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Wyoming
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{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{About|the U.S. state}}{{Use mdy dates|date=March 2015}}{{Use American English|date=June 2019}}







factoids
Equal Rights (motto)>Equal RightsWyoming (song)>Wyoming|Former = Wyoming TerritoryCheyenne, Wyoming>CheyenneCheyenne metropolitan area>Cheyenne Metro AreaEnglish language>EnglishList of demonyms for U.S. states#List>Wyomingite|LargestCity = capitalMark Gordon (politician) (Republican Party (United States)>R)}}Edward Buchanan (R)}}|Lieutenant Governor_alt = Secretary of State|Legislature = Wyoming LegislatureWyoming Senate>SenateWyoming House of Representatives>House of RepresentativesMike Enzi (R)}}{{nowrap|John Barrasso (R)}}Liz Cheney (R)}}| postal_code = WY|TradAbbreviation = Wyo.| area_rank = 10th| area_total_km2 = 253,600 | area_total_sq_mi = 97,914| area_water_percent = 0.7| population_rank = 50th|2010Pop = 577,737 (2018)| population_density_rank = 49th|2000DensityUS = 5.97|2000Density = 2.31TITLE=MEDIAN ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME, December 9, 2016, |IncomeRank = 20th|AdmittanceOrder = 44th|AdmittanceDate = July 10, 1890Mountain Time Zone>Mountain| utc_offset1 = -07:00Mountain Daylight Time>MDT| utc_offset1_DST = -06:0041st parallel north>41°N to 45°N|Longitude = 104°3'W to 111°3'W| width_mi = 372.8| width_km = 600| length_mi = 280| length_km = 452Gannett PeakOW0356 ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 24, 2011, HTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML >TITLE=ELEVATIONS AND DISTANCES IN THE UNITED STATES UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY >YEAR=2001 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=JULY 22, 2012, Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.| elevation_max_ft = 13,809| elevation_max_m = 4209.1| elevation_ft = 6,700| elevation_m = 2040Belle Fourche River at {{nobreak>South Dakota border}}| elevation_min_ft = 3,101| elevation_min_m = 945| iso_code = US-WY| website = wyoming.gov}}







factoids
Wyoming ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Wyoming.ogg|w|aɪ|ˈ|oÊŠ|m|ɪ|Å‹}}) is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States. The state is the 10th largest by area, the least populous, and the second most sparsely populated state in the country. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, and on the west by Idaho and Montana. The state population was estimated at 577,737 in 2018, which is less than 31 of the most populous U.S. cities including Denver in neighboring Colorado. Cheyenne is the state capital and the most populous city, with an estimated population of 63,624 in 2017.WEB, City and Town Population Totals: 2010-2017,weblink United States Census Bureau, March 14, 2019, The western two-thirds of the state is covered mostly by the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie called the High Plains. Almost half of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U.S. government, leading Wyoming to rank sixth by area and fifth by proportion of a state's land owned by the federal government. Federal lands include two national parks{{mdash}}Grand Teton and Yellowstone{{mdash}}two national recreation areas, two national monuments, several national forests, historic sites, fish hatcheries, and wildlife refuges.Original inhabitants of the region include the Crow, Arapaho, Lakota, and Shoshone. Southwestern Wyoming was claimed by the Spanish Empire and then Mexican territory until it was ceded to the United States in 1848 at the end of the Mexican–American War. The region acquired the name Wyoming when a bill was introduced to the U.S. Congress in 1865 to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming". The name was used earlier for the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, and is derived from the Munsee word , meaning "at the big river flat".Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 576State of Wyoming â€“ Narrative {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080515091433weblink |date=May 15, 2008 }}The main drivers of Wyoming's economy are mineral extraction{{mdash}}mostly coal, oil, natural gas, and trona{{mdash}}and tourism. Agricultural commodities include livestock (beef), hay, sugar beets, grain (wheat and barley), and wool. The climate is semi-arid and continental, drier and windier than the rest of the U.S., with greater temperature extremes.Wyoming has been a politically conservative state since the 1950s, with the Republican Party candidate winning every presidential election except that of 1964.WEB, Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections, November 18, 2016,weblink

