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Romania
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{{short description|Sovereign state in Europe}}{{other uses}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2018}}{{Coord|46|N|25|E|display=title}}







factoids
|image_flag = Flag of Romania.svg|image_coat = Coat of arms of Romania.svgDeșteaptă-te, române!"()(File:Desteapta-te, romane!.ogg|center)(File:EU-Romania (orthographic projection).svgShow globeupright=1.15Show map of Europe|default=1}}location_color=dark greenregion_color=dark greyEuropean Union>subregion_color=green|legend=EU-Romania.svg}}|capital = Bucharest44N06type:city}}|largest_city = capitalRomanian language>RomanianHTTP://WWW.CDEP.RO/PLS/DIC/SITE.PAGE?DEN=ACT2_2&PAR1=1#T1C0S0A13>TITLE=CONSTITUTION OF ROMANIAACCESS-DATE=2 OCTOBER 2013ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170907214119/HTTP://WWW.CDEP.RO/PLS/DIC/SITE.PAGE?DEN=ACT2_2&PAR1=1#T1C0S0A13DF=DMY-ALL, WEBSITE=COUNCIL OF EUROPEACCESS-DATE=3 DECEMBER 2015ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20151208122308/HTTP://WWW.COE.INT/EN/WEB/CONVENTIONS/FULL-LIST/-/CONVENTIONS/TREATY/148/DECLARATIONS?P_AUTH=63PPH3ZNDF=DMY-ALL, | languages2 = {hide}Collapsible list
|titlestyle=background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
|title= See here
|Albanian
|Armenian
|Bulgarian
|Czech
|German
|Greek
|Italian
|Yiddish
|Macedonian
|Hungarian
|Polish
|Romani
|Russian
|Ruthenian
|Serbian
|Slovak
|Tatar
|Turkish
|Ukrainian
{edih}|ethnic_groups =
{{unbulleted list
| 88.9% Romanians
| 6.1% Hungarians
| 3.3% Roma
| 0.2% Ukrainians
| 0.2% Germans


}}
PUBLISHER=INSSELANGUAGE=ROARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130717125951/HTTP://WWW.RECENSAMANTROMANIA.RO/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/2013/07/REZULTATE-DEFINITIVE-RPL_2011.PDFDF=DMY-ALL, Romanians>RomanianUnitary state>Unitary semi-presidentialrepublicPresident of Romania>President|leader_name1 = Klaus IohannisPrime Minister of Romania>Prime Minister|leader_name2 = Viorica DăncilăParliament of Romania>ParliamentSenate of Romania>SenateChamber of Deputies (Romania)>Chamber of DeputiesHistory of Romania>Establishment history|established_event1 = First Romanian polities|established_date1 = 9th century / 1247aWallachia>Principality of Wallachia|established_date2 = 1330Moldavia>Principality of Moldavia|established_date3 = {{circa}} 1360Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711)>Principality of Transylvania|established_date4 = 1570personal union>common rule under Michael the Brave|established_date5 = 1600|established_event6 = United Principalitiesb|established_date6 = 24 January 1859Romanian War of Independence>Independence fromthe Ottoman Empire|established_date7 = 9 May 1877{{}}1878c|established_event8 = Kingdom of Romania|established_date8 = 14 March 1881|established_event9 = Greater Romaniad|established_date9 = 1918 / 1920e|area_km2 = 238,397|area_rank = 81st |area_sq_mi = 92,043 |percent_water = 3"Annual official estimate" {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170830003533weblink|date=30 August 2017}}.(PDF) 2019 Revision|population_census = 20,121,641|population_estimate_year = 2019|population_estimate_rank= 59th|population_census_year = 2011|population_census_rank = 58th|population_density_km2 = 84.4|population_density_sq_mi = 218.6 |population_density_rank = 117thPUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ACCESS-DATE=11 APRIL 2019, |GDP_PPP_year = 2019|GDP_PPP_rank = 41st|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $27,753|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 55th|GDP_nominal = $244.158 billion|GDP_nominal_year = 2019|GDP_nominal_rank = 48th|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $12,506|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 62nd|Gini = 33.1 |Gini_year = 2017|Gini_change = decrease PUBLISHER=EUROSTAT ACCESS-DATE=7 MARCH 2019, |Gini_rank = |HDI = 0.811 |HDI_year = 2017|HDI_change = increase DATE=2018PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMEDEADURL=NOARCHIVEDATE=22 MARCH 2017, dmy-all, |HDI_rank = 52nd|currency = Romanian Leu|currency_code = RONEastern European Time>EET|utc_offset = +2|utc_offset_DST = +3Eastern European Summer Time>EESTAnno Domini>AD)|drives_on = rightTelephone numbers in Romania>+40Andrew the Apostle>Saint Andrew| iso3166code = RO|cctld = .rof|footnote_a = A legendary late-9th-century Transylvanian duke, Gelou, is solely mentioned in the late-12th-century Gesta Hungarorum (the reliability of which is debated); a contemporaneous source mentions the first Romanian polities (in Muntenia and Oltenia) in 1247.|footnote_b = The double election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza in Moldavia and Wallachia (respectively, 5 and 24 January 1859).|footnote_c = Independence proclaimed on 9 May 1877, internationally recognized in 1878.Union of Transylvania with Romania>proclamation of the union in 1918 including Bessarabia, Bukovina, Transylvania, parts of Banat, CriÈ™ana and MaramureÈ™, established after the Paris Peace Conference closing World War I in 1920. Socialist Republic of Romania>People's Republic and was changed with the 1965 Constitution of Romania upon its adoption on 21 August 1965 as the Socialist Republic. The Communist regime Romanian Revolution>fell on 22 December 1989, the new democratic government was installed on 20 May 1990 and the new post-communist constitution was adopted on 21 November 1991. Romania joined the European Union on 1 January 2007.|footnote_f = Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.}}Romania ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Romania.ogg|r|oÊŠ|ˈ|m|eɪ|n|i|É™}} {{respell|ro|MAY|nee|É™}}; {{IPAc-ro|r|o|m|â|ˈ|n|I|.|a|audio=Ro-România.ogg}}) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi), Romania is the 12th largest country and also the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having almost 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, and other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, TimiÈ™oara, IaÈ™i, ConstanÈ›a, Craiova, and BraÈ™ov.The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for {{convert|2857|km|mi|abbr=on}}, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta. The Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of {{convert|2544|m|ft|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Romania Geography, aboutromania.com, 4 April 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150328120717weblink">weblink 28 March 2015, dmy-all, Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bukovina, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, CriÈ™ana, and MaramureÈ™ became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, and Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and, consequently, in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards democracy and a market economy.The sovereign state of Romania is a developing countryWEB,weblink Archived copy, 24 April 2017, no,weblink 25 April 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 24 September 2017, no,weblink 10 October 2017, dmy-all, and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.WEB,weblink - Human Development Reports, hdr.undp.org, It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7% (2017), the highest in the EU at the time.WEB,weblink "Country Comparison : GDP - Real Growth Rate", CIA World Factbook, accessed 26 July 2017, Cia.gov, 26 July 2017, no,weblink 1 July 2017, dmy-all, Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, and is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language.

Etymology

Romania derives from the Latin , meaning "citizen of Rome".WEB,weblink Explanatory Dictionary of the Romanian Language, 1998; New Explanatory Dictionary of the Romanian Language, 2002, Dexonline.ro, 25 September 2010, ro, no,weblink 17 May 2016, dmy-all, The first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia.BOOK, "nunc se Romanos vocant", Andréas, Veress, Acta et Epistolae, I, 243, JOURNAL, Cl. Isopescu, Notizie intorno ai romeni nella letteratura geografica italiana del Cinquecento, Bulletin de la Section Historique, XVI, 1929, 1–90, BOOK, Maria, Holban, Călători străini despre Țările Române, Romanian, Ed. Științifică și Enciclopedică, 1983, II, 158–161, JOURNAL, Voyage fait par moy, Pierre Lescalopier l'an 1574 de Venise a Constantinople, fol 48, Paul, Cernovodeanu, Studii și Materiale de Istorie Medievală, IV, 1960, 444, Romanian, File:Neacşu's letter.jpg|thumb|left|Neacșu's letter from 1521, the oldest surviving document written in Romanian.]]The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung",Ion Rotaru, Literatura română veche, "The Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110609023008weblink |date= 9 June 2011 }}, București, 1981, pp. 62–65 is also notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as (old spelling for "The Romanian Land"; from the Latin , "land"; current spelling: ).Two spelling forms: and were used interchangeably"" "Întrebare creștinească" (1559), Bibliografia românească veche, IV, 1944, p. 6. "" Palia de la Orăștie (1581–1582), București, 1968. , Grigore Ureche, Letopisețul Țării Moldovei, p. 133–134. until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: came to mean "bondsman", while retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning.BOOK, Brezeanu, Stelian, Romanitatea Orientală în Evul Mediu, Editura All Educational, 1999, Bucharest, 229–246, After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form .In his literary testament writes: ""In the "" a writes: " , a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term to refer exclusively to the principality of Wallachia."Goina, Călin. How the State Shaped the Nation: an Essay on the Making of the Romanian Nation {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171010095221weblink |date=10 October 2017 }} in Regio – Minorities, Politics, Society.The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century.In 1816, the Greek scholar Dimitrie Daniel Philippide published in Leipzig his work The History of Romania, followed by The Geography of Romania. On the tombstone of Gheorghe Lazăr in Avrig (built in 1823) there is the inscription: "" The name has been officially in use since 11 December 1861.WEB,weblink Wallachia and Moldavia, 1859–61, 5 January 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070609174152weblink">weblink 9 June 2007, In English, the name of the country was formerly spelt Rumania or Roumania.See, for example, "Rumania: Remarkable Common Ground" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161231183344weblink |date=31 December 2016 }}, The New York Times (December 21, 1989). Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975.See the Google Ngrams for Romania, Rumania, and Roumania. Romania is also the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government.WEB,weblink General principles, cdep.ro, Romanian, 7 September 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170907214119weblink">weblink 7 September 2017, dmy-all, A handful of other languages (including Italian, Hungarian, Portuguese, and Norwegian) have also switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French , German and Swedish , Spanish (the archaic form is still in use in Spain), Polish , Russian (), and Japanese ().

Official names

History

Prehistory and antiquity

File:Oase 2 skull (Homo sapiens).jpg|thumb|alt=A partially reconstructed skull|Skull from the "Cave with BonesCave with BonesHuman remains found in Peștera cu Oase ("Cave with Bones"), radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe.{{sfn|Price|2013|pp=60–61}} Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millennium BC.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|pp=1–2}}{{sfn|Price|2013|pp=125–127}} Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; here the production of salt started between 6050 and 5900 BC.WEB, Patrick, Gibbs,weblink Antiquity Vol 79 No 306 December 2005 The earliest salt production in the world: an early Neolithic exploitation in Poiana Slatinei-Lunca, Romania Olivier Weller & Gheorghe Dumitroaia, Antiquity.ac.uk, 12 October 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110430145935weblink">weblink 30 April 2011, The first permanent settlements also appeared in the Neolithic.{{sfn|Price|2013|p=149}} Some of them developed into "proto-cities",{{sfn|Price|2013|p=149}} which were larger than {{convert|800|acre|km2}}.NEWS,weblink A Lost European Culture, Pulled From Obscurity, John Noble Wilford, The New York Times (30 November 2009), 1 December 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161231183544weblink">weblink 31 December 2016, dmy-all, {{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=2}} The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture{{mdash}}the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe{{mdash}}flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd millennium BC.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=2}} The first fortified settlements appeared around 1800 BC, showing the militant character of Bronze Age societies.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=2}}File:Dacia 82 vChr.png|left|thumb|Maximum territorial extent of the Kingdom of Dacia during BurebistaBurebistaGreek colonies established on the Black Sea coast in the 7th century BC became important centers of commerce with the local tribes.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=3}}{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=3}} Among the native peoples, Herodotus listed the Getae of the Lower Danube region, the Agathyrsi of Transylvania and the Syginnae of the plains along the river Tisza at the beginning of the 5th century BC.{{sfn|Rustoiu|2005|pp=32, 35–36}} Centuries later, Strabo associated the Getae with the Dacians who dominated the lands along the southern Carpathian Mountains in the 1st century BC.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=7}} Burebista was the first Dacian ruler to unite the local tribes.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=7}}{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=14}} He also conquered the Greek colonies in Dobruja and the neighboring peoples as far as the Middle Danube and the Balkan Mountains between around 55 and 44 BC.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=7}}{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=14–15}} After Burebista was murdered in 44 BC, his empire collapsed.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=7}}{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=4}}File:Sarmizegetusa Regia.JPG|thumb|alt=Remains of circular buildings in a glade|Ruins of sanctuaries at Sarmizegetusa RegiaSarmizegetusa RegiaThe Romans reached Dacia during Burebista's reign and conquered Dobruja in 46 AD.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=4}} Dacia was again united under Decebalus around 85.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=7}}{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=15}} He resisted the Romans for decades, but the Roman army annihilated his troops in 106.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=9–10}} Emperor Trajan transformed Banat, Oltenia and the greater part of Transylvania into the new Roman province of Dacia, but Dacian, Germanic and Sarmatian tribes continued to dominate the lands along the Roman frontiers.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=6}}{{sfn|Opreanu|2005|pp=68–69, 97–98}} The Romans pursued an organized colonization policy and the provincials enjoyed a long period of peace and prosperity in the 2nd century.{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=22–23}}{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=13–14}} Scholars accepting the Daco-Roman continuity theory{{mdash}}one of the main theories about the origin of the Romanians{{mdash}}say that the cohabitation of the native Dacians and the Roman colonists in Roman Dacia was the first phase of the Romanians' ethnogenesis.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=10}}{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=19–20}}The Carpians, Goths and other neighboring tribes made regular raids against Dacia from the 210s.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=14}} The Romans could not resist and Emperor Aurelian ordered the evacuation of the province Dacia Trajana in 271.{{sfn|Opreanu|2005|pp=105–107}} Scholars supporting the continuity theory are convinced that most Latin-speaking commoners stayed behind when the army and civil administration was withdrawn.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|pp=8, 10}} The Romans did not abandon their fortresses along the northern banks of the Lower Danube for decades, and Dobruja (known as Scythia Minor) remained an integral part of the Roman Empire until the early 7th century.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=10}}{{sfn|Opreanu|2005|p=108, 110–111}}

Middle Ages

File:Gutthiuda.jpg|thumb|left|Gutthiuda, or the land of the Gothic-speaking ThervingiThervingiThe Goths were expanding towards the Lower Danube from the 230s, forcing the native peoples to flee to the Roman Empire or to accept their suzerainty.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=16}}{{sfn|Heather|2010|pp=116–117, 165}}{{sfn|Opreanu|2005|pp=117–118}} The Goths' rule came to an abrupt end when the Huns invaded their territory in 376, causing new waves of migrations.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=16}}{{sfn|Opreanu|2005|pp=117–118}}{{sfn|Heather|2010|p=151}} The Huns forced the remnants of the local population into submission, but their empire collapsed in 454.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=16}}{{sfn|Heather|2010|pp=151, 207–208}} The Gepids took possession of the former Dacia province.{{sfn|Bóna|1994|pp=66–67}}{{sfn|Curta|2006|p=54}} The nomadic Avars defeated the Gepids and established a powerful empire around 570.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=16}}{{sfn|Curta|2006|pp=62–63}} The Bulgars, who also came from the Eurasian steppes, occupied the Lower Danube region in 680.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=16}} According to scholars who accept the Daco-Roman continuity theory, the Romanians' ancestors, known by the exonym Vlachs in the Middle Ages, lived in densely forested areas, separated from the Goths, Huns, Gepids and Avars during these centuries.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=30}}Place names of Slavic origin abound in Romania, indicating that a numerous Slavic-speaking population used to live in the territory.{{sfn|Opreanu|2005|p=131}} The first Slavic groups settled in Moldavia and Wallachia in the 6th century,{{sfn|Heather|2010|pp=395–397}} in Transylvania around 600.{{sfn|Bóna|1994|pp=97–99}} After the Avar Khaganate collapsed in the 790s, Bulgaria became the dominant power of the region, occupying lands as far as the river Tisa.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=16}} The Council of Preslav declared Old Church Slavonic the language of liturgy in the First Bulgarian Empire in 893.{{sfn|Curta|2006|pp=168, 177}} The Romanians also adopted Old Church Slavonic as their liturgical language.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=37}}File:Structure of the First Bulgarian Empire during the IX-X century.png|thumb|Structure of the First Bulgarian EmpireFirst Bulgarian EmpireThe Magyars (or Hungarians) took control of the steppes north of the Lower Danube in the 830s, but the Bulgarians and the Pechenegs jointly forced them to abandon this region for the lowlands along the Middle Danube around 894.{{sfn|Curta|2006|pp=123, 178}} Centuries later, the Gesta Hungarorum wrote of the invading Magyars' wars against three dukes{{mdash}}Glad, Menumorut and the Vlach Gelou{{mdash}}for Banat, Crișana and Transylvania.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=20}}{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|pp=14–15}} The Gesta also listed many peoples{{mdash}}Slavs, Bulgarians, Vlachs, Khazars and Székelys{{mdash}}inhabiting the same regions.{{sfn|Sălăgean|2005|p=140}}{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=36}} The reliability of the Gesta is debated, with some scholars regarding it as a basically accurate account, others describing it as a literary work filled with invented details.{{sfn|Curta|2006|pp=15–16 (note 41)}}{{sfn|Sălăgean|2005|pp=140–141}}{{sfn|Bóna|1994|p=111}} The lowlands abandoned by the Hungarians to east of the Carpathians were seized by the Pechenegs.{{sfn|Curta|2006|pp=182–183}}Byzantine missionaries proselytized in the lands east of the Tisa from the 940s{{sfn|Curta|2006|pp=189–190}} and Byzantine troops occupied Dobruja in the 970s.{{sfn|Sălăgean|2005|p=152}} The first king of Hungary, Stephen I, who supported Western European missionaries, defeated the local chieftains and established Roman Catholic bishoprics in Transylvania and Banat in the early 11th century.{{sfn|Curta|2006|pp=248–250}}{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=40–41}} Significant Pecheneg groups fled to the Byzantine Empire in the 1040s; the Oghuz Turks followed them, and the nomadic Cumans became the dominant power of the steppes in the 1060s.{{sfn|Curta|2006|pp=304–305}} Cooperation between the Cumans and the Vlachs against the Byzantine Empire is well documented from the end of the 11th century.{{sfn|Sălăgean|2005|p=157}} Scholars who reject the Daco-Roman continuity theory say that the first Vlach groups left their Balkan homeland for the mountain pastures of the eastern and southern Carpathians in the 11th century, establishing the Romanians' presence in the lands to the north of the Lower Danube.{{sfn|Bóna|1994|p=183}}File:Crown, Sword and Globus Cruciger of Hungary2.jpg|thumb|left|The Holy Crown of Hungary along with other regaliaregaliaExposed to nomadic incursions, Transylvania developed into an important border province of the Kingdom of Hungary.{{sfn|Sălăgean|2005|pp=158–159}}{{sfn|Bóna|1994|pp=144–145}} The Székelys{{mdash}}a community of free warriors{{mdash}}settled in central Transylvania around 1100, and moved to the easternmost regions around 1200.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=43}} Colonists from the Holy Roman Empire{{mdash}}the Transylvanian Saxons' ancestors{{mdash}}came to the province in the 1150s.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=43}}{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=21}} A high-ranking royal official, styled voivode, ruled the Transylvanian counties from the 1170s, but the Székely and Saxon seats (or districts) were not subject to the voivodes' authority.{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=41–43}} Royal charters wrote of the "Vlachs' land" in southern Transylvania in the early 13th century, indicating the existence of autonomous Romanian communities.{{sfn|Bóna|1994|p=189}} Papal correspondence mentioned the activities of Orthodox prelates among the Romanians in Muntenia in the 1230s.{{sfn|Curta|2006|p=408}}The Mongols destroyed large territories during their invasion of Eastern and Central Europe in 1241 and 1242.{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=43–44}} The Mongols' Golden Horde emerged as the dominant power of Eastern Europe, but Béla IV of Hungary's land grant to the Knights Hospitallers in Oltenia and Muntenia shows that the local Vlach rulers were subject to the king's authority in 1247.{{sfn|Curta|2006|pp=407, 414}}{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=44}} Basarab I of Wallachia united the Romanian polities between the southern Carpathians and the Lower Danube in the 1310s.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=45}} He defeated the Hungarian royal army in the Battle of Posada and secured the independence of Wallachia in 1330.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=46}}{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=17}} The second Romanian principality, Moldavia, achieved full autonomy during the reign of Bogdan I around 1360.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=17}} A local dynasty ruled the Despotate of Dobruja in the second half of the 14th century, but the Ottoman Empire took possession of the territory after 1388.{{sfn|Sălăgean|2005|p=202}} File:Vlad Tepes 002.jpg|thumb|Vlad III of Wallachia (also known as Vlad the Impaler), medieval ruler of Wallachia]]Princes Mircea I and Vlad III of Wallachia, and Stephen III of Moldavia defended their countries independence against the Ottomans, but most Wallachian and Moldavian princes paid a regular tribute to the Ottoman sultans from 1417 and 1456, respectively.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=26–29}}{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=60–61, 63–66}} A military commander of Romanian origin, John Hunyadi, organized the defence of the Kingdom of Hungary until his death in 1456.{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=61–62}} Increasing taxes outraged the Transylvanian peasants and they rose up in an open rebellion in 1437, but the Hungarian nobles and the heads of the Saxon and Székely communities jointly pushed their revolt.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|pp=30–31}} The formal alliance of the Hungarian, Saxon and Székely leaders, known as the Union of the Three Nations, became an important element of the self-government of Transylvania.{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=52–53}} The Orthodox Romanian knezes (or chiefs) were excluded from the Union.{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=52–53}}

Early Modern Times and national awakening

The Kingdom of Hungary collapsed and the Ottomans occupied parts of Banat and Crișana in 1541.{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=52–53}} Transylvania and Maramureș, along with the rest of Banat and Crișana developed into a new state under Ottoman suzerainty, the Principality of Transylvania.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=41}} Reformation spread and four denominations{{mdash}}Calvinism, Lutheranism, Unitarianism and Roman Catholicism{{mdash}}were officially acknowledged in 1568.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=69}} The Romanians' Orthodox faith remained only tolerated,{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=69}} although they made up more than one-third of the population, according to 17th-century estimations.{{sfn|Trócsányi|Miskolczy|1994|p=419}}{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=71}}{{multiple image|perrow=2|align=left|total_width=400 |image1=Mihai 1600.pngfooter=During the Long Turkish War, Wallachian Prince Michael the Brave (portrayed to the right) briefly reigned over the three medieval principalities of Wallachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania, covering most of present-day territory of Romania.}}The princes of Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldavia joined the Holy League against the Ottoman Empire in 1594.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=54}} The Wallachian prince, Michael the Brave, united the three principalities under his rule in May 1600.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=35}}{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|pp=55–56}} The neighboring powers forced him to abdicate in September, but he became a symbol of the unification of the Romanian lands in the 19th century.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=35}} Although the rulers of the three principalities continued to pay tribute to the Ottomans, the most talented princes{{mdash}}Gabriel Bethlen of Transylvania, Matei Basarab of Wallachia, and Vasile Lupu of Moldavia{{mdash}}strengthened their autonomy.{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=75–76}}The united armies of the Holy League expelled the Ottoman troops from Central Europe between 1684 and 1699 and the Principality of Transylvania was integrated into the Habsburg Empire.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=79}} The Habsburgs supported the Catholic clergy and persuaded the Orthodox Romanian prelates to accept the union with the Roman Catholic Church in 1699.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=42}} The Church Union strengthened the Romanian intellectuals' devotion to their Roman heritage.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=60}} The Orthodox Church was restored in Transylvania only after Orthodox monks stirred up revolts in 1744 and 1759.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=61}} The organization of the Transylvanian Military Frontier caused further disturbances, especially among the Székelys in 1764.{{sfn|Trócsányi|Miskolczy|1994|pp=432–434}}Princes Dimitrie Cantemir of Moldavia and Constantin Brâncoveanu of Wallachia concluded alliances with the Habsburg Empire and Russia against the Ottomans, but they were dethroned in 1711 and 1714, respectively.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=44–45}} The sultans lost confidence in the native princes and appointed Orthodox merchants from the Phanar district of Istanbul to rule Moldova and Wallachia.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=55–56}}{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|pp=73–74}} The Phanariot princes pursued oppressive fiscal policies and dissolved the army.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|pp=74–75, 78}} The neighboring powers take advantage of the situation: the Habsburg Empire annexed northern Moldavia, or Bucovina, in 1775, and Russia seized Bessarabia in 1812.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=92}}{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|pp=75–76}}A census revealed that the Romanians were more numerous than any of the other ethnic groups in Transylvania in 1733, but legislation continued to use contemptuous adjectives (such as "tolerated" and "admitted") when referring to them.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=87}}{{sfn|Trócsányi|Miskolczy|1994|pp=427–428}} The Uniate bishop, Inocențiu Micu-Klein who demanded the recognition of the Romanians as the fourth privileged nation was forced into exile.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|pp=89–90}}{{sfn|Trócsányi|Miskolczy|1994|pp=427–428}} Uniate and Orthodox clerics and laymen jointly signed a plea for the Transylvanian Romanians' emancipation in 1791, but the monarch and the local authorities denied to grant their requests.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=73–74}}{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=87}}

Independence and monarchy

(File:RomaniaBorderHistoryAnnimation 1859-2010.gif|thumb|right|Changes in Romania's territory since 1859.)The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca authorized the Russian ambassador in Istanbul to defend the autonomy of Moldavia and Wallachia (known as the Danubian Principalities) in 1774.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=68}} Taking advantage of the Greek War of Independence, a Wallachian lesser nobleman, Tudor Vladimirescu, stirred up a revolt against the Ottomans in January 1821, but he was murdered in June by Phanariot Greeks.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|pp=103–104}} After a new Russo-Turkish War, the Treaty of Adrianople strengthened the autonomy of the Danubian Principalities in 1829, although it also acknowledged the sultan's right to confirm the election of the princes.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=81}}Mihail Kogălniceanu, Nicolae Bălcescu and other leaders of the 1848 revolutions in Moldavia and Wallachia demanded the emancipation of the peasants and the union of the two principalities, but Russian and Ottoman troops crushed their revolt.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=99}}{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=96–97}} The Wallachian revolutionists were the first to adopt the blue, yellow and red tricolor as national flag.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=100}} In Transylvania, most Romanians supported the imperial government against the Hungarian revolutioners after the Diet passed a law about the union of Transylvania and Hungary.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=100}} Bishop Andrei Șaguna proposed the unification of the Romanians of the Habsburg Empire in a separate duchy, but the central government refused to change the internal frontiers.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=99}}File:Al I Cuza.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1|Alexandru Ioan Cuza was the first DomnitorDomnitorThe Treaty of Paris put the Danubian Principalities under the collective guardianship of the Great Powers in 1856.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=96–97}} After special assemblies convoked in Moldavia and Wallachia urged the unification of the two principalities, the Great Powers did not prevent the election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza as their collective domnitor (or ruling prince) in January 1859.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=108}} The united principalities officially adopted the name Romania on 21 February 1862.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=105–106}} Cuza's government carried out a series of reforms, including the secularization of the property of monasteries and agrarian reform, but a coalition of conservative and radical politicians forced him to abdicate in February 1866.{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=109–111}}{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=109–111}}Cuza's successor, a German prince, Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (or Carol I), was elected in May.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=111}} The parliament adopted the first constitution of Romania in the same year.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=112}} The Great Powers acknowledged Romania's full independence at the Congress of Berlin and Carol I was crowned king in 1881.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=118}} The Congress also granted the Danube Delta and Dobruja to Romania.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=118}} Although Romanian scholars strived for the unification of all Romanians into a Greater Romania, the government did not openly support their irredentist projects.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=166}} The Transylvanian Romanians and Saxons wanted to maintain the separate status of Transylvania in the Habsburg Monarchy, but the Austro-Hungarian Compromise brought about the union of the province with Hungary in 1867.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=157}} Ethnic Romanian politicians sharply opposed the Hungarian government's attempts to transform Hungary into a national state, especially the laws prescribing the obligatory teaching of Hungarian.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=118}} Leaders of the Romanian National Party proposed the federalization of Austria-Hungary and the Romanian intellectuals established cultural association to promote the use of Romanian.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=145}}{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=118–119}}

