha of Medina",The Caliphate of Banu Umayyah the first Phase, Ibn Katheer, Taken from Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah by Ibn Katheer, Ismail Ibn Omar 775 {{ISBN|978-603-500-080-2}} Translated by Yoosuf Al-Hajj Ahmad p. 505Umar Ibn Adbul Aziz By Imam Abu Muhammad Adbullah ibn Abdul Hakam died 214 AH 829 C.E. Publisher Zam Zam Publishers Karachi, pp. 54–59 headed by Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr.The Caliphate of Banu Umayyah the first Phase, Ibn Katheer, Taken from Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah by Ibn Katheer, Ismail Ibn Omar 775 {{ISBN|978-603-500-080-2}} Translated by Yoosuf Al-Hajj Ahmad p. 522 Malik ibn Anas wrote one of the earliest books on Islamic jurisprudence, the Muwatta,WEB,weblink Al-Muwatta', 7 October 2014, as a consensus of the opinion of those jurists.BOOK, {{google books, y, d5Ks31qHlSYC, |title=History of Islamic Law |author=Noel James Coulson |page= 103|accessdate=7 October 2014|isbn=9780748605149|year=1964}}BOOK, M. Th., Houtsma, E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, {{google books, y, Va6oSxzojzoC, 207, |year=1993|publisher=Brill|isbn=978-90-04-09791-9|pages=207–}}Moshe Sharon, Studies in Islamic History and Civilization: In Honour of Professor David Ayalon. p. 264 weblinkThe descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib rallied discontented non-Arab converts (mawali), poor Arabs, and some Shi'a against the Umayyads and overthrew them, inaugurating the Abbasid dynasty in 750.{{Harvtxt|Lapidus|2002|p=56}}; {{Harvtxt|Lewis|1993|pp=71–83}}The first Muslim states independent of a unified Islamic state emerged from the Berber Revolt (739/740-743).

Classical era (750–1258)

{{Further|Islamic Golden Age|Hadith studies|Islamic philosophy}}{{See also|Islamic world contributions to Medieval Europe|Turco-Persian tradition}}File:Cheshm manuscript.jpg|thumb|The eye, according to Hunain ibn IshaqHunain ibn IshaqAl-Shafi'i codified a method to determine the reliability of hadith.Lapidus (2002){{cnf|date=November 2018}}, p. 86 During the early Abbasid era, the major Sunni hadith collections were compiled by scholars such as Bukhari and Muslim while major Shia hadith collections by scholars such as Al-Kulayni and Ibn Babawayh were also compiled. The Ja'fari jurisprudence was formed from the teachings of Ja'far al-Sadiq while the four Sunni Madh'habs, the Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki and Shafi'i, were established around the teachings of Abū Ḥanīfa, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Malik ibn Anas and al-Shafi'i respectively. In the 9th century, al-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law and introduced its first methods by a synthesis between proto-rationalism of Iraqian jurisprudence and the pragmatic approach of the Hejaz traditions, in his book ar-Risālah.{{Harvtxt|Weiss|2002|pp=xvii, 162}} However, Islamic law was not codified until 1869.Ashk Dahlen Islamic Law, Epistemology and Modernity: Legal Philosophy in Contemporary Iran Routledge 2004 {{ISBN|9781135943554}} In the 9th century Al-Tabari completed the first commentary of the Quran, that became one of the most cited commentaries in Sunni Islam, the Tafsir al-Tabari. During its expansion through the Samanid Empire, Islam was shaped by the ethno-cultural and religious pluralism by the Sogdians, paving the way for a Persianized rather than Arabized understanding of Islam.Marlène Laruelle Being Muslim in Central Asia: Practices, Politics, and Identities BRILL, 11.01.2018 {{ISBN|9789004357242}} pp. 20-21Some Muslims began to question the piety of indulgence in a worldly life and emphasised poverty, humility and avoidance of sin based on renunciation of bodily desires. Ascetics such as Hasan al-Basri would inspire a movement that would evolve into Tasawwuf (Sufism).
  • {{Harvtxt|Lapidus|2002|pp=90, 91}}{{cnf|date=November 2018}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Sufism, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,
By the end of the 9th century, the Ismaili spread in Iran, whereupon the city Multan became target by activistic Sunni politics.Neue Fischer Weltgeschichte "Islamisierung in Zentralasien bis zur Mongolenzeit“ Band 10: Zentralasien, 2012, p. 191 (German) In 930, the Ismaili group known as the Qarmatians unsuccessfully rebelled against the Abbassids, sacked Mecca and stole the Black Stone, which was eventually retrieved.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Mecca (Saudi Arabia), Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011-11-12, Caliphs such as Mamun al Rashid and Al-Mu'tasim made the mutazilite philosophy an official creed and imposed it upon Muslims to follow. Mu'tazila was a Greek influenced school {{Citation needed|reason=is it only Greek? or did it incorperate other ideas as well? And I gues Greek is too broad, since it was rather Neo-Platonism|date=February 2019}} of Sunni scholastic theology called kalam, which refers to dialectic.{{Harvtxt|Esposito|2010|p=88}}{{cnf|date=November 2018}} Many orthodox Muslims{{who|date=February 2019}} rejected mutazilite doctrines and condemned their idea of the creation of the Quran. In inquisitions, ibn Hanbal refused to conform{{Citation needed|reason=Was he imprisioned for theological or political reasons?|date=February 2019}} and was tortured and sent to an unlit Baghdad prison cell for nearly thirty months.BOOK, Doi, Abdur Rahman, Shariah: The Islamic Law, 110, 1984, Ta-Ha Publishers, London, 978-0-907461-38-8, Other branches of kalam were the Ash'ari school founded by Al-Ash'ari and Maturidi founded by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi.With the expansion of the Abbaside Caliphate into the Sasanian Empire, Islam adapted many Hellenistic and Persian concepts, imported by thinkers of Iranian or Turkic origin.Morgen Witzel A History of Management Thought Taylor & Francis 2016 {{ISBN|9781317433354}} p. 44Shireen Hunter, Shireen T. Hunter The Future of Islam and the West: Clash of Civilizations Or Peaceful Coexistence? Greenwood Publishing Group 1998 {{ISBN|9780275962876}} p. 44 Philosophers such as Al-Farabi and Avicenna sought to incorporate Greek principles into Islamic theology, while others like Al-Ghazali argued against such syncretism and ultimately prevailed.
  • Lapidus (2002){{cnf|date=November 2018}}, p. 160
  • Waines (2003) pp. 126–127

Avicenna pioneered the science of experimental medicine,Jacquart, Danielle (2008). "Islamic Pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Theories and Substances". European Review (Cambridge University Press) 16: 219–227. and was the first physician to conduct clinical trials.David W. Tschanz, MSPH, PhD (August 2003). "Arab Roots of European Medicine", Heart Views 4 (2). His two most notable works, The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine, were used as standard medicinal texts in the Islamic world and later in Europe. Amongst his contributions are the discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases, and the introduction of clinical pharmacology.JOURNAL, Brater, D. Craig, Daly, Walter J., 2000, Clinical pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Principles that presage the 21st century, Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 67, 5, 447–450 [448], 10.1067/mcp.2000.106465, 10824622, In mathematics, the mathematician Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi gave his name to the concept of the algorithm, while the term algebra is derived from al-jabr.Toomer, Gerald (1990). "Al-Khwārizmī, Abu Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Mūsā". In Gillispie, Charles Coulston. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 7. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. {{ISBN|0-684-16962-2}}. The Persian poet Ferdowsi wrote his epic poem Shahnameh. Rumi wrote some of the finest Persian poetry and is still one of the best selling poets in America.NEWS,weblink The roar of Rumi – 800 years on, BBC News, 2011-08-10, Charles, Haviland, 2007-09-30, WEB,weblink Islam: Jalaluddin Rumi, BBC, 2009-09-01, 2011-08-10, Legal institutions introduced include the trust and charitable trust (Waqf).BOOK, Monica M. Gaudiosi, The Influence of the Islamic Law of Waqf on the Development of the Trust in England: The Case of Merton College, {{Google books, bGPwtwAACAAJ, yes, |year=1988|publisher=University of Pennsylvania}}{{page needed|date=November 2018}}{{Harv|Hudson|2003|p=32}} {{citation not found}}
This era is sometimes called the "Islamic Golden Age".
  • {{Harvtxt|Holt|1977a|pp=80, 92, 105}}{{cnf|date=November 2018}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Holt|1977b|pp=661–663}}{{cnf|date=November 2018}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Lapidus|2002|p=56}}{{cnf|date=November 2018}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Lewis|1993|p=84}}{{cnf|date=November 2018}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Islam, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Gardet, L., Jomier, J., harv, Public hospitals established during this time (called Bimaristan hospitals), are considered "the first hospitals" in the modern sense of the word,JOURNAL, Encyclopedia of the History of Islamic Science: Technology, alchemy and life, Micheau, Françoise, 991–992, harv, , in BOOK, Rāshid, RushdÄ«, Morelon, Régis, Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science: Technology, alchemy and life sciences, {{Google books, mnAXV09Z5bIC, yes, |year=1996|publisher=CRC Press|isbn=978-0-415-12412-6}}WEB,weblink The beginnings of modern medicine: the Caliphate,, 2011-01-29, dead,weblink 2011-07-15, and issued the first medical diplomas to license doctors.JOURNAL, Syed Farid, Alatas, From Jami'ah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue, Current Sociology, 54, 1, 112–132, 10.1177/0011392106058837, 2006, harv,weblink BOOK, Muslim Spain 711–1492 AD, S.M., Imamuddin, Brill, 1981, 978-90-04-06131-6, 169, harv, The Guinness World Records recognizes the University of Al Karaouine, founded in 859, as the world's oldest degree-granting university.BOOK, The Guinness Book of Records, 1998, 978-0-553-57895-9, 242, Young, Mark, The doctorate is argued to date back to the licenses to teach in Islamic law schools.JOURNAL, Makdisi, George, Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 109, 2, April–June 1989, 175–182 [175–177], 10.2307/604423, harv, 604423, 1964JAOS...84..128H, Standards of experimental and quantification techniques, as well as the tradition of citation,Ahmed, Imad-ad-Dean. Signs in the heavens. 2. Amana Publications, 2006. Print. {{ISBN|1-59008-040-8}} pp. 23, 42, 84. were introduced. An important pioneer in this, Ibn al-Haytham is regarded as the father of the modern scientific method and often referred to as the "world's first true scientist".Haq, Syed (2009). "Science in Islam". Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages. {{ISSN|1703-7603}}. Retrieved 2014-10-22.G.J. Toomer. Review on JSTOR, Toomer's 1964 review of Matthias Schramm (1963) Ibn Al-Haythams Weg Zur Physik Toomer p. 464: "Schramm sums up [Ibn Al-Haytham's] achievement in the development of scientific method."NEWS,weblink BBC News, The 'first true scientist', Al-Khalili, Jim, 4 January 2009, 24 September 2013, JOURNAL, Gorini, Rosanna, Al-Haytham the man of experience. First steps in the science of vision,weblink Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2, 4, 53–55, October 2003, 2008-09-25, harv, The government paid scientists the equivalent salary of professional athletes today. It is argued that the data used by Copernicus for his heliocentric conclusions was gathered and that Al-Jahiz proposed a theory of natural selection.WEB,weblink It's time to herald the Arabic science that prefigure Darwin and Newton, The Guardian, 2013-09-24, London, Jim, Al-Khalili, 2008-01-30, NEWS,weblink Science: Islam's forgotten geniuses, The Telegraph, 2011-12-13, London, Jim, Al-Khalili, 2008-01-29,
While the Abbasid Caliphate suffered a decline since the reign of Al-Wathiq (842–847) and Al-Mu'tadid (892–902),Anthony Parel, Ronald C. Keith Comparative Political Philosophy: Studies Under the Upas Tree Lexington Books, 2003 {{ISBN|9780739106105}} p. 186 the Mongol Empire put an end to the Abbassid dynasty in 1258.
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Abbasid Dynasty, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,

During its decline, the Abbasid Caliphate disintegrated into minor states and dynasties, such as the Tulunid and the Ghaznavid dynasty. The Ghaznavid dynasty was an Islamic dynasty established by Turkic slave-soldiers from another Islamic empire, the Samanid Empire.Hamad Subani The Secret History of Iran 2013 {{ISBN|9781304082893}} 74
Two Turkish tribes, the Karahanids and the Seljuks, converted to Islam during the 10th century, who are later subdued by the Ottomans, who share the same origin and language. It is important to note, that the following Islamic reign by the Ottomans was strongly influenced by a symbiosis between Ottoman rulers and Sufism since the beginning. According to Ottoman historiography, the legitimation of a ruler is attributed to Sheikh Edebali. Accordingly, he interpretated a dream of Osman Gazi as God's legitimation of his reign.Jens Peter Laut Vielfalt türkischer Religionen Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg (German) p. 31 The Mevlevi Order and the Bektashi Order had close relation to the sultans.Ga ́bor A ́goston, Bruce Alan Masters Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire Infobase Publishing 2010 {{ISBN|9781438110257}} p. 540 The Seljuks played an important role for the revival of Sunnism, then Shia increased its influences. The Seljuk militar leader Alp Arslan financially supported sciences and literature and established the Nezamiyeh university in Baghdad.Andreas Graeser Zenon von Kition: Positionen u. Probleme Walter de Gruyter 1975 {{ISBN|9783110046731}} p. 260During this time, the Delhi Sultanate took over northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Religious missions converted Volga Bulgaria to Islam. Many Muslims also went to China to trade, virtually dominating the import and export industry of the Song dynasty.WEB,weblink Islam in China, BBC, 2011-08-10,

Pre-Modern era (1258–18th century)

File:Portrait Caliph Abdulmecid II.jpg|thumb|right|Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynastyOttoman dynastyIslam spread with Muslim trade networks and Sufi orders activity that extended into Sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia and the Malay archipelago.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Islam, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Gardet, L., Jomier, J., harv, WEB, The Spread of Islam,weblink 2 November 2013, Under the Ottoman Empire, Islam spread to Southeast Europe.WEB,weblink Ottoman Empire, Oxford Islamic Studies Online, 6 May 2008, 26 August 2010, Throughout this expanse, Islam blended with local cultures everywhere, as illustrated when the prophet Mohammed showed up in Hindu epics and folklore.BOOK, Islam in South Asia in Practice, Metcalf, Barbara, Princeton University Press, 2009, 104, Conversion to Islam, however, was not a sudden abandonment of old religious practices; rather, it was typically a matter of "assimilating Islamic rituals, cosmologies, and literatures into... local religious systems."BOOK, Islamic and European Expansion, Temple University Press, 1993, Adas, Michael, Philadelphia, 25, The Muslims in China who were descended from earlier immigration began to assimilate by adopting Chinese names and culture while Nanjing became an important center of Islamic study.Israeli, Raphael (2002). Islam in China. p. 292. Lexington Books. {{ISBN|0-7391-0375-X}}.BOOK, Dillon, Michael, China's Muslim Hui Community, 37, 1999, Curzon, 978-0-7007-1026-3, The Turks incorporated elements of Turkish Shamanism into their new religion and became part of a new Islamic interpretation, although Shamanistic influences already occurred during the Battle of Talas (752). Strikingly, Shamans were never mentioned by Muslim Heresiographers.Denise Aigle The Mongol Empire between Myth and Reality: Studies in Anthropological History BRILL, 28 October 2014 {{ISBN|978-9-0042-8064-9}} p. 110. One major change was the status of woman. Unlike Arabic traditions, the Turkic traditions hold woman in higher regard in society. Turks preserved this status of woman even after conversion to Islam. Further, the Turks must have found striking similarities between the Sufi rituals and Shaman practises. However, the influence of Turkish belief was not limited to Sufism, but also to Muslims who subscribed an orthodox version of Islam in Anatolia, Central-Asia and Balkans.Cenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2017 {{ISBN|9781610692175}} pp. 1425–1429 As a result, many (formerly) Shaman traditions were considered as genuine Islamic by average Muslims. Many shamanistic beliefs, such as the belief in sacred nature, trees and animals, and foreign nature spirits, even remained today.A.C.S. Peacock Early Seljuq History: A New Interpretation Routledge 2013 {{ISBN|9781135153694}} p. 123.The majority and oldest group among Shia at that time, the Zaydis, named after the great grandson of Ali, the scholar Zayd ibn Ali, used the Hanafi jurisprudence, as did most Sunnis.Islamic Finance: Law, Economics, and Practice By Mahmoud A. El-Gamal p. 122 weblinkThe Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social and Military History edited by Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts p. 917 weblinkThe Iraq Effect: The Middle East After the Iraq War By Frederic M. Wehrey p. 91 weblink The Shia Safavid dynasty rose to power in 1501 and later conquered all of Iran.Peter B. Golden: An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples; In: Osman Karatay, Ankara 2002, p. 321 The ensuing mandatory conversion of Iran to Twelver Shia Islam for the largely Sunni population also ensured the final dominance of the Twelver sect within Shiism over the Zaidi and Ismaili sects."Ismail Safavi" Encyclopædia Iranica Nader Shah, who overthrew the Safavids, attempted to improve relations with Sunnis by propagating the integration of Shiism by calling it the Jaafari Madh'hab.Nadir Shah and the Ja 'fari Madhhab Reconsidered, Ernest Tucker, Iranian Studies, vol. 27, no. 1/4, Religion and Society in Islamic Iran during the Pre-Modern Era (1994), pp. 163–179, Published by: International Society for Iranian Studies weblinkIbn Taymiyya (1263–1328) worried about the integrity of Islam and tried to establish a theological doctrine to purify Islam from its alleged alterings.Mary Hawkesworth, Maurice Kogan Encyclopedia of Government and Politics: 2-volume set Routledge 2013 {{ISBN|9781136913327}} pp. 270–271 Unlike his contemporary scholarship, who relied on traditions and historical narratives from early Islam, Ibn Taymiyya's methodology was a mixture of selective use of hadith and a literal understanding of the Quran.Cenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2017 {{ISBN|9781610692175}} p. 665 He rejected most philosophical approaches of Islam and proposed a clear, simple and dogmatic theology instead. Another major characteristic of his theological approach emphazises the significance of a Theocratic state: While the prevailing opinion held that religious wisdom was necessary for a state, Ibn Taymiyya regarded Political power as necessary for religious excellence. He further rejected many hadiths circulating among Muslims during his time and relied only on Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim repeatedly to foil Asharite doctrine.Jonathan Brown The Canonization of al-Bukhārī and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunnī Ḥadīth Canon Brill 2007 {{ISBN|9789047420347}} p. 313 Feeling threatened by the Crusaders as well as by the Mongols, Ibn Taymiyya stated it would be obligated to Muslims to join a physical jihad against unbelievers. This not only including the invaders, but also the heretics among the Muslims, including Shias, Asharites and "philosophers", who were blamed by Ibn Taimiya for the deterioration of Islam.Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 {{ISBN|9780710313560}} p. 6 Nevertheless, his writings only played a marginal role during his lifetime. He was repeatedly accused of blasphemy by anthropomorphizing God and his disciple Ibn Kathir distanced himself from his mentor and negated the anthropomorphizations,BOOK,weblink The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of al-Bajuri, Spevack, Aaron, 2014, SUNY Press, 9781438453712, 129–130, en, but simultaneously adhered to anti-rationalistic and hadith oriented methodology of his former mentor.Barbara Freyer Stowasser Women in the Qur'an, Traditions, and Interpretation Oxford University Press 1994 {{ISBN|978-0-199-87969-4}} This probably influenced his exegesis on his Tafsir, which discounted much of the exegetical tradition since then.Karen Bauer Gender Hierarchy in the Qur'an: Medieval Interpretations, Modern Responses Cambridge University Press 2015 {{ISBN|978-1-316-24005-2}} p. 115Aysha A. Hidayatullah Feminist Edges of the Qur'an Oxford University Press 2014 {{ISBN|978-0-199-35957-8}} p. 25 However, the writings of Ibn Taimiyya became important sources for Wahhabism and 21th century Salafi theology just like Tafsir Ibn Kathir became highly rewarded in modern Salafism.Oliver Leaman The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia Taylor & Francis 2006 {{ISBN|978-0-415-32639-1}} p. 632