Geography

Climate

File:Wyoming Köppen.svg|thumb|Köppen climate types of Wyoming]]{{Further|Climate change in Wyoming}}File:Wyoming.JPG|thumb|Wyoming state welcome sign on Interstate 80 in Uinta County (at the UtahUtah(File:Autumn in the Bighorn Mountains.JPG|thumb|Autumn in the Bighorn Mountains)Wyoming's climate is generally semi-arid and continental (Köppen climate classification BSk), and is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States with greater temperature extremes. Much of this is due to the topography of the state. Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between {{convert|85|and|95|°F|°C|abbr=on}} in most of the state. With increasing elevation, however, this average drops rapidly with locations above {{convert|9000|ft|m}} averaging around {{convert|70|°F|°C|abbr=on}}. Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cooldown with even the hottest locations averaging in the {{convert|50|–|60|F|C}} range at night. In most of the state, most of the precipitation tends to fall in the late spring and early summer. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme cold interspersed between generally mild periods, with Chinook winds providing unusually warm temperatures in some locations. Wyoming is a dry state with much of the land receiving less than {{convert|10|in|mm}} of rainfall per year. Precipitation depends on elevation with lower areas in the Big Horn Basin averaging {{convert|5|-|8|in|mm}} (making the area nearly a true desert). The lower areas in the North and on the eastern plains typically average around {{convert|10|-|12|in|mm}}, making the climate there semi-arid. Some mountain areas do receive a good amount of precipitation, {{convert|20|in|mm}} or more, much of it as snow, sometimes {{convert|200|in|cm}} or more annually. The state's highest recorded temperature is {{convert|114|F|C}} at Basin on July 12, 1900 and the lowest recorded temperature is {{convert|-66|F|C}} at Riverside on February 9, 1933.The number of thunderstorm days vary across the state with the southeastern plains of the state having the most days of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorm activity in the state is highest during the late spring and early summer. The southeastern corner of the state is the most vulnerable part of the state to tornado activity. Moving away from that point and westwards, the incidence of tornadoes drops dramatically with the west part of the state showing little vulnerability. Tornadoes, where they occur, tend to be small and brief, unlike some of those that occur farther east.{| class="wikitable collapsible" style="width:700px;"! colspan= "14" style="background: #6688AA; color: #6688AA" | {{big|Casper climate:}} Average maximum and minimum temperatures, and average rainfall. style="text-align:center;"! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy; height:17px;"| Month! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Jan! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Feb! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Mar! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Apr! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| May! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Jun! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Jul! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Aug! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Sep! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Oct! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Nov! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Dec! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy; border-left:2px solid #bbb;"| Year style="text-align:center;"! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy; height:16px;"| Average max. temperature °F (°C) 32(0) 37(3) 45(7) 56(13) 66(19) 78(26) 87(31) 85(29) 74(23) 60(16) 44(7) 34(1) 58(14) style="text-align:center;"! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Average min. temperature°F (°C) 12(−11) 16(−9) 21(−6) 28(−2) 37(3) 46(8) 54(12) 51(11) 41(5) 32(0) 21(−6) 14(−10) 31(-1) style="text-align:center;"! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Average rainfallinches (mm) 0.6(15.2) 0.6(15.2) 1.0(25.4) 1.6(40.6) 2.1(53.3) 1.5(38.1) 1.3(33.0) 0.7(17.8) 0.9(22.9) 1.0(25.4) 0.8(20.3) 0.7(17.8) 12.8(325.1) Source:HTTP://COUNTRYSTUDIES.US/UNITED-STATES/WEATHER/WYOMING/CASPER.HTM >TITLE=COUNTRYSTUDIES.US ACCESSDATE=JULY 31, 2010, {| class="wikitable collapsible" style="width:700px;"! colspan= "14" style="background: #6688AA; color: #6688AA" | {{big|Jackson climate:}} Average maximum and minimum temperatures, and average rainfall. style="text-align:center;"! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy; height:17px;"| Month! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Jan! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Feb! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Mar! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Apr! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| May! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Jun! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Jul! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Aug! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Sep! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Oct! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Nov! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Dec! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy; border-left:2px solid #bbb;"| Year style="text-align:center;"! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy; height:16px;"| Average max. temperature °F (°C) 24(−4) 28(−2) 37(3) 47(8) 58(14) 68(20) