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Irreligion
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{{Redirect|Irreligious|the album by Moonspell|Irreligious (album)}}{{Distinguish|Secularity|Atheism}}{{short description|The absence, indifference to, rejection of, or hostility towards religion}}{{Atheism and Irreligion Sidebar|expanded=irreligion}}Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference to, or rejection of religion.* WEB,weblink Irreligion as presented in 26 reference works,
  • {{citation|title=Definition including hostility and indifference|url=http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/irreligious?view=uk|work=Compact Oxford Dictionary}}
  • {{citation|title=Definition including lack and indifference|url=http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/irreligion|work=Collins Dictionary}}
  • {{citation|title=Irreligion|url=http://hirr.hartsem.edu/ency/irreligion.htm|work=Encyclopedia of Religion and Society|accessdate=2012-02-18}} Includes rejection.
  • {{citation|author=Colin Campbell|title=Irreligion|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=6TMFoMFe-D8C&pg=PA239|work=Encyclopedia of Religion and Society|year=1998|isbn=9780761989561|accessdate=2012-02-18}}


According to the Pew Research Center's 2012 global study of 230 countries and territories, 16% of the world's population is not affiliated with a religion, while 84% are affiliated.WEB,weblink The Global Religious Landscape, Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, December 18, 2012,
Irreligion may include some forms of theism, depending on the religious context it is defined against; for example, in 18th-century Europe, the epitome of irreligion was deism,Campbell, Colin. 1971. Towards a Sociology of Irreligion. London:McMillan p. 31. while in contemporary East Asia the shared term meaning "irreligion" or "no religion" (無宗教, Chinese pron. wú zōngjiào, Japanese pron. mu shūkyō Korean pron. mujonggyo), with which the majority of East Asian populations identify themselves, implies non-membership in one of the institutional religions (such as Buddhism and Christianity) and not necessarily non-belief in traditional folk religions collectively represented by Chinese Shendao and Japanese Shinto (both meaning "ways of gods").BOOK, Bestor, Theodore C., Bestor, Victoria, Yamagata, Akiko, Handbook of Japanese Culture and Society, 2011, Routledge, London, 978-0415436496, 66–67, 無宗教 mushūkyō, "no religion", in Japanese language and mindset identifies those people who do not belong to organised religion. To the Japanese, the term "religion" or "faith" means organised religions on the model of Christianity, that is a religion with specific doctrines and requirement for church membership. So, when asked "what is their religion", most of the Japanese answer that they "do not belong to any religion". According to NHK studies, those Japanese who identify with mushūkyō and therefore do not belong to any organised religion, actually take part in the folk ritual dimension of Shinto. Ama Toshimaru in Nihonjin wa naze mushukyo na no ka ("Why are the Japanese non-religious?") of 1996, explains that people who do not belong to organised religions but regularly pray and make offerings to ancestors and protective deities at private altars or Shinto shrines will identify themselves as mushukyo. Ama designates "natural religion" what NHK studies define as "folk religion", and other scholars have named "Nipponism" (Nipponkyō) or "common religion"., According to cross-cultural studies, since religion and fertility are positively related while secularism and fertility are negatively related, secularism is expected to decline throughout the 21st century.JOURNAL, Ellis, Lee, Hoskin, Anthony W., Dutton, Edward, Nyborg, Helmuth, The Future of Secularism: a Biologically Informed Theory Supplemented with Cross-Cultural Evidence, Evolutionary Psychological Science, 8 March 2017, 3, 3, 224–43, 10.1007/s40806-017-0090-z, By 2060, according to their projections, the number of unaffiliated will increase by over 35 million, but the percentage will decrease to 13% because the total population will grow faster.WEB, Why People With No Religion Are Projected To Decline As A Share Of The World's Population,weblink Pew Research Center, April 7, 2017, WEB, The Changing Global Religious Landscape: Babies Born to Muslims will Begin to Outnumber Christian Births by 2035; People with No Religion Face a Birth Dearth, Pew Research Center, April 5, 2017,weblink

Etymology

The term irreligion is a combination of the noun religion and the prefix ir-, signifying "not" (similar to irrelevant). It was first attested in French as irréligion in 1527, then in English as irreligion in 1598. It was borrowed by Dutch as irreligie in the 17th century, though it's uncertain from which language.WEB,weblink Irreligie, Instituut voor Nederlandse Lexicologie, Instituut voor de Nederlandse Taal, 2007, 29 January 2019,

Types

  • Secular humanism embraces human reason, ethics, social justice, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the bases of morality and decision making. Secular humanism posits that human beings are capable of being ethical and moral without religion or a god.
