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{{other uses|Abortion (disambiguation)}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|Intentionally ending pregnancy}}{{Use dmy dates|date=November 2019}}{{EngvarA|date=September 2016}}

779.6}}| DiseasesDB = 4153| ICDO =| OMIM =| MedlinePlus = 007382| eMedicineSubj = article| eMedicineTopic = 252560| MeshID =D000028}}Abortion is the ending of a pregnancy by removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus. An abortion that occurs without intervention is known as a miscarriage or spontaneous abortion. When deliberate steps are taken to end a pregnancy, it is called an induced abortion, or less frequently "induced miscarriage". The unmodified word abortion generally refers to an induced abortion.WEB, Home : Oxford English Dictionary,weblink, WEB,weblink Abortion (noun), Oxford Living Dictionaries, 8 June 2018, [mass noun] The deliberate termination of a human pregnancy, most often performed during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy,weblink 28 May 2018, live, A similar procedure after the fetus has potential to survive outside the womb is known as a "late termination of pregnancy" or less accurately as a "late term abortion".JOURNAL, Grimes, DA, Stuart, G, Abortion jabberwocky: the need for better terminology, Contraception, 2010, 81, 2, 93–96, 20103443, 10.1016/j.contraception.2009.09.005, When properly done, abortion is one of the safest procedures in medicine,JOURNAL, Grimes, DA, Benson, J, Singh, S, Romero, M, Ganatra, B, Okonofua, FE, Shah, IH, 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69481-6, Unsafe abortion: The preventable pandemic, The Lancet, 368, 9550, 1908–19, 2006, 17126724,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 29 June 2011, JOURNAL, Raymond, EG, Grossman, D, Weaver, MA, Toti, S, Winikoff, B, Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States, Contraception, November 2014, 90, 5, 476–79, 25152259, 10.1016/j.contraception.2014.07.012, but unsafe abortion is a major cause of maternal death, especially in the developing world.WEB,weblink Preventing unsafe abortion,, 6 August 2019, Making safe abortion legal and accessible reduces maternal deaths.JOURNAL, Faúndes, Anibal, Shah, Iqbal H., 1 October 2015, Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion,weblink International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, World Report on Women’s Health 2015: The unfinished agenda of women’s reproductive health, 131, S56–S59, 10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.03.018, 26433508, 0020-7292, JOURNAL, Latt, Su Mon, Milner, Allison, Kavanagh, Anne, 5 January 2019, Abortion laws reform may reduce maternal mortality: an ecological study in 162 countries, BMC Women's Health, 19, 1, 1, 10.1186/s12905-018-0705-y, 1472-6874, 6321671, 30611257, It is safer than childbirth, which has a 14 times higher risk of death in the United States.JOURNAL, Raymond, E.G., Grimes, D.A., 2012, The Comparative Safety of Legal Induced Abortion and Childbirth in the United States, Obstetrics & Gynecology, 119, 2, Part 1, 215–19, 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31823fe923, 22270271, Modern methods use medication or surgery for abortions.JOURNAL, Kulier, R, Kapp, N, Gülmezoglu, AM, Hofmeyr, GJ, Cheng, L, Campana, A, Medical methods for first trimester abortion, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 9 November 2011, 11, CD002855, 22071804, 10.1002/14651858.CD002855.pub4,weblink The drug mifepristone in combination with prostaglandin appears to be as safe and effective as surgery during the first and second trimester of pregnancy. The most common surgical technique involves dilating the cervix and using a suction device.WEB, Abortion – Women's Health Issues,weblink Merck Manuals Consumer Version, 12 July 2018,weblink 13 July 2018, live, Birth control, such as the pill or intrauterine devices, can be used immediately following abortion.JOURNAL, Kapp, N, Whyte, P, Tang, J, Jackson, E, Brahmi, D, A review of evidence for safe abortion care, Contraception, September 2013, 88, 3, 350–63, 23261233, 10.1016/j.contraception.2012.10.027, When performed legally and safely on a woman who desires it, induced abortions do not increase the risk of long-term mental or physical problems. In contrast, unsafe abortions (those performed by unskilled individuals, with hazardous equipment, or in unsanitary facilities) cause 47,000 deaths and 5 million hospital admissions each year.JOURNAL, Lohr, PA, Fjerstad, M, Desilva, U, Lyus, R, Abortion, BMJ, 348, f7553, 2014, 10.1136/bmj.f7553, JOURNAL, Shah, I, Ahman, E, Unsafe abortion: global and regional incidence, trends, consequences, and challenges, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 31, 12, 1149–58, December 2009, 20085681,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 July 2011, 10.1016/s1701-2163(16)34376-6, The World Health Organization recommends safe and legal abortions be available to all women.BOOK, World Health Organization, Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems, 2012, World Health Organization, Geneva, 978-92-4-154843-4, 8, 2nd,weblink PDF, live,weblink" title="">weblink 16 January 2015, Around 56 million abortions are performed each year in the world,JOURNAL, Sedgh, Gilda, Bearak, Jonathan, Singh, Susheela, Bankole, Akinrinola, Popinchalk, Anna, Ganatra, Bela, Rossier, Clémentine, Gerdts, Caitlin, Tunçalp, Özge, Johnson, Brooke Ronald, Johnston, Heidi Bart, Alkema, Leontine, Abortion incidence between 1990 and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends, The Lancet, May 2016, 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30380-4, 27179755, 388, 10041, 258–67, 5498988, with about 45% done unsafely.WEB, Worldwide, an estimated 25 million unsafe abortions occur each year,weblink World Health Organization, 29 September 2017, 28 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 29 September 2017, live, Abortion rates changed little between 2003 and 2008,JOURNAL, Sedgh, G., Singh, S., Shah, I.H., Åhman, E., Henshaw, S.K., Bankole, A., 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61786-8, Induced abortion: Incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008, The Lancet, 379, 9816, 625–32, 2012, 22264435,weblink Because few of the abortion estimates were based on studies of random samples of women, and because we did not use a model-based approach to estimate abortion incidence, it was not possible to compute confidence intervals based on standard errors around the estimates. Drawing on the information available on the accuracy and precision of abortion estimates that were used to develop the subregional, regional, and worldwide rates, we computed intervals of certainty around these rates (webappendix). We computed wider intervals for unsafe abortion rates than for safe abortion rates. The basis for these intervals included published and unpublished assessments of abortion reporting in countries with liberal laws, recently published studies of national unsafe abortion, and high and low estimates of the numbers of unsafe abortion developed by WHO., live,weblink" title="">weblink 6 February 2012, before which they decreased for at least two decades as access to family planning and birth control increased.JOURNAL, Sedgh G, Henshaw SK, Singh S, Bankole A, Drescher J, Legal abortion worldwide: incidence and recent trends, International Family Planning Perspectives, 33, 3, 106–16, September 2007, 17938093, 10.1363/ifpp.33.106.07,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 19 August 2009, {{as of|2008}}, 40% of the world's women had access to legal abortions without limits as to reason. Countries that permit abortions have different limits on how late in pregnancy abortion is allowed.JOURNAL, Culwell KR, Vekemans M, de Silva U, Hurwitz M, Critical gaps in universal access to reproductive health: Contraception and prevention of unsafe abortion, International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 110, S13–16, July 2010, 20451196, 10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.04.003, Historically, abortions have been attempted using herbal medicines, sharp tools, forceful massage, or through other traditional methods.BOOK, 1. Abortion and medicine: A sociopolitical history, 978-1-4443-1293-5, John Wiley & Sons, 2009, Oxford, Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy, 1st, M, Paul, ES, Lichtenberg, L, Borgatta, DA, Grimes, PG, Stubblefield, MD, Creinin, Carole, Joffe,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 19 January 2012, live, 15895486W, Abortion laws and cultural or religious views of abortions are different around the world. In some areas abortion is legal only in specific cases such as rape, problems with the fetus, poverty, risk to a woman's health, or incest.JOURNAL, Boland, R., Katzive, L., 10.1363/ifpp.34.110.08, Developments in Laws on Induced Abortion: 1998–2007, International Family Planning Perspectives, 34, 3, 110–20, 2008, 18957353,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 October 2011, There is debate over the moral, ethical, and legal issues of abortion.BOOK, Nixon, Frederick, Adolf, Paola, Robert, Walker, Lois, LaCivita, Medical ethics and humanities, 2010, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA, 978-0-7637-6063-2, 249,weblink live,weblink 6 September 2017, 13764930W, BOOK, Johnstone, Megan-Jane, Bioethics a nursing perspective, 2009, Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier, Sydney, NSW, 978-0-7295-7873-8, 228, 5th,weblink Although abortion has been legal in many countries for several decades now, its moral permissibilities continues to be the subject of heated public debate., live,weblink 6 September 2017, Those who oppose abortion often argue that an embryo or fetus is a human with a right to life, and they may compare abortion to murder.NEWS, Pastor Mark Driscoll, What do 55 million people have in common?, Fox News, 18 October 2013, 2 July 2014,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 31 August 2014, NEWS, Dale, Hansen, Abortion: Murder, or Medical Procedure?, The Huffington Post, 18 March 2014, 2 July 2014,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 July 2014, Those who support the legality of abortion often hold that it is part of a woman's right to make decisions about her own body.BOOK, Sifris, Ronli Noa, Reproductive freedom, torture and international human rights: challenging the masculinisation of torture, 2013, Taylor & Francis, Hoboken, NJ, 978-1-135-11522-7, 869373168, 3,weblink live,weblink 15 October 2015, Others favor legal and accessible abortion as a public health measure.BOOK, Swett, C., Unsafe abortion : global and regional estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated mortality in 2003, 2007, World Health Organization, 978-92-4-159612-1, 5th,weblink 24 March 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 7 April 2018, live, {{TOC limit}}



An induced abortion may be classified as therapeutic (done in response to a health condition of the women or fetus) or elective (chosen for other reasons).WEB,weblink Abortion – medical, 9 July 2018, US National Library of Medicine (Medline Plus),weblink 12 July 2018, live, Approximately 205 million pregnancies occur each year worldwide. Over a third are unintended and about a fifth end in induced abortion.WEB, Cheng L.,weblink Surgical versus medical methods for second-trimester induced abortion, 1 November 2008, The WHO Reproductive Health Library, World Health Organization, 17 June 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 1 August 2010, live, Most abortions result from unintended pregnancies.JOURNAL, International Family Planning Perspectives, 1998, 24, 3, 117–27, 152, Bankole,weblink Reasons Why Women Have Induced Abortions: Evidence from 27 Countries, 10.2307/3038208, etal, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 January 2006, 3038208, JOURNAL, Lawrence B., Finer, Lori F., Frohwirth, Lindsay A., Dauphinee, Susheela, Singh, Ann M., Moore,weblink Reasons U.S. Women Have Abortions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 37, 3, 110–18, 2005, 10.1111/j.1931-2393.2005.tb00045.x, 16150658, live,weblink 17 January 2006, In the United Kingdom, 1 to 2% of abortions are done due to genetic problems in the fetus. A pregnancy can be intentionally aborted in several ways. The manner selected often depends upon the gestational age of the embryo or fetus, which increases in size as the pregnancy progresses.BOOK, Stubblefield, Phillip G., 10. Family Planning, Novak's Gynecology, Berek, Jonathan S., Jonathan Berek, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002, 13, 978-0-7817-3262-8, {{citation|title=Risk factors for legal induced abortion-related mortality in the United States|pmid=15051566|journal=Obstetrics & Gynecology |year=2004 |last1=Bartlett |first1=LA |last2=Berg |first2=CJ |last3=Shulman |first3=HB |last4=Zane |first4=SB |last5=Green |first5=CA |last6=Whitehead |first6=S |last7=Atrash |first7=HK |volume=103 |issue=4 |pages=729–37 |doi=10.1097/01.AOG.0000116260.81570.60}} Specific procedures may also be selected due to legality, regional availability, and doctor or a woman's personal preference.Reasons for procuring induced abortions are typically characterized as either therapeutic or elective. An abortion is medically referred to as a therapeutic abortion when it is performed to save the life of the pregnant woman; to prevent harm to the woman's physical or mental health; to terminate a pregnancy where indications are that the child will have a significantly increased chance of mortality or morbidity; or to selectively reduce the number of fetuses to lessen health risks associated with multiple pregnancy.WEB, Roche, Natalie E., 28 September 2004, Therapeutic Abortion, eMedicine,weblink" title="">weblinkweblink 14 December 2004, 19 June 2011, An abortion is referred to as an elective or voluntary abortion when it is performed at the request of the woman for non-medical reasons. Confusion sometimes arises over the term "elective" because "elective surgery" generally refers to all scheduled surgery, whether medically necessary or not.WEB,weblink Elective surgery, Encyclopedia of Surgery, 17 December 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 13 November 2012, dmy-all, "An elective surgery is a planned, non-emergency surgical procedure. It may be either medically required (e.g., cataract surgery), or optional (e.g., breast augmentation or implant) surgery.


Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion, is the unintentional expulsion of an embryo or fetus before the 24th week of gestation.BOOK, Churchill Livingstone medical dictionary, Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, Edinburgh New York, 2008, 978-0-443-10412-1, The preferred term for unintentional loss of the product of conception prior to 24 weeks' gestation is miscarriage., A pregnancy that ends before 37 weeks of gestation resulting in a live-born infant is a "premature birth" or a "preterm birth".BOOK, A preterm birth is defined as one that occurs before the completion of 37 menstrual weeks of gestation, regardless of birth weight., 669, Gabbe, Steven G., Steven Gabbe, Niebyl, Jennifer R., Simpson, Joe Leigh, 2007, Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies, 5, Churchill Livingstone, 51. Legal and Ethical Issues in Obstetric Practice, 978-0-443-06930-7, Annas, George J., George Annas, Elias, Sherman, When a fetus dies in utero after viability, or during delivery, it is usually termed "stillborn".ENCYCLOPEDIA, birth of a fetus that shows no evidence of life (heartbeat, respiration, or independent movement) at any time later than 24 weeks after conception, Stillbirth, Concise Medical Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 2010,weblink live,weblink 15 October 2015, 978-0199557141, Premature births and stillbirths are generally not considered to be miscarriages although usage of these terms can sometimes overlap.WEB,weblink 7 FAM 1470 Documenting Stillbirth (Fetal Death), United States Department of State, 18 February 2011, 12 January 2016,weblink 5 February 2016, live, Only 30% to 50% of conceptions progress past the first trimester.BOOK, Gabbe, Steven G., Steven Gabbe, Niebyl, Jennifer R., Simpson, Joe Leigh, 2007, Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies, 5, Churchill Livingstone, 24. Pregnancy loss, 978-0-443-06930-7, Annas, George J., George Annas, Elias, Sherman, The vast majority of those that do not progress are lost before the woman is aware of the conception, and many pregnancies are lost before medical practitioners can detect an embryo.BOOK, Katz, Vern L., Mosby, 2007, 5, Katz: Comprehensive Gynecology, Katz, Vern L., Lentz, Gretchen M., Lobo, Rogerio A., Gershenson, David M., 16. Spontaneous and Recurrent Abortion â€“ Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, 978-0-323-02951-3, Between 15% and 30% of known pregnancies end in clinically apparent miscarriage, depending upon the age and health of the pregnant woman.BOOK, Stovall, Thomas G., 17. Early Pregnancy Loss and Ectopic Pregnancy, Novak's Gynecology, Berek, Jonathan S., Jonathan Berek, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002, 13, 978-0-7817-3262-8, 80% of these spontaneous abortions happen in the first trimester.BOOK, Cunningham, F. Gary, Leveno, Kenneth J., Bloom, Steven L., Spong, Catherine Y., Catherine Y. Spong, Dashe, Jodi S., Hoffman, Barbara L., Casey, Brian M., Sheffield, Jeanne S., Williams Obstetrics, 24th, 2014, McGraw Hill Education, 978-0-07-179893-8, The most common cause of spontaneous abortion during the first trimester is chromosomal abnormalities of the embryo or fetus,BOOK, Schorge, John O., Joseph I., Schaffer, Lisa M., Halvorson, Barbara L., Hoffman, Karen D., Bradshaw, F. Gary, Cunningham, 2008, Williams Gynecology, 1, McGraw-Hill Medical, 978-0-07-147257-9, 6. First-Trimester Abortion, WEB,weblink Miscarriage (Spontaneous Abortion), 7 April 2009, Stöppler, Melissa Conrad, William C., Jr., Shiel,, WebMD, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 August 2004, accounting for at least 50% of sampled early pregnancy losses.BOOK, Jauniaux E, Kaminopetros P, El-Rafaey H, Early pregnancy loss, Whittle MJ, Rodeck CH, Fetal medicine: basic science and clinical practice, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1999,weblink 978-0-443-05357-3, 42792567, 837, Other causes include vascular disease (such as lupus), diabetes, other hormonal problems, infection, and abnormalities of the uterus. Advancing maternal age and a woman's history of previous spontaneous abortions are the two leading factors associated with a greater risk of spontaneous abortion. A spontaneous abortion can also be caused by accidental trauma; intentional trauma or stress to cause miscarriage is considered induced abortion or feticide.WEB,weblink Fetal Homicide Laws, 7 April 2009, National Conference of State Legislatures,weblink" title="">weblink 11 September 2012, {{cbignore|bot=medic}}


{{Pseudo image|thumb|right|300px|link=:File:Abortionmethods.png|Gestational age may determine which abortion methods are practiced.|image={{#invoke:Block diagram|main|width=300|height=190|  Practice of Induced Abortion MethodsMVAD&EEVAHyst.D&CIntact D&XMifepr.Induced Miscarr.0–12 wks12–28 weeks28–40 wks}}}}


Medical abortions are those induced by abortifacient pharmaceuticals. Medical abortion became an alternative method of abortion with the availability of prostaglandin analogs in the 1970s and the antiprogestogen mifepristone (also known as RU-486) in the 1980s.JOURNAL, Kulier R, Kapp N, Gülmezoglu AM, Hofmeyr GJ, Cheng L, Campana A, Medical methods for first trimester abortion, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2011, 11, CD002855, 10.1002/14651858.CD002855.pub4, 22071804, 11,weblink BOOK, Creinin MD, Gemzell-Danielsson K, 2009, Medical abortion in early pregnancy, Paul M, Lichtenberg ES, Borgatta L, Grimes DA, Stubblefield PG, Creinin MD, Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: comprehensive abortion care, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 111–34, 978-1-4051-7696-5, BOOK, Kapp N, von Hertzen H, 2009, Medical methods to induce abortion in the second trimester, Paul M, Lichtenberg ES, Borgatta L, Grimes DA, Stubblefield PG, Creinin MD, Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: comprehensive abortion care, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 178–92, 978-1-4051-7696-5, The most common early first-trimester medical abortion regimens use mifepristone in combination with misoprostol (or sometimes another prostaglandin analog, gemeprost) up to 10 weeks (70 days) gestational age,JOURNAL, Mifepristone With Buccal Misoprostol for Medical Abortion: A Systematic Review, Chen MJ, Creinin MD, Obstet Gynecol, July 2015, 126, 1, 12–21, 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000897, 26241251,weblink WEB, Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and, Mifeprex (mifepristone) Information,weblink FDA, 2 July 2019, 8 February 2019, methotrexate in combination with a prostaglandin analog up to 7 weeks gestation, or a prostaglandin analog alone. Mifepristone–misoprostol combination regimens work faster and are more effective at later gestational ages than methotrexate–misoprostol combination regimens, and combination regimens are more effective than misoprostol alone. This regime is effective in the second trimester.JOURNAL, Wildschut, H, Both, MI, Medema, S, Thomee, E, Wildhagen, MF, Kapp, N, Medical methods for mid-trimester termination of pregnancy, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 19 January 2011, 1, CD005216, 21249669, 10.1002/14651858.CD005216.pub2, Medical abortion regiments involving mifepristone followed by misoprostol in the cheek between 24 and 48 hours later are effective when performed before 70 days' gestation.JOURNAL, Chen, MJ, Creinin, MD, Mifepristone With Buccal Misoprostol for Medical Abortion: A Systematic Review, Obstetrics and Gynecology, July 2015, 126, 1, 12–21, 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000897, 26241251,weblink In very early abortions, up to 7 weeks gestation, medical abortion using a mifepristone–misoprostol combination regimen is considered to be more effective than surgical abortion (vacuum aspiration), especially when clinical practice does not include detailed inspection of aspirated tissue.BOOK, WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2006, Frequently asked clinical questions about medical abortion, Geneva, World Health Organization, 92-4-159484-5,weblink 22 November 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 26 December 2011, {{subscription required}} Early medical abortion regimens using mifepristone, followed 24–48 hours later by buccal or vaginal misoprostol are 98% effective up to 9 weeks gestational age; from 9 to 10 weeks efficacy decreases modestly to 94%.JOURNAL, Fjerstad M, Sivin I, Lichtenberg ES, Trussell J, Cleland K, Cullins V, September 2009, Effectiveness of medical abortion with mifepristone and buccal misoprostol through 59 gestational days, Contraception, 80, 3, 282–86, 10.1016/j.contraception.2009.03.010, 19698822, 3766037, The regimen (200 mg of mifepristone, followed 24–48 hours later by 800 mcg of vaginal misoprostol) previously used by Planned Parenthood clinics in the United States from 2001 to March 2006 was 98.5% effective through 63 days gestation—with an ongoing pregnancy rate of about 0.5%, and an additional 1% of women having uterine evacuation for various reasons, including problematic bleeding, persistent gestational sac, clinician judgment or a woman's request. The regimen (200 mg of mifepristone, followed 24–48 hours later by 800 mcg of (wikt:buccal|buccal) misoprostol) currently used by Planned Parenthood clinics in the United States since April 2006 is 98% effective through 59 days gestation. If medical abortion fails, surgical abortion must be used to complete the procedure.BOOK, Holmquist S, Gilliam M, 2008, Induced abortion, Gibbs RS, Karlan BY, Haney AF, Nygaard I, Danforth's obstetrics and gynecology, 10th, Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 586–603, 978-0-7817-6937-2, Early medical abortions account for the majority of abortions before 9 weeks gestation in Britain,WEB, 24 May 2011, Abortion statistics, England and Wales: 2010, London, Department of Health, United Kingdom,weblink 22 November 2011,weblink 1 October 2015, live, WEB, 31 May 2011, Abortion statistics, year ending 31 December 2010, Edinburgh, ISD, NHS Scotland,weblink 22 November 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 26 July 2011, France,WEB, Vilain A, Mouquet MC, 22 June 2011, Voluntary terminations of pregnancies in 2008 and 2009, Paris, DREES, Ministry of Health, France,weblink 22 November 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 September 2011, Switzerland,WEB, 5 July 2011, Abortions in Switzerland 2010, Neuchâtel, Office of Federal Statistics, Switzerland,weblink 22 November 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 October 2011, and the Nordic countries.WEB, Gissler M, Heino A, 21 February 2011, Induced abortions in the Nordic countries 2009, Helsinki, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland,weblink 22 November 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 January 2012, In the United States, the percentage of early medical abortions performed in non-hospital facilities is 31% {{as of|2014|lc=y}}.JOURNAL, Jones, Rachel K., Jerman, Jenna, 17 January 2017, Abortion incidence and service availability in the United States, 2014, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 10.1363/psrh.12015, 28094905, 5487028, 49, 1, 17–27, 96% of all abortions performed in nonhospital facilities × 31% early medical abortions of all nonhospital abortions = 30% early medical abortions of all abortions; 97% of nonhospital medical abortions used mifepristone and misoprostol—3% used methotrexate and misoprostol, or misoprostol alone—in the United States in 2014.Medical abortion regimens using mifepristone in combination with a prostaglandin analog are the most common methods used for second-trimester abortions in Canada, most of Europe, China and India, in contrast to the United States where 96% of second-trimester abortions are performed surgically by dilation and evacuation.BOOK, Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: comprehensive abortion care, Meckstroth K, Paul M, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, 978-1-4051-7696-5, Paul M, Lichtenberg ES, Borgatta L, Grimes DA, Stubblefield PG, Creinin MD, Oxford, 135–156, First-trimester aspiration abortion,


(File:Vacuum-aspiration (single).svg|thumb|A vacuum aspiration abortion at eight weeks gestational age (six weeks after fertilization).1: Amniotic sac2: Embryo3: Uterine lining4: Speculum5: Vacurette6: Attached to a suction pump)Up to 15 weeks' gestation, suction-aspiration or vacuum aspiration are the most common surgical methods of induced abortion.WEB, Healthwise,weblink Manual and vacuum aspiration for abortion, 2004, WebMD, 5 December 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 11 February 2007, live, Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) consists of removing the fetus or embryo, placenta, and membranes by suction using a manual syringe, while electric vacuum aspiration (EVA) uses an electric pump. These techniques can both be used very early in pregnancy. MVA can be used up to 14 weeks but is more often used earlier in the U.S. EVA can be used later.MVA, also known as "mini-suction" and "menstrual extraction" or EVA can be used in very early pregnancy when cervical dilation may not be required. Dilation and curettage (D&C) refers to opening the cervix (dilation) and removing tissue (curettage) via suction or sharp instruments. D&C is a standard gynecological procedure performed for a variety of reasons, including examination of the uterine lining for possible malignancy, investigation of abnormal bleeding, and abortion. The World Health Organization recommends sharp curettage only when suction aspiration is unavailable.BOOK, Managing Complications in Pregnancy and Childbirth: A Guide for Midwives and Doctors, World Health Organization, World Health Organization, 2017, 978-92-4-154587-7, Geneva, Dilatation and curettage, 181845530, 30 July 2019,weblink Dilation and evacuation (D&E), used after 12 to 16 weeks, consists of opening the cervix and emptying the uterus using surgical instruments and suction. D&E is performed vaginally and does not require an incision. Intact dilation and extraction(D&X) refers to a variant of D&E sometimes used after 18 to 20 weeks when removal of an intact fetus improves surgical safety or for other reasons.BOOK, Dilation and evacuation. In Paul M, Lichtenberg ES Borgatta L Grimes DA Stubblefield P Creinin (eds)Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: comprehensive abortion care., Hammond, C, Chasen, S, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, 978-1-4051-7696-5, 178–92, Abortion may also be performed surgically by hysterotomy or gravid hysterectomy. Hysterotomy abortion is a procedure similar to a caesarean section and is performed under general anesthesia. It requires a smaller incision than a caesarean section and can be used during later stages of pregnancy. Gravid hysterectomy refers to removal of the whole uterus while still containing the pregnancy. Hysterotomy and hysterectomy are associated with much higher rates of maternal morbidity and mortality than D&E or induction abortion.JOURNAL, June 2013, Practice Bulletin No. 135: Second-Trimester Abortion, Obstetrics & Gynecology, en, 121, 6, 1394–1406, 10.1097/, 23812485, 0029-7844,weblink First-trimester procedures can generally be performed using local anesthesia, while second-trimester methods may require deep sedation or general anesthesia.JOURNAL, Templeton, A., Grimes, D.A., 10.1056/NEJMcp1103639, 22150038, A Request for Abortion, New England Journal of Medicine, 365, 23, 2198–2204, 2011, free,

Labor induction abortion

In places lacking the necessary medical skill for dilation and extraction, or where preferred by practitioners, an abortion can be induced by first inducing labor and then inducing fetal demise if necessary.JOURNAL, Borgatta, L, Global Library of Women's Medicine, December 2014, GLOWM.10444, 10.3843/GLOWM.10444,weblink 25 September 2015, Labor Induction Termination of Pregnancy, live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2015, This is sometimes called "induced miscarriage". This procedure may be performed from 13 weeks gestation to the third trimester. Although it is very uncommon in the United States, more than 80% of induced abortions throughout the second trimester are labor-induced abortions in Sweden and other nearby countries.JOURNAL, Society of Family Planning, Clinical Guidelines, Labor induction abortion in the second trimester, Contraception, February 2011, 84, 1, 4–18, 10.1016/j.contraception.2011.02.005, 21664506,weblink 10. What is the effect of feticide on labor induction abortion outcome? Deliberately causing demise of the fetus before labor induction abortion is performed primarily to avoid transient fetal survival after expulsion; this approach may be for the comfort of both the woman and the staff, to avoid futile resuscitation efforts. Some providers allege that feticide also facilitates delivery, although little data support this claim. Transient fetal survival is very unlikely after intraamniotic installation of saline or urea, which are directly feticidal. Transient survival with misoprostol for labor induction abortion at greater than 18 weeks ranges from 0% to 50% and has been observed in up to 13% of abortions performed with high-dose oxytocin. Factors associated with a higher likelihood of transient fetal survival with labor induction abortion include increasing gestational age, decreasing abortion interval and the use of nonfeticidal inductive agents such as the PGE1 analogues., 25 September 2015, Only limited data are available comparing this method with dilation and extraction. Unlike D&E, labor-induced abortions after 18 weeks may be complicated by the occurrence of brief fetal survival, which may be legally characterized as live birth. For this reason, labor-induced abortion is legally risky in the United States.JOURNAL, 2015 Clinical Policy Guidelines, National Abortion Federation, 2015,weblink 30 October 2015, Policy Statement: Medical induction abortion is a safe and effective method for termination of pregnancies beyond the first trimester when performed by trained clinicians in medical offices, freestanding clinics, ambulatory surgery centers, and hospitals. Feticidal agents may be particularly important when issues of viability arise., live,weblink" title="">weblink 12 August 2015,

Other methods

Historically, a number of herbs reputed to possess abortifacient properties have been used in folk medicine. Among these are: tansy, pennyroyal, black cohosh, and the now-extinct silphium.BOOK, John M., Riddle, Eve's herbs: a history of contraception and abortion in the West, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1997, 978-0-674-27024-4, 36126503, {{rp|44–47, 62–63, 154–55, 230–31}}In 1978 one woman in Colorado died and another was seriously injured when they attempted to procure an abortion by taking pennyroyal oil.{{citation | title=Pennyroyal oil poisoning and hepatoxicity | journal=Journal of the American Medical Association | year=1979|volume=242|issue=26|pages=2873–24|doi=10.1001/jama.1979.03300260043027| last1=Sullivan | first1=John B. |first2=Barry H. |last2=Rumack |first3=Harold Jr|last3=Thomas|display-authors=etal| url= }}Because the indiscriminant use of herbs as abortifacients can cause serious—even lethal—side effects, such as multiple organ failure,JOURNAL, Ciganda C, Laborde A, Herbal infusions used for induced abortion, Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology, 41, 3, 235–39, 2003, 12807304, 10.1081/CLT-120021104,weblink such use is not recommended by physicians.Abortion is sometimes attempted by causing trauma to the abdomen. The degree of force, if severe, can cause serious internal injuries without necessarily succeeding in inducing miscarriage.JOURNAL, Smith JP, Risky choices: The dangers of teens using self-induced abortion attempts, Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 12, 3, 147–51, 1998, 9652283, 10.1016/S0891-5245(98)90245-0, In Southeast Asia, there is an ancient tradition of attempting abortion through forceful abdominal massage.JOURNAL, Potts, M., Malcolm Potts, Graff, M., Taing, J., 10.1783/147118907782101904, Thousand-year-old depictions of massage abortion, Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care, 33, 4, 233–34, 2007, 17925100, One of the bas reliefs decorating the temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia depicts a demon performing such an abortion upon a woman who has been sent to the underworld.Reported methods of unsafe, self-induced abortion include misuse of misoprostol and insertion of non-surgical implements such as knitting needles and clothes hangers into the uterus. These and other methods to terminate pregnancy may be called "induced miscarriage". Such methods are rarely used in countries where surgical abortion is legal and available.JOURNAL, Thapa, S.R., Rimal, D., Preston, J., Self induction of abortion with instrumentation, Australian Family Physician, 35, 9, 697–98, 2006, 16969439,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 8 January 2009, {{clear}}


(File:Abortion Quick & Pain Free sign, Joe Slovo Park, Cape Town, South Africa-3869.jpg|thumb|right|An abortion flyer in South Africa)The health risks of abortion depend principally upon whether the procedure is performed safely or unsafely. The World Health Organization defines unsafe abortions as those performed by unskilled individuals, with hazardous equipment, or in unsanitary facilities.WEB, World Health Organization, The Prevention and Management of Unsafe Abortion, April 1992, 18 October 2017,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 30 May 2010, live, Legal abortions performed in the developed world are among the safest procedures in medicine.JOURNAL, Grimes, DA, Creinin, MD, Induced abortion: an overview for internists, Annals of Internal Medicine, 140, 8, 620–26, 2004, 15096333, 10.7326/0003-4819-140-8-200404200-00009, In the United States as of 2012, abortion was estimated to be about 14 times safer for women than childbirth. CDC estimated in 2019 that US pregnancy-related mortality was 17.2 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births,JOURNAL, Petersen, Emily E., 2019, Vital Signs: Pregnancy-Related Deaths, United States, 2011–2015, and Strategies for Prevention, 13 States, 2013–2017, MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 68, 18, 423–429, 10.15585/mmwr.mm6818e1, 31071074, 6542194, 0149-2195, while the US abortion mortality rate is 0.7 maternal deaths per 100,000 procedures.BOOK,weblink Read "The Safety and Quality of Abortion Care in the United States" at, 10.17226/24950, 29897702, 2018, 978-0-309-46818-3, Division, Health Medicine, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, Board on Health Care Services, Board on Population Health Public Health Practice, Committee on Reproductive Health Services: Assessing the Safety Quality of Abortion Care in the U.S, In the UK, guidelines of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists state that "Women should be advised that abortion is generally safer than continuing a pregnancy to term."JOURNAL, Donnelly L, Abortion is Safer than Having a Baby, Doctors Say, The Telegraph, 26 February 2011, Worldwide, on average, abortion is safer than carrying a pregnancy to term. A 2007 study reported that "26% of all pregnancies worldwide are terminated by induced abortion," whereas "deaths from improperly performed [abortion] procedures constitute 13% of maternal mortality globally."JOURNAL, Dixon-Mueller R, Germain A, Fertility regulation and reproductive health in the Millennium Development Goals: the search for a perfect indicator, American Journal of Public Health, 97, 1, 45–51, January 2007, 16571693, 1716248, 10.2105/AJPH.2005.068056, In Indonesia in 2000 it was estimated that 2 million pregnancies ended in abortion, 4.5 million pregnancies were carried to term, and 14-16 percent of maternal deaths resulted from abortion.WEB,weblink Abortion in Indonesia, Guttmacher Institute, 2008, 13 October 2019, In the US from 2000 to 2009, abortion had a lower mortality rate than plastic surgery, and a similar or lower mortality rate than running a marathon.JOURNAL, Raymond, EG, Grossman, D, Weaver, MA, Toti, S, Winikoff, B, Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States, Contraception, November 2014, 90, 5, 476–79, 10.1016/j.contraception.2014.07.012, 25152259, Five years after seeking abortion services, women who gave birth after being denied an abortion reported worse health than women who had either first or second trimester abortions.JOURNAL, Ralph, Lauren J., Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla, Grossman, Daniel, Foster, Diana Greene, 11 June 2019, Self-reported Physical Health of Women Who Did and Did Not Terminate Pregnancy After Seeking Abortion Services: A Cohort Study, Annals of Internal Medicine, en, 10.7326/M18-1666, 31181576, 0003-4819, The risk of abortion-related mortality increases with gestational age, but remains lower than that of childbirth.JOURNAL, Raymond, Elizabeth G., Grimes, David A., February 2012, The Comparative Safety of Legal Induced Abortion and Childbirth in the United States, Obstetrics & Gynecology, en, 119, 2, Part 1, 215–219, 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31823fe923, 22270271, 0029-7844, Outpatient abortion is as safe from 64 to 70 days' gestation as it before 63 days.JOURNAL, Abbas, D, Chong, E, Raymond, EG, Outpatient medical abortion is safe and effective through 70 days gestation, Contraception, September 2015, 92, 3, 197–99, 26118638, 10.1016/j.contraception.2015.06.018, Vacuum aspiration in the first trimester is the safest method of surgical abortion, and can be performed in a primary care office, abortion clinic, or hospital. Complications, which are rare, can include uterine perforation, pelvic infection, and retained products of conception requiring a second procedure to evacuate.JOURNAL, Westfall JM, Sophocles A, Burggraf H, Ellis S, Manual vacuum aspiration for first-trimester abortion, Arch Fam Med, 7, 6, 559–62, 1998, 9821831, 10.1001/archfami.7.6.559,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 April 2005, Infections account for one-third of abortion-related deaths in the United States.JOURNAL, Dempsey, A, Serious infection associated with induced abortion in the United States, Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, December 2012, 55, 4, 888–92, 10.1097/GRF.0b013e31826fd8f8, 23090457, The rate of complications of vacuum aspiration abortion in the first trimester is similar regardless of whether the procedure is performed in a hospital, surgical center, or office.JOURNAL, White, Kari, Carroll, Erin, Grossman, Daniel, Complications from first-trimester aspiration abortion: a systematic review of the literature, Contraception, November 2015, 92, 5, 422–38, 10.1016/j.contraception.2015.07.013, 26238336, Preventive antibiotics (such as doxycycline or metronidazole) are typically given before abortion procedures,JOURNAL, ACOG practice bulletin No. 104: antibiotic prophylaxis for gynecologic procedures, Obstetrics & Gynecology, 113, 5, 1180–89, May 2009, 19384149, 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181a6d011, ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins – Gynecology, as they are believed to substantially reduce the risk of postoperative uterine infection;JOURNAL, Sawaya GF, Grady D, Kerlikowske K, Grimes DA, Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis, Obstetrics & Gynecology, 87, 5 Pt 2, 884–90, May 1996, 8677129, however, antibiotics are not routinely given with abortion pills.JOURNAL, Achilles, Sharon L., Reeves, Matthew F., April 2011, Prevention of infection after induced abortion, Contraception, en, 83, 4, 295–309, 10.1016/j.contraception.2010.11.006, 21397086, The rate of failed procedures does not appear to vary significantly depending on whether the abortion is performed by a doctor or a mid-level practitioner.JOURNAL, Barnard, S, Kim, C, Park, MH, Ngo, TD, Doctors or mid-level providers for abortion, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 27 July 2015, 7, CD011242, 10.1002/14651858.CD011242.pub2, 26214844,weblink Complications after second-trimester abortion are similar to those after first-trimester abortion, and depend somewhat on the method chosen. Second-trimester abortions are generally well-tolerated.JOURNAL, Lerma, Klaira, Shaw, Kate A., 15 September 2017, Update on second trimester medical abortion, Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000409, 1473-656X, 28922193, 29, 6, 413–18, Second trimester surgical abortion is well tolerated and increasingly expeditious, There is little difference in terms of safety and efficacy between medical abortion using a combined regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol and surgical abortion (vacuum aspiration) in early first trimester abortions up to 10 weeks gestation. Medical abortion using the prostaglandin analog misoprostol alone is less effective and more painful than medical abortion using a combined regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol or surgical abortion.WEB, Grossman D, 3 September 2004, Medical methods for first trimester abortion: RHL commentary, Reproductive Health Library, Geneva, World Health Organization,weblink 22 November 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 October 2011, WEB, Chien P, Thomson M, 15 December 2006, Medical versus surgical methods for first trimester termination of pregnancy: RHL commentary, Reproductive Health Library, Geneva, World Health Organization,weblink 1 June 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 17 May 2010, live, Some purported risks of abortion are promoted primarily by anti-abortion groups,JOURNAL, Schneider, A. Patrick II, Zainer, Christine, The breast cancer epidemic: 10 facts, The Linacre Quarterly, August 2014, 81, 3, 244–77, 10.1179/2050854914Y.0000000027, 25249706, Catholic Medical Association, an association between [induced abortion] and breast cancer has been found by numerous Western and non-Western researchers from around the world. This is especially true in more recent reports that allow for a sufficient breast cancer latency period since an adoption of a Western life style in sexual and reproductive behavior., etal, free, 4135458, but lack scientific support.JOURNAL, Jasen P, Breast cancer and the politics of abortion in the United States, Medical History, 49, 4, 423–44, October 2005, 16562329, 1251638, 10.1017/S0025727300009145, For example, the question of a link between induced abortion and breast cancer has been investigated extensively. Major medical and scientific bodies (including the World Health Organization, National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, Royal College of OBGYN and American Congress of OBGYN) have concluded that abortion does not cause breast cancer.Position statements of major medical bodies on abortion and breast cancer include:
  • World Health Organization: WEB,weblink Induced abortion does not increase breast cancer risk (Fact sheet N°240), World Health Organization, 6 January 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 13 February 2011,
  • National Cancer Institute: WEB,weblink Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk, National Cancer Institute, 11 January 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 21 December 2010, live, 20 February 2003,
  • American Cancer Society: WEB,weblink American Cancer Society, 23 September 2010, 20 June 2011, Is Abortion Linked to Breast Cancer?, At this time, the scientific evidence does not support the notion that abortion of any kind raises the risk of breast cancer.,weblink" title="">weblink 5 June 2011, live,
  • Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists: WEB,weblink The Care of Women Requesting Induced Abortion, 9, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 29 June 2008, Induced abortion is not associated with an increase in breast cancer risk., dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 July 2013,
  • American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: WEB,weblink ACOG Finds No Link Between Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk, 31 July 2003, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 11 January 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 2 January 2011, dead,
In the past even illegality has not automatically meant that the abortions were unsafe. Referring to the U.S., historian Linda Gordon states: "In fact, illegal abortions in this country have an impressive safety record."BOOK, Gordon, Linda, The Moral Property of Women, University of Illinois Press, 2002, 0-252-02764-7, {{rp|25|}} According to Rickie Solinger,{{rp|4}}}}Authors Jerome Bates and Edward Zawadzki describe the case of an illegal abortionist in the eastern U.S. in the early 20th century who was proud of having successfully completed 13,844 abortions without any fatality.BOOK, Bates, Jerome E., Zawadzki, Edward S., Criminal Abortion: A Study in Medical Sociology, Charles C. Thomas, 1964, 978-0-398-00109-4, {{rp|59}}In 1870s New York City the famous abortionist/midwife Madame Restell (Anna Trow Lohman) appears to have lost very few women among her more than 100,000 patientsBOOK, Keller, Allan, Scandalous Lady: The Life and Times of Madame Restell, Atheneum, 1981, 978-0-689-11213-3, —a lower mortality rate than the childbirth mortality rate at the time. In 1936 the prominent professor of obstetrics and gynecology Frederick J. Taussig wrote that a cause of increasing mortality during the years of illegality in the U.S. was that{{rp|223}}}}

Mental health

Current evidence finds no relationship between most induced abortions and mental-health problemsJOURNAL, Horvath, S, Schreiber, CA, Unintended Pregnancy, Induced Abortion, and Mental Health, Current Psychiatry Reports, 14 September 2017, 19, 11, 77, 10.1007/s11920-017-0832-4, 28905259, other than those expected for any unwanted pregnancy. A report by the American Psychological Association concluded that a woman's first abortion is not a threat to mental health when carried out in the first trimester, with such women no more likely to have mental-health problems than those carrying an unwanted pregnancy to term; the mental-health outcome of a woman's second or greater abortion is less certain.PRESS RELEASE, American Psychological Association, APA Task Force Finds Single Abortion Not a Threat to Women's Mental Health, 12 August 2008, 7 September 2011,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 6 September 2011, WEB,weblink Report of the APA Task Force on Mental Health and Abortion, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 13 August 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2010, Some older reviews concluded that abortion was associated with an increased risk of psychological problems;JOURNAL, Coleman, PK, Abortion and mental health: quantitative synthesis and analysis of research published 1995–2009, The British Journal of Psychiatry, September 2011, 199, 3, 180–86, 10.1192/bjp.bp.110.077230, 21881096, however, they did not use an appropriate control group.Although some studies show negative mental-health outcomes in women who choose abortions after the first trimester because of fetal abnormalities,WEB,weblink Mental Health and Abortion, American Psychological Association, 2008, 18 April 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 19 April 2012, dmy-all, more rigorous research would be needed to show this conclusively.JOURNAL, Steinberg, J.R., Later Abortions and Mental Health: Psychological Experiences of Women Having Later Abortions – A Critical Review of Research, 10.1016/j.whi.2011.02.002, Women's Health Issues, 21, 3, S44–S48, 2011, 21530839, Some proposed negative psychological effects of abortion have been referred to by anti-abortion advocates as a separate condition called "post-abortion syndrome", but this is not recognized by medical or psychological professionals in the United States.JOURNAL, Kelly, Kimberly, The spread of 'Post Abortion Syndrome' as social diagnosis, Social Science & Medicine, February 2014, 102, 18–25, 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.11.030, 24565137,

Unsafe abortion

(File:RussianAbortionPoster.jpg|thumb|Soviet poster circa 1925, warning against midwives performing abortions. Title translation: "Abortions performed by either trained or self-taught midwives not only maim the woman, they also often lead to death.")Women seeking an abortion may use unsafe methods, especially when abortion is legally restricted. They may attempt self-induced abortion or seek the help of a person without proper medical training or facilities. This can lead to severe complications, such as incomplete abortion, sepsis, hemorrhage, and damage to internal organs.JOURNAL, Okonofua, F., Abortion and maternal mortality in the developing world, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 28, 11, 974–79, 2006, 17169222,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2012, 10.1016/S1701-2163(16)32307-6, Unsafe abortions are a major cause of injury and death among women worldwide. Although data are imprecise, it is estimated that approximately 20 million unsafe abortions are performed annually, with 97% taking place in developing countries. Unsafe abortions are believed to result in millions of injuries.JOURNAL, Haddad, LB, Nour, NM, Unsafe abortion: unnecessary maternal mortality, Reviews in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2, 2, 122–26, 2009, 19609407, 2709326, Estimates of deaths vary according to methodology, and have ranged from 37,000 to 70,000 in the past decade;JOURNAL, Lozano, R, Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, Lancet, 15 December 2012, 380, 9859, 2095–128, 23245604, 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0, 10536/DRO/DU:30050819, free, deaths from unsafe abortion account for around 13% of all maternal deaths.BOOK, Darney, Leon Speroff, Philip D., A clinical guide for contraception, 2010, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 978-1-60831-610-6, 406, 5th, The World Health Organization believes that mortality has fallen since the 1990s.BOOK, World Health Organisation, Unsafe abortion: global and regional estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated mortality in 2008, World Health Organisation, 2011, 6th, 27, 978-92-4-150111-8,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 March 2014, To reduce the number of unsafe abortions, public health organizations have generally advocated emphasizing the legalization of abortion, training of medical personnel, and ensuring access to reproductive-health services.JOURNAL, Berer M, Making abortions safe: a matter of good public health policy and practice, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78, 5, 580–92, 2000, 10859852, 2560758, In response, opponents of abortion point out that abortion bans in no way affect prenatal care for women who choose to carry their fetus to term. The Dublin Declaration on Maternal Health, signed in 2012, notes, "the prohibition of abortion does not affect, in any way, the availability of optimal care to pregnant women."WEB,weblink Translations, Dublin Declaration, 28 October 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 October 2015, dmy-all, A major factor in whether abortions are performed safely or not is the legal standing of abortion. Countries with restrictive abortion laws have higher rates of unsafe abortion and similar overall abortion rates compared to those where abortion is legal and available.JOURNAL, Sedgh G, Henshaw S, Singh S, Ahman E, Shah IH, Induced abortion: estimated rates and trends worldwide, 2007, Lancet, 370, 9595, 1338–45, 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61575-X, 17933648,, WEB, World Health Organization, 2007, 7 March 2011,weblink Unsafe abortion: Global and regional estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated mortality in 2003,weblink" title="">weblink 16 February 2011, live, JOURNAL, Berer M, National laws and unsafe abortion: the parameters of change, Reproductive Health Matters, 12, 24 Suppl, 1–8, November 2004, 15938152, 10.1016/S0968-8080(04)24024-1, JOURNAL, Culwell, Kelly R., Hurwitz, Manuelle, Addressing barriers to safe abortion, International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, May 2013, 121, S16–S19, 10.1016/j.ijgo.2013.02.003, 23477700, For example, the 1996 legalization of abortion in South Africa had an immediate positive impact on the frequency of abortion-related complications,JOURNAL, Jewkes R, Rees H, Dickson K, Brown H, Levin J, The impact of age on the epidemiology of incomplete abortions in South Africa after legislative change, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 112, 3, 355–59, March 2005, 15713153, 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2004.00422.x, with abortion-related deaths dropping by more than 90%.JOURNAL, Bateman C, Maternal mortalities 90% down as legal TOPs more than triple, South African Medical Journal, 97, 12, 1238–42, December 2007, 18264602,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 30 August 2017, Similar reductions in maternal mortality have been observed after other countries have liberalized their abortion laws, such as Romania and Nepal.JOURNAL, Conti, Jennifer A., Brant, Ashley R., Shumaker, Heather D., Reeves, Matthew F., Update on abortion policy, Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 28, 6, November 2016, 517–521, 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000324, 27805969, A 2011 study concluded that in the United States, some state-level anti-abortion laws are correlated with lower rates of abortion in that state.JOURNAL, New, M.J., Analyzing the Effect of Anti-Abortion U.S. State Legislation in the Post-Casey Era, State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 15 February 2011, 11, 1, 28–47, 10.1177/1532440010387397,weblink The analysis, however, did not take into account travel to other states without such laws to obtain an abortion.JOURNAL, Medoff, M.H., Dennis, C., Another Critical Review of New's Reanalysis of the Impact of Antiabortion Legislation, State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 21 July 2014, 14, 3, 269–76, 10.1177/1532440014535476, In addition, a lack of access to effective contraception contributes to unsafe abortion. It has been estimated that the incidence of unsafe abortion could be reduced by up to 75% (from 20 million to 5 million annually) if modern family planning and maternal health services were readily available globally.WEB,weblink Facts on Investing in Family Planning and Maternal and Newborn Health, Guttmacher Institute, 2010, 24 May 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 March 2012, Rates of such abortions may be difficult to measure because they can be reported variously as miscarriage, "induced miscarriage", "menstrual regulation", "mini-abortion", and "regulation of a delayed/suspended menstruation".WEB,weblink Unsafe Abortion – The Preventable Pandemic, 16 January 2010, Grimes, David A., live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 March 2014, dmy-all, JOURNAL, Nations, MK, Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil, Social Science & Medicine, 1997, 44, 12, 1833–45, 10.1016/s0277-9536(96)00293-6, 9194245, Forty percent of the world's women are able to access therapeutic and elective abortions within gestational limits, while an additional 35 percent have access to legal abortion if they meet certain physical, mental, or socioeconomic criteria. While maternal mortality seldom results from safe abortions, unsafe abortions result in 70,000 deaths and 5 million disabilities per year. Complications of unsafe abortion account for approximately an eighth of maternal mortalities worldwide,BOOK, Maclean, Gaynor,weblink XI. Dimension, Dynamics and Diversity: A 3D Approach to Appraising Global Maternal and Neonatal Health Initiatives, 299–300, Trends in Midwifery Research, Randell E., Balin, Nova Publishers, 2005, 978-1-59454-477-4, live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 March 2015, though this varies by region.JOURNAL, Salter, C., Johnson, H.B., Hengen, N., 1997,weblink Care for Postabortion Complications: Saving Women's Lives, Population Reports, 25, 1, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health,weblink" title="">weblink dead, 7 December 2009, Secondary infertility caused by an unsafe abortion affects an estimated 24 million women. The rate of unsafe abortions has increased from 44% to 49% between 1995 and 2008. Health education, access to family planning, and improvements in health care during and after abortion have been proposed to address this phenomenon.WEB, Packages of interventions: Family planning, safe abortion care, maternal, newborn and child health, UNICEF, UNFPA, WHO, World Bank, 2010, 31 December 2010,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 November 2010,

Live birth

In 2019, a US Senate Bill entitled the "Born-Alive Abortion Survivors Protection Act" raised the issue of live birth after abortion.WEB,weblink The Facts on the Born-Alive Debate, Robertson, Lori, 4 March 2019,, 5 August 2019, NEWS,weblink 'Executing Babies': Here Are the Facts Behind Trump's Misleading Abortion Tweet, Grady, Denise, 26 February 2019, The New York Times, 5 August 2019, 0362-4331, The bill would mandate that medical providers resuscitate neonates delivered showing signs of life during an abortion process. During the debate around this issue, US Republicans falsely alleged that medical providers "execute" live-born babies. Existing US laws would punish execution as homicide. Furthermore, US abortion experts refute the claim that a "born-alive" fetus is a common event and reject laws that would mandate resuscitation against the wishes of the parents.JOURNAL, Jatlaoui, Tara C., 2018, Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2015, MMWR. Surveillance Summaries, 67, 13, 1–45, 10.15585/mmwr.ss6713a1, 30462632, 6289084, 1546-0738, Only 1.3% of abortions occur after 21 weeks of pregnancy in the US. Although it is very uncommon, women undergoing surgical abortion after this gestational age sometimes give birth to a fetus that may survive briefly.JOURNAL, November 2011, The Care of Women Requesting Induced Abortion. Evidence-Based Clinical Guideline no. 7,weblink live, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists,weblink 14 November 2015, 31 October 2015, Recommendation 6.21 Feticide should be performed before medical abortion after 21 weeks and 6 days of gestation to ensure that there is no risk of a live birth., JOURNAL, Society of Family Planning, February 2011, Clinical Guidelines, Labor induction abortion in the second trimester,weblink Contraception, 84, 1, 4–18, 10.1016/j.contraception.2011.02.005, 21664506, Transient survival with misoprostol for labor induction abortion at greater than 18 weeks ranges from 0% to 50% and has been observed in up to 13% of abortions performed with high-dose oxytocin., JOURNAL, Fletcher, Isada, Johnson, Evans, August 1992, Fetal intracardiac potassium chloride injection to avoid the hopeless resuscitation of an abnormal abortus: II. Ethical issues, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 80, 2, 310–13, 1635751, following later abortions at greater than 20 weeks, the rare but catastrophic occurrence of live births can lead to fractious controversy over neonatal management., The periviable period is considered to be between 20 and 25 weeks gestation.WEB,weblink Periviable Birth – ACOG,, 14 July 2019, Long-term survival is possible after 22 weeks.JOURNAL, May 2010, Termination of Pregnancy for Fetal Abnormality,weblink live, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 29–31,weblink 22 December 2015, 26 October 2015, However, odds of long-term survival between 22 and 23 weeks are 2–3 percent and odds of survival between 23 and 24 weeks are 20 percent.JOURNAL, Younge, Noelle, Goldstein, Ricki F., Bann, Carla M., Hintz, Susan R., Patel, Ravi M., Smith, P. Brian, Bell, Edward F., Rysavy, Matthew A., Duncan, Andrea F., 16 February 2017, Survival and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes among Periviable Infants, New England Journal of Medicine, 376, 7, 617–628, 10.1056/NEJMoa1605566, 0028-4793, 28199816, 5456289, "Intact survival", which means survival of a neonate without subsequent damage to organs such as the brain or bowel is 1% at 22 weeks and 13% at 23 weeks. Survival odds increase with increasing gestational age.If medical staff observe signs of life, they may be required to provide care: emergency medical care if the child has a good chance of survival and palliative care if not.JOURNAL, Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 2007, Critical care decisions in fetal and neonatal medicine: a guide to the report,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, 29 October 2015, Under English law, fetuses have no independent legal status. Once born, babies have the same rights to life as other people., JOURNAL, Gerri R. Baer, Robert M. Nelson, 2007, Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention. C: A Review of Ethical Issues Involved in Premature Birth,weblink live, Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Understanding Premature Birth and Assuring Healthy Outcomes,weblink" title="">weblink 31 December 2015, In 2002, the 107th U.S. Congress passed the Born-Alive Infants Protection Act of 2001. This law established personhood for all infants who are born "at any stage of development" who breathe, have a heartbeat, or "definite movement of voluntary muscles", regardless of whether the birth was due to labor or induced abortion., WEB,weblink H.R. 2175 (107th): Born-Alive Infants Protection Act of 2002, Chabot, Steve, 5 August 2002,,weblink 14 November 2015, live, 30 October 2015, The term "born alive" is defined as the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of that member, at any stage of development, who after such expulsion or extraction breathes or has a beating heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of the voluntary muscles, regardless of whether the umbilical cord has been cut, and regardless of whether the expulsion or extraction occurs as a result of natural or induced labor, cesarean section, or induced abortion., Pub.L. 107-207, Induced fetal demise before termination of pregnancy after 20–21 weeks gestation is recommended by some sources to avoid this and to comply with the US Partial Birth Abortion Ban.JOURNAL, June 2013, Practice Bulletin: Second-Trimester Abortion,weblink live, Obstetrics & Gynecology, 121, 6, 1394–1406, 10.1097/, 23812485,weblink" title="">weblink 14 November 2015, 30 October 2015, With medical abortion after 20 weeks of gestation, induced fetal demise may be preferable to the woman or provider in order to avoid transient fetal survival after expulsion., JOURNAL, Higginbotham Susan, January 2010, Clinical Guidelines: Induction of fetal demise before abortion,weblink live, Contraception, 81, 6, 462–73, 10.1016/j.contraception.2010.01.018, 20472112,weblink" title="">weblink 23 November 2015, 26 October 2015, Inducing fetal demise before induction termination avoids signs of live birth that may have beneficial emotional, ethical and legal consequences., JOURNAL, Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women, November 2014, Committee Opinion 613: Increasing Access to Abortion,weblink live, Obstetrics & Gynecology, 124, 5, 1060–65, 10.1097/01.aog.0000456326.88857.31, 25437742,weblink" title="">weblink 28 October 2015, 28 October 2015, "Partial-birth" abortion bans – The federal Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 (upheld by the Supreme Court in 2007) makes it a federal crime to perform procedures that fall within the definition of so-called "partial-birth abortion" contained in the statute, with no exception for procedures necessary to preserve the health of the woman...physicians and lawyers have interpreted the banned procedures as including intact dilation and evacuation unless fetal demise occurs before surgery., JOURNAL, 2015, 2015 Clinical Policy Guidelines,weblink live, National Abortion Federation,weblink" title="">weblink 12 August 2015, 30 October 2015, Policy Statement: Medical induction abortion is a safe and effective method for termination of pregnancies beyond the first trimester when performed by trained clinicians in medical offices, freestanding clinics, ambulatory surgery centers, and hospitals. Feticidal agents may be particularly important when issues of viability arise., JOURNAL, Milliez Jacques, 2008, FIGO Committee Report: Ethical aspects concerning termination of pregnancy following prenatal diagnosis, International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 102, 1, 97–98, 10.1016/j.ijgo.2008.03.002, 18423641, Termination of pregnancy following prenatal diagnosis after 22 weeks must be preceded by a feticide., Induced fetal demise does not improve the safety of an abortion procedure and may incur risks to the health of the woman having the abortion.


There are two commonly used methods of measuring the incidence of abortion:
  • Abortion rate â€“ number of abortions per 1000 women between 15 and 44 years of age
  • Abortion percentage â€“ number of abortions out of 100 known pregnancies (pregnancies include live births, abortions and miscarriages)
In many places, where abortion is illegal or carries a heavy social stigma, medical reporting of abortion is not reliable. For this reason, estimates of the incidence of abortion must be made without determining certainty related to standard error.The number of abortions performed worldwide seems to have remained stable in recent years, with 41.6 million having been performed in 2003 and 43.8 million having been performed in 2008. The abortion rate worldwide was 28 per 1000 women, though it was 24 per 1000 women for developed countries and 29 per 1000 women for developing countries. The same 2012 study indicated that in 2008, the estimated abortion percentage of known pregnancies was at 21% worldwide, with 26% in developed countries and 20% in developing countries.On average, the incidence of abortion is similar in countries with restrictive abortion laws and those with more liberal access to abortion. However, restrictive abortion laws are associated with increases in the percentage of abortions performed unsafely.JOURNAL, Shah I, Ahman E, Unsafe abortion: global and regional incidence, trends, consequences, and challenges, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 31, 12, 1149–58, December 2009, 20085681, 10.1016/s1701-2163(16)34376-6, However, a woman's chance of having an abortion is similar whether she lives in a developed or a developing region: in 2003 the rates were 26 abortions per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 in developed areas and 29 per 1000 in developing areas. The main difference is in safety, with abortion being safe and easily accessible in developed countries and generally restricted and unsafe in most developing countries, NEWS, Rosenthal, Elizabeth,weblink Legal or Not, Abortion Rates Compare, The New York Times, 12 October 2007, 18 July 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 August 2011, The unsafe abortion rate in developing countries is partly attributable to lack of access to modern contraceptives; according to the Guttmacher Institute, providing access to contraceptives would result in about 14.5 million fewer unsafe abortions and 38,000 fewer deaths from unsafe abortion annually worldwide.WEB,weblink Facts on Investing in Family Planning and Maternal and Newborn Health, Guttmacher Institute, November 2010, 24 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 October 2011, The rate of legal, induced abortion varies extensively worldwide. According to the report of employees of Guttmacher Institute it ranged from 7 per 1000 women (Germany and Switzerland) to 30 per 1000 women (Estonia) in countries with complete statistics in 2008. The proportion of pregnancies that ended in induced abortion ranged from about 10% (Israel, the Netherlands and Switzerland) to 30% (Estonia) in the same group, though it might be as high as 36% in Hungary and Romania, whose statistics were deemed incomplete.JOURNAL, Sedgh, G., Singh, S., Henshaw, S.K., Bankole, A., Legal Abortion Worldwide in 2008: Levels and Recent Trends, 10.1363/4318811, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 43, 3, 188–98, 2011, 21884387,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 January 2012, National Institute of Statistics, weblink" title="">Romanian Statistical Yearbook, chapter 2, page 62, 2011An American study in 2002 concluded that about half of women having abortions were using a form of contraception at the time of becoming pregnant. Inconsistent use was reported by half of those using condoms and three-quarters of those using the birth control pill; 42% of those using condoms reported failure through slipping or breakage.JOURNAL, 10.2307/3097748, Jones, R.K., Darroch, J.E., Henshaw, S.K., Contraceptive Use Among U.S. Women Having Abortions in 2000–2001, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 34, 6, 294–303, 2002, 12558092,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2006, 3097748, The Guttmacher Institute estimated that "most abortions in the United States are obtained by minority women" because minority women "have much higher rates of unintended pregnancy".JOURNAL, SA, Cohen,weblink Abortion and Women of Color: The Bigger Picture, Guttmacher Policy Review, 2008, 11, 3, live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 September 2008, The abortion rate may also be expressed as the average number of abortions a woman has during her reproductive years; this is referred to as total abortion rate (TAR).

Gestational age and method

{{multiple image| align = right| image1 = UK abortion by gestational age 2004 histogram.svg| width1 = 200| alt1 = | caption1 = | image2 = US abortion by gestational age 2004 histogram.svg| width2 = 200| alt2 = | caption2 = | footer = Histogram of abortions by gestational age in England and Wales during 2004. (left) Abortion in the United States by gestational age, 2004. (right)}}Abortion rates also vary depending on the stage of pregnancy and the method practiced. In 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that 26% of reported legal induced abortions in the United States were known to have been obtained at less than 6 weeks' gestation, 18% at 7 weeks, 15% at 8 weeks, 18% at 9 through 10 weeks, 10% at 11 through 12 weeks, 6% at 13 through 15 weeks, 4% at 16 through 20 weeks and 1% at more than 21 weeks. 91% of these were classified as having been done by "curettage" (suction-aspiration, dilation and curettage, dilation and evacuation), 8% by "medical" means (mifepristone), >1% by "intrauterine instillation" (saline or prostaglandin), and 1% by "other" (including hysterotomy and hysterectomy).JOURNAL, Strauss, L.T., Gamble, S.B., Parker, W.Y., Cook, D.A., Zane, S.B., Hamdan, S., Abortion surveillance – United States, 2003, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries, 55, SS11, 1–32, 2006, 17119534,weblink Centers for Disease Control Prevention, live,weblink 2 June 2017, According to the CDC, due to data collection difficulties the data must be viewed as tentative and some fetal deaths reported beyond 20 weeks may be natural deaths erroneously classified as abortions if the removal of the dead fetus is accomplished by the same procedure as an induced abortion.WEB, The Guttmacher Institute, The limitations of U.S. statistics on abortion, Issues in Brief, New York, 1997,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 4 April 2012, dead, The Guttmacher Institute estimated there were 2,200 intact dilation and extraction procedures in the US during 2000; this accounts for The rate of cancer during pregnancy is 0.02–1%, and in many cases, cancer of the mother leads to consideration of abortion to protect the life of the mother, or in response to the potential damage that may occur to the fetus during treatment. This is particularly true for cervical cancer, the most common type of which occurs in 1 of every 2,000–13,000 pregnancies, for which initiation of treatment "cannot co-exist with preservation of fetal life (unless neoadjuvant chemotherapy is chosen)". Very early stage cervical cancers (I and IIa) may be treated by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection, radiation therapy, or both, while later stages are treated by radiotherapy. Chemotherapy may be used simultaneously. Treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy also involves fetal considerations, because lumpectomy is discouraged in favor of modified radical mastectomy unless late-term pregnancy allows follow-up radiation therapy to be administered after the birth.JOURNAL,weblink Cancer in pregnancy: maternal and fetal implications, 11476351, Weisz, B, Schiff, E, Lishner, M, 2001, 7, 384–393, 4, Human Reproduction Update, 10.1093/humupd/7.4.384, live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 October 2015, Exposure to a single chemotherapy drug is estimated to cause a 7.5–17% risk of teratogenic effects on the fetus, with higher risks for multiple drug treatments. Treatment with more than 40 Gy of radiation usually causes spontaneous abortion. Exposure to much lower doses during the first trimester, especially 8 to 15 weeks of development, can cause intellectual disability or microcephaly, and exposure at this or subsequent stages can cause reduced intrauterine growth and birth weight. Exposures above 0.005–0.025 Gy cause a dose-dependent reduction in IQ. It is possible to greatly reduce exposure to radiation with abdominal shielding, depending on how far the area to be irradiated is from the fetus.JOURNAL, Mayr, NA, Wen, BC, Saw, CB, Radiation therapy during pregnancy, Obstetrics & Gynecology Clinics of North America, 1998, 25, 2, 301–21, 9629572, 10.1016/s0889-8545(05)70006-1, JOURNAL, Fenig E, Mishaeli M, Kalish Y, Lishner M, Pregnancy and radiation., Cancer Treatment Reviews, 2001, 27, 1, 1–7, 11237773, 10.1053/ctrv.2000.0193, The process of birth itself may also put the mother at risk. "Vaginal delivery may result in dissemination of neoplastic cells into lymphovascular channels, haemorrhage, cervical laceration and implantation of malignant cells in the episiotomy site, while abdominal delivery may delay the initiation of non-surgical treatment."JOURNAL, Li WW, Yau TN, Leung CW, Pong WM, Chan MY, Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix complicating pregnancy, Hong Kong Medical Journal, 2009, 15, 1, 69–72, 19197101,

History and religion

File:AngkorWatAbortionAD1150.JPG|thumb|Bas-relief at Angkor Wat, Cambodia, c. 1150, depicting a demon inducing an abortion by pounding the abdomen of a pregnant woman with a pestlepestle File:FrenchPeriodicalPills-January61845,BostonDailyTimes.jpg|thumb|"French Periodical Pills". An example of a clandestine advertisement published in a January 1845 edition of the Boston Daily TimesBoston Daily TimesSince ancient times abortions have been done using herbal medicines, sharp tools, with force, or through other traditional methods. Induced abortion has long history and can be traced back to civilizations as varied as China under Shennong (c. 2700 BCE), Ancient Egypt with its Ebers Papyrus (c. 1550 BCE), and the Roman Empire in the time of Juvenal (c. 200 CE). There is evidence to suggest that pregnancies were terminated through a number of methods, including the administration of abortifacient herbs, the use of sharpened implements, the application of abdominal pressure, and other techniques. One of the earliest known artistic representations of abortion is in a bas relief at Angkor Wat (c. 1150). Found in a series of friezes that represent judgment after death in Hindu and Buddhist culture, it depicts the technique of abdominal abortion.Some medical scholars and abortion opponents have suggested that the Hippocratic Oath forbade Ancient Greek physicians from performing abortions; other scholars disagree with this interpretation, and state that the medical texts of Hippocratic Corpus contain descriptions of abortive techniques right alongside the Oath.BOOK, Steven, Miles, Steven H. Miles, The Hippocratic Oath and the Ethics of Medicine, 2005, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-518820-2, The physician Scribonius Largus wrote in 43 CE that the Hippocratic Oath prohibits abortion, as did Soranus, although apparently not all doctors adhered to it strictly at the time. According to Soranus' 1st or 2nd century CE work Gynaecology, one party of medical practitioners banished all abortives as required by the Hippocratic Oath; the other party—to which he belonged—was willing to prescribe abortions, but only for the sake of the mother's health.WEB,weblink Scribonius Largus and the Oath of Hippocrates,, BOOK, Soranus, Owsei Temkin, Soranus' Gynecology, 1956, JHU Press, I.19.60,weblink 6 October 2015, live,weblink 15 October 2015, 9780801843204, Aristotle, in his treatise on government Politics (350 BCE), condemns infanticide as a means of population control. He preferred abortion in such cases, with the restrictionBOOK, Paul, Carrick, Medical Ethics in the Ancient World, 2001, Georgetown University Press, 978-0-87840-849-8, "[that it] must be practised on it before it has developed sensation and life; for the line between lawful and unlawful abortion will be marked by the fact of having sensation and being alive".WEB,weblink Aristotle, Politics, Rackham, H., 1944, Harvard University Press, 21 June 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 22 June 2011, In Christianity, Pope Sixtus V (1585–90) was the first Pope before 1869 to declare that abortion is homicide regardless of the stage of pregnancy;ENCYCLOPEDIA, Katherine, Brind'Amour, Effraenatam, Embryo Project Encyclopedia, 2007,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 13 September 2011, Arizona State University, dead, and his pronouncement of 1588 was reversed three years later by his successor. Through most of its history the Catholic Church was divided on whether it believed that abortion was murder, and it did not begin vigorously opposing abortion until the 19th century. In fact, several historians have written that prior to the 19th century most Catholic authors did not regard termination of pregnancy before "quickening" or "ensoulment" as an abortion.Joan Cadden, "Western medicine and natural philosophy," in Vern L. Bullough and James A. Brundage, eds., Handbook of Medieval Sexuality, Garland, 1996, pp. 51–80.Cyril C. Means, Jr., "A historian's view," in Robert E. Hall, ed., Abortion in a Changing World, vol. 1, Columbia University Press, 1970, pp. 16–24.John M. Riddle, "Contraception and early abortion in the Middle Ages," in Vern L. Bullough and James A. Brundage, eds., Handbook of Medieval Sexuality, Garland, 1996, pp. 261–77, {{ISBN|978-0-8153-1287-1}}. Statements made in 1992 in the Catechism of the Catholic Church opposed abortion.WEB, Catechism of the Catholic Church - The fifth commandment,weblink, 4 December 2019, A 1995 survey reported that Catholic women are as likely as the general population to terminate a pregnancy, Protestants are less likely to do so, and Evangelical Christians are the least likely to do so. Islamic tradition has traditionally permitted abortion until a point in time when Muslims believe the soul enters the fetus, considered by various theologians to be at conception, 40 days after conception, 120 days after conception, or quickening.WEB,weblink Religions â€“ Islam: Abortion, BBC, 10 December 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 October 2011, However, abortion is largely heavily restricted or forbidden in areas of high Islamic faith such as the Middle East and North Africa.WEB, Abortion in the Middle East and North Africa,weblink live, Dabash, Rasha, Farzaneh, Roudi-Fahimi, Population Research Bureau,weblink" title="">weblink 6 October 2011, 2008, In Europe and North America, abortion techniques advanced starting in the 17th century. However, conservatism by most physicians with regards to sexual matters prevented the wide expansion of safe abortion techniques. Other medical practitioners in addition to some physicians advertised their services, and they were not widely regulated until the 19th century, when the practice (sometimes called restellism)NEWS, Dannenfelser, Marjorie, The Suffragettes Would Not Agree With Feminists Today on Abortion,weblink 4 November 2015, Time, 4 November 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink 6 November 2015, was banned in both the United States and the United Kingdom. Church groups as well as physicians were highly influential in anti-abortion movements. In the US, according to some sources, abortion was more dangerous than childbirth until about 1930 when incremental improvements in abortion procedures relative to childbirth made abortion safer.By 1930, medical procedures in the US had improved for both childbirth and abortion but not equally, and induced abortion in the first trimester had become safer than childbirth. In 1973, Roe v. Wade acknowledged that abortion in the first trimester was safer than childbirth:
  • BOOK, Time communication 1940–1989: retrospective, Time Inc., 1989, The 1970s, Blackmun was also swayed by the fact that most abortion prohibitions were enacted in the 19th century when the procedure was more dangerous than now.,
  • BOOK, Will, George, Suddenly: the American idea abroad and at home, 1986–1990, Free Press, 1990, 312, 0-02-934435-2,weblink
  • WEB,weblink Abortion Law Development: A Brief Overview, Lewis, J., Shimabukuro, Jon O., Congressional Research Service, 28 January 2001, 1 May 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2011, dead, BOOK,weblink 1, Encyclopedia of American law, Schultz, David Andrew, Infobase Publishing, 2002, 0-8160-4329-9, live,weblink 9 December 2015,
  • WEB, Birthing a Nation: Fertility Control Access and the 19th Century Demographic Transition, Lahey, Joanna N., Pomona College, 24 September 2009,weblink PDF; preliminary version, Colloquium, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 January 2012, However, other sources maintain that in the 19th century early abortions under the hygienic conditions in which midwives usually worked were relatively safe.Charles A. Lee, "Report of a trial for murder," American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. XXII (1838), pp. 351–53.Benjamin Bailey, "Induction of abortion and premature labor," North American Journal of Homeopathy, vol. XI, no. 3 (1896), pp. 144–50.Keith Simpson, Forensic Medicine, Edward Arnold Publishers, 1969 [first published 1947], pp. 173–74.
In addition, some commentators have written that, despite improved medical procedures, the period from the 1930s until legalization also saw more zealous enforcement of anti-abortion laws, and concomitantly an increasing control of abortion providers by organized crime.Leslie J. Reagan, When Abortion Was a Crime: Women, Medicine, and Law in the United States, 1867–1973, University of California Press, 1997.Max Evans, Madam Millie: Bordellos from Silver City to Ketchikan, University of New Mexico Press, 2002, pp. 209–18, 230, 267–86, 305.James Donner, Women in Trouble: The Truth about Abortion in America, Monarch Books, 1959.Ann Oakley, The Captured Womb, Basil Blackwell, 1984, p. 91.Rickie Solinger, The Abortionist: A Woman Against the Law, The Free Press, 1994, pp. xi, 5, 16–17, 157–75.Soviet Russia (1919), Iceland (1935) and Sweden (1938) were among the first countries to legalize certain or all forms of abortion.WEB,weblink Abortion Law, History & Religion, 23 March 2008, Childbirth By Choice Trust,weblink" title="">weblink 12 January 2013, {{cbignore}} In 1935 Nazi Germany, a law was passed permitting abortions for those deemed "hereditarily ill", while women considered of German stock were specifically prohibited from having abortions.For sources describing abortion policy in Nazi Germany, see:
  • BOOK, Friedlander, Henry, Henry Friedlander, The origins of Nazi genocide: from euthanasia to the final solution, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1995,weblink 30, 978-0-8078-4675-9, 60191622, live,weblink 29 July 2016,
  • BOOK, Robert, Proctor, Robert N. Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1988, 122–23, 366, 978-0-674-74578-0, 20760638,
  • BOOK, Margaret L., Arnot, Cornelie Usborne, Gender and Crime in Modern Europe, Routledge, New York, 1999, 231, 978-1-85728-745-5, 186748539,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, DiMeglio, Peter M., Helen Tierney, Women's studies encyclopedia, Germany 1933–1945 (National Socialism), 1999, Greenwood Press, Westport, CN, 978-0-313-31072-0, 38504469,weblink 589, live,weblink 15 October 2015, Beginning in the second half of the twentieth century, abortion was legalized in a greater number of countries.

Society and culture

Abortion debate

Induced abortion has long been the source of considerable debate. Ethical, moral, philosophical, biological, religious and legal issues surrounding abortion are related to value systems. Opinions of abortion may be about fetal rights, governmental authority, and women's rights.In both public and private debate, arguments presented in favor of or against abortion access focus on either the moral permissibility of an induced abortion, or justification of laws permitting or restricting abortion.BOOK, Courtney, Farrell, Abortion Debate, ABDO Publishing Company, 2010, 6–7, 978-1-61785-264-0, The World Medical Association Declaration on Therapeutic Abortion notes, "circumstances bringing the interests of a mother into conflict with the interests of her unborn child create a dilemma and raise the question as to whether or not the pregnancy should be deliberately terminated."WEB,weblink WMA Declaration on Therapeutic Abortion, World Medical Association, 28 October 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 October 2015, Abortion debates, especially pertaining to abortion laws, are often spearheaded by groups advocating one of these two positions. Anti-abortion groups who favor greater legal restrictions on abortion, including complete prohibition, most often describe themselves as "pro-life" while abortion rights groups who are against such legal restrictions describe themselves as "pro-choice".Farrell, p. 8 Generally, the former position argues that a human fetus is a human person with a right to live, making abortion morally the same as murder. The latter position argues that a woman has certain reproductive rights, especially the right to decide whether or not to carry a pregnancy to term.

Modern abortion law

{{See also|History of abortion law debate}}{{AbortionLawsMap|size=330px}}Current laws pertaining to abortion are diverse. Religious, moral, and cultural factors continue to influence abortion laws throughout the world. The right to life, the right to liberty, the right to security of person, and the right to reproductive health are major issues of human rights that sometimes constitute the basis for the existence or absence of abortion laws.In jurisdictions where abortion is legal, certain requirements must often be met before a woman may obtain a safe, legal abortion (an abortion performed without the woman's consent is considered feticide). These requirements usually depend on the age of the fetus, often using a trimester-based system to regulate the window of legality, or as in the U.S., on a doctor's evaluation of the fetus' viability. Some jurisdictions require a waiting period before the procedure, prescribe the distribution of information on fetal development, or require that parents be contacted if their minor daughter requests an abortion.WEB,weblink The Impact of State Mandatory Counseling and Waiting Period Laws on Abortion: A Literature Review, Guttmacher Institute, Theodore J. Joyce, Stanley K. Henshaw, Amanda Dennis, Lawrence B. Finer, Kelly Blanchard, April 2009, 31 December 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 16 March 2012, dead, Other jurisdictions may require that a woman obtain the consent of the fetus' father before aborting the fetus, that abortion providers inform women of health risks of the procedure—sometimes including "risks" not supported by the medical literature—and that multiple medical authorities certify that the abortion is either medically or socially necessary. Many restrictions are waived in emergency situations. China, which has ended theirNEWS,weblink China ends one-child policy after 35 years, Phillips, Tom, 29 October 2015, The Guardian, 0261-3077, 30 November 2016, live,weblink 1 December 2016, one-child policy, and now has a two child policy,NEWS,weblink China Ends One-Child Policy, Allowing Families Two Children, Buckley, Chris, 29 October 2015, The New York Times, 0362-4331, 30 November 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 November 2016, NEWS,weblink China to end one-child policy and allow two, 29 October 2015, BBC News, 30 November 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 21 November 2016, has at times incorporated mandatory abortions as part of their population control strategy.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Science, Technology, and Society: An Encyclopedia, 2, Sal P., Restivo, 2005, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-514193-1,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 March 2015, Other jurisdictions ban abortion almost entirely. Many, but not all, of these allow legal abortions in a variety of circumstances. These circumstances vary based on jurisdiction, but may include whether the pregnancy is a result of rape or incest, the fetus' development is impaired, the woman's physical or mental well-being is endangered, or socioeconomic considerations make childbirth a hardship. In countries where abortion is banned entirely, such as Nicaragua, medical authorities have recorded rises in maternal death directly and indirectly due to pregnancy as well as deaths due to doctors' fears of prosecution if they treat other gynecological emergencies.WEB, European delegation visits Nicaragua to examine effects of abortion ban, 26 November 2007, Ipas, 15 June 2009,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 17 April 2008, More than 82 maternal deaths had been registered in Nicaragua since the change. During this same period, indirect obstetric deaths, or deaths caused by illnesses aggravated by the normal effects of pregnancy and not due to direct obstetric causes, have doubled., NEWS,weblink Nicaragua: 'The Women's Movement Is in Opposition', 28 June 2008, Montevideo, IPS, Inside Costa Rica, live,weblink" title="">weblink 6 June 2011, Some countries, such as Bangladesh, that nominally ban abortion, may also support clinics that perform abortions under the guise of menstrual hygiene.WEB, Surgical Abortion: History and Overview, National Abortion Federation, 4 September 2006,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 22 September 2006, dead, This is also a terminology in traditional medicine.JOURNAL, 9194245, Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil, Nations MK, Misago C, Fonseca W, Correia LL, Campbell OM, Social Science & Medicine, June 1997, 44, 12, 1833–45, Two folk medical conditions, "delayed" (atrasada) and "suspended" (suspendida) menstruation, are described as perceived by poor Brazilian women in Northeast Brazil. Culturally prescribed methods to "regulate" these conditions and provoke menstrual bleeding are also described ..., 10.1016/s0277-9536(96)00293-6, In places where abortion is illegal or carries heavy social stigma, pregnant women may engage in medical tourism and travel to countries where they can terminate their pregnancies.JOURNAL, Henshaw, S.K., The Accessibility of Abortion Services in the United States, 10.2307/2135775, 1991, 246–63, 6, Family Planning Perspectives, 23,weblink 2135775,, 25 October 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 24 March 2016, live, Women without the means to travel can resort to providers of illegal abortions or attempt to perform an abortion by themselves.WEB, Need Abortion, Will Travel, Marcy, Bloom, 25 February 2008, RH Reality Check, 15 June 2009,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 30 November 2008, The organization Women on Waves, has been providing education about medical abortions since 1999. The NGO created a mobile medical clinic inside a shipping container, which then travels on rented ships to countries with restrictive abortion laws. Because the ships are registered in the Netherlands, Dutch law prevails when the ship is in international waters. While in port, the organization provides free workshops and education; while in international waters, medical personnel are legally able to prescribe medical abortion drugs and counseling.JOURNAL, Gomperts, Rebecca, 2002, Women on Waves: Where next for the abortion boat?, Reproductive Health Matters, 10, 19, 180–83, 10.1016/S0968-8080(02)00004-6, 12369324, JOURNAL, Best, Alyssa, 2005, Abortion Rights along the Irish-English Border and the Liminality of Women's Experiences, Dialectical Anthropology, 29, 3–4, 423–37, 10.1007/s10624-005-3863-x, 0304-4092, JOURNAL, Lambert-Beatty, Carrie, 2008, Twelve miles: Boundaries of the new art/activism, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 33, 2, 309–27, 10.1086/521179,

Sex-selective abortion

Sonography and amniocentesis allow parents to determine sex before childbirth. The development of this technology has led to sex-selective abortion, or the termination of a fetus based on sex. The selective termination of a female fetus is most common.Sex-selective abortion is partially responsible for the noticeable disparities between the birth rates of male and female children in some countries. The preference for male children is reported in many areas of Asia, and abortion used to limit female births has been reported in Taiwan, South Korea, India, and China.Banister, Judith. (16 March 1999). Son Preference in Asia â€“ Report of a Symposium {{webarchive|url= |date=16 February 2006 }}. Retrieved 12 January 2006. This deviation from the standard birth rates of males and females occurs despite the fact that the country in question may have officially banned sex-selective abortion or even sex-screening.NEWS, Patricia, Reaney, Reuters,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 20 February 2006, Selective abortion blamed for India's missing girls, 3 December 2008, JOURNAL, Sudha, S., July 1999, Female Demographic Disadvantage in India 1981–1991: Sex Selective Abortions and Female Infanticide, Development and Change, 30, 3, 585–618, 10.1111/1467-7660.00130,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2003, 3 December 2008, Rajan, S. Irudaya, 20162850, WEB,weblink Library of Congress, Sex Selection & Abortion: India, 4 April 2011, 18 July 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2011, "China Bans Sex-selection Abortion" {{webarchive|url= |date=12 February 2006 }} (22 March 2002). Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 12 January 2006. In China, a historical preference for a male child has been exacerbated by the one-child policy, which was enacted in 1979.JOURNAL, Maureen J., Graham, June 1998, Son Preference in Anhui Province, China, International Family Planning Perspectives, 24, 2,weblink 10.2307/2991929, Larsen, Xu,weblink" title="">weblink 6 January 2012, live, 72–77, 2991929, Many countries have taken legislative steps to reduce the incidence of sex-selective abortion. At the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 over 180 states agreed to eliminate "all forms of discrimination against the girl child and the root causes of son preference",WEB,weblink Preventing gender-biased sex selection, UNFPA, 1 November 2011,weblink 11 October 2011, live, conditions also condemned by a PACE resolution in 2011.WEB,weblink Prenatal sex selection, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 October 2011, 17 November 2015, The World Health Organization and UNICEF, along with other United Nations agencies, have found that measures to reduce access to abortion are much less effective at reducing sex-selective abortions than measures to reduce gender inequality.