World Wars and Greater Romania

File:Austria-Hungary (ethnic).jpg|thumb||left|Late 19th century ethnic map of Central Europe depicting predominantly Romanian-inhabited territories in blue. Hungarians are marked in yellow and GermansGermansFearing of Russian expansionism, Romania secretly joined the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in 1883, but public opinion remained hostile to Austria-Hungary.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=149–150}}{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=165}} Romania seized Southern Dobruja from Bulgaria in the Second Balkan War in 1913.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=150}} For German and Austrian-Hungarian diplomacy supported Bulgaria during the war, it brought about a rapprochement between Romania and the Triple Entente of France, Russia and the United Kingdom.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=150}} The country remained neutral when World War I broke out in 1914, but Prime Minister Ion I. C. Brătianu started negotiations with the Entente Powers.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=122}} After they promised Austrian-Hungarian territories with a majority of ethnic Romanian population to Romania in the Treaty of Bucharest, Romania entered the war against the Central Powers in 1916.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=122}}{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=151}} The German and Austrian-Hungarian troops defeated the Romanian army and occupied three-quarters of the country by early 1917.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|pp=169–170}} After the October Revolution turned Russia from ally into enemy, Romania was forced to sign a harsh peace treaty with the Central Powers in May 1918,{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=155}} but the collapse of Russia also enabled the union of Bessarabia with Romania.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|pp=170–171}} King Ferdinand again mobilized the Romanian army on behalf of the Entente Powers a day before Germany capitulated on 11 November 1918.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=155}}File:King Carol I of Romania with his nephew and great nephew.jpg|thumb|right|upright|King Carol I of Romania with his nephew Ferdinand I of Romania and great-nephew Carol II of RomaniaCarol II of RomaniaAustria-Hungary quickly disintegrated after the war.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=155}} The General Congress of Bukovina proclaimed the union of the province with Romania on 28 November 1918, and the Grand National Assembly decided the union of Transylvania, Banat, Crișana and Maramureș with the kingdom on 1 December.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=156}}{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=124–125}} Peace treaties with Austria, Bulgaria and Hungary delineated the new borders in 1919 and 1920, but the Soviet Union did not acknowledge the loss of Bessarabia.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=125}} Romania achieved its greatest territorial extend, expanding from the pre-war {{convert|137000|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} to {{convert|295000|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=189}} A new electoral system granted voting rights to all adult male citizens, and a series of radical agrarian reforms transformed the country into a "nation of small landowners" between 1918 and 1921.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=167}} Gender equality as a principle was enacted, but women could not vote or be candidates.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=180}} Calypso Botez established the National Council of Romanian Women to promote feminist ideas.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=180}} Romania was a multiethnic country, with ethnic minorities making up about 30% of the population, but the new constitution declared it a unitary national state in 1923.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=189}}{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=127}}{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=158, 183}} Although minorities could establish their own schools, Romanian language, history and geography could only be taught in Romanian.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=183}}Agriculture remained the principal sector of economy, but several branches of industry{{mdash}}especially the production of coal, oil, metals, synthetic rubber, explosives and cosmetics{{mdash}}developed during the interwar period.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=128}}{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=179}} With oil production of 5.8 million tons in 1930, Romania ranked sixth in the world.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=179}} Two parties, the National Liberal Party and the National Peasants' Party, dominated the political life, but the Great Depression brought about significant changes in the 1930s.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=129}}{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=167–169}} The democratic parties were squeezed between conflicts with the fascist and Anti-Semitic Iron Guard and the authoritarian tendencies of King Carol II.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=167–168}} The King promulgated a new constitution and dissolved the political parties in 1938, replacing the parliamentary system with a royal dictatorship.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=174–175}}{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=207}}File:PérdidasTerritorialesRumanas1940-ro.svg|thumb|left|upright=1|Romania's territorial losses in the summer of 1940. Of these territories, only Northern TransylvaniaNorthern TransylvaniaThe 1938 Munich Agreement convinced King Carol II that France and the United Kingdom could no more defend Romanian interests.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=198}} German preparations for a new war required the regular supply of Romanian oil and agricultural products.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=198}} The two countries concluded a treaty about the coordination of their economic policies in 1939, but the King could not persuade Adolf Hitler to guarantee Romania's frontiers.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=198–199}} Romania was forced to cede Bessarabia and northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union on 26 June 1940, Northern Transylvania to Hungary on 30 August, and Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria in September.{{sfn|Pop|1999|pp=131–132}} After the territorial losses, the King was forced to abdicate in favor of his minor son, Michael I, on 6 September, and Romania was transformed into a national-legionary state under the leadership of General Ion Antonescu.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=133}} Antonescu signed the Tripartite Pact of Germany, Italy and Japan on 23 November.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=213}} The Iron Guard staged a coup against Antonescu, but he crushed the riot with German support and introduced a military dictatorship in early 1941.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|pp=214–215}}File:Operation Tidal Wave in 1943.jpg|thumb|right|American B-24 Liberator flying over a burning oil refinery at Ploiești, as part of Operation Tidal Wave on 1 August 1943. Due to its role as a significant supplier of oil to the Axis, Romania was a prime target of Allied strategic bombing in 1943 and 1944.]]Romania entered World War II soon after the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=208}} The country regained Bessarabia and northern Bucovina, and the Germans placed Transnistria (the territory between the rivers Dniester and Dnieper) under Romanian administration.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|pp=216–217}} The Romanian and German troops massacred at least 160,000 local Jews in these territories; more than 105,000 Jews and about 11,000 Gypsies died during their deportation from Bessarabia to Transnistria.WEB, International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania, Executive Summary: Historical Findings and Recommendations, Final Report of the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania, Yad Vashem (The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority), 28 January 2012,weblink 28 January 2012, Wiesel Commission, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120112184554weblink">weblink 12 January 2012, dmy-all, The vast majority of the Jewish population of Moldavia, Wallachia, Banat and Southern Transylvania survived,{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=222}} but their fundamental rights were limited.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=210}} After the German occupation of Hungary in March 1944, about 132,000 (mainly Hungarian-speaking) Jews were deported to extermination camps from Northern Transylvania with the Hungarian authorities' support.{{sfn|Köpeczi|1994|p=689}}After the Soviet victory in the Battle of Stalingrad in 1943, Iuliu Maniu, a leader of the opposition to Antonescu, entered into secret negotiations with British diplomats who made it clear that Romania had to seek reconciliation with the Soviet Union.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=211–212}} To facilitate the coordination of their activities against Antonescu's regime, the National Liberal and National Peasants' parties established the National Democratic Bloc which also included the Social Democratic and Communist parties.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=219}} After a successful Soviet offensive, the young King Michael I ordered the arrest of Antonescu and appointed politicians from the National Democratic Bloc to form a new government on 23 August 1944.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|p=215}} Romania switched sides in the war, and nearly 250,000 Romanian troops joined the Red Army's military campaign against Hungary and Germany, but Joseph Stalin regarded the country as an occupied territory within the Soviet sphere of influence.{{sfn|Hitchins|1991|pp=215, 221}} Stalin's deputy instructed the King to make the Communists' candidate, Petru Groza, the prime minister in March 1945.{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|pp=223–224}}{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=138}} The Romanian administration in Northern Transylvania was soon restored, and Groza's government carried out an agrarian reform.{{sfn|Pop|1999|p=138}} In February 1947, the Paris Peace Treaties confirmed the return of Northern Transylvania to Romania, but they also legalized the presence of units of the Red Army in the country.{{sfn|Köpeczi|1994|p=692}}{{sfn|Georgescu|1991|p=224}}

Communism

File:Mihai I.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|King Michael I of Romania was forced to abdicate by the Communists in late December 1947, concomitant with the Soviet occupation of the country.]]During the Soviet occupation of Romania, the Communist-dominated government called for new elections in 1946, which were fraudulently won, with a fabricated 70% majority of the vote.Giurescu, "«Alegeri" după model sovietic", p.17 (citing Berry), 18 (citing Berry and note); Macuc, p.40; Tismăneanu, p.113 Thus, they rapidly established themselves as the dominant political force.WEB,weblink Federal research Division, Library of Congress, Romania: Country studies – Chapter 1.7.1 "Petru Groza's Premiership", 31 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080914061032weblink">weblink 14 September 2008, dmy-all, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, a Communist party leader imprisoned in 1933, escaped in 1944 to become Romania's first Communist leader. In 1947 he and others forced King Michael I to abdicate and leave the country, and proclaimed Romania a people's republic.WEB,weblink CIA – The World Factbook, Romania, 31 August 2008, no,weblink 10 September 2008, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Romania – Country Background and Profile, ed-u.com, 31 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081210194350weblink">weblink 10 December 2008, dmy-all, Romania remained under the direct military occupation and economic control of the USSR until the late 1950s. During this period, Romania's vast natural resources were continuously drained by mixed Soviet-Romanian companies (SovRoms) set up for unilateral exploitative purposes.WEB, Carmen, Rîjnoveanu, Romania's Policy of Autonomy in the Context of the Sino-Soviet Conflict, 2003, 1, Czech Republic Military History Institute, Militärgeschichtliches Forscheungamt,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080624195137weblink">weblink 24 June 2008, 31 August 2008, yes, BOOK, Roper, Stephen D., Romania: The Unfinished Revolution, London, Routledge, 2000, 978-90-5823-027-0, 18, BOOK, Cioroianu, Adrian, Adrian Cioroianu, On the Shoulders of Marx. An Incursion into the History of Romanian Communism, Romanian, Editura Curtea Veche, 2005, Bucharest, 68–73, 978-973-669-175-1, In 1948, the state began to nationalize private firms and to collectivize agriculture.BOOK, Stan, Stoica, DicÈ›ionar de Istorie a României, Editura Merona, Bucharest, 2007, 77–78; 233–34, Romanian, 978-973-7839-21-3, Until the early 1960s, the government severely curtailed political liberties and vigorously suppressed any dissent with the help of the Securitate (the Romanian secret police). During this period the regime launched several campaigns of purges in which numerous "enemies of the state" and "parasite elements" were targeted for different forms of punishment, such as deportation, internal exile, and internment in forced labour camps and prisons, sometimes for life, as well as extrajudicial killing.BOOK, Cicerone, IoniÈ›oiu, Victimele terorii comuniste. ArestaÈ›i, torturaÈ›i, întemniÈ›aÈ›i, uciÈ™i. DicÈ›ionar, Editura MaÈ™ina de scris, Bucharest, 2000, 978-973-99994-2-7, Romanian, {{Page needed|date=September 2010}} Nevertheless, anti-Communist resistance was one of the most long-lasting in the Eastern Bloc.Consiliul National pentru Studierea Ahivelor Securității, Bande, bandiÈ›i si eroi; Grupurile de rezistență È™i Securitatea (1948–1968), Editura Enciclopedica, BucureÈ™ti, 2003 A 2006 Commission estimated the number of direct victims of the Communist repression at two million people.REPORT, Raportul Comisiei PrezidenÈ›iale pentru Analiza Dictaturii Comuniste din România, Comisia PrezidenÈ›ială pentru Analiza Dictaturii Comuniste din România, 15 December 2006,weblink 215–217, File:Ceausescu Anul Nou.jpg|thumb|left|Nicolae CeauÈ™escuNicolae CeauÈ™escuIn 1965, Nicolae CeauÈ™escu came to power and started to conduct the foreign policy more independently from the Soviet Union. Thus, Communist Romania was the only Warsaw Pact country which refused to participate in the Soviet-led 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia (with CeauÈ™escu at the time even publicly condemning the action as "a big mistake, [and] a serious danger to peace in Europe and to the fate of Communism in the world"AV MEDIA, Romanian,weblink Political Tension 1968, British Pathé, 21 August 1968, Bucharest, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140821235945weblink">weblink 21 August 2014, dmy-all, ); it was also the only Communist state to maintain diplomatic relations with Israel after 1967's Six-Day War; and established diplomatic relations with West Germany the same year.WEB,weblink Country Studies.us, Romania: Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 31 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090705191547weblink">weblink 5 July 2009, dmy-all, At the same time, close ties with the Arab countries (and the PLO) allowed Romania to play a key role in the Israel–Egypt and Israel–PLO peace talks.WEB,weblink Country Studies.us, Middle East policies in Communist Romania, 31 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090705191645weblink">weblink 5 July 2009, dmy-all, File:Revolutia Bucuresti 1989 000.JPG|thumb|right|upright=1|The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was one of the few violent revolutions in the Iron CurtainIron CurtainAs Romania's foreign debt sharply increased between 1977 and 1981 (from US$3 billion to $10 billion),WEB, Deletant, Dennis, New Evidence on Romania and the Warsaw Pact, 1955–1989, Cold War International History Project e-Dossier Series,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120117154720weblink">weblink 17 January 2012, dmy-all, the influence of international financial organizations (such as the IMF and the World Bank) grew, gradually conflicting with CeauÈ™escu's autocratic rule. The latter eventually initiated a policy of total reimbursement of the foreign debt by imposing austerity steps that impoverished the population and exhausted the economy. The process succeeded in repaying all foreign government debt of Romania in 1989. At the same time, CeauÈ™escu greatly extended the authority of the Securitate secret police and imposed a severe cult of personality, which led to a dramatic decrease in the dictator's popularity and culminated in his overthrow and eventual execution, together with his wife, in the violent Romanian Revolution of December 1989 in which thousands were killed or injured. The charges for which they were executed were, among others, genocide by starvation.

Contemporary period

(File:RO B University square rally.jpg|thumb|right|Anti-Communist rally in Bucharest (early 1990))After the 1989 revolution, the National Salvation Front (NSF), led by Ion Iliescu, took partial multi-party democratic and free market measures.WEB, Carothers, Thomas, Romania: The Political Background,weblink "This seven-year period can be characterized as a gradualistic, often ambiguous transition away from communist rule towards democracy.", 31 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080827222957weblink">weblink 27 August 2008, dmy-all, JOURNAL, Hellman, Joel, Winners Take All: The Politics of Partial Reform in Postcommunist, Transitions World Politics, 50, 2, January 1998, 203–234, 10.1017/S0043887100008091, In April 1990, a sit-in protest contesting the results of that year's legislative elections and accusing the NSF, including Iliescu, of being made up of former Communists and members of the Securitate — rapidly grew to become what was called the Golaniad. The peaceful demonstrations degenerated into violence, prompting the intervention of coal miners summoned by Iliescu. This episode has been documented widely by both localWEB,weblink Institutul de Investigare a Crimelor Comunismului si Memoria Exilului Romanesc, mineriade.iiccr.ro, 14 March 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110822013205weblink">weblink 22 August 2011, dmy-all, and foreign media,WEB,weblink Institutul de Investigare a Crimelor Comunismului si Memoria Exilului Romanesc, mineriade.iiccr.ro, 14 March 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110822013250weblink">weblink 22 August 2011, dmy-all, and is remembered as the June 1990 Mineriad.NEWS, Bohlen, Celestine, Evolution in Europe; Romanian miners invade Bucharest,weblink Responding to an emergency appeal by President Ion Iliescu, thousands of miners from northern Romania descended on the capital city today, 31 August 2008, The New York Times, 15 June 1990, WEB,weblink Institutul de Investigare a Crimelor Comunismului si Memoria Exilului Romanesc, mineriade.iiccr.ro, 14 March 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110822011847weblink">weblink 22 August 2011, dmy-all, The subsequent disintegration of the Front produced several political parties, including most notably the Social Democratic Party and the Democratic Party. The former governed Romania from 1990 until 1996 through several coalitions and governments with Ion Iliescu as head of state. Since then, there have been several other democratic changes of government: in 1996 Emil Constantinescu was elected president, in 2000 Iliescu returned to power, while Traian Băsescu was elected in 2004 and narrowly re-elected in 2009.Presa internationala despre alegerile din Romania: Traian Basescu a castigat la limita; Romanii au mici sperante sa se dezghete ajutorul de la FMI – International {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304002223weblink |date=4 March 2016 }}. HotNews.ro. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
In November 2014, Sibiu () mayor Klaus Johannis was elected president, unexpectedly defeating former Prime Minister Victor Ponta, who had been in the lead in the opinion polls. This surprise victory is attributed by many to the Romanian diaspora, of which almost 50 percent voted for Iohannis in the first tour, compared to 16 percent for Ponta.WEB,weblink Romania profile – Leaders – BBC News-GB, 28 June 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160717161427weblink">weblink 17 July 2016, dmy-all, File:Protest against corruption - Bucharest 2017 - Arcul de Triumf - 2.jpg|thumb|Romania has seen large waves of protests against judicial reforms during the 2017–2018 Romanian protests2017–2018 Romanian protests The post-1989 period is also characterized by the fact that most of the former industrial and economic enterprises which were built and operated during the Communist period have been closed, mainly as a result of the policies of privatization of the post-1989 regimes.WEB,weblink DEINDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBAN SHRINKAGE IN ROMANIA. WHAT LESSONS FOR THE SPATIAL POLICY?, Claudia POPESCU, 8 October 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161231182636weblink">weblink 31 December 2016, dmy-all, Corruption has also been a major issue in contemporary Romanian politics.WEB,weblink Romania sends ex-prime minister Nastase to jail for corruption, Ioana, Patran, WEB,weblink Romania's powerful mayors tumble in corruption crackdown, Luiza, Ilie, WEB,weblink Romanians rally again in anti-corruption, anti-government protests, Radu-Sorin, Marinas, WEB,weblink Romania making little progress fighting corruption, European agency..., Reuters, Editorial, In November 2015, massive anti-corruption protests which developed in the wake of the Colectiv nightclub fire led to the resignation of Romania's Prime Minister Victor Ponta."Romania PM Ponta resigns over Bucharest nightclub fire {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151115091112weblink |date=15 November 2015 }}". BBC News. 4 November 2015. During 2017–2018, in response to measures which were perceived to weaken the fight against corruption, some of the biggest protests since 1989 took place in Romania, with over 500,000 people protesting across the country.WEB,weblink Huge Romania rally despite decree repeal, 6 February 2017, www.bbc.com, WEB,weblink Thousands of Romanians rally against ruling party's judicial overhaul, Radu-Sorin, Marinas, Nevertheless, in recent years, many efforts have been made to tackle corruption. A National Anticorruption Directorate was formed in the country in 2002, and according to Transparency International's annual Corruption Perceptions Index, Romania is now less corrupt than Italy or Greece (and equals neighbouring Hungary).WEB,weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2017, Transparency International, 14 March 2017,

NATO and EU integration

File:Tratado de Lisboa 13 12 2007 (081).jpg|thumb|left|Romania joined the European Union in 2007 and signed the Treaty of LisbonTreaty of LisbonAfter the end of the Cold War, Romania developed closer ties with Western Europe and the United States, eventually joining NATO in 2004, and hosting the 2008 summit in Bucharest.NEWS, NATO update: NATO welcomes seven new members,weblink NATO, 31 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080911134550weblink">weblink 11 September 2008, dmy-all,
The country applied in June 1993 for membership in the European Union and became an Associated State of the EU in 1995, an Acceding Country in 2004, and a full member on 1 January 2007.NEWS, EU approves Bulgaria and Romania,weblink BBC News, 31 August 2008, 26 September 2006, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081203223404weblink">weblink 3 December 2008, dmy-all, During the 2000s, Romania enjoyed one of the highest economic growth rates in Europe and has been referred at times as "the Tiger of Eastern Europe".WEB,weblink Adevarul, Adevarul.ro, 25 September 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080920030429weblink">weblink 20 September 2008, This has been accompanied by a significant improvement in living standards as the country successfully reduced internal poverty and established a functional democratic state.Human Development Report 2009 â€“ Country Fact Sheets â€“ Romania {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131101131652weblink |date= 1 November 2013 }}. Hdrstats.undp.org. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.Tracking the Millennium Development Goal {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131126063611weblink |date=26 November 2013 }}. MDG Monitor. Retrieved on 21 August 2010. However, Romania's development suffered a major setback during the late-2000s recession leading to a large gross domestic product contraction and budget deficit in 2009.NEWS,weblink Wall Street Journal, Romania Faces Crucial Vote, 4 December 2009, Joe Parkinson, no,weblink 10 July 2017, dmy-all, This led to Romania borrowing from the International Monetary Fund.Romania and the IMF {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150409084621weblink |date=9 April 2015 }} The worsening economic conditions led to unrest and triggered a political crisis in 2012.WEB,weblink Romanian Politics in 2012: Intra-Cabinet Coexistence and Political Instability, South-East European Journal of Political Science, Gheorghe Stoica, Lavinia Stan, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140224152657weblink">weblink 24 February 2014, File:2008 Bucharest summit (5).JPG|thumb|right|Romania joined NATO in 2004 and hosted its 2008 summit in BucharestBucharestRomania still faces problems related to infrastructure,WEB, Romania's Infrastructure and International Transport Links, Assessment of the Romanian Economy, Romania Central,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090321115830weblink">weblink yes, 21 March 2009, 21 August 2010, medical services,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131216135256weblink">Romania, world's 53rd country in quality of life index « Denisa Morariu. Denisamorariu.wordpress.com (8 January 2010). Retrieved on 21 August 2010. education,Sistemul de invatamant distrus de lipsa reformelor â€“ Cluj {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111005223341weblink |date=5 October 2011 }}. citynews.ro. Retrieved on 21 August 2010. and corruption.D+C 2010/03 â€“ Focus â€“ Roos: In Romania and Bulgaria, civil-society organisations are demanding rule of law â€“ Development and Cooperation â€“ International Journal {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110809032215weblink |date= 9 August 2011 }}. Inwent.org. Retrieved on 21 August 2010. Near the end of 2013, The Economist reported Romania again enjoying 'booming' economic growth at 4.1% that year, with wages rising fast and a lower unemployment than in Britain. Economic growth accelerated in the midst of government liberalisations in opening up new sectors to competition and investment—most notably, energy and telecoms.NEWS,weblink Romania is booming, The Economist, 17 December 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170701164338weblink">weblink 1 July 2017, dmy-all, In 2016 the Human Development Index ranked Romania as a nation of "Very High Human Development".WEB,weblink Human Development Report 2016 – "Human Development for Everyone", Human Development Report, HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme, 22 March 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170825175902weblink">weblink 25 August 2017, dmy-all, Following the experience of economic instability throughout the 1990s, and the implementation of a free travel agreement with the EU, a great number of Romanians emigrated to Western Europe and North America, with particularly large communities in Italy and Spain. In 2008, the Romanian diaspora was estimated to be at over two million people.WEB, Germany,weblink Romania, 28 August 2008, focus-migration.de, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090207131655weblink">weblink 7 February 2009, dmy-all,

Geography and climate

(File:Romania general map.png|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Topographic map of Romania)With an area of {{convert|238397|km2|sqmi|}}, Romania is the largest country in Southeastern Europe and the twelfth-largest in Europe.REPORT, National Institute of Statistics (Romania),weblink PDF, 2018-06-07, Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2017, 2018, {{rp|17}} It lies between latitudes 43° and 49° N and longitudes 20° and 30° E.The terrain is distributed roughly equally between mountains, hills, and plains.The Carpathian Mountains dominate the centre of Romania, with 14 mountain ranges reaching above {{convert|2000|m|ft|disp=or|abbr=on}}, the highest of which is Moldoveanu Peak at {{convert|2544|m|ft|disp=or|abbr=on}}.{{rp|11}} They are surrounded by the Moldavian and Transylvanian plateaus and Carpathian Basin and Wallachian plains.About 47% of the country's land area is covered with natural and semi-natural ecosystems.WEB,weblink Romania's Biodiversity, Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection of Romania (via enrin.grida.no), yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080210141053weblink">weblink 10 February 2008, There are almost {{convert|10000|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} (about 5% of the total area) of protected areas in Romania covering 13 national parks and three biosphere reserves.WEB,weblink Protected Areas in Romania, Romanian Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection (via envir.ee), 10 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071117061753weblink">weblink 17 November 2007, The Danube river forms a large part of the border with Serbia and Bulgaria, and flows into the Black Sea, forming the Danube Delta, which is the second-largest and best-preserved delta in Europe, and also a biosphere reserve and a biodiversity World Heritage Site.WEB,weblink Danube Delta, UNESCO's World Heritage Centre, 9 January 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080127014732weblink">weblink 27 January 2008, dmy-all, At {{convert|5800|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}},WEB, Danube Delta Reserve Biosphere, Romanian Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection (via envir.ee),weblink 10 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050426231510weblink">weblink 26 April 2005, the Danube Delta is the largest continuous marshland in Europe,WEB,weblink Danube Delta, UNESCO's World Heritage Centre, 10 January 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080127014732weblink">weblink 27 January 2008, dmy-all, and supports 1,688 different plant species alone.BOOK, Wohl, Ellen, A World of Rivers: Environmental Change on Ten of the World's Great Rivers,weblink 2010, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-90480-1, 130, Romania has one of the largest areas of undisturbed forest in Europe, covering almost 27% of the territory.WEB,weblink Romania, Fao.org, 15 August 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140810072102weblink">weblink 10 August 2014, dmy-all, Some 3,700 plant species have been identified in the country, from which to date 23 have been declared natural monuments, 74 missing, 39 endangered, 171 vulnerable, and 1,253 rare.WEB,weblink Flora si fauna salbatica, enrin.grida.no, Romanian, 7 September 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090223142209weblink">weblink 23 February 2009, The fauna consists of 33,792 species of animals, 33,085 invertebrate and 707 vertebrate, with almost 400 unique species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians,WEB,weblink EarthTrends: Biodiversity and Protected Areas – Romania, 10 January 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070926191841weblink">weblink 26 September 2007, including about 50% of Europe's (excluding Russia) brown bearsWEB,weblink Bears. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan., 2 October 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150923200609weblink">weblink 23 September 2015, dmy-all, and 20% of its wolves.WEB,weblink Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group, 2 October 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150923200655weblink">weblink 23 September 2015, dmy-all,

Climate

Owing to its distance from open sea and position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is temperate and continental, with four distinct seasons. The average annual temperature is {{convert|11|°C}} in the south and {{convert|8|°C}} in the north.WEB,weblink Romania: Climate, U.S. Library of Congress, 10 January 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060923055354weblink">weblink 23 September 2006, dmy-all, In summer, average maximum temperatures in Bucharest rise to {{convert|28|°C}}, and temperatures over {{convert|35|°C}} are fairly common in the lower-lying areas of the country.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110516104422weblink">weblink yes, 16 May 2011, Permafrost Monitoring and Prediction in Southern Carpathians, Romania, CliC International Project Office (CIPO), 22 December 2004, 31 August 2008, In winter, the average maximum temperature is below {{convert|2|°C}}. Precipitation is average, with over {{convert|750|mm|in|abbr=on}} per year only on the highest western mountains, while around Bucharest it drops to approximately {{convert|570|mm|in|abbr=on}}.{{rp|29}}There are some regional differences: in western sections, such as Banat, the climate is milder and has some Mediterranean influences; the eastern part of the country has a more pronounced continental climate. In Dobruja, the Black Sea also exerts an influence over the region's climate.Clima Romaniei | Site-ul Administratiei Nationale de Meteorologie {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160122145308weblink |date=22 January 2016 }}{{stack|(File:Romania map of Köppen climate classification.png|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Romania map of Köppen climate classification, according with Clima României from the Administrația Națională de Meteorologie, Bucharest 2008)}}{| class="wikitable sortable"Deutscher Wetterdienst, German, 20 December 2016, no,weblink 24 July 2015, dmy-all, !Location!July (°C)!July (°F)!January (°C)!January (°F)Bucharest >| 35/22Cluj-Napoca >| 33/20Timișoara >| 36/23Iași >| 32/20Constanța >| 39/28Craiova >| 35/22Brașov >| 32/15Galați >| 34/22

Governance

{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:left; float:left; margin-right:9px; margin-left:2px;" (File:Klaus Iohannis Senate of Poland 2015 02 (cropped 2).JPG Klaus IohannisPresidentViorica DăncilăPrime MinisterThe Constitution of Romania is based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic and was approved in a national referendum on 8 December 1991, and amended in October 2003 to bring it into conformity with the EU legislation. The country is governed on the basis of a multi-party democratic system and the separation of powers between the legislative, executive and judicial branches. It is a semi-presidential republic where executive functions are held by both government and the president.WEB, Tony, Verheijen,weblink Oxford Scholarship Online: Semi-Presidentialism in Europe, Oxfordscholarship.com, 14 March 1990, 29 August 2011, The latter is elected by popular vote for a maximum of two terms of five years and appoints the prime minister, who in turn appoints the Council of Ministers. The legislative branch of the government, collectively known as the Parliament (residing at the Palace of the Parliament), consists of two chambers (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) whose members are elected every four years by simple plurality.WEB,weblink Se schimbă sistemul de vot. Deputații au adoptat noua Lege Electorală propusă de USL, Antena3.ro, 12 October 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121031132827weblink">weblink 31 October 2012, dmy-all, The justice system is independent of the other branches of government, and is made up of a hierarchical system of courts culminating in the High Court of Cassation and Justice, which is the supreme court of Romania.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120910190947weblink">weblink yes, 10 September 2012, High Court of Cassation and Justice -—Romania, Presentation, 31 August 2008, There are also courts of appeal, county courts and local courts. The Romanian judicial system is strongly influenced by the French model, considering that it is based on civil law and is inquisitorial in nature. The Constitutional Court (Curtea Constituțională) is responsible for judging the compliance of laws and other state regulations to the constitution, which is the fundamental law of the country and can only be amended through a public referendum.WEB,weblinklegal_system.html, https:web.archive.org/web/20080125081126weblink yes, 25 January 2008, Romanian Legal system, CIA Factbook, 2000, 11 January 2008, The 2007 entry into the EU has been a significant influence on its domestic policy, and including judicial reforms, increased judicial cooperation with other member states, and measures to combat corruption.

Foreign relations

(File:Diplomatic missions of Romania.PNG|thumb|230px|right|Diplomatic missions of Romania)File:Secretary Tillerson and Romanian President Iohannis Meet Before Reporters in Washington (34356507264).jpg|thumb|230px|right|Romania is a noteworthy ally of the United States, being the first NATO member state that agreed to support increasing its defence spending after the 2017 Trump-Iohannis meeting at the White HouseWhite HouseSince December 1989, Romania has pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West in general, more specifically with the United States and the European Union, albeit with limited relations involving the Russian Federation. It joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) on 29 March 2004, the European Union (EU) on 1 January 2007, while it had joined the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1972, and is a founding member of the World Trade Organization.WEB,weblink Understanding the WTO – members, WTO, 29 August 2011, no,weblink 17 January 2010, dmy-all, Past recent governments states that one of their goals is to strengthen ties with and helping other countries (in particular Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia) with the process of integration with the rest of the West.WEB, Foreign Policy Priorities of Romania for 2008, Romanian,weblink Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 28 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080914103728weblink">weblink 14 September 2008, dmy-all, Romania has also made clear since the late 1990s that it supports NATO and EU membership for the democratic former Soviet republics in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. Romania also declared its public support for Turkey, and Croatia joining the European Union. Because it has a large Hungarian minority, Romania has also developed strong relations with Hungary. Romania opted on 1 January 2007, to adhere the Schengen Area, and its bid to join was approved by the European Parliament in June 2011, but was rejected by the EU Council in September 2011.In December 2005, President Traian Băsescu and United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice signed an agreement that would allow a U.S. military presence at several Romanian facilities primarily in the eastern part of the country.WEB,weblink U.S. Department of State, Background Note: Romania – U.S.-Romanian Relations, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080408231549weblink">weblink 8 April 2008, dmy-all, In May 2009, Hillary Clinton, US Secretary of State, declared that "Romania is one of the most trustworthy and respectable partners of the USA."weblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090512144240weblink|date=12 May 2009}}Relations with Moldova are a special case, considering that the two countries share the same language and a common history. A movement for unification of Romania and Moldova appeared in the early 1990s after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule,JOURNAL,weblink Romania'S Relations with the Republic of Moldova, Gabriel Andreescu, Valentin Stan, Renate Weber, International Studies, Centre for International Studies, 30 October 1994, 31 August 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080223003657weblink">weblink 23 February 2008, but lost ground in the mid-1990s when a new Moldovan government pursued an agenda towards preserving a Moldovan republic independent of Romania.WEB,weblink Rediscovering History, Rediscovering Ultimate Truth, Stefan, Ihrig, 17 September 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081001165700weblink">weblink 1 October 2008, dmy-all, After the 2009 protests in Moldova and subsequent removal of Communists from power, relations between the two countries have improved considerably.NEWS,weblink Moldova, Romania open new chapter in bilateral relations, People's Daily, 11 August 2011, 29 April 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130518022407weblink">weblink 18 May 2013, dmy-all,

Military

{{See also|Romania–United States relations}}File:Exercitiu de debarcare a infanteristilor marini pe plaja de la Vadu.jpg|thumb|Romanian marine troopers during a combined Dutch-Romanian exercise at Vadu beach.]]File:Misiune de patrulare.jpg|thumb|right|Romania is the fourth largest contributor of troops in Afghanistan.]]The Romanian Armed Forces consist of Land, Air, and Naval Forces, and are led by a Commander-in-chief under the supervision of the Ministry of Defense, and by the president as the Supreme Commander during wartime. The Armed Forces consist of approximately 15,000 civilians and 75,000 are military personnel—45,800 for land, 13,250 for air, 6,800 for naval forces, and 8,800 in other fields.PRESS RELEASE, Ministry of National Defense of Romania,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080403205407weblink">weblink 3 April 2008, Press conference, 21 January 2003, 31 August 2008, yes, The total defence spending in 2007 accounted for 2.05% of total national GDP, or approximately US$2.9 billion, with a total of $11 billion spent between 2006 and 2011 for modernization and acquisition of new equipment.WEB,weblink MoND Budget as of 2007, Ziarul Financiar, 30 October 2006, Romanian, 31 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080422075245weblink">weblink 22 April 2008, yes, The Air Force currently operates modernized Soviet MiG-21 Lancer fighters which are due to be replaced by twelve F-16s, recently purchased."Romania Finally Settles On Portuguese F-16s" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160806190518weblink |date=6 August 2016 }} The Air Force purchased seven new C-27J Spartan tactical airlifters,WEB,weblink PICTURES: Romania accepts first C-27J Spartans-12/04/2010-London, Flightglobal.com, 28 September 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100415191636weblink">weblink 15 April 2010, dmy-all, while the Naval Forces acquired two modernized Type 22 frigates from the British Royal Navy.NEWS, Spartan Order, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 11 December 2006, Romania has contributed troops to the international coalition in Afghanistan since 2002,NEWS, Romania: 2 soldiers killed, 1 injured in Afghanistan, 7 May 2016, Associated Press, Colorado Springs Gazette,weblink 7 July 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160817042701weblink">weblink 17 August 2016, dmy-all, with a peak deployment of 1,600 troops in 2010 (which was the 4th largest contributor according to the US). WEB,weblink Joint Press Conference of the President of Romania Klaus Iohannis and US President Donald Trump, Rose Garden, White House - EMBASSY OF ROMANIA to the United States of America, washington.mae.ro, NEWS, Romania To Send 450 More Troops To Afghanistan, 21 December 2014, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty,weblink 7 July 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160919065348weblink">weblink 19 September 2016, dmy-all, Its combat mission in the country concluded in 2014.NEWS, Romania ends combat mission in Afghanistan with visit from Prime Minister, 30 June 2014, Associated Press,weblinkweblink yes, 14 October 2017, 7 July 2016, dmy-all, Romanian troops participated in the occupation of Iraq, reaching a peak of 730 soldiers before being slowly drawn down to 350 soldiers. Romania terminated its mission in Iraq and withdrew its last troops on 24 July 2009, among the last countries to do so. The Regele Ferdinand frigate participated in the 2011 military intervention in Libya.WEB,weblink Traian Basescu: Romania va trimite fregata Regele Ferdinand cu 205 militari in Mediterana pentru operatiuni de blocare a oricarei nave suspecte ca transporta armament, HotNews.ro, 22 March 2011, 22 March 2011, Romanian, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110325033747weblink">weblink 25 March 2011, dmy-all, In December 2011, the Romanian Senate unanimously adopted the draft law ratifying the Romania-United States agreement signed in September of the same year that would allow the establishment and operation of a US land-based ballistic missile defence system in Romania as part of NATO's efforts to build a continental missile shield.WEB,weblink Romania ratifies US missile shield agreement, SpaceWar, 6 December 2012, no,weblink" title="archive.is/20130202181841weblink">weblink 2 February 2013, dmy-all,

Administrative divisions

Romania is divided into 41 counties (județe, pronounced judets) and the municipality of Bucharest. Each county is administered by a county council, responsible for local affairs, as well as a prefect responsible for the administration of national affairs at the county level. The prefect is appointed by the central government but cannot be a member of any political party.WEB,weblink Geografia Romaniei, descopera.net, Romanian, 7 September 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090219224756weblink">weblink 19 February 2009, Each county is further subdivided into cities and communes, which have their own mayor and local council. There are a total of 320 cities and 2,861 communes in Romania.{{rp|17}} A total of 103 of the larger cities have municipality statuses, which gives them greater administrative power over local affairs. The municipality of Bucharest is a special case as it enjoys a status on par to that of a county. It is further divided into six sectors{{rp|6}} and has a prefect, a general mayor (primar), and a general city council.The NUTS-3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level divisions of European Union reflect Romania's administrative-territorial structure, and correspond to the 41 counties plus Bucharest. The cities and communes correspond to the NUTS-5 level divisions, but there are no current NUTS-4 level divisions. The NUTS-1 (four macroregions) and NUTS-2WEB, LEGE nr. 151 din 15 iulie 1998,weblink Romanian, 1 July 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131202235242weblink">weblink 2 December 2013, dmy-all, (eight development regions) divisions exist but have no administrative capacity, and are instead used for coordinating regional development projects and statistical purposes.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080118234301weblink">weblink 18 January 2008, Hierarchical list of the Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics – NUTS and the Statistical regions of Europe, 31 August 2008, yes, {{Romanian counties map |Map=Regiuni de dezvoltare.svg}}{| class="wikitable sortable"!Development region!Area (km2)!Population (2011)WEB,weblink 2011 Regions Population, 4 July 2013, 9 July 2013, National Institute of Statistics (Romania), INSSE, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130929043140weblink">weblink 29 September 2013, dmy-all, !Most populous urban center*WEB,weblink Population at 20 October 2011, 5 July 2013, 5 July 2013, National Institute of Statistics (Romania), INSSE, Romanian, {{dead link|date=February 2014}} style="text-align:center;"Nord-Vest|34,159|2,600,132Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area>Cluj-Napoca (411,379) style="text-align:center;"Centru|34,082|2,360,805Brașov metropolitan area>Brașov (369,896) style="text-align:center;"Nord-Est|36,850|3,302,217Iași metropolitan area>Iași (382,484) style="text-align:center;"Sud-Est|35,762|2,545,923Constanța metropolitan area>Constanța (425,916) style="text-align:center;"Sud – Muntenia|34,489|3,136,446Ploiești metropolitan area>Ploiești (276,279) style="text-align:center;"București – Ilfov|1,811|2,272,163Bucharest metropolitan area>Bucharest (2,272,163) style="text-align:center;"Sud-Vest Oltenia|29,212|2,075,642Craiova metropolitan area>Craiova (356,544) style="text-align:center;"Vest|32,028|1,828,313Timișoara metropolitan area>Timișoara (384,809){{Clear}}

Economy

{{Further|Agriculture in Romania|Industry of Romania}}File:EU Single Market.svg|thumb|right|Since 2007, Romania has been part of the EU single market.]]In 2019, Romania has a GDP (PPP) of around $547 billion and a GDP per capita (PPP) of $28,189.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 21 April 2017, no,weblink 10 October 2017, dmy-all, , IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2017 According to the World Bank, Romania is a high income country with a mixed economy.World Bank – Data for Romania 2019 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171010142627weblink |date=10 October 2017 }} According to Eurostat, Romania's GDP per capita (PPS) was at 63% of the EU average in 2017, an increase from 41% in 2007 (the year of Romania's accession to the EU), making Romania one of the fastest growing economies in the EU.WEB,weblink GDP per capita, consumption per capita and price level indices, 13 June 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170702200346weblink">weblink 2 July 2017, dmy-all, After 1989 the country experienced a decade of economic instability and decline, led in part by an obsolete industrial base and a lack of structural reform. From 2000 onward, however, the Romanian economy was transformed into one of relative macroeconomic stability, characterized by high growth, low unemployment and declining inflation. In 2006, according to the Romanian Statistics Office, GDP growth in real terms was recorded at 7.7%, one of the highest rates in Europe.WEB, Romanian,weblink GDP in 2006, Romanian National Institute of Statistics, 10 January 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080216015144weblink">weblink 16 February 2008, dmy-all, However, a recession following the global financial crisis of 2008–2009 forced the government to borrow externally, including an IMF €20bn bailout program.nytimes.com: "Romania to Get Next Installment of Bailout" 1 Nov 2010 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160721190547weblink |date=21 July 2016 }} GDP has been growing by over 2% each year since.WEB,weblink Veste excelenta pentru Romania de la Banca Mondiala (Video), 11 June 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140618095328weblink">weblink 18 June 2014, dmy-all, According to The World Bank, the GDP per capita purchasing power parity grew from $13,442 in 2007 to an estimated $22,124 in 2015.PRESS RELEASE,weblink PDF, In January 2017, the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was estimated at 5.4%, National Institute of Statistics (Romania), National Institute of Statistics, 31 January 2017, 9 March 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170305114812weblink">weblink 5 March 2017, dmy-all, Romania still has one of the lowest net average monthly wages in the EU of €540 in 2016,WEB,weblink Average gross earnings in Romania, 16 March 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170305113855weblink">weblink 5 March 2017, dmy-all, and an inflation rate of −1.1% in 2016.WEB,weblink Eurostat, HICP – monthly data (12-month average rate of change), Eurostat, 5 March 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170305114746weblink">weblink 5 March 2017, dmy-all, Unemployment in Romania is at 4.3% in August 2018, which is very low compared to other EU countries.File:Palacio CEC, Bucarest, Rumanía, 2016-05-29, DD 65.jpg|thumb|left|The CEC Palace is situated on Bucharest's Victory Avenue.]]File:Bucharest - Smârdan Street (28547822606).jpg|thumb|left|The Bucharest Stock ExchangeBucharest Stock ExchangeIndustrial output growth reached 6.5% year-on-year in February 2013, the highest in the EU-27.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130417223746weblink">Industrial production up by 0.4% in euro area and EU27|Eurostat. Eurostat (12 April 2013). Retrieved on 13 May 2013. The largest local companies include car maker Automobile Dacia, Petrom, Rompetrol, Ford Romania, Electrica, Romgaz, RCS & RDS and Banca Transilvania.WEB, Chirileasa, Andrei,weblink Top 20 companies in Romania by turnover, Romania-Insider.com, 9 June 2014, 15 August 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140612001600weblink">weblink 12 June 2014, dmy-all, Exports have increased substantially in the past few years, with a 13% annual rise in exports in 2010. Romania's main exports are cars, software, clothing and textiles, industrial machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, metallurgic products, raw materials, military equipment, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and agricultural products (fruits, vegetables, and flowers). Trade is mostly centered on the member states of the European Union, with Germany and Italy being the country's single largest trading partners. The account balance in 2012 was estimated to be −4.52% of the GDP.WEB,weblink IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2011 – Central and Eastern Europe, April 2011, IMF, 27 April 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111015040029weblink">weblink 15 October 2011, dmy-all, After a series of privatizations and reforms in the late 1990s and 2000s, government intervention in the Romanian economy is somewhat lower than in other European economies.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050105155414weblink">weblink yes, 5 January 2005, Index of Economic Freedom: Romania, heritage.org, 31 August 2008, In 2005, the government replaced Romania's progressive tax system with a flat tax of 16% for both personal income and corporate profit, among the lowest rates in the European Union.REPORT,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070628064604weblink">weblink yes, 28 June 2007, PDF, Taxation trends in the EU, Eurostat, 26 June 2007, 31 August 2008, The economy is predominantly based on services, which account for 51% of GDP, even though industry and agriculture also have significant contributions, making up 36% and 13% of GDP, respectively. Additionally, 30% of the Romanian population was employed in 2006 in agriculture and primary production, one of the highest rates in Europe.WEB,weblink Romania, CIA World Factbook, 2010, 27 April 2011, no,weblink 1 May 2011, dmy-all, Since 2000, Romania has attracted increasing amounts of foreign investment, becoming the single largest investment destination in Southeastern and Central Europe. Foreign direct investment was valued at €8.3 billion in 2006.WEB,weblink Romania: FDI reached over EUR 8.3 bn, 31 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928125042weblink">weblink 28 September 2007, yes, According to a 2011 World Bank report, Romania currently ranks 72nd out of 175 economies in the ease of doing business, scoring lower than other countries in the region such as the Czech Republic.REPORT,weblink Economy Ranking, Doing Business, 2007, World Bank, 31 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080915084658weblink">weblink 15 September 2008, dmy-all, Additionally, a study in 2006 judged it to be the world's second-fastest economic reformer (after Georgia).REPORT,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070308173737weblink">weblink yes, 8 March 2007, Doing Business 2007 Report, World Bank, 31 August 2008, File:Dacia Duster Salon de l'Auto.jpg|thumb|right|Dacia Duster concept at the Geneva Motor ShowGeneva Motor ShowSince 1867 the official currency has been the Romanian leu ("lion") and following a denomination in 2005, it has been valued at €0.2–0.3. After joining the EU in 2007, Romania is expected to adopt the Euro sometime around 2020.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20071025023219weblink">weblink yes, 25 October 2007, Fifth Report on the Practical Preparations for the Future Enlargement of the Euro Area, 16 July 2007, Commission of the European Communities, 31 May 2013, On 1 July 2015, Romania's external debt was reported to be situated at the sum of €90.59 billion.WEB, Banca NaÈ›ională a României,weblink bnr.ro, 29 September 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150930005458weblink">weblink 30 September 2015, dmy-all, In 2018, the external debt of Romania was reported to be situated at the sum of €96 billion according to the National Bank of Romania.WEB,weblink Datoria externa a Romaniei a crescut galopant si se apropie de 100 de miliarde de euro, Ziare.com,

Infrastructure

File:Romania-drumuri.svg|thumb|Romania's road network.]](File:Graph Romania electricity supply mix 2015.svg|thumb|Graph depicting Romania's electricity supply mix as of 2015)According to the INSSE, Romania's total road network was estimated in 2015 at {{convert|86080|km|0|abbr=out}}.WEB,weblink Length of roads in Romania 2015, INSSE, 16 March 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161113231241weblink">weblink 13 November 2016, dmy-all, The World Bank estimates the railway network at {{convert|22298|km}} of track, the fourth-largest railroad network in Europe.WEB,weblink Reteaua feroviara, Romanian, cfr.to, 6 September 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090608211134weblink">weblink 8 June 2009, Rail transport experienced a dramatic decline after 1989, and was estimated at 99 million passenger journeys in 2004; but has experienced a recent (2013) revival due to infrastructure improvements and partial privatization of lines,BOOK, The Europa World Year Book, 2007, 2, 48, Routledge, London and New York, Romania, 3734–3759, 978-1-85743-412-5, accounting for 45% of all passenger and freight movements in the country. Bucharest Metro, the only underground railway system, was opened in 1979 and measures {{convert|61.41|km|2|abbr=on}} with an average ridership in 2007 of 600,000 passengers during the workweek.WEB,weblink Metrorex ridership, Romanian, Financial Week newspaper, 23 April 2007, 31 August 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080516140935weblink">weblink 16 May 2008, There are sixteen international commercial airports in service today. Over 12.8 million passengers flew through Bucharest's Henri Coandă International Airport in 2017.Ann.aero database {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170326185002weblink |date=26 March 2017 }}Romania is a net exporter of electrical energy and is 48th worldwide in terms of consumption of electric energy.WEB, List of countries by electricity consumption, List of countries by electricity consumption, 20 February 2017, {{Better source|reason=per WP:CIRCULAR|date=May 2017}} Around a third of the produced energy comes from renewable sources, mostly as hydroelectric power.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 9 August 2014, yes,weblink 11 December 2015, In 2015, the main sources were coal (28%), hydroelectric (30%), nuclear (18%), and hydrocarbons (14%).WEB,weblink Raport Anual 2015 energie, 20 February 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171010095255weblink">weblink 10 October 2017, dmy-all, It has one of the largest refining capacities in Eastern Europe, even though oil and natural gas production has been decreasing for more than a decade. With one of the largest reserves of crude oil and shale gas in Europe, it is among the most energy-independent countries in the European Union,WEB, Ana Hontz-Ward,weblink Romania Expects to be Energy Independent Despite Ukraine Crisis, Voanews.com, 15 August 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140818030644weblink">weblink 18 August 2014, dmy-all, and is looking to further expand its nuclear power plant at Cernavodă.WEB,weblink Contractul pentru unitatile 3 si 4 de la centrala nucleara Cernavoda se va parafa in mai. Chinezii v-or avea 51% din actiuni – Nicolae Moga (PSD) – Energie – HotNews.ro, Economie.hotnews.ro, 15 August 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140819090341weblink">weblink 19 August 2014, dmy-all, There were almost 18.3 million connections to the Internet in June, 2014.WEB,weblink Numărul conexiunilor la internet a crescut cu 22,8%. Câte milioane de români au acces la internet, Gândul, 4 December 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150409080533weblink">weblink 9 April 2015, dmy-all, According to Bloomberg, in 2013 Romania ranked 5th in the world, and according to The Independent, it ranks number one in Europe at Internet speeds,• Chart: Blistering BroadBand: Europe's fastest downloaders -> Statista {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170222110431weblink |date=22 February 2017 }}WEB,weblink Top 10: Where to Find the World's Fastest Internet, Bloomberg L.P., Bloomberg, 23 January 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160628104937weblink">weblink 28 June 2016, dmy-all, with TimiÈ™oara ranked among the highest in the world.WEB,weblink Romanian city comes out first in the world in Internet download speed ranking, Net Index, 3 July 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130706191940weblink">weblink 6 July 2013, dmy-all,

Tourism

{{See also|Seven Natural Wonders of Romania|Seven Wonders of Romania}}Tourism is a significant contributor to the Romanian economy, generating around 5% of GDP.WEB,weblink World Economic Forum, Country/Economy Profiles: Romania, Page 329 Travel&Tourism, 16 March 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130405043639weblink">weblink 5 April 2013, dmy-all, According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, Romania was estimated to have the fourth-fastest-growing travel and tourism total demand in the world, with an estimated potential growth of 8% per year from 2007 to 2016.WEB, WTTC spells out policy recommendations for Romania to tap travel and tourism potential, WTTC,weblink 11 January 2008, {{dead link|date=March 2017}} The number of tourists has been steadily rising, reaching 9.33 million foreign tourists in 2016, according to the Worldbank.WEB,weblink Worldbank Tourism in Romania, worldbank.org, 5 May 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170825191802weblink">weblink 25 August 2017, dmy-all, Tourism in Romania attracted €400 million in investments in 2005.WEB, ro,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180809114100weblink">weblink yes, 9 August 2018, Gandul Newspaper, Tourism attracted in 2005 investments worth €400 million, 11 January 2008, More than 60% of the foreign visitors in 2007 were from other EU countries.REPORT,weblink PDF, Report from Romanian National Institute of Statistics, for the first 9 months of 2007 an increase from the previous year of 8.7% to 16.5 million tourists; of these 94.0% came from European countries and 61.7% from EU, 11 January 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080216015139weblink">weblink 16 February 2008, dmy-all, The popular summer attractions of Mamaia and other Black Sea Resorts attracted 1.3 million tourists in 2009.Criza ne strică vacanÈ›a {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121102104448weblink |date=2 November 2012 }}, 9 July 2010, jurnalul.ro, accessed on 21 August 2010WEB,weblink Tan and fun at the Black Sea, UnseenRomania, 10 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011041935weblink">weblink 11 October 2007, yes, {{multiple image|perrow=2|align=right|total_width=300caption1=Putna Monastery in Bukovina, the oldest of the medieval churches of Moldavia caption2=The Danube Delta with its wildlifecaption3=Bran Castle ()caption4=Mamaia Black Sea resort}}Most popular skiing resorts are along the Valea Prahovei and in Poiana BraÈ™ov. Castles, fortifications, or strongholds as well as well preserved medieval Transylvanian cities or towns such as Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu, BraÈ™ov, BistriÈ›a, MediaÈ™, Cisnădie, or SighiÈ™oara also attract a large number of tourists. Bran Castle, near BraÈ™ov, is one of the most famous attractions in Romania, drawing hundreds of thousands of tourists every year as it is often advertised as being Dracula's Castle.WEB,weblink Castelul Bran, marcat de istorie, dar ÅŸi de legenda lui Dracula atrage anual sute de mii de turiÅŸti, www.digi24.ro, 28 June 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160822103842weblink">weblink 22 August 2016, dmy-all, Hunedoara Castle is another famous structure. Rural tourism, focusing on folklore and traditions, has become an important alternative,NEWS, Romania Libera, Romanian, 5 July 2008, Turismul renaste la tara,weblink 28 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080802065943weblink">weblink 2 August 2008, dmy-all, and is targeted to promote such sites as Bran and its Dracula's Castle, the painted churches of northern Moldavia, and the wooden churches of MaramureÈ™, or the villages with fortified churches in Transylvania.WEB,weblink Romanian, RuralTourism.ro, Bine ati venit pe site-ul de promovare a pensiunilor agroturistice din Romania !!!, 28 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080914053130weblink">weblink 14 September 2008, dmy-all, Other attractions include the Danube Delta or the Sculptural Ensemble of Constantin BrâncuÈ™i at Târgu Jiu.WEB,weblink Turism in Romania, Turism.ro, 29 August 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110902060849weblink">weblink 2 September 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120909134147weblink">weblink yes, 9 September 2012, Ansamblul sculptural Constantin Brancusi din Targu Jiu, Romaniaturistica.com, 16 March 1957, 29 August 2011, In 2014, Romania had 32,500 companies which were active in the hotel and restaurant industry, with a total turnover of EUR 2.6 billion.How important is tourism in Romania’s economy? {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151106064035weblink |date=6 November 2015 }} More than 1.9 million foreign tourists visited Romania in 2014, 12% more than in 2013.Over 1.9 million tourists visit Romania, where do they come from – Romania Insider {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150204055850weblink |date=4 February 2015 }} According to the country's National Statistics Institute, some 77% came from Europe (particularly from Germany, Italy, and France), 12% from Asia, and less than 7% from North America.

Science and technology

Historically, Romanian researchers and inventors have made notable contributions to several fields. In the history of flight, Traian Vuia made the first airplane to take off on its own powerWEB,weblink Traian Vuia in a Century of Aviation, Romanian Academy Library, 1, 7 August 2012, no,weblink 27 July 2013, dmy-all, and Aurel Vlaicu built and flew some of the earliest successful aircraft, while Henri Coandă discovered the Coandă effect of fluidics. Victor Babeș discovered more than 50 types of bacteria; biologist Nicolae Paulescu discovered insulin, while Emil Palade, received the Nobel Prize for his contributions to cell biology. Lazăr Edeleanu was the first chemist to synthesize amphetamine and he also invented the procedure of separating valuable petroleum components with selective solvents, while Costin Nenițescu developed numerous new classes of compounds in organic chemistry. Notable (:Category:Romanian mathematicians|Romanian mathematicians) include Spiru Haret, Grigore Moisil, and Ștefan Odobleja; physicists and inventors: Șerban Țițeica, Alexandru Proca, and Ștefan Procopiu.During the 1990s and 2000s, the development of research was hampered by several factors, including corruption, low funding and a considerable brain drain.WEB,weblink Science in post-communist Romania: The future is not inviting, 9 February 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510003910weblink">weblink 10 May 2011, dmy-all, However, since the country's accession to the European Union, this has begun to change.WEB,weblink Laserul de la Magurele: Institutul de Cercetare pentru Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara a semnat contractul de 66 milioane euro pentru realizarea Sistemului Fascicul Gamma – Esential, HotNews.ro, 15 August 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140811081832weblink">weblink 11 August 2014, dmy-all, After being slashed by 50% in 2009 because of the global recession, R&D spending was increased by 44% in 2010 and now stands at $0.5 billion (1.5 billion lei).WEB,weblink Bulgaria: Science fortunes of Balkan neighbours diverge – Novinite.com – Sofia News Agency, Novinite.com, 13 January 2011, 14 March 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511095920weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, dmy-all, In January 2011, the Parliament also passed a law that enforces "strict quality control on universities and introduces tough rules for funding evaluation and peer review".WEB,weblink Science fortunes of Balkan neighbours diverge : Nature News, Nature.com, 14 March 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110116022857weblink">weblink 16 January 2011, dmy-all, The country has joined several major international organizations such as CERN and the European Space Agency.WEB,weblink Funeriu: Stiinta din Romania 'se imbunatateste', insa mai sunt multe lucruri de facut, Epochtimes-romania.com, 13 January 2011, 14 March 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510003912weblink">weblink 10 May 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Romania is to sign agreement on joining European space agency convention, Actmedia.eu, 20 January 2011, 14 March 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110124013651weblink">weblink 24 January 2011, dmy-all, Overall, the situation has been characterized as "rapidly improving", albeit from a low base.WEB,weblink Romania's high hopes for science : Nature News, Nature.com, 14 March 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110319180142weblink">weblink 19 March 2011, dmy-all, The nuclear physics facility of the European Union's proposed Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) laser will be built in Romania.WEB,weblink ELI-NP | Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics, Eli-np.ro, 29 August 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110906022342weblink">weblink 6 September 2011, dmy-all, In early 2012, Romania launched its first satellite from the Centre Spatial Guyanais in French Guyana.WEB,weblink VIDEO Romania's first satellite Goliat successfully launch from Kourou base in French Guyana – Top News, HotNews.ro, 4 April 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140406215026weblink">weblink 6 April 2014, dmy-all, Starting December 2014, Romania is a co-owner of the International Space Station.WEB,weblink Romania will own a part of the International Space Station and will contribute to the development of the latest European rocket, Ariane 6, Romanian Space Agency, 3 December 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141208052247weblink">weblink 8 December 2014, dmy-all,

Demographics

{{See also|Minorities of Romania|Romanian diaspora}}(File:Ethnic-map-of-Romania-2011.png|thumb|Ethnic map of Romania based on 2011 census data.)File:Romania 1930 ethnic map EN.png|thumb|Ethnic map of the Kingdom of RomaniaKingdom of RomaniaAccording to the 2011 census, Romania's population is 20,121,641. Like other countries in the region, its population is expected to gradually decline in the coming years as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates and negative net migration rate. In October 2011, Romanians made up 88.9% of the population. The largest ethnic minorities are the Hungarians, 6.1% of the population, and the Roma, 3.0% of the population.2002 census data, based on population by ethnicity {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120324001828weblink|date=24 March 2012}}, gave a total of 535,250 Roma in Romania. Many ethnicities are not recorded, as they do not have ID cards {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131115213848weblink|date=15 November 2013}}. International sources give higher figures than the official census (e.g., weblink" title="https:/-/web.archive.org/web/20061007102931weblink">weblinkUNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060824055025weblink">World Bank, WEB,weblink International Association for Official Statistics,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080226202154weblink">weblink 26 February 2008, yes, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080123192809weblink">weblink yes, 23 January 2008, usatoday, European effort spotlights plight of the Roma, 31 August 2008, 10 February 2005, Hungarians constitute a majority in the counties of Harghita and Covasna. Other minorities include Ukrainians, Germans, Turks, Lipovans, Aromanians, Tatars, and Serbs.REPORT,weblink Official site of the results of the 2002 Census, Romanian, 31 August 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120205002157weblink">weblink 5 February 2012, In 1930, there were 745,421 Germans in Romania,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070817040031weblink">weblink 17 August 2007, German Population of Romania, 1930–1948, hungarian-history.hu, 7 September 2009, yes, but only about 36,000 remain today. {{As of|2009}}, there were also approximately 133,000 immigrants living in Romania, primarily from Moldova and China.The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2018 was estimated at 1.36 children born per woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and one of the lowest in the world,HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/RO.HTML, World Factbook EUROPE : Romania, The World Factbook, 12 July 2018, {{PD-notice}} it remains considerably below the high of 5.82 children born per woman in 1912.HTTPS://OURWORLDINDATA.ORG/GRAPHER/CHILDREN-BORN-PER-WOMAN?YEAR=1945&COUNTRY=ROU, Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries, Max Roser, 2014, Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation, In 2014, 31.2% of births were to unmarried women.Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160527142604weblink |date=27 May 2016 }}The birth rate (9.49‰, 2012) is much lower than the mortality rate (11.84‰, 2012), resulting in a shrinking (−0.26% per year, 2012) and aging population (median age: 41.6 years, 2018), one of the oldest populations in the world, with approximately 16.8% of total population aged 65 years and over.WEB, Graeme, Villeret,weblink Roumanie, PopulationData.net, 29 August 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160315064345weblink">weblink 15 March 2016, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Romania demographics profile (2011), Indexmundi.com, 12 July 2011, 29 August 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111108032354weblink">weblink 8 November 2011, dmy-all, The life expectancy in 2015 was estimated at 74.92 years (71.46 years male, 78.59 years female).The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140924094539weblink |date=24 September 2014 }}The number of Romanians and individuals with ancestors born in Romania living abroad is estimated at around 12 million. After the Romanian Revolution of 1989, a significant number of Romanians emigrated to other European countries, North America or Australia.WEB,weblink Focus-Migration: Romania, focus-migration.hwwi.de, de, 2 May 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170720111251weblink">weblink 20 July 2017, dmy-all, For example, in 1990, 96,919 Romanians permanently settled abroad.MIGRATION AND ASYLUM IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150916021316weblink |date=16 September 2015 }} European Parliament

Languages

File:LatinEuropeans.png|thumb|right|Romanian is an Eastern Romance language, part of the larger linguistic family of Romance languagesRomance languagesThe official language is Romanian, a Romance language (the most widely spoken of the Eastern Romance branch), which presents a consistent degree of similarity to Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian, but equally shares many features with the rest of the Western Romance languages, specifically Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Catalan. The Romanian alphabet contains the same 26 letters of the standard Latin alphabet, as well as five additional ones (namely 'ă','â','î','ț', and 'ș'), totaling 31.Romanian is spoken as a first language by approximately 90% of the entire population, while Hungarian and Vlax Romani are spoken by 6.2% and 1.2% of the population, respectively. There are also approximately 50,000 native speakers of Ukrainian (concentrated in some compact regions, near the border, where they form local majorities),{{Citation| url=http://infomm.ro/ro/detalii/in-maramures-aproape-31-000-ucraineni-petrec-sarbatorile-de-iarna| title=IARNA UCRAINEANĂ – Află care sunt localitățile din Maramureș în care se prăznuiesc sărbătorile de iarnă după rit vechi| trans-title=Ukrainian winter: find out in which communes of Maramureș are the Winter holidays celebrated by the old calendar| newspaper=Infomm.ro| date=| access-date=5 May 2015| deadurl=yes| archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150518065900weblink| archivedate=18 May 2015| df=dmy-all}} 25,000 native speakers of German, and 32,000 native speakers of Turkish living in Romania.WEB,weblink xls, 2011 census results by native language, www.recensamantromania.ro, website of the Romanian Institute of Statistics, 5 May 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924085451weblink">weblink 24 September 2015, dmy-all, According to the Constitution, local councils ensure linguistic rights to all minorities, with localities with ethnic minorities of over 20%, that minority's language can be used in the public administration, justice system, and education. Foreign citizens and stateless persons that live in Romania have access to justice and education in their own language.WEB,weblink Constitutia României, Cdep.ro, 29 August 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110907004110weblink">weblink 7 September 2011, dmy-all, English and French are the main foreign languages taught in schools.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130926220947weblink">weblink yes, 26 September 2013, Two-thirds of working age adults in the EU28 in 2011 state they know a foreign language, 26 September 2013, 21 August 2014, Eurostat, In 2010, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie identifies {{formatnum:4756100}} French speakers in the country.WEB,weblink Roumanie – Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, francophonie.org, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170314190615weblink">weblink 14 March 2017, dmy-all, According to the 2012 Eurobarometer, English is spoken by 31% of Romanians, French is spoken by 17%, as well as Italian and German, each by 7%.WEB,weblink EUROPEANS AND THEIR LANGUAGES, REPORT, 2012, 21 August 2014, Eurostat, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160106183351weblink">weblink 6 January 2016,

Religion

File:Ortodocsi Romania (2002).png|thumb|upright =2|Eastern Orthodoxy is the most widespread religious denomination in the country.]]{{bar box|float = right|titlebar = #ddd|title = Religion in Romania (2011 census)|left1 = Religion|right1 = Percentage|bars ={{bar percent|Eastern Orthodox|blue|81.0}}{{bar percent|Roman Catholic|orange|4.3}}{{bar percent|Reformed|yellow|3.0}}{{bar percent|Pentecostal|violet|1.8}}{{bar percent|Greek Catholic|cyan|0.7}}{{bar percent|Baptist|red|0.6}}{{bar percent|Seventh-day Adventist|purple|0.4}}{{bar percent|Other|green|1.8}}{{bar percent|Non-Religious|grey|0.2}}{{bar percent|No data|black|6.2}}}}Romania is a secular state and has no state religion. An overwhelming majority of the population identify themselves as Christians. At the country's 2011 census, 81.0% of respondents identified as Orthodox Christians belonging to the Romanian Orthodox Church. Other denominations include Protestantism (6.2%), Roman Catholicism (4.3%), and Greek Catholicism (0.8%). From the remaining population, 195,569 people belong to other Christian denominations or have another religion, which includes 64,337 Muslims (mostly of Turkish and Tatar ethnicity) and 3,519 Jewish (Jews once constituted 4% of the Romanian population, 728,115 persons in the 1930 census). Moreover, 39,660 people have no religion or are atheist, whilst the religion of the rest is unknown.WEB,weblink xls, 2011 census results by religion, www.recensamantromania.ro, website of the Romanian Institute of Statistics, 5 May 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924085428weblink">weblink 24 September 2015, dmy-all, The Romanian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with other Orthodox churches, with a Patriarch as its leader. It is the second-largest Orthodox Church in the world{{citation needed|date=May 2017}}, and unlike other Orthodox churches, it functions within a Latin culture and utilizes a Romance liturgical language.Profiles of the Eastern Churches {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161229100346weblink |date=29 December 2016 }} at cnewa.org Its canonical jurisdiction covers the territories of Romania and Moldova,European Court of Human Rights – Case of Metropolitan Church of Bessarabia {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161230001948weblink |date=30 December 2016 }} with dioceses for Romanians living in nearby Serbia and Hungary, as well as diaspora communities in Central and Western Europe, North America and Oceania.

Urbanization

Although 54.0% of the population lived in urban areas in 2011, this percentage has been declining since 1996.WEB,weblink Urbanization of Romania: how urban population increased from 3.7 million in 1948 to 12 million in 1989, Businessday.ro, 24 April 2012, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140422110128weblink">weblink 22 April 2014, Counties with over â…” urban population are Hunedoara, BraÈ™ov and ConstanÈ›a, while with less than a third are DâmboviÈ›a (30.06%) and Giurgiu and Teleorman. Bucharest is the capital and the largest city in Romania, with a population of over 1.8 million in 2011. Its larger urban zone has a population of almost 2.2 million,WEB,weblink Urban Audit, Urban Audit, 29 August 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130531065821weblink">weblink 31 May 2013, which are planned to be included into a metropolitan area up to 20 times the area of the city proper.WEB,weblink Proiect – Zona metropolitana Bucuresti, Zmb.ro, 29 August 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110902073229weblink">weblink 2 September 2011, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Metropolitan Zone of Bucharest will be ready in 10 years, Romania Libera, Romanian, 31 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080403230850weblink">weblink 3 April 2008, dmy-all, WEB, Romanian,weblink Official site of Metropolitan Zone of Bucharest Project, 31 August 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080902224547weblink">weblink 2 September 2008, dmy-all, Another 19 cities have a population of over 100,000, with Cluj-Napoca and TimiÈ™oara of slightly more than 300,000 inhabitants, IaÈ™i, ConstanÈ›a, Craiova, and BraÈ™ov with over 250,000 inhabitants, and GalaÈ›i and PloieÈ™ti with over 200,000 inhabitants. Metropolitan areas have been constituted for most of these cities.{{Largest cities of Romania}}

Education

File:Universitatea din Bucuresti din Piata Universitatii.jpg|thumb|University of BucharestUniversity of Bucharest File:Bucuresti, Romania. SPITALUL COLTEA (B-II-m-A-18220.02).jpg|thumb|The ColÈ›ea Hospital in Bucharest completed a $90 million renovation in 2011.WEB,weblink Galerie foto: Cum arată noul spital ColÅ£ea, după o investiÅ£ie de 90 de milioane de dolari, România LiberăRomânia LiberăSince the Romanian Revolution of 1989, the Romanian educational system has been in a continuous process of reform that has received mixed criticism.REPORT, UNESCO,weblink The Romanian Educational Policy in Transition, 31 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081002165335weblink">weblink 2 October 2008, dmy-all, In 2004, some 4.4 million of the population were enrolled in school. Out of these, 650,000 in kindergarten (3–6 years), 3.11 million in primary and secondary level, and 650,000 in tertiary level (universities).WEB,weblink Romanian Institute of Statistics Yearbook – Chapter 8, Romanian, 31 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080827223322weblink">weblink 27 August 2008, dmy-all, In 2018, the adult literacy rate was 98.8%.WEB,weblink Romania Literacy, indexmundi.com, 22 January 2019, Romanian, Kindergarten is optional between 3 and 6 years. Since 2012, compulsory schooling starts at age 6 with the "preparatory school year" (clasa pregătitoare)Clasa pregătitoare, obligatorie din septembrie. Ce vor învăţa copiii ÅŸi cum vor fi evaluaÅ£i – Mediafax {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120326134025weblink |date=26 March 2012 }} and is compulsory until tenth grade.REPORT, UNESCO,weblink The Romanian Educational Policy in Transition, 31 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081001200457weblink">weblink 1 October 2008, dmy-all, Primary and secondary education is divided into 12 or 13 grades. There also exists a semi-legal, informal private tutoring system used mostly during secondary school, which has prospered during the Communist regime.WEB,weblink Limited relevants. What feminists can learn from the eastern experience, 25 August 2008, genderomania.ro, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080904004658weblink">weblink 4 September 2008, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of IaÈ™i, BabeÈ™-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, University of Bucharest, and West University of TimiÈ™oara have been included in the QS World University Rankings' top 800.WEB,weblink QS World University Rankings 2013, topuniversities.com, October 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161021124625weblink">weblink 21 October 2016, dmy-all, All four universities are ranked at 700+ which means they are ranked among the 701–800 places.Romania ranks 5th in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with 316 total medals, dating back to 1959. Ciprian Manolescu managed to write a perfect paper (42 points) for gold medal more times than anybody else in the history of the competition, doing it all three times he participated in the IMO (1995, 1996, 1997).WEB,weblink IMO team record, 2008-03-05,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080220172111weblink">weblink 20 February 2008, yes, dmy-all, Romania has achieved the highest team score in the competition, after China and Russia, and right after the United States and Hungary. Romania also ranks 6th in the all-time medal count at the International Olympiad in Informatics with 107 total medals, dating back to 1989.WEB,weblink Romania's brains rank first in Europe, 10th in the world after Math Olympiad, romania-insider.com, 16 July 2012, Romanian, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120718081702weblink">weblink 18 July 2012, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Romanian students win four medals, two gold, at the European Girls Mathematical Olympiad, business-review.eu, 16 April 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150409190820weblink">weblink 9 April 2015, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Romanian students win 32 medals at SEEMOUS International Mathematical Olympiad, AGERPRES, 11 March 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150408223234weblink">weblink 8 April 2015, dmy-all,

Healthcare

Romania has a universal health care system, and total health expenditures by the government are roughly 5% of the GDP."Ritli: Ministry of Health budget for 2012 can provide the assistance at least at the level of previous year" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130224020850weblink |date=24 February 2013 }}, Mediafax.ro It covers medical examinations, any surgical interventions, and any post-operator medical care, and provides free or subsidized medicine for a range of diseases. The state is obliged to fund public hospitals and clinics. The most common causes of death are cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Transmissible diseases are quite common by European standards."Romania, 4th in Europe in TB" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130224021156weblink |date=24 February 2013 }}, România Liberă In 2010, Romania had 428 state and 25 private hospitals,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120629012915weblink">"Our patients vs. theirs: How many hospitals has Romania compared to other EU countries", Wall-Street.ro with 6.2 hospital beds per 1,000 people,"Fewer hospital beds for sick Romanians" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131105090250weblink |date=5 November 2013 }}, România Liberă and over 200,000 medical staff, including over 52,000 doctors."Personalul medico-sanitar pe categorii, forme de proprietate, sexe, macroregiuni, regiuni de dezvoltare și județe" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070623153028weblink |date=23 June 2007 }}, Institutul Național de Statistică {{As of|2013}}, the emigration rate of doctors was 9%, higher than the European average of 2.5%."«De profesie: medic în România». Cum încearcă ministrul Nicolăescu să-i țină pe doctori în țară" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130701065846weblink |date= 1 July 2013 }}, Adevărul, 2 April 2013

Culture

Arts and monuments

{{See also|List of films shot in Romania}}File:Sibiuphoto.jpg|right|thumb|upright=1|right|Sibiu (, ) was the European Capital of CultureEuropean Capital of CultureFile:Universitatea Politehnica Timisoara - Rectorat.jpg|upright=1|thumb|right|TimiÈ™oara (, ) was designated the European Capital of CultureEuropean Capital of CultureThe topic of the origin of the Romanians began to be discussed by the end of the 18th century among the Transylvanian School scholars.WEB,weblink Cultural aspects, National Institute for Research & Development in Informatics, Romania, 28 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080307182620weblink">weblink 7 March 2008, yes, Several writers rose to prominence in the 19th century, including George CoÈ™buc, Ioan Slavici, Mihail Kogălniceanu, Vasile Alecsandri, Nicolae Bălcescu, Ion Luca Caragiale, Ion Creangă, and Mihai Eminescu, the later being considered the greatest and most influential Romanian poet, particularly for the poem Luceafărul.WEB, Romanian,weblink Mihai Eminescu, National Institute for Research & Development in Informatics, Romania, 20 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071231163537weblink">weblink 31 December 2007, yes, In the 20th century, Romanian artists reached international acclaim, including Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco,Tom Sandqvist, DADA EAST: The Romanians of Cabaret Voltaire, London MIT Press, 2006. Mircea Eliade, Nicolae Grigorescu, Marin Preda, Liviu Rebreanu,BOOK, Ștefănescu, Alex., Nichita Stănescu, The Angel with a Book in His Hands, Romanian, MaÈ™ina de scris, 1999, 8, 978-973-99297-4-5, Eugène Ionesco, Emil Cioran, and Constantin BrâncuÈ™i. The last has a sculptural ensemble in Târgu Jiu, while his sculpture Bird in Space, was auctioned in 2005 for $27.5 million.WEB,weblink Brancusi's 'Bird in Space' Sets World Auction Record for Sculpture at $27,456,000, Antiques and the Arts Online, 20 January 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060213032919weblink">weblink 13 February 2006, WEB,weblink Romanian Information Center in Brussels, November 9, The price record for a Brancusi masterpiece was set up in 2005 when "Bird in Space" was sold for USD 27.5 M, 20 January 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110514223741weblink">weblink 14 May 2011, Romanian-born Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1986, while Banat Swabian writer Herta Müller received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2009.Prominent Romanian painters include Nicolae Grigorescu, Ștefan Luchian, Ion Andreescu Nicolae Tonitza and Theodor Aman. Notable Romanian classical composers of the 19th and 20th centuries include Ciprian Porumbescu, Anton Pann, Eduard Caudella, Mihail Jora, Dinu Lipatti and especially George Enescu. The annual George Enescu Festival is held in Bucharest in honor of the 20th-century eponymous composer.WEB,weblink George Enescu, the composer, International Enescu Society, 20 January 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071019234345weblink">weblink 19 October 2007, dmy-all, Contemporary musicians like Angela Gheorghiu, Gheorghe Zamfir,NEWS,weblink 17 January 2006, CBC Radio, Sounds Like Canada feat. Gheorghe Zamfir, 31 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080428050304weblink">weblink 28 April 2008, yes, WEB,weblink Gheorghe Zamfir, Official Homepage, Gheorghe Zamfir, master of the pan pipe, 20 January 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071030182752weblink">weblink 30 October 2007, dmy-all, Inna,WEB,weblink Inna Biography, BBC, 26 October 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130605041033weblink">weblink 5 June 2013, dmy-all, Alexandra StanWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140313115304weblink">weblink yes, 13 March 2014, 10 One-Hit Wonders to Be or Not to Be?, vh1.i, 7 March 2014, and many others have achieved various levels of international acclaim. At the Eurovision Song Contest Romanian singers have achieved third place in 2005 and 2010.WEB, Dan, Arsenie,weblink Paula Seling despre rezultatul la Eurovision 2010: "Mai bine de atât nu se putea!", EVZ.ro, 29 August 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110828160313weblink">weblink 28 August 2011, dmy-all, In cinema, several movies of the Romanian New Wave have achieved international acclaim. At the Cannes Film Festival, The Death of Mr. Lazarescu by Cristi Puiu won the Prix Un Certain Regard in 2005,WEB, MOARTEA DOMNULUI LAZARESCU,weblink Cannes Film Festival, Festival de Cannes, Association Française du Festival International du Film, 28 November 2018, while 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days by Cristian Mungiu won the festival's top prize, the Palme d'Or, in 2007.WEB,weblink Cannes 2007 Winners, Alternative Film Guide, 31 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080704025549weblink">weblink 4 July 2008, dmy-all, At the Berlin International Film Festival, Child's Pose by Călin Peter Netzer won the Golden Bear in 2013.NEWS,weblink Romanian film "Child's Pose" wins Berlin Golden Bear, Reuters, Mike Collett-White, 16 February 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924175514weblink">weblink 24 September 2015, dmy-all, The list of World Heritage Sites includes six cultural sites located within Romania, including eight Painted churches of northern Moldavia, eight Wooden Churches of MaramureÈ™, seven Villages with fortified churches in Transylvania, the Horezu Monastery, and the Historic Centre of SighiÈ™oara.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041031080733weblink">weblink yes, 31 October 2004, World Heritage Site – Romania, UNESCO, 31 January 2008, The city of Sibiu, with its Brukenthal National Museum, was selected as the 2007 European Capital of Culture.WEB, The Selection Panel for the European Capital of Culture (ECOC) 2007, Report on the Nominations from Luxembourg and Romania for the European Capital of Culture 2007, 5 April 2004,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080904005053weblink">weblink yes, 4 September 2008, 31 August 2008, Multiple castles exist in Romania, including popular tourist attractions of PeleÈ™ Castle,WEB,weblink Muzeul National Peles | Site-ul oficial al castelelor Peles si Pelisor, Peles.ro, 29 August 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110828061821weblink">weblink 28 August 2011, dmy-all, Corvin Castle, and "Dracula's Castle".WEB,weblink Castelul Bran, Viaromania.eu, 29 August 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111008083620weblink">weblink 8 October 2011, dmy-all,

Holidays, traditions, and cuisine

{{See also|Romanian dress|Folklore of Romania|Romanian cuisine}}File:Piata Universitatii - Targ de Craciun 2014.jpg|thumb|right|Christmas market in BucharestBucharestThere are 12 non-working public holidays, including the Great Union Day, celebrated on 1 December in commemoration of the 1918 union of Transylvania with Romania."Public holidays enacted by labour code" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170618111421weblink |date=18 June 2017 }}, Labor code, 22 March 2017 Winter holidays include the Christmas festivities and the New Year during which, various unique folklore dances and games are common: plugușorul, sorcova, ursul, and capra.WEB, Improve It Grup S.R.L,weblink Traditii si obiceiuri romanesti. Artizanat traditional romanesc. Arta populara, Traditii.ro, 29 August 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110903100510weblink">weblink 3 September 2011, dmy-all, WEB, Insider, Romania,weblink Winter holidays and Christmas traditions in Romania: the Bear dance, the Masked carolers and the Goat, Romania-Insider.com, 21 December 2012, 15 August 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140812205257weblink">weblink 12 August 2014, dmy-all, The traditional Romanian dress that otherwise has largely fallen out of use during the 20th century, is a popular ceremonial vestment worn on these festivities, especially in the rural areas.WEB,weblink ROMANIA – Traditions and Folklore – Official Travel and Tourism Information, Romaniatourism.com, 15 August 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140723010711weblink">weblink 23 July 2014, dmy-all, Sacrifices of live pigs during Christmas and lambs during Easter has required a special derogation from EU law after 2007.WEB,weblink Ministrul Agriculturii: UE accepta ca mieii de Pasti si porcii de Craciun sa fie sacrificati in mod traditional – Actualitate, HotNews.ro, 11 August 2014, 15 August 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140812210220weblink">weblink 12 August 2014, dmy-all, During Easter, painted eggs are very common, while on 1 March features mărțișor gifting, a tradition likely of Thracian origin.WEB, Martisor, a Spring celebration for Eastern Europeans,weblink Martisor, a Spring celebration for Eastern Europeans, Foreigners In Uk, 29 June 2014, 15 August 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140812210746weblink">weblink 12 August 2014, dmy-all, Romanian cuisine has been influenced by Austrian and German cuisine (especially in the historical regions that had been formerly administered by the Habsburg Monarchy), but also shares some similarities with other cuisines in the Balkan region such as the Greek, Bulgarian, or Serbian cuisine.WEB,weblink Christina Bradatan, Cuisine and Cultural Identity in Balkans, Scholarworks.iu.edu, 15 August 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140812210757weblink">weblink 12 August 2014, dmy-all, Ciorbă includes a wide range of sour soups, while mititei, mămăligă (similar to polenta), and sarmale are featured commonly in main courses.WEB,weblink Romanian Recipes – like mom used to make, Recipes, Gourmet European, www.gourmet-european-recipes.com-gb, 2 May 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161221024611weblink">weblink 21 December 2016, dmy-all, Pork, chicken, and beef are the preferred types of meat, but lamb and fish are also quite popular.WEB,weblink 28 Romanian Foods The Whole World Should Know – oneJive, onejive.com-US, 2 May 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170812062847weblink">weblink 12 August 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Retete traditionale Moldova: retete peste sau cu carne de porc., Bucataras.ro, 15 December 2008, 29 August 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110105071413weblink">weblink 5 January 2011, dmy-all, Certain traditional recipes are made in direct connection with the holidays: chiftele, tobă and tochitura at Christmas; drob, pască and cozonac at Easter and other Romanian holidays.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070430044201weblink">weblink yes, 30 April 2007, Bucatarie romaneasca – Cultura si retete – Articole, Gastronomie.ele.ro, 29 August 2011, Țuică is a strong plum brandy reaching a 70% alcohol content which is the country's traditional alcoholic beverage, taking as much as 75% of the national crop (Romania is one of the largest plum producers in the world).WEB,weblink Țuica production consumed 75% of Romanian plums in 2003, Regard-est.com, 29 August 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110929192047weblink">weblink 29 September 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Study in Romania, Educations.com, 5 February 2008, 14 March 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101228090407weblink">weblink 28 December 2010, dmy-all, Traditional alcoholic beverages also include wine, rachiu, palincă and vișinată, but beer consumption has increased dramatically over the recent years.WEB,weblink Beer consumption per capita in 2008, kirinholdings.co.jp, 17 March 2017, {{dead link|date=November 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}

Sports

File:Simona Halep Roland Garros 2018.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Simona Halep has ended 2017 and 2018 as WTA's World No. 1.]] File:20170613 Handball AUT-ROU 8446.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Cristina Neagu is the only female handball player in history to win three IHF World Player of the YearIHF World Player of the YearAssociation football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Romania with over 234,000 registered players {{As of|2010|lc=y}}.WEB,weblink Topul sporturilor în funcÈ›ie de numărul de sportivi legitimaÈ›i, zf.ro, 12 January 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150409225033weblink">weblink 9 April 2015, dmy-all, The governing body is the Romanian Football Federation, which belongs to UEFA. The Romania national football team played its first match in 1922 and is one of only four national teams to have taken part in the first three FIFA World Cups, the other three being Brazil, France, and Belgium. Overall, it has played in seven World Cups and had its most successful period during the 1990s, when it reached the quarterfinals of the 1994 FIFA World Cup, being eventually ranked third by FIFA in 1997.WEB,weblink Romania: FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking, FIFA.com, 15 August 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140703015106weblink">weblink 3 July 2014, dmy-all, The core player of this "Golden Generation" was Gheorghe Hagi, who was nicknamed "the Maradona of the Carpathians."NEWS,weblink Hagi leaves Romania post, 26 November 2001, BBC Sport, Hagi earned a legendary status in Romania where he spearheaded the 'Golden Generation' of players ..., 31 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030122051203weblink">weblink 22 January 2003, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Hagi snubs Maradona, BBC Sport Online, 6 April 2001, 31 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081219130739weblink">weblink 19 December 2008, dmy-all, Other successful players include Iuliu Bodola, Nicolae Dobrin, Dudu Georgescu, Florea Dumitrache, Liță Dumitru, Ilie Balaci, Miodrag Belodedici, LoÈ›i Bölöni, Michael Klein, Anghel Iordănescu, Rodion Cămătaru, Mircea Rednic, Costică Ștefănescu, Cornel Dinu, Marius LăcătuÈ™ or Gheorghe Popescu, and most recently Florin Răducioiu, Dorinel Munteanu, Viorel Moldovan, Dan Petrescu, Adrian Mutu, Cristian Chivu, Răzvan RaÈ› or Cosmin Contra. Romania's home ground is Arena NaÈ›ională, Bucharest.The most successful club is Steaua BucureÈ™ti, who were the first Eastern European team to win the European Champions Cup in 1986, and were runners-up in 1989. Dinamo BucureÈ™ti reached the European Champions' Cup semifinal in 1984 and the Cup Winners' Cup semifinal in 1990. Other important Romanian football clubs are Rapid BucureÈ™ti, UTA Arad, Universitatea Craiova, CFR Cluj, Astra Giurgiu, and Viitorul ConstanÈ›a.Tennis is the second-most-popular sport, with over 15,000 registered players.ENCYCLOPEDIA, The Europa World Year Book, Routledge, 2007, 2, Romania, Romania reached the Davis Cup finals three times (1969, 1971, 1972). The tennis player Ilie Năstase won several Grand Slam titles, and was the first player to be ranked as number 1 by ATP between 1973 and 1974. Virginia Ruzici won the French Open in 1978, and was runner-up in 1980, Simona Halep won in 2018 and was runner up in 2014 and 2017. She is currently ranked 1st by the WTA.Rankings | WTA Tennis English {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170112231540weblink |date=12 January 2017 }} The Romanian duo Horia Tecău and Florin Mergea won the doubles silver medal at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro.{{Citation| url=http://www.agerpres.ro/english/2016/08/13/rio-2016-tennis-mergea-and-tecau-win-silver-in-men-s-doubles-tournament-13-38-45| title=Rio 2016 – Tennis: Mergea and Tecau win silver in men's doubles tournament| work=Agerpres| date=13 August 2016| author=| access-date=25 August 2016| deadurl=no| archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170819102303weblink| archivedate=19 August 2017| df=dmy-all}}Other popular team sports are team handball, basketballWEB,weblink What's the most popular sport in Romania?, cesport.eu, 29 May 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160806111057weblink">weblink 6 August 2016, dmy-all, and rugby union. Both the men's and women's handball national teams are multiple world champions. On 13 January 2010, Cristina Neagu became the first Romanian in handball to win the IHF World Player of the Year award.WEB,weblinkMediaCenter/News/NewsDetails/tabid/130/Default.aspx?ID=536, Cristina Neagu – World Handball Player of the Year 2010, Ihf.info, 13 January 2011, 24 February 2014, no, https:web.archive.org/web/20131202230601weblink 2 December 2013, dmy-all, Basketball is widely enjoyed, especially by the youth. Gheorghe MureÈ™an was one of the two tallest players to ever play in the NBA. In 2016, Romania was chosen as a host for the 2017 EuroBasket. The rugby national team has competed in every Rugby World Cup.Popular individual sports include athletics, chess, judo, dancesport, table tennis and combat sports (Lucian Bute, Leonard Dorin Doroftei, Mihai Leu aka Michael Loewe, Daniel Ghiță, Benjamin Adegbuyi, Cătălin MoroÈ™anu etc.). While it has a limited popularity nowadays, oină is a traditional Romanian sporting game similar to baseball that has been continuously practiced since at least the 14th century.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011045204weblink">weblink yes, 11 October 2007, Originea jocului de Oina – Sport National Roman, Oina.ro, 15 August 2014, Romania participated in the Olympic Games for the first time in 1900 and has taken part in 21 of the 28 summer games. It has been one of the more successful countries at the Summer Olympic Games, with a total of 307 medals won throughout the years, of which 89 gold ones, ranking 15th overall, and second of the nations that have never hosted the game.It participated at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles and finished second in gold medals (20) and third in total medal count (53).WEB,weblink Recurs la ISTORIE: De ce s-a "prăbuÈ™it" România la Olimpiada de la Londra?, adevarul.ro, 15 August 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140812212431weblink">weblink 12 August 2014, Almost a quarter of all the medals and 25 of the gold ones were won in gymnastics, with Nadia Comăneci becoming the first gymnast ever to score a perfect ten in an Olympic event at the 1976 Summer Olympics.NEWS,weblink Gymnast Posts Perfect Mark, Robin, Herman, New York Times, 28 March 1976, 13 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081122002956weblink">weblink 22 November 2008, dmy-all, Romanian competitors have won gold medals in other Olympic sports: rowing, athletics, canoeing, wrestling, shooting, fencing, swimming, weightlifting, boxing, and judo. At the Winter Olympic Games, Romania has won only a bronze medal in bobsleigh at the 1968 Winter Olympics.

See also

Notes

{{reflist|30em|group=lower-alpha}}

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Sources

Primary sources

Secondary sources

  • BOOK, Bóna, István, Köpeczi, Béla, Barta, Gábor, Bóna, István, Makkai, László, Szász, Zoltán, Borus, Judit, History of Transylvania, Akadémiai Kiadó, 1994, 62–177, From Dacia to Transylvania: The Period of the Great Migrations (271–895); The Hungarian–Slav Period (895–1172), 963-05-6703-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Curta, Florin, Florin Curta, Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250, 2006, Cambridge University Press, harv,
  • BOOK, Georgescu, Vlad, Vlad Georgescu, 1991, The Romanians: A History, Ohio State University Press, 978-0-8142-0511-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Heather, Peter, Peter Heather, 2010, Empires and Barbarians: The Fall of Rome and the Birth of Europe, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-973560-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Hitchins, Keith, 2014, A Concise History of Romania, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-69413-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Köpeczi, Béla, Köpeczi, Béla, Barta, Gábor, Bóna, István, Makkai, László, Szász, Zoltán, Borus, Judit, History of Transylvania, Akadémiai Kiadó, 1994, 663–692, Transylvania under the Habsburg Empire, 963-05-6703-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Opreanu, Coriolan HoraÅ£iu, Pop, Ioan-Aurel, Bolovan, Ioan, History of Romania: Compendium, Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies), 2005, 59–132, The North-Danube Regions from the Roman Province of Dacia to the Emergence of the Romanian Language (2nd–8th Centuries AD), 978-973-7784-12-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Pohl, Walter, Walter Pohl, Geary, Patrick J., Klaniczay, Gábor, Manufacturing Middle Ages: Entangled History of Medievalism in Nineteenth-Century Europe, BRILL, 2013, 13–50, National origin narratives in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, 978-90-04-24487-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Pop, Ioan-Aurel, 1999, Romanians and Romania: A Brief History, Boulder, 978-0-88033-440-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Price, T. Douglas, 2013, Europe Before Rome: A Site-by-Site Tour of the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-991470-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Rustoiu, Aurel, Pop, Ioan-Aurel, Bolovan, Ioan, History of Romania: Compendium, Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies), 2005, 31–58, Dacia before the Romans, 978-973-7784-12-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Sălăgean, Tudor, Pop, Ioan-Aurel, Bolovan, Ioan, History of Romania: Compendium, Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies), 2005, 133–207, Romanian Society in the Early Middle Ages (9th–14th Centuries AD), 978-973-7784-12-4, harv, BOOK, Trócsányi, Zsolt, Miskolczy, Ambrus, Köpeczi, Béla, Barta, Gábor, Bóna, István, Makkai, László, Szász, Zoltán, Borus, Judit, History of Transylvania, Akadémiai Kiadó, 1994, 413–523, Transylvania under the Habsburg Empire, 963-05-6703-2, harv,

External links

{{Sister project links|Romania|voy=Romania}}

Government

Culture and history links

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