  • Freethought holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, revelation, or other dogma. In particular, freethought is strongly tied with rejection of traditional religious belief.
  • "Spiritual but not religious" rejects organized religion as the sole or most valuable means of furthering spiritual growth. In contrast to religion, spirituality has often been associated with the interior life of the individual.
  • Theological noncognitivism is the argument that religious language – specifically, words such as God – are not cognitively meaningful. It is sometimes considered as synonymous with ignosticism.
  • Antireligion is opposition to religion of any kind. It can describe opposition to organized religion, religious practices, religious institutions, or specific forms of supernatural worship or practice, whether organized or not.
  • Atheism is the rejection of belief that any deities exist or, in a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. There are ranges from Negative and positive atheism.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink! scope="col" style="width:10em;"| Country! scope="col" | Percentage of populationwho are nonreligious! scope="col"| Date and source
    |{{flagcountry|Suriname}}| 10|2012 Suriname Census Definitive Results. Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek - Suriname.
    Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy>title=Atheism and Agnosticism author=J.J.C. Smart, J.J.C. Smart, BOOK, The Ascent of Faith: or, the Grounds of Certainty in Science and Religion, 1894, Alexander James, Harrison, Hodder and Stroughton, London, 21, 7234849, 21834002M,weblink Let Agnostic Theism stand for that kind of Agnosticism which admits a Divine existence; Agnostic Atheism for that kind of Agnosticism which thinks it does not.,
    • Apatheism is the attitude of apathy towards the existence or non-existence of god(s).WEB,weblink Apatheism: Should we care whether God exists?, nooga.com, Sean Phillips, November 7, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170805185445weblink">weblink August 5, 2017, dead, September 30, 2018, WEB,weblink Austin Cline, What Is an Apatheist?, ThoughtCo., July 16, 2017, October 14, 2018,

    Human rights

    In 1993, the UN's human rights committee declared that article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights "protects theistic, non-theistic and atheistic beliefs, as well as the right not to profess any religion or belief."WEB,weblink CCPR General Comment 22: 30/07/93 on ICCPR Article 18, Minorityrights.org, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150116043952weblink">weblink 2015-01-16, The committee further stated that "the freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief necessarily entails the freedom to choose a religion or belief, including the right to replace one's current religion or belief with another or to adopt atheistic views." Signatories to the convention are barred from "the use of threat of physical force or penal sanctions to compel believers or non-believers" to recant their beliefs or convert.WEB, 1 August 2003, Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran, International Federation for Human Rights, fdih.org, 3 March 2009,weblink WEB,weblink The Evolution of Religious Liberty as a Universal Human Right, 3 March 2009, Davis, Derek H., dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110723210828weblink">weblink 23 July 2011, Most Western democracies protect the freedom of religion, and it is largely implied in respective legal systems that those who do not believe or observe any religion are allowed freedom of thought.A noted exception to ambiguity, explicitly allowing non-religion, is Article 36 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China (as adopted in 1982), which states that "No state organ, public organization or individual may compel citizens to believe in, or not to believe in, any religion; nor may they discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, any religion."weblink
    Article 46 of China's 1978 Constitution was even more explicit, stating that "Citizens enjoy freedom to believe in religion and freedom not to believe in religion and to propagate atheism."BOOK,weblink People's Republic of China 1978 Constitution, 41, 1978, 2014-02-02,

    Demographics

    Although 11 countries listed below have nonreligious majorities, it does not mean that the majority of the populations of these countries don't belong to any religious group. For example, 68% of the Swedish population belongs to the Lutheran Christian Church,WEB,weblink Kyrkan i siffror, Swedish Lutheran Christian Church in numbers, while 59% of Albanians declare themselves as religious.{{Citation needed|date=February 2014}} Also, though Scandinavian countries have among the highest measures of nonreligiosity and even atheism in Europe, 47% of atheists who live in those countries are still members of the national churches.BOOK, Zuckerman, Phil, Atheism and Secularity Vol.2, 2010, Praeger, 978-0313351815, Ch. 9 Atheism And Secularity: The Scandinavian Paradox, A Pew 2015 global projection study for religion and nonreligion, projects that between 2010 and 2050, there will be some initial increases of the unaffiliated followed by a decline by 2050 due to lower global fertility rates among this demographic.WEB, The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010–2050,weblink Pew Research Center, April 5, 2012, Sociologist Phil Zuckerman's global studies on atheism have indicated that global atheism may be in decline due to irreligious countries having the lowest birth rates in the world and religious countries having higher birth rates in general.BOOK, Zuckerman, Phil, Martin, Michael, The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, 2007, Cambridge Univ. Press, 978-0521603676, 59, According to Pew Research Center's 2012 global study of 230 countries and territories, 16% of the world's population is not affiliated with a religion, while 84% are affiliated. A 2012 Worldwide Independent Network/Gallup International Association report on a poll from 57 countries reported that 59% of the world's population identified as religious person, 23% as not religious person, 13% as "convinced atheists", and also a 9% decrease in identification as "religious" when compared to the 2005 average from 39 countries.WEB,weblink Global Index of Religion and Atheism, WIN/Gallup International, 13 January 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121016062403weblink">weblink 16 October 2012, Their follow-up report, based on a poll in 2015, found that 63% of the globe identified as religious person, 22% as not religious person, and 11% as "convinced atheists".WEB, Losing our Religion? Two Thirds of People Still Claim to be Religious,weblink WIN/Gallup International, WIN/Gallup International, April 13, 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150430232945weblink">weblink April 30, 2015, Their 2017 report found that 62% of the globe identified as religious person, 25% as not religious person, and 9% as "convinced atheists".WEB,weblink Wayback Machine, 2017-11-14, 2018-02-27, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171114113506weblink">weblink 2017-11-14, However, researchers have advised caution with the WIN/Gallup International figures since other surveys which use the same wording, have conducted many waves for decades, and have a bigger sample size, such as World Values Survey; have consistently reached lower figures for the number of atheists worldwide.BOOK, Keysar, Ariela, Navarro-Rivera, Juhem, Bullivant, Stephen, Ruse, Michael, The Oxford Handbook of Atheism, 2017, Oxford University Press, 978-0199644650, 36. A World of Atheism: Global Demographics, Being nonreligious is not necessarily equivalent to being an atheist or agnostic. Pew Research Center's global study from 2012 noted that many of the nonreligious actually have some religious beliefs. For example, they observed that "belief in God or a higher power is shared by 7% of Chinese unaffiliated adults, 30% of French unaffiliated adults and 68% of unaffiliated U.S. adults." Out of the global nonreligious population, 76% reside in Asia and the Pacific, while the remainder reside in Europe (12%), North America (5%), Latin America and the Caribbean (4%), sub-Saharan Africa (2%) and the Middle East and North Africa (less than 1%).WEB,weblink Religiously Unaffiliated, The Global Religious Landscape, Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life, December 18, 2012, The term "nones" is sometimes used in the U.S. to refer to those who are unaffiliated with any organized religion. This use derives from surveys of religious affiliation, in which "None" (or "None of the above") is typically the last choice. Since this status refers to lack of organizational affiliation rather than lack of personal belief, it is a more specific concept than irreligion. A 2015 Gallup poll concluded that in the U.S. "nones" were the only "religious" group that was growing as a percentage of the population.WEB,weblink Percentage of Christians in U.S. Drifting Down, but Still High, {| class="wikitable sortable" cellpadding="0"
    {{flagcountry|Czech Republic}}| 75ACCESSDATE=2018-01-05 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170309123931/HTTP://WWW.WINGIA.COM/WEB/FILES/RICHEDITOR/FILEMANAGER/CZECH_REPUBLIC_TABLES_V3_A.PDF, 2017-03-09,
    {{flagcountry|Estonia}}|70|
    {{flagcountry|Netherlands}}|68LAST2=BERGHUIJSTITLE=GOD IN NEDERLAND 1966–2015PUBLISHER=TEN HAVE, 9789025905248,
    {{flagcountry|Vietnam}}|63|Dentsu Communication Institute Inc., Research Centre for Japan (2006)
    {{flagcountry|Denmark}}|61|
    {{flagcountry|Sweden}}|54 AUTHOR-LINK1 = PHIL ZUCKERMAN ORIG-YEAR = FIRST PRINTED 2006 EDITOR1-FIRST = MICHAEL TITLE = ATHEISM: CONTEMPORARY RATES AND PATTERNS JOURNAL = THE CAMBRIDGE COMPANION TO ATHEISM SERIES = CAMBRIDGE COMPANIONS TO PHILOSOPHY, RELIGION AND CULTURE PUBLISHER = CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS DOI = 10.1017/CCOL0521842700.004 ISBN = 9781139001182,
    {{nobreakUnited Kingdom}}}}|53TITLE=RECORD NUMBER OF BRITISH PEOPLE SAY THEY HAVE NO RELIGION NEWSPAPER=THE INDEPENDENT LOCATION=LONDON,
    {{flagcountry|Albania}}|52PUBLISHER=STATE.GOV ACCESSDATE=2011-02-04, US Department of State – International religious freedom report 2006HTTP://WWW.MEMBRES.LYCOS.FR/INSTANTANESDALBANIE/IMAGE/DOSSIERDEPRESSE.PDF >TITLE=LYCOS.COM URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=2009-03-03, HTTP://WWW.ADHERENTS.COM/NA/NA_472.HTML >TITLE=ADHERENTS.COM DATE=, 2011-02-04, Some publications
    {{flagcountry|Japan}}|52|
    {{flagcountry|Azerbaijan}}|51PUBLISHER=REDCRESEARCH.IE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=2012-10-16, Publications are taken from Gallup
    {{flagcountryChina}}|51PUBLISHER=ADHERENTS.COM ACCESSDATE=2011-02-04, Some publications
    {{flagcountry|New Zealand}}|49DATE=24 SEPTEMBER 2019PUBLISHER=NEWSHUB,
    {{flagcountry|Russia}}|48|
    {{flagcountry|Belarus}}|48|
    {{flagcountry|Uruguay}}| 47WORK=THE HUFFINGTON POST, 17 January 2015,
    {{flagcountry|France}}|44|
    {{flagcountry|Cuba}}|44weblink