Anti-abortion violence

In a number of cases, abortion providers and these facilities have been subjected to various forms of violence, including murder, attempted murder, kidnapping, stalking, assault, arson, and bombing. Anti-abortion violence is classified by both governmental and scholarly sources as terrorism.WEB, Smith, G. Davidson, Canadian Security Intelligence Service, 1998,weblink Single Issue Terrorism Commentary, 1 September 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 15 October 2007, dead, JOURNAL, Wilson, M., Lynxwiler, J., 10.1080/10576108808435717, Abortion clinic violence as terrorism, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 11, 4, 263–73, 1988, In the U.S. and Canada, over 8,000 incidents of violence, trespassing, and death threats have been recorded by providers since 1977, including over 200 bombings/arsons and hundreds of assaults.WEB,weblink 2017 VIOLENCE AND DISRUPTION STATISTICS, National Abortion Federation, 2017, The majority of abortion opponents have not been involved in violent acts.In the United States, four physicians who performed abortions have been murdered: David Gunn (1993), John Britton (1994), Barnett Slepian (1998), and George Tiller (2009). Also murdered, in the U.S. and Australia, have been other personnel at abortion clinics, including receptionists and security guards such as James Barrett, Shannon Lowney, Lee Ann Nichols, and Robert Sanderson. Woundings (e.g., Garson Romalis) and attempted murders have also taken place in the United States and Canada. Hundreds of bombings, arsons, acid attacks, invasions, and incidents of vandalism against abortion providers have occurred.NEWS, The Death of Dr. Gunn, The New York Times, 12 March 1993,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 November 2016, WEB, National Abortion Federation, 2009,weblink Incidence of Violence & Disruption Against Abortion Providers in the U.S. & Canada, 9 February 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 13 June 2010, Notable perpetrators of anti-abortion violence include Eric Robert Rudolph, Scott Roeder, Shelley Shannon, and Paul Jennings Hill, the first person to be executed in the United States for murdering an abortion provider.NEWS,weblink The Guardian, 3 February 1999, The bomber under siege, Julian, Borger, London, live,weblink 22 February 2017, Legal protection of access to abortion has been brought into some countries where abortion is legal. These laws typically seek to protect abortion clinics from obstruction, vandalism, picketing, and other actions, or to protect women and employees of such facilities from threats and harassment.Far more common than physical violence is psychological pressure. In 2003, Chris Danze organized pro-life organizations throughout Texas to prevent the construction of a Planned Parenthood facility in Austin. The organizations released the personal information online, of those involved with construction, sending them up to 1200 phone calls a day and contacting their churches.BOOK, Opposition and Intimidation:The abortion wars and strategies of political harassment, Alesha E. Doan, 2007, 2, University of Michigan, Some protestors record women entering clinics on camera.

{{anchor|Other animals}}Other animals

{{further|Miscarriage}}Spontaneous abortion occurs in various animals. For example, in sheep it may be caused by stress or physical exertion, such as crowding through doors or being chased by dogs.BOOK, Spencer, James B., Sheep Husbandry in Canada, 1908, 114, 798508694, In cows, abortion may be caused by contagious disease, such as brucellosis or Campylobacter, but can often be controlled by vaccination.WEB,weblink Beef cattle and Beef production: Management and Husbandry of Beef Cattle, Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, 1966, live,weblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2009, Eating pine needles can also induce abortions in cows.BOOK, Myers, Brandon, Beckett, Jonathon, Animal Health Care and Maintenance, Pine needle abortion,weblink 10 April 2013, 2001, Arizona Cooperative Extension, University of Arizona, Tucson, 47–50, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 July 2015, JOURNAL, Kim, Ill-Hwa, Choi, Kyung-Chul, An, Beum-Soo, Choi, In-Gyu, Kim, Byung-Ki, Oh, Young-Kyoon, Jeung, Eui-Bae, 2003, Effect on abortion of feeding Korean pine needles to pregnant Korean native cows, Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 67, 3, 194–97, Canadian Veterinary Medical Association, 227052, 12889725, Several plants, including broomweed, skunk cabbage, poison hemlock, and tree tobacco, are known to cause fetal deformities and abortion in cattleBOOK, Njaa, Bradley L., editor, Kirkbride's Diagnosis of Abortion and Neonatal Loss in Animals, 2011, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-470-95852-0, {{rp|45–46}} and in sheep and goats.{{rp|77–80}} In horses, a fetus may be aborted or resorbed if it has lethal white syndrome (congenital intestinal aganglionosis). Foal embryos that are homozygous for the dominant white gene (WW) are theorized to also be aborted or resorbed before birth.WEB,weblink By a Hair, Overton, Rebecca, Paint Horse Journal, March 2003, 19 December 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 February 2013, In many species of sharks and rays, stress-induced abortions occur frequently on capture.JOURNAL, Adams, Kye R., Fetterplace, Lachlan C., Davis, Andrew R., Taylor, Matthew D., Knott, Nathan A., Sharks, rays and abortion: The prevalence of capture-induced parturition in elasmobranchs, Biological Conservation, January 2018, 217, 11–27, 10.1016/j.biocon.2017.10.010,weblink Viral infection can cause abortion in dogs.WEB,weblink Herpesvirus in dog pups, petMD, 18 December 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 November 2013, dmy-all,
Cats can experience spontaneous abortion for many reasons, including hormonal imbalance. A combined abortion and spaying is performed on pregnant cats, especially in Trap-Neuter-Return programs, to prevent unwanted kittens from being born.WEB,weblink Spaying Pregnant Females, Carol's Ferals, 17 December 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 November 2012, dmy-all,
WEB,weblink Feline abortion: often an unnerving necessity, Jennifer, Coates, 7 May 2007, petMD, 18 December 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 21 January 2012, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Feline abortion: often an unnerving necessity (Part 2), Patty, Khuly, 1 April 2011, petMD, 18 December 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 November 2012, dmy-all, Female rodents may terminate a pregnancy when exposed to the smell of a male not responsible for the pregnancy, known as the Bruce effect.JOURNAL, 2460564, 932–38, Schwagmeyer, P.L., The Bruce Effect: An Evaluation of Male/Female Advantages, 114, 6, The American Naturalist, 1979, 10.1086/283541, Abortion may also be induced in animals, in the context of animal husbandry. For example, abortion may be induced in mares that have been mated improperly, or that have been purchased by owners who did not realize the mares were pregnant, or that are pregnant with twin foals.BOOK,weblink Equine Reproduction, 563, Angus O., McKinnon, James L., Voss, Wiley-Blackwell, 0-8121-1427-2, 1993, live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 March 2015, Feticide can occur in horses and zebras due to male harassment of pregnant mares or forced copulation,JOURNAL, Berger, Joel W, 5 May 1983, Induced abortion and social factors in wild horses, Nature, 303, 59–61, 10.1038/303059a0, 6682487, 5912, Vuletić, L, Boberić, J, Milosavljević, A, Dilparić, S, Tomin, R, Naumović, P, 1983Natur.303...59B, JOURNAL, Pluháček, Jan, 2000, Male infanticide in captive plains zebra, Equus burchelli, Animal Behaviour, 59, 689–94,weblink 10.1006/anbe.1999.1371, 10792924, Bartos, L, 4, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 July 2011, JOURNAL, Pluháček, Jan, 2005, Further evidence for male infanticide and feticide in captive plains zebra, Equus burchelli, Folia Zoologica, 54, 3, 258–62,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 February 2012, 12 April 2009, although the frequency in the wild has been questioned.JOURNAL, Kirkpatrick, J.F., Turner, J.W., Changes in Herd Stallions among Feral Horse Bands and the Absence of Forced Copulation and Induced Abortion, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 29, 3, 217–19, 10.1007/BF00166404, 1991, 4600608, Male gray langur monkeys may attack females following male takeover, causing miscarriage.JOURNAL, Agoramoorthy, G., Mohnot, S.M., Sommer, V., Srivastava, A., Abortions in free ranging Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) â€“ a male induced strategy?, Human Evolution, 3, 4, 297–308, 1988, 10.1007/BF02435859,





  • BOOK, Devereux, George, George Devereux, A Study of Abortion in Primitive Societies, International Universities Press, 1976, 978-0-8236-6245-6,weblink
  • BOOK, Doan, Alesha E., Opposition and Intimidation: The abortion wars and strategies of political harassment, 2007, University of Michigan, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Ganatra, Bela, Tunçalp, Özge, Johnston, Heidi Bart, Johnson Jr, Brooke R, Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin, Temmerman, Marleen, From concept to measurement: operationalizing WHO's definition of unsafe abortion, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1 March 2014, 92, 3, 155–55, 10.2471/BLT.14.136333, 3949603, 24700971,
  • BOOK, Hartmann, Betsy, Reproductive Rights and Wrongs: The Global Politics of Population Control, South End Press, 1995, 978-0-89608-491-9,
  • BOOK, Koblitz, Ann Hibner, Ann Hibner Koblitz, Sex and Herbs and Birth Control: Women and Fertility Regulation Through the Ages, Kovalevskaia Fund, 2014, 978-0-9896655-0-6,
  • BOOK, Riddle, John M., John M. Riddle, Eve's Herbs: A History of Contraception and Abortion in the West, 1997, Harvard University Press,
  • JOURNAL, Sedgh, Gilda, Bearak, Jonathan, Singh, Susheela, Bankole, Akinrinola, Popinchalk, Anna, Ganatra, Bela, Rossier, Clémentine, Gerdts, Caitlin, Tunçalp, Özge, Johnson, Brooke Ronald, Johnston, Heidi Bart, Alkema, Leontine, Abortion incidence between 1990 and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends, The Lancet, July 2016, 388, 10041, 258–67, 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30380-4, {{harvid, Sedgh et al, 2016, |pmid=27179755|pmc=5498988}}
  • BOOK, UN, United Nations, Abortion Policies: A Global Review 3 vols., 2002, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations,weblink
  • BOOK, WHO, World Health Organization, The World Health Report 2005: Make every mother and child count,weblink 2005, World Health Organization, Geneva, 92-4-156290-0, {{harvid, WHO, 2005, }}
  • BOOK, WHO, World Health Organization, Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems, 2012, World Health Organization, Geneva, 978-92-4-154843-4, 2nd,weblink harv,
  • WEB, WHO, World Health Organization, Health worker roles in providing safe abortion care and post-abortion contraception,weblink 8 January 2017, 2016, {{harvid, WHO, 2016a, }}

External links

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