Modern era (18th – 20th centuries)

The Muslim world was generally in political decline starting the 1800s, especially relative to the non-Muslim European powers. This decline was evident culturally; while Taqi al-Din founded an observatory in Istanbul and the Jai Singh Observatory was built in the 18th century, there was not a single Muslim-majority country with a major observatory by the twentieth century.Ahmed, Imad-ad-Dean. Signs in the heavens. 2. Amana Publications, 2006. p. 170. Print. {{ISBN|1-59008-040-8}} The Reconquista, launched against Muslim principalities in Iberia, succeeded in 1492. By the 19th century the British Empire had formally ended the Mughal dynasty in India.Lapidus (2002), pp. 358, 378–380, 624 In the 19th century, the Deobandi and Barelwi movements were initiated.During the 18th century Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab founded a military movement opposing the Ottoman Sultanate as an illegitimate rule, advising his fellows to return to the principles of Islam based on the theology of Ahmad ibn Hanbal.Donald Quataert The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922 Cambridge University Press 2005 {{ISBN|9780521839105}} p. 50Ga ́bor A ́goston, Bruce Alan Masters Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire Infobase Publishing 2010 {{ISBN|9781438110257}} p. 260 He was deeply influenced by the works of Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn al-Qayyim and condemned many traditional Islamic practises, such as visiting the grave of Muhammad or Saints, as sin. During the 18th century, he formed an alliance with the Saud family, who founded the Wahhabi sect. This revival movement allegedly seeks to uphold monotheism and purify Islam of what they see as later innovations. Their ideology led to the desecration of shrines around the world, including that of Muhammad and his companions in Mecca and Medina.{{Harvtxt|Esposito|2010|p=146}}NEWS, Graves desecrated in Mizdah,weblink Libyan Herald, 4 September 2013, 2 November 2013, Many Arab nationalists, such as Rashid Rida, regarded the Khalifat as an Arabic right taken away by the Turks. Therefore, they rebelled against the Ottoman Sultanate, until the Ottoman Empire disintegrated after World War I and the Caliphate was abolished in 1924.NEWS,weblink New Turkey, Al-Ahram Weekly, 29 June – 5 July 2000, 488, 2010-05-16, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 October 2010, Concurrently Ibn Saud conquered Mekka, the "heartland of Islam", to impose Wahhabism as part of Islamic culture.Nicolas Laos The Metaphysics of World Order: A Synthesis of Philosophy, Theology, and Politics Wipf and Stock Publishers 2015 {{ISBN|9781498201025}} p. 177At the end of the 19th century, Muslim luminaries such as Muhammad Abduh, Rashid Rida and Jamal al-Din al-Afghani sought to reconcile Islam with social and intellectual ideas of the Age of Enlightenment by purging Islam from alleged alterations and adhering to the basic tenets held during the Rashidun era.Henri Lauzière The Making of Salafism: Islamic Reform in the Twentieth Century Columbia University Press 2015 {{ISBN|9780231540179}} Due to their adherence to the Salafs they called themselves Salafiyya.Robert Rabil Salafism in Lebanon: From Apoliticism to Transnational Jihadism Georgetown University Press 2014 {{ISBN|9781626161184}} chapter: "Doctrine" However, they differ from the Salafi movement flourishing in the second half of the 20th century, which is rooted in the Wahhabi movement. Instead, they are also often called Islamic modernists. They rejected the Sunni schools of law and allowed Ijtihad.The Ahle Sunnat movement, or as it is more popularly known, the Barelwi movement emphasizes the primacy of Islamic law over adherence to Sufi practices and personal devotion to the prophet Muhammad.Generational Changes in the Leadership of the Ahl-e Sunnat Movement in North India during the Twentieth Century It grew from the writings of muhaddith and jurist Imam Ahmed Raza Khan Qadri, Allama Fazle Haq Khairabadi,Shah Ahmad Noorani and Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi in the backdrop of an intellectual and moral decline of Muslims in British India.BOOK, Marshall Cavendish Reference, Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World, {{Google books, 8Zp_5IydPGgC, PA113, yes, |year=2011|publisher=Marshall Cavendish|isbn=978-0-7614-7929-1|pages=113–}} The movement was a mass movement, defending popular Sufism and reforming its practices, grew in response to the radical Deobandi movement in South Asia and the Wahhabi movement elsewhere.BOOK, Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, {{Google books, g3JhKNSk8tQC, PA131, yes, |date=2002|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-52291-5|pages=131–}}The movement opposed Ahmadiyya Movement and is famous for the celebration of Mawlid. Today the movement is spread across the globe with followers in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Turkey, Afghanistan, Iraq, Sri Lanka, South Africa, United States, and UK among other countries. The movement now has over 200 million followers.WEB,weblink Search Results,,

Postmodern times (20th century–present)

{{Further|Islamic revival}}File:Flag of OIC.svg|thumb|The flag of the Organisation of Islamic CooperationOrganisation of Islamic CooperationContact with industrialized nations brought Muslim populations to new areas through economic migration. Many Muslims migrated as indentured servants, from mostly India and Indonesia, to the Caribbean, forming the largest Muslim populations by percentage in the Americas.Muslim Minorities in the West: Visible and Invisible By Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Jane I. Smith, p. 271 The resulting urbanization and increase in trade in sub-Saharan Africa brought Muslims to settle in new areas and spread their faith, likely doubling its Muslim population between 1869 and 1914.Bulliet, Richard, Pamela Crossley, Daniel Headrick, Steven Hirsch, Lyman Johnson, and David Northrup. The Earth and Its Peoples. 3. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005. {{ISBN|0-618-42770-8}} Muslim immigrants began arriving, many as guest workers and largely from former colonies, in several Western European nations since the 1960s.There are more and more new Muslim intellectuals who increasingly separate perennial Islamic beliefs from archaic cultural traditions.{{Harvtxt|Nigosian|2004|pp=41}} Liberal Islam is a movement that attempts to reconcile religious tradition with modern norms of secular governance and human rights. Its supporters say that there are multiple ways to read Islam's sacred texts, and they stress the need to leave room for "independent thought on religious matters".{{Harvtxt|Esposito|2004|pp=118,119,179}} and {{Harvtxt|Lapidus|2002|pp=823–830}}Women's issues receive significant weight in the modern discourse on Islam.{{Harvtxt|Rippin|2001|p=288}}Secular powers such as the Chinese Red Guards closed many mosques and destroyed Qurans,*JOURNAL, Goldman, Merle, Religion in Post-Mao China, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 483, 146–156, 1986, 10.1177/0002716286483001013, 1, harv, and Communist Albania became the first country to ban the practice of every religion.p. 18*{{Wikicite |ref="Elsie2000" |reference=Elsie, Robert. 2000. A Dictionary of Albanian Religion, Mythology, and Folk Culture. C. Hurst & Co. {{ISBN|978-1-85065-570-1}}.}} About half a million Muslims were killed in Cambodia by communists who, it is argued, viewed them as their primary enemy and wished to exterminate them since they stood out and worshipped their own god.WEB,weblink Weakness in numbers, Time, October 10, 2003, 2013-09-24, Andrew, Perrin, {{Subscription needed}} In Turkey, the military carried out coups to oust Islamist governments, and headscarves were banned in official buildings, as also happened in Tunisia.NEWS,weblink Huge rally for Turkish secularsim, BBC News, 2011-12-06, 2011-04-29, NEWS,weblink Tunisia moves against headscarves, BBC News, 2011-12-06, 2011-10-15, Heba, Saleh, Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani, along with his acolyte Muhammad Abduh, have been credited as forerunners of the Islamic revival.Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, Thomson Gale, 2004 Abul A'la Maududi helped influence modern political Islam.NEWS,weblink Political Islam: A movement in motion, Economist Magazine, 1 January 2014, 3 January 2014, Islamist groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood advocate Islam as a comprehensive political solution, often in spite of being banned.NEWS,weblink Are secular forces being squeezed out of Arab Spring?, BBC News, 2011-08-10, 2011-08-09, In Iran, revolution replaced a secular regime with an Islamic state. In Turkey, the Islamist AK Party has democratically been in power for about a decade, while Islamist parties did well in elections following the Arab Spring.NEWS,weblink Egypt's vote puts emphasis on split over religious rule, The New York Times, 2011-12-08, 2011-12-03, David D., Kirkpatrick, The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), consisting of Muslim-majority countries, was established in 1969 after the burning of the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.NEWS,weblink Organization of the Islamic Conference, BBC News, 2010-12-26, 2013-09-24, Religiosity appears to be deepening worldwide.WEB,weblink Ultraconservative Islam on rise in Mideast, MSNBC, 2008-10-18, 2013-09-24, NEWS,weblink Jordanian students rebel, embracing conservative Islam, New York Times, 2011-08-15, Michael, Slackman, 2008-12-23, In many places, the prevalence of the hijab is growing increasingly commonNEWS,weblink In Egypt, a new battle begins over the veil, The New York Times, 2011-08-15, Michael, Slackman, 2007-01-28, and the percentage of Muslims favoring Sharia has increased.WEB,weblink Why Indonesia matters, Time, 2013-09-24, Hannah, Beech, 2007-02-22, {{Subscription needed}} With religious guidance increasingly available electronically, Muslims are able to access views that are strict enough for them rather than rely on state clerics who are often seen as stooges.BOOK,weblink Laying down the law: Islam's authority deficit, The Economist, 2011-08-15, 2007-06-28, It is estimated that, by 2050, the number of Muslims will nearly equal the number of Christians around the world, "driven primarily by differences in fertility rates and the size of youth populations among the world's major religions, as well as by people switching faiths." Perhaps as a sign of these changes, most experts agree that Islam is growing faster than any other faith in East and West Africa.NEWS, Onishi, Norimitsu, Rising Muslim power causes unrest in Nigeria and elsewhere,weblink 2011-11-17, The New York Times, 2001-11-01, WEB,weblink Muslims say their faith growing fast in Africa,, 2011-11-17,


{{See also|Shia–Sunni relations}}(File:Islam branches and schools.svg|thumb|centre|upright=3.4|An overview of the major schools and branches of Islam.)


{{Sunni Islam|collapsed=1}}File:Sahih Al-Bukhari in English.png|thumb|right|Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books.]]The largest denomination in Islam is Sunni Islam, which makes up 75–90% of all Muslims
  • WEB,weblink Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population, 2013-09-24, Pew Research Center, Of the total Muslim population, 10–13% are Shia Muslims and 87–90% are Sunni Muslims., October 7, 2009,
  • Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide "Sunni Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community."
  • WEB,weblink Sunni, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, comprising about 85% of the world's over 1.5 billion Muslims., December 20, 2012,
  • WEB,weblink Religions, 2010-08-25, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population..., and is arguably the world's largest religious denomination.NEWS, Carl Bialik, Muslims May Have Overtaken Catholics a While Ago,weblink 5 September 2015, The Wall Street Journal, 9 April 2008, Sunni Muslims also go by the name Ahl as-Sunnah which means "people of the tradition [of Muhammad]".
WEB,weblink Islam Today, (Islam: Empire of Faith) (2000), ''Islam, followed by more than a billion people today, is the world's third fastest growing religion., PBS, 2010-08-25, WEB,weblink Understanding Islam, Susan Headden, U.S. News & World Report, April 7, 2008, 2010-08-25, WEB,weblink Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents,, 2007-07-03, Sunnis believe that the first four caliphs were the rightful successors to Muhammad; since God did not specify any particular leaders to succeed him and those leaders were elected. Further authorities regarding Sunnis believe that anyone who is righteous and just could be a caliph as long they act according to the teachings of Islam, the example of Muhammad. Alternatively, Sunnis commonly accept the companions of Muhammad as reliable for interpretating Islamic affairs.Coeli Fitzpatrick Ph.D., Adam Hani Walker Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God [2 volumes] ABC-CLIO, 25.04.2014 {{ISBN|9781610691789}} p. 106–107The Sunnis follow the Quran and the Hadith, which are recorded in sunni traditions known as Al-Kutub Al-Sittah (six major books). For legal matters derived from the Quran or the Hadith, many follow four sunni madh'habs (schools of thought): Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki and Shafi'i. All four accept the validity of the others and a Muslim may choose any one that he or she finds agreeable.
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2003|pp=275,306}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Shariah, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Sunnite, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,
Sunni schools of theology encompass Ashʿarirism founded by Al-Ashʿarī (c. 874–936), Maturidi by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (853–944 CE) and Traditionalist theology under the leadership of Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855 CE). Traditionalist theology is characterized by its adherence to a literal understanding of the Quran and the Sunnah, the belief in the Quran to be uncreated and eternal, and opposes reason (kalam) in religious and ethical matters.Hadi Enayat Islam and Secularism in Post-Colonial Thought: A Cartography of Asadian Genealogies Springer, 30.06.2017 {{ISBN|9783319526119}} p.48 On the other hand, Maturidism asserts, scripture is not needed for basic ethics and that good and evil can be understood by reason alone.Rico Isaacs, Alessandro Frigerio Theorizing Central Asian Politics: The State, Ideology and Power Springer, 2018 {{ISBN|9783319973555}} p. 108 Maturidi's doctrine, based on Hanafi-law, asserted man's capacity and will alongside the supremacy of God in man's acts, providing a doctrinal framework for more flexibility, adaptability and syncretism. Maturidism especially flourished in Central-Asia.Marlène Laruelle Being Muslim in Central Asia: Practices, Politics, and Identities BRILL, 11.01.2018 {{ISBN|9789004357242}} p. 21 Nevertheless, people would rely on revelation, because reason alone could not grasp the whole truth. Asharism holds, ethics can just derive from divine revelation, but not from human reason. However, Asharism accepts reason in regard of exegetical matters and combined Muʿtazila approaches with traditionalistic ideas.Ed. Esposito The Oxford History of Islam Oxford University Press 1999 {{ISBN|9780195107999}} p. 280In the 18th century, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab led a Salafi movement, referred by outsiders as Wahhabism, in modern-day Saudi Arabia. Originally shaped by Hanbalism, many modern followers departed from any of the established four schools of law Hanafi, Shafi, Maliki, and Hanbali.Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 {{ISBN|9780710313560}} page 8 Similarly, Ahl al-Hadith is a movement that deemphasized sources of jurisprudence outside the quran and hadith, such as informed opinion (ra'y).The Deobandi movement is a reformist movement originating in South Asia, influenced by the Wahhabi movement.BOOK, 10.1093/acref/9780195125580.001.0001, 2003, 9780195125580, Esposito, John L., The Oxford Dictionary of Islam,weblink Nurcu is a Sunni movement based on the writings of Said Nursi (1877 – 1960) founded at the beginning of the twentieth century.Svante E. Cornell Azerbaijan Since Independence M.E. Sharpe 9780765630049 p. 283 His philosophy is based on Hanafi law and further incorporates elements of Sufism. He emphasized the importance of salvation in both life and afterlife through education and freedom, the synthesis of Islam and science and democracy as the best form governance within the rule of law.Robert W. Hefner Shariʻa Politics: Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World Indiana University Press 2011 {{ISBN|9780253223104}} p. 170 Through faith by inquiry instead of faith by imitation, Muslims would reject philosophies such as positivism, materialism and atheism emerging from the Western world of his time. His notion of sharia is twofold: On one hand, sharia applies to the voluntary actions of human beings. On the other hand, sharia denotes the set of laws of nature, but both ultimately derive from one source, which is God.Robert W. Hefner Shariʻa Politics: Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World Indiana University Press 2011 {{ISBN|9780253223104}} p. 171 His works on the Quran Risale-i Nur was translated into almost all languages of Central Asia.Bayram Balci Islam in Central Asia and the Caucasus Since the Fall of the Soviet Union Oxford University Press 2018 {{ISBN|9780190050191}} p. 53 From Nurcu other movements such as the Gülen movement derived.


{{Shia Islam|collapsed=1}}File:Kerbela Hussein Moschee.jpg|thumb|The Imam Hussein Shrine in KarbalaKarbala{{See also|Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam}}The Shia constitute 10–20% of Islam and are its second-largest branch.See
  • WEB,weblink Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population, 2009-10-07, 2013-09-24, Pew Research Center, The Pew Forum's estimate of the Shia population (10–13%) is in keeping with previous estimates, which generally have been in the range of 10–15%. Some previous estimates, however, have placed the number of Shias at nearly 20% of the world's Muslim population.,
  • WEB,weblink Shia, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, Shi'a Islam is the second largest branch of the tradition, with up to 200 million followers who comprise around 15% of all Muslims worldwide..., December 5, 2011,
  • WEB,weblink Religions, 2010-08-25, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, Shia Islam represents 10–20% of Muslims worldwide...,
While the Sunnis believe that a Caliph should be elected by the community, Shia's believe that Muhammad appointed his son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib, as his successor and only certain descendants of Ali could be Imams. As a result, they believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib was the first Imam (leader), rejecting the legitimacy of the previous Muslim caliphs Abu Bakr, Uthman ibn al-Affan and Umar ibn al-Khattab. Other points of contention include certain practices viewed as innovating the religion, such as the mourning practice of tatbir, and the cursing of figures revered by Sunnis. However, Jafar al-Sadiq himself disapproved of people who disapproved of his great grand father Abu Bakr and Zayd ibn Ali revered Abu Bakr and Umar.The waning of the Umayyad caliphate by Tabarī, Carole Hillenbrand, 1989, pp. 37–38The Encyclopedia of Religion Vol.16, Mircea Eliade, Charles J. Adams, Macmillan, 1987, p. 243. More recently, Grand Ayatollah Ali KhameneiWEB, Ayatollah Khamenei's fatwa: Insulting the Mother of the Faithful Aisha is prohibited,weblink, 21 January 2019, en, 11 June 2016, and Grand Ayatollah Ali al-SistaniNEWS,weblink Shiite leaders forbid insults against Sunnis, Al-monitor, 2016-01-06, 2014-07-11,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-01-05, dead, condemned the practice.Shia Islam has several branches, the most prominent being the Twelvers (the largest branch), Zaidis and Ismailis. Different branches accept different descendants of Ali as Imams. After the death of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq who is considered the sixth Imam by the Twelvers and the Ismaili's, the Ismailis recognized his son Isma'il ibn Jafar as his successor whereas the Twelver Shia's (Ithna Asheri) followed his other son Musa al-Kadhim as the seventh Imam. The Zaydis consider Zayd ibn Ali, the uncle of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq, as their fifth Imam, and follow a different line of succession after him. Other smaller groups include the Bohra as well as the Alawites and Alevi.
  • Kramer (1987), weblink" title="">Syria's Alawis and Shi''ism pp. 237–254
  • Shia branches {{webarchive|url= |date=2004-10-25 }}

Some Shia branches label other Shia branches that do not agree with their doctrine as Ghulat.

Other denominations

  • Ahmadiyya is an Islamic reform movement (with Sunni roots) founded by Mirza Ghulam AhmadNEWS,weblink Who Are the Ahmadi?,, 6 October 2013, that began in India in 1889 and is practiced by 10 to 20 million
  • BOOK, Breach of Faith, Estimates of around 20 million would be appropriate, Human Rights Watch, 8, {{google books, y, yi8ONIe1fv4C, 8, |accessdate=March 29, 2014|date=June 2005}}
  • BOOK, {{google books, y, dgtgGhMUgIUC, 72, |title=Asian Religions in British Columbia|quote=The community currently numbers around 15 million spread around the world|author1=Larry DeVries |author2=Don Baker |author3=Dan Overmyer |accessdate=March 29, 2014|isbn=978-0-7748-1662-5|publisher=University of Columbia Press|date=2011-01-01}}
  • BOOK, {{google books, y, OZbyz_Hr-eIC, 23, |title=Encyclopedia of Islam|quote=The total size of the Ahmadiyya community in 2001 was estimated to be more than 10 million|author=Juan Eduardo Campo|page=24|accessdate=March 29, 2014|isbn=978-0-8160-5454-1|year=2009}}
  • WEB,weblink Ahmadiyya Muslims,, 6 October 2013,
  • A figure of 10-20 million represents approximately 1% of the Muslim population. See also Ahmadiyya by country. Muslims around the world. Ahmad claimed to have fulfilled the prophecies concerning the arrival of the 'Imam Mahdi' and the 'Promised Messiah'.
  • Bektashi Alevism is a syncretic and heterodox local Islamic tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (bāṭenÄ«) teachings of Ali and Haji Bektash Veli.WEB,weblink BEKTĀŠĪYA – Encyclopaedia Iranica,, Alevism incorporates Turkish beliefs present during the 14th century,Jorgen S Nielsen Muslim Political Participation in Europe Edinburgh University Press 2013 {{ISBN|978-0-748-67753-5}} page 255 such as Shamanism and Animism, mixed with Shias and Sufi beliefs, adopted by some Turkish tribes.
  • The Ibadi is a sect that dates back to the early days of Islam and is a branch of Kharijite and is practiced by 1.45 million Muslims around the world.BOOK, {{google books, y, vFq_KUqqWJMC, 15, | title=The Sunni-Shi'a Divide: Islam's Internal Divisions and Their Global Consequences | pages=14–15 | accessdate=7 January 2015 | author=Robert Brenton Betts| isbn=9781612345222 | date=2013-07-31 }} Unlike most Kharijite groups, Ibadism does not regard sinful Muslims as unbelievers.
  • Mahdavia is an Islamic sect that believes in a 15th-century Mahdi, Muhammad Jaunpuri
  • The Quranists are Muslims who generally reject the Hadith.

Non-denominational Muslims

Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.NEWS, Benakis, Theodoros, 13 January 2014, Islamophoobia in Europe!,weblink New Europe (newspaper), New Europe, Brussels, 20 October 2015, Anyone who has travelled to Central Asia knows of the non-denominational Muslims—those who are neither Shiites nor Sounites, but who accept Islam as a religion generally.,weblink" title="">weblink 31 January 2016, dead, NEWS, Kirkham, Bri, Indiana Blood Center cancels 'Muslims for Life' blood drive,weblink 21 October 2015, 2015, Ball State Student Sadie Sial identifies as a non-denominational Muslim, and her parents belong to the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. She has participated in multiple blood drives through the Indiana Blood Center., dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 November 2015, BOOK, Pollack, Kenneth, Unthinkable: Iran, the Bomb, and American Strategy, 2014, 29, {{google books, y, jQGZBAAAQBAJ, 29, |quote=Although many Iranian hardliners are Shi'a chauvinists, Khomeini's ideology saw the revolution as pan-Islamist, and therefore embracing Sunni, Shi'a, Sufi, and other, more nondenominational Muslims|isbn=9781476733937}} Prominent figures who refused to identify with a particular Islamic denomination have included Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani,BOOK, Cughtai, Muhammad Ikram, Jamāl Al-Dīn Al-Afghāni: An Apostle of Islamic Resurgence, 2005, 454, Condemning the historically prevailing trend of blindly imitating religious leaders, al- Afghani revised to identity himself with a specific sect or imam by insisting that he was just a Muslim and a scholar with his own interpretation of Islam., Muhammad IqbalBOOK, Jones, Justin, Shi'a Islam in Colonial India: Religion, Community and Sectarianism, 25–26, {{google books, y, rrioNz8_EwwC, 25, |isbn=9781139501231|date=201}} and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.NEWS, Ahmed, Khaled, Was Jinnah a Shia or a Sunni?,weblink 23 October 2015, The Friday Times,weblink" title="">weblink 17 November 2011, dead, Recent surveys report that large proportions of Muslims in some parts of the world self-identify as "just Muslim", although there is little published analysis available regarding the motivations underlying this response.WEB,weblink Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation, August 9, 2012, The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, 4 September 2013, BOOK, Burns, Robert, Christianity, Islam, and the West, 55, {{google books, y, akWUGyN7fwEC, 55, |quote=40 per cent called themselves "just a Muslim" according to the Council of American-Islamic relations|isbn=9780761855606|date=2011}}BOOK, Tatari, Eren, Muslims in British Local Government: Representing Minority Interests in Hackney, Newham and Tower Hamlets, 2014, 111, {{google books, y, x_4QBQAAQBAJ, 111, |quote=Nineteen said that they are Sunni Muslims, six said they are just Muslim without specifying a sect, two said they are Ahmadi, and two said their families are Alevi|isbn=9789004272262}}BOOK, Lopez, Ralph, Truth in the Age of Bushism, 2008, 65, {{google books, y, vuNfXxnYWPIC, 65, |quote=Many Iraqis take offense at reporters' efforts to identify them as Sunni or Shiite. A 2004 Iraq Centre for Research and Strategic Studies poll found the largest category of Iraqis classified themselves as "just Muslim."|isbn=9781434896155}} The Pew Research Center reports that respondents self-identifying as "just Muslim" make up a majority of Muslims in seven countries (and a plurality in three others), with the highest proportion in Kazakhstan at 74%. At least one in five Muslims in at least 22 countries self-identify in this way.

Derived religions

Some movements, such as the Druze, Berghouata and Ha-Mim, either emerged from Islam or came to share certain beliefs with Islam and whether each is a separate religion or a sect of Islam is sometimes controversial. Yazdânism is seen as a blend of local Kurdish beliefs and Islamic Sufi doctrine introduced to Kurdistan by Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir in the 12th century. Bábism stems from Twelver Shia passed through Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad i-Shirazi al-Bab while one of his followers Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri Baha'u'llah founded the Bahai Faith.WEB, House of Justice, Universal, One Common Faith,weblink, 1 April 2017, Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak in late-fifteenth-century Punjab, incorporates aspects of both Islam and Hinduism. African American Muslim movements include the Nation of Islam, Five-Percent Nation and Moorish scientists.


{{See also|Islam by country}}File:Islam percent population in each nation World Map Muslim data by Pew Research.svg|thumb|275px|World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research CenterPew Research CenterA comprehensive 2019 demographic study of 232 countries and territories reported that 24.4% of the global population, or 1.9 billion people, are Muslims. Of those, it is estimated that over 75–90% are Sunni and 10–20% are Shia{{Harvtxt|Miller|2009}}ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Islām, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2010-08-25, CIA retrieved 21 December 2011 with a small minority belonging to other sects. Approximately 57 countries are Muslim-majority,{{Harvtxt|Miller|2009|p=11}} and Arabs account for around 20% of all Muslims worldwide.BOOK, Muslims in the United States, Ba-Yunus, Ilyas, Kone, Kassim, 2006, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-32825-1, 172, The number of Muslims worldwide increased from 200 million in 1900 to 551 million in 1970,BOOK
, Whaling
, Frank
, Religion in today's world: the religious situation of the world from 1945 to the present day
, T & T Clark
, 1987
, 38
, 978-0-567-09452-0,
and tripled to 1.9 billion by 2019.
The majority of Muslims live in Asia and Africa.WEB,weblink Islam: An Overview in Oxford Islamic Studies Online,, 2008-05-06, 2010-05-16, {{Subscription needed}} Approximately 62% of the world's Muslims live in Asia, with over 683 million adherents in Indonesia, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh.WEB,weblink Secrets of Islam, U.S. News & World Report, 2013-09-24, Information provided by the International Population Center, Department of Geography, San Diego State University (2005).{{Harvtxt|Miller|2009|pp=15,17}} In the Middle East, non-Arab countries such as Turkey and Iran are the largest Muslim-majority countries; in Africa, Egypt and Nigeria have the most populous Muslim communities.Most estimates indicate that the China has approximately 20 to 30 million Muslims (1.5% to 2% of the population).WEB,weblink The World Factbook – China, CIA World Factbook, 2009-06-15, WEB,weblink China (includes Hong Kong, Macau, and Tibet),, 2013-09-24, WEB,weblink Muslim Media Network, Muslim Media Network, 2008-03-24, 2009-07-14, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2008-03-27, However, data provided by the San Diego State University's International Population Center to U.S. News & World Report suggests that China has 65.3 million Muslims.Secrets of Islam, U.S. News & World Report. Information provided by the International Population Center, Department of Geography, San Diego State University. Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity in many European countries,
  • {{Harvtxt|Esposito|2004|pp=2, 43}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Islamic World, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, harv,
  • WEB,weblink Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents,, 2007-01-09,
  • NEWS, Muslims in Europe: Country guide,weblink BBC News, 2005-12-23, 2013-09-24,
  • WEB, Religion in Britain,weblink Office for National Statistics, National Statistics, 2003-02-13, 2006-08-27,

and is slowly catching up to that status in the Americas, with between 2,454,000, according to Pew Forum, and approximately 7 million Muslims, according to the Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR), in the United States.The Mosque in America: A National Portrait {{webarchive|url= |date=2010-06-17 }} Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR). April 26, 2001. Retrieved on 2010-08-01.
File:Jakarta Skyline Part 2.jpg|thumb|right|275px|Skyline of Jakarta, capital of IndonesiaIndonesiaAccording to the Pew Research Center, Islam is set to equal Christianity worldwide in number of adherents by the year 2050. Islam is set to grow faster than any other major world religion, reaching a total number of 2.76 billion (an increase of 73%). Causes of this trend involve high fertility rates as a factor, with Muslims having a rate of 3.1 compared to the world average of 2.5, and the minimum replacement level for a population at 2.1. Another factor is also due to fact that Islam has the highest number of adherents under the age of 15 (34% of the total religion) of any major religion, compared with Christianity's 27%. 60% of Muslims are between the ages of 16 and 59, while only 7% are aged 60+ (the smallest percentage of any major religion). Countries such as Nigeria and North Macedonia are expected to have Muslim majorities by 2050. In India, the Muslim population will be larger than any other country. Europe's non-Muslim population is set to decline as opposed to their Muslim population which is set to grow to 10% of Europe's total. Growth rates of Islam in Europe was due primarily to immigration and higher birth rates of Muslims in 2005.NEWS,weblink site, BBC News, 2005-12-23, 2010-04-01,


The term "Islamic culture" could be used to mean aspects of culture that pertain to the religion, such as festivals and dress code. It is also controversially used to denote the cultural aspects of traditionally Muslim people.NEWS,weblink 'Islamic' Culture: A Groundless Myth,, 25 November 2013, 4 November 2011, Finally, "Islamic civilization" may also refer to the aspects of the synthesized culture of the early Caliphates, including that of non-Muslims,{{Harvtxt|Esposito|2010|p=56}} sometimes referred to as "(wikt:Islamicate|Islamicate)".


Perhaps the most important expression of Islamic architecture is that of the mosque."Islam", The New Encyclopædia Britannica (2005) Varying cultures have an effect on mosque architecture. For example, North African and Spanish Islamic architecture such as the Great Mosque of Kairouan contain marble and porphyry columns from Roman and Byzantine buildings,BOOK, {{Google books, LgnhYDozENgC, PA175, mosque%20kairouan%20roman columns, mosque+kairouan+roman+columns, yes, |title=Elizabeth Allo Isichei, A history of African societies to 1870, p. 175. Cambridge University Press, 1997 |accessdate=2010-08-06|isbn=978-0-521-45599-2|year=1997|author1=Isichei|first1=Elizabeth Allo}} while mosques in Indonesia often have multi-tiered roofs from local Javanese styles.File:Djenne great mud mosque.jpg|Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of MaliFile:1 great mosque xian 2011.JPG|Great Mosque of Xi'an in Xi'an, ChinaFile:Closeup of Mir-i-Arab Madrasa.jpg|Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, UzbekistanFile:Kuppel Muhammad-Ali-Moschee.jpg|Interior of domes in the Alabaster Mosque in Cairo, Egypt


Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by Muslim populations.Marilyn Jenkins-Madina, Richard Ettinghauset and Architecture 650–1250'', Yale University Press, {{ISBN|0-300-08869-8}}, p. 3 It includes fields as varied as architecture, calligraphy, painting, and ceramics, among others.While not condemned in the Quran, making images of human beings and animals is frowned on in many Islamic cultures and connected with laws against idolatry common to all Abrahamic religions, as 'Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood reported that Muhammad said, "Those who will be most severely punished by Allah on the Day of Resurrection will be the image-makers" (reported by al-Bukhaari, see al-Fath, 10/382). However this rule has been interpreted in different ways by different scholars and in different historical periods, and there are examples of paintings of both animals and humans in Mughal, Persian and Turkish art. The existence of this aversion to creating images of animate beings has been used to explain the prevalence of calligraphy, tessellation and pattern as key aspects of Islamic artistic culture.BOOK, Oxford University Press, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam, Salim Ayduz, Ibrahim Kalin, Caner Dagli, 2014,weblink Figural representation is virtually unused in Islamic art because of Islam's strong antagonism of idolatry. It was important for Muslim scholars and artists to find a style of art that represented the Islamic ideals of unity (tawhid) and order without figural representation. Geometric patterns perfectly suited this goal., 9780199812578, File:Planets by ibrahimabutouq.jpg|Islamic calligraphy representing various planetsFile:Roof hafez tomb.jpg|Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, IranFile:Islamic arts museum, KL, Malaysia.jpg|The Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia, the largest museum of Islamic arts in South East Asia




{{Muslimmonths}}File:Lunar libration with phase Oct 2007.gif|thumb|left|The phases of the Moon form the basis for the Islamic calendarIslamic calendarThe formal beginning of the Muslim era was chosen, reportedly by Caliph Umar, to be the Hijra in 622 CE, which was an important turning point in Muhammad's fortunes. It is a lunar calendar with days lasting from sunset to sunset.Patheos Library – Islam Sacred Time – Islamic holy days fall on fixed dates of the lunar calendar, which means that they occur in different seasons in different years in the Gregorian calendar. The most important Islamic festivals are Eid al-Fitr () on the 1st of Shawwal, marking the end of the fasting month Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha () on the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah, coinciding with the end of the Hajj pilgrimage.Ghamidi (2001): Customs and Behavioral Laws {{webarchive|url= |date=2013-09-23 }}{{-}}


File:John Damascus (arabic icon).gif|right|thumb|200px|John of DamascusJohn of DamascusCriticism of Islam has existed since Islam's formative stages. Early criticism came from Christian authors, many of whom viewed Islam as a Christian heresy or a form of idolatry and often explained it in apocalyptic terms.BOOK, Erwin Fahlbusch, The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 2, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1999, {{google books, y, yaecVMhMWaEC, 759, |page=759| isbn=9789004116955 }} Later there appeared criticism from the Muslim world itself, and also from Jewish writers and from ecclesiastical Christians.BOOK, Warraq, Ibn, Leaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out, Prometheus Books, 2003, 978-1-59102-068-4, 67, BOOK, Ibn, Kammuna, Examination of the Three Faiths, Moshe Perlmann, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1971, 148–149, WEB,weblink Mohammed and Mohammedanism, Gabriel, Oussani, Catholic Encyclopedia,, April 16, 2006, Issues relating to the authenticity and morality of the Quran, the Islamic holy book, are also discussed by critics.Bible in Mohammedian Literature., by Kaufmann Kohler Duncan B. McDonald, Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 22, 2006. Islamic salvation optimism and its carnality was criticized by Christian writers. Islam's sensual descriptions of paradise led many Christians to conclude that Islam was not a spiritual religion. Although sensual pleasure was also present in early Christianity, as seen in the writings of Irenaeus, the doctrines of the former Manichaean Augustine of Hippo led to broad repudiation of bodily pleasure in both life and the afterlife. Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari defended the Quranic description of paradise by asserting that the Bible also implies such ideas, such as drinking wine in Gospel of Matthew.Defamatory images of Muhammad, derived from early 7th century depictions of Byzantine Church,Minou Reeves, P. J. Stewart Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making NYU Press, 2003 {{ISBN|9780814775646}} p. 93–96 appear in the 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri.G. Stone Dante’s Pluralism and the Islamic Philosophy of Religion Springer, 12.05.2006 {{ISBN|9781403983091}} p. 132 Here, Muhammad appears in the eighth circle of hell, along with Ali. Dante does not blame Islam as a whole, but accuses Muhammad of schism, by establishing another religion after Christianity.Since the events of September 11, 2001, Islam has faced criticism over its scriptures and teachings being a significant source of terrorism and terrorist ideology.WEB,weblink Islam and the Patterns in Terrorism and Violent Extremism,, 2019-04-02, WEB,weblink How Many Muslims Still Support Terrorism?,, 2019-04-02, Other criticisms focus on the question of human rights in modern Muslim-majority countries, and the treatment of women in Islamic law and practice.WEB,weblink Saudi Arabia – Country report – Freedom in the World – 2005, 2012-01-13, NEWS, The New York Review of Books, 2006-10-05, Islam in Europe, Timothy Garton Ash,weblink In wake of the recent multiculturalism trend, Islam's influence on the ability of Muslim immigrants in the West to assimilate has been criticized.BOOK, Multiculturalism, Muslims and Citizenship: A European Approach, Tariq, Modood, Routledge, 1st, April 6, 2006, 978-0-415-35515-5, 29, Both in his public and personal life, others objected the morality of Muhammad, therefore also the sunnah as a role model.BOOK, Ibn, Warraq, The Quest for Historical Muhammad, Amherst, MA, Prometheus Books, 2000, 1st, 978-1-57392-787-1, 103,weblink

See also

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Books and journals

  • JOURNAL, Accad, Martin, The Gospels in the Muslim Discourse of the Ninth to the Fourteenth Centuries: An Exegetical Inventorial Table (Part I), Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 14, 1, 67–91, 2003, harv, 10.1080/09596410305261,
  • BOOK, Ahmed, Akbar, Islam Today: A Short Introduction to the Muslim World, I.B. Tauris, 2.00, 1999, 978-1-86064-257-9, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Continuum International Publishing Group, 978-0-8264-9944-8, Bennett, Clinton, Clinton Bennett, Interpreting the Qur'an: a guide for the uninitiated, 2010, 101, harv,
  • BOOK, Brockopp, Jonathan E., Islamic Ethics of Life: abortion, war and euthanasia, University of South Carolina press, 2003, 978-1-57003-471-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Cohen-Mor, Dalya, A Matter of Fate: The Concept of Fate in the Arab World as Reflected in Modern Arabic Literature, Oxford University Press, 2001, 978-0-19-513398-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Curtis, Patricia A., 2005, A Guide to Food Laws and Regulations, Blackwell Publishing Professional, 978-0-8138-1946-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, John Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 2010, 4th, 978-0-19-539600-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, 3rd, 978-0-19-511234-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, Muslims on the Americanization Path?, 2000a, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-513526-8, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, 2000b, Oxford History of Islam, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-510799-9, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, 2002a, Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-516886-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, 2002b, What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-515713-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, 2003, 978-0-19-512558-0, harv, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 2004, 3rd Rev Upd, 978-0-19-518266-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Farah, Caesar, Caesar E. Farah, Islam: Beliefs and Observances, Barron's Educational Series, 1994, 5th, 978-0-8120-1853-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Farah, Caesar, Islam: Beliefs and Observances, Barron's Educational Series, 2003, 7th, 978-0-7641-2226-2, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Firestone, Reuven, Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam, Oxford University Press, 1999, 978-0-19-512580-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Ghamidi, Javed, Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, Mizan, Al-Mawrid, Dar al-Ishraq, 2001, 52901690, harv, Mizan,
  • BOOK, Goldschmidt, Jr., Arthur, Davidson, Lawrence, A Concise History of the Middle East, Westview Press, 2005, 8th, 978-0-8133-4275-7, {{harvid, Goldschmidt, 2005, }}
  • BOOK, Griffith, Ruth Marie, Savage, Barbara Dianne, Women and Religion in the African Diaspora: Knowledge, Power, and Performance, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006, 978-0-8018-8370-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, Muslims in the West: from sojourners to citizens, Oxford University Press, 2002, harv,
  • BOOK, Hawting, G.R., G.R. Hawting, The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661–750, Routledge, 2000, 978-0-415-24073-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Hedayetullah, Muhammad, Dynamics of Islam: An Exposition, Trafford Publishing, 2006, 978-1-55369-842-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Hofmann, Murad, Islam and Qur'an, 2007, 978-1-59008-047-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Holt, P.M, Lewis, Bernard, Bernard Lewis, Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1, 1977, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-29136-1, {{harvid, Holt, 1977a, }}
  • BOOK, Holt, P.M., Lambton, Ann K.S, Lewis, Bernard, Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 2, 1977, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-29137-8, {{harvid, Holt, 1977b, }}
  • BOOK, Hourani, Albert, Albert Hourani, Ruthven, Malise, Malise Ruthven, A History of the Arab Peoples, 2003, Belknap Press; Revised edition, 978-0-674-01017-8, {{harvid, Hourani, 2003, }}
  • BOOK, Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar, Counseling American Muslims: Understanding the Faith and Helping the People, Praeger Publishers, 2004, 978-0-313-32472-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Kramer, Martin, Shi'Ism, Resistance, and Revolution, Westview Press, 1987, 978-0-8133-0453-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Lapidus, Ira, A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge University Press, 2002, 2nd, 978-0-521-77933-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984, 978-0-7102-0462-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, The Arabs in History, Oxford University Press, 1993, 978-0-19-285258-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, The Middle East, Scribner, 1997, 978-0-684-83280-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, Islam in History: Ideas, People, and Events in the Middle East, Open Court, 2nd, 2001, 978-0-8126-9518-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, What Went Wrong?: The Clash Between Islam and Modernity in the Middle East, Harper Perennial, Reprint, 2003, 978-0-06-051605-5, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror, Random House, Inc., New York, 2004, 978-0-8129-6785-2, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Madelung, Wilferd, Wilferd Madelung, The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, 1996, 978-0-521-64696-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Malik, Jamal, Hinnells, John R, Sufism in the West, Routledge, 2006, 978-0-415-27408-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Menski, Werner F., Comparative Law in a Global Context: The Legal Systems of Asia and Africa, Cambridge University Press, 2006, 978-0-521-85859-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Miller, Tracy, 2009, Pew Research Center, Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population, PDF,weblink 2013-09-24, harv,
  • BOOK, Momen, Moojan, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism, Yale University Press, 1987, 978-0-300-03531-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Nasr, Seyed Muhammad, Our Religions: The Seven World Religions Introduced by Preeminent Scholars from Each Tradition (Chapter 7), HarperCollins, 1994, 978-0-06-067700-8, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Nigosian, Solomon Alexander, Islam: its history, teaching, and practices, Indiana University Press, 2004, harv,
  • BOOK, Patton, Walter M., The Doctrine of Freedom in the Korân, The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, 1900, 16, 3, 978-90-04-10314-6, 10.1086/369367, 129, harv,
  • BOOK, Peters, F.E., Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians, Princeton University Press, 2003, 978-0-691-11553-5, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Rahman, H.U., Chronology of Islamic History, 570–1000 CE, Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd, 3rd, 1999, harv,
  • BOOK, Rippin, Andrew, Andrew Rippin, Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Routledge, 2nd, 2001, 978-0-415-21781-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Sachedina, Abdulaziz, The Just Ruler in Shi'ite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence, Oxford University Press US, 1998, 978-0-19-511915-2, Abdulaziz Sachedina, harv,
  • Siljander, Mark D. and John David Mann. A Deadly Misunderstanding: a Congressman's Quest to Bridge the Muslim-Christian Divide. First ed. New York: Harper One, 2008. {{ISBN|978-0-06-143828-8}}
  • BOOK, Smith, Jane I., The Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection, Oxford University Press, 2006, 978-0-19-515649-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn, Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, Allameh Tabatabaei, Shi'ite Islam, Suny press, 1979, 978-0-87395-272-9, {{harvid, Tabatabaei, 1979, }}
  • BOOK, Teece, Geoff, Religion in Focus: Islam, Franklin Watts Ltd, 2003, 978-0-7496-4796-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Trimingham, John Spencer, The Sufi Orders in Islam, Oxford University Press, 1998, 978-0-19-512058-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Turner, Colin, Islam: the Basics, Routledge (UK), 2006, 978-0-415-34106-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Turner, Bryan S., Weber and Islam, Routledge (UK), 1998, 978-0-415-17458-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Waines, David, An Introduction to Islam, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 978-0-521-53906-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Watt, W. Montgomery, William Montgomery Watt, The Formative Period of Islamic Thought, University Press Edinburgh, 1973, 978-0-85224-245-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Watt, W. Montgomery, Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, Oxford University Press, New, 1974, 978-0-19-881078-0, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Weiss, Bernard G., Bernard G. Weiss, Studies in Islamic Legal Theory, 2002, Boston, Brill Academic publishers, 978-90-04-12066-2, harv,


  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, William H. McNeill, Jerry H. Bentley, David Christian, Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History, Berkshire Publishing Group, 2005, 978-0-9743091-0-1, harv, Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Gabriel Oussani, Catholic Encyclopedia, 1910, harv,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Paul Lagasse, Lora Goldman, Archie Hobson, Susan R. Norton, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Gale Group, 2000, 6th, 978-1-59339-236-9, harv,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ahmad, Imad-ad-Dean, Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad, Ronald, Hamowy, Ronald Hamowy, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, {{Google books, yxNgXs3TkJYC, yes, |year=2008 |publisher= SAGE; Cato Institute |location= Thousand Oaks, CA |doi=10.4135/9781412965811.n155 |isbn= 978-1-4129-6580-4 |oclc=750831024| lccn = 2008009151 |pages= 256–258 |quote=|ref= |chapter= Islam |title= The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., harv,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Erwin Fahlbusch, William Geoffrey Bromiley, Encyclopedia of Christianity, Eerdmans Publishing Company, and Brill, 2001, 1st, 978-0-8028-2414-1, harv, The Encyclopedia of Christianity,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, John Bowden, Encyclopedia of Christianity, Oxford University Press, 2005, 1st, 978-0-19-522393-4, harv, Encyclopedia of Christianity,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, P.J., Bearman, Peri Bearman, Th., Bianquis, C.E., Bosworth, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, E., van Donzel, W.P., Heinrichs, Wolfhart Heinrichs, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Brill Academic Publishers, 1573-3912, harv,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Richard C. Martin, Said Amir Arjomand, Marcia Hermansen, Abdulkader Tayob, Rochelle Davis, John Obert Voll, Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, MacMillan Reference Books, 2003, 978-0-02-865603-8, harv, Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online, Brill Academic Publishers, harv,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Salamone Frank, Encyclopedia of Religious Rites, Rituals, and Festivals, Routledge, 1st, 2004, 978-0-415-94180-8, harv,weblink
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Glasse Cyril, New Encyclopedia of Islam: A Revised Edition of the Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, AltaMira Press, 2003, 978-0759101906, harv, The New Encyclopedia of Islam,

Further reading

  • Abdul-Haqq, Abdiyah Akbar (1980). Sharing Your Faith with a Muslim. Minneapolis: Bethany House Publishers. N.B. Presents the genuine doctrines and concepts of Islam and of the Holy Qur'an, and this religion's affinities with Christianity and its Sacred Scriptures, in order to "dialogue" on the basis of what both faiths really teach. {{ISBN|0-87123-553-6}}
  • BOOK, Akyol, Mustafa, Mustafa Akyol, Islam Without Extremes, W.W. Norton & Company, 1st, 2011, 978-0-393-07086-6,
  • BOOK, Arberry, A.J., A. J. Arberry, The Koran Interpreted: A Translation, Touchstone, 1st, 1996, 978-0-684-82507-6,weblink
  • Cragg, Kenneth (1975). The House of Islam, in The Religious Life of Man Series. Second ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1975. xiii, 145 p. {{ISBN|0-8221-0139-4}}.
  • Hourani, Albert (1991). Islam in European Thought. First pbk. ed. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1992, cop. 1991. xi, 199 p. {{ISBN|0-521-42120-9}}; alternative ISBN on back cover, 0-521-42120-0.
  • BOOK, Khan, Muhammad Muhsin, Muhammad Muhsin Khan, Al-Hilali Khan, Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din, Noble Quran, 1999, Dar-us-Salam Publications, 1st, 978-9960-740-79-9,
  • A. Khanbaghi (2006). The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early Modern Iran. I. B. Tauris.
  • Khavari, Farid A. (1990). Oil and Islam: the Ticking Bomb. First ed. Malibu, Calif.: Roundtable Publications. viii, 277 p., ill. with maps and charts. {{ISBN|0-915677-55-5}}.
  • BOOK, Kramer, Martin, Martin Kramer, The Jewish Discovery of Islam: Studies in Honor of Bernard Lewis, Syracuse University, 1999, 978-965-224-040-8,
  • BOOK, Kuban, Dogan, Muslim Religious Architecture, Brill Academic Publishers, 1974, 978-90-04-03813-4,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, Islam and the West, Oxford University Press, 1994, 978-0-19-509061-1,weblink
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the Age of Discovery, Oxford University Press, 1996, 978-0-19-510283-3,
  • BOOK, Mubarkpuri, Saifur-Rahman, The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Prophet, Dar-us-Salam Publications, 2002, 978-1-59144-071-0,
  • BOOK, Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah, History of Islam, Dar-us-Salam Publications, 2001, Harv, 978-1-59144-034-5,
  • BOOK, Nigosian, S.A., Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices, Indiana University Press, 2004, New, 978-0-253-21627-4,
  • BOOK, Rahman, Fazlur, Fazlur Rahman, Islam, University of Chicago Press, 1979, 2nd, 978-0-226-70281-0,
  • BOOK, Schimmel, Annemarie, Annemarie Schimmel, Deciphering the Signs of God: A Phenomenological Approach to Islam, State University of New York Press, 1994,weblink 978-0791419823,
  • BOOK, Tausch, Arno, Arno Tausch, What 1.3 Billion Muslims Really Think: An Answer to a Recent Gallup Study, Based on the "World Values Survey". Foreword Mansoor Moaddel, Eastern Michigan University, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2009, 1st, 978-1-60692-731-1,
  • BOOK, Tausch, Arno, Arno Tausch, The political algebra of global value change. General models and implications for the Muslim world. With Almas Heshmati and Hichem Karoui, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2015, 1st, 978-1-62948-899-8,
  • BOOK, Walker, Benjamin, Benjamin Walker (author), Foundations of Islam: The Making of a World Faith, Peter Owen Publishers, 1998, 978-0-7206-1038-3,

External links

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Academic resources

Online resources

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