    {{flagcountry|South Korea}}| 43National Statistical Office (South Korea)>National Statistical Office. HTTP://KOSIS.NSO.GO.KR:7001/UPS/CHAPTERRETRIEVE.JSP?PUBCODE=MA&SEQ=292&PUB=3 >ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 23, 2006 TITLE=인구,가구/시도별 종교인구/시도별 종교인구 (2005 년 인구총조사) ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20060908233718/HTTP://KOSIS.NSO.GO.KR:7001/UPS/CHAPTERRETRIEVE.JSP?PUBCODE=MA&SEQ=292&PUB=3, September 8, 2006,
    {{flagcountry|Finland}}| 43|
    {{flagcountry|Hungary}}|43|
    {{flagcountry|Iceland}}|42ACCESSDATE=2013-09-03 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20121016062403/HTTP://REDCRESEARCH.IE/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/2012/08/RED-C-PRESS-RELEASE-RELIGION-AND-ATHEISM-25-7-12.PDF, 2012-10-16,
    {{flagcountry|Latvia}}|41|
    {{flagcountry|Chile}}| 38PUBLISHER=LATINOBARóMETRO DATE=JANUARY 2018 TRANS-TITLE=NUMBER OF CHILEANS WHO DECLARE THEMSELVES CATHOLIC DECREASED FROM 73% TO 45% IN THE LAST DECADE,
    {{flagcountry|Belgium}}| 35|
    {{flagcountry|Australia}}|30FIRST=C=AU; O=COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA; OU=AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OFWEBSITE=WWW.ABS.GOV.AU,
    {{flagcountry|Bulgaria}}| 30|
    {{flagcountry|Germany}}|21–34PUBLISHER=WIN/GIA>ACCESSDATE=10 MAY 2017ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170525144300/HTTP://WWW.WINGIA.COM/WEB/FILES/SURVEYS/24/FILE/24.PDF?1494437371URL-STATUS=DEADPUBLISHER=WIN/GIA>ACCESSDATE=10 MAY 2017ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170525144303/HTTP://WWW.WINGIA.COM/WEB/FILES/RICHEDITOR/FILEMANAGER/GERMANY_TABLES_V5_A.PDFURL-STATUS=DEADPUBLISHER=FORSCHUNGSGRUPPE WELTANSCHAUUNGEN IN DEUTSCHLAND LANGUAGE=DE ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160115132325/HTTP://FOWID.DE/FILEADMIN/DATENARCHIV/RELIGIONSZUGEHOERIGKEIT/RELIGIONSZUGEHOERIGKEIT_BEVOELKERUNG_DEUTSCHLAND_2014.PDF, 15 January 2016, {{de icon}} Religionen in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst; 31 October 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2009.REMID Data of "Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst" retrieved 16 January 2015
    {{flagcountry|Luxembourg}}| 30|
    {{flagcountry|Slovenia}}| 30|
    {{flagcountry|Spain}}|29|weblink Sociological Research Centre, July 2018
    {{flagcountry|Switzerland}}|26PUBLISHER=SWISS FEDERAL STATISTICAL OFFICE YEAR=2015 LANGUAGE=GERMAN, FRENCH, ITALIAN, 2017-03-01,
    {{flagcountry|Canada}}|24PUBLISHER=2.STATCAN.CA ACCESSDATE=2013-05-08, Canada 2011 census
    {{flagcountry|Slovakia}}| 23|
    {{flagcountry|United States}}|22PUBLISHER=PEW RESEARCH CENTER: RELIGION & PUBLIC LIFE ACCESSDATE=,
    {{flagcountry|Argentina}}|21 url=https://www.cooperativa.cl/noticias/site/artic/20180112/asocfile/20180112124342/f00006494_religion_chile_america_latina_2017.pdfdate=January 2018|website=www.cooperativa.cl}}
    {{flagcountry|Botswana}}|21|"Pew Research Center", Accessed 23 March 2016.
    {{flagcountry|Jamaica}}|21PUBLISHER=CIA.GOV ACCESSDATE=2017-09-25,
    {{flagcountry|Lithuania}}| 19|
    {{flagcountry|El Salvador}}| 19PUBLISHER=U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT, 2014-03-27,
    {{flagcountry|Singapore}}|17–19PUBLISHER=THE STRAITS TIMESLANGUAGE=EN,
    {{flagcountry|Italy}}| 18|
    {{flagcountry|Ukraine}}|16url=http://old.razumkov.org.ua/upload/Religiya_200516_A4.compressed.pdf trans-title=Religion, Church, Society and State: Two Years after Maidanpublisher=Razumkov Center in collaboration with the All-Ukrainian Council of Churches archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170422181327weblinkurl-status=liveplace=Kiev}}Sample of 2,018 respondents aged 18 years and over, interviewed 25–30 March 2016 in all regions of Ukraine except Crimea and the occupied territories of the Donetsk and Lugansk regions.
    {{flagcountry|Nicaragua}}|16WORK=NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS AND CENSUS OF NICARAGUA (INEC) ACCESSDATE=2007-10-30 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=2006-11-29,
    {{flagcountry|Belize}}|16PUBLISHER=PROLADES.COM ACCESSDATE=2011-02-04, Gallup-Belize survey
    {{flagcountry|South Africa}}|15weblink Güney Afrika 2001 census {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050411233106weblink|date=April 11, 2005}}
    {{flagcountry|Croatia}}| 13|
    {{flagcountry|Guatemala}}| 13|The Latin American Socio-Religious Studies Program / Programa Latinoamericano de Estudios Sociorreligiosos PROLADES Religion in America by country
    {{flagcountry|Austria}}| 12|
    {{flagcountry|Portugal}}| 11|
    {{flagcountry|Costa Rica}}| 11|International Religious Freedom Report 2008: Costa Rica. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (September 14, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
    {{flagcountry|Philippines}}| 11|
    {{flagcountry|Colombia}}| 11URL=HTTP://WWW.COOPERATIVA.CL/NOTICIAS/SITE/ARTIC/20180112/ASOCFILE/20180112124342/F00006494_RELIGION_CHILE_AMERICA_LATINA_2017.PDFLANGUAGE=ES, January 2018,
    {{flagcountry|Honduras}}| 9|
    {{flagcountry|Brazil}}| 8ACCESSDATE=2013-06-29,
    {{flagcountry|Ecuador}}| 8|{{es icon}} El 80% de los ecuatorianos afirma ser católico, según el INEC
    {{flagcountry|Peru}}|8|{{es icon}} weblink
    {{flagcountry|India}}|7|
    {{flagcountry|Ireland}}|7DATE=MARCH 2012, 2013-06-29,
    • WEB,weblink Secular Sunday 14 – Census Special, April 2012,
    {{flagcountry|Mexico}}| 7|
    {{flagcountry|Venezuela}}| 6|
    {{flagcountry|Serbia}}|6|
    {{flagcountry|Poland}}|5|
    {{flagcountry|Bolivia}}|5PUBLISHER=LATINOBARóMETROARCHIVEDATE=4 APRIL 2015PAGES=6, 31FORMAT=PDF, April 2014,
    {{flagcountry|Greece}}|4|
    {{flagcountry|Montenegro}}|3 WORK=MONSTAT PAGES=14&NDASH15, For the purpose of the chart, the categories 'Islam' and 'Muslims' were merged; 'Buddhist' (.02) and Other Religions were merged; 'Atheist' (1.24) and 'Agnostic' (.07) were merged; and 'Adventist' (.14), 'Christians' (.24), 'Jehovah Witness' (.02), and 'Protestants' (.02) were merged under 'Other Christian'.
    {{flagcountry|Panama}}|3
    {{flagcountry|Turkey}}|3|
    {{flagcountry|Romania}}|2|
    {{flagcountry|Tanzania}}|2|
    {{flagcountry|Paraguay}}|2PUBLISHER=LATINOBARóMETROARCHIVEDATE=4 APRIL 2015PAGE=6FORMAT=PDF, April 2014,
    {{flagcountry|Malta}}|1|
    {{flagcountry|Iran}}|1|
    {{flagcountry|Uganda}}|1|
    {{flagcountry|Nigeria}}|1|
    {{flagcountry|Thailand}}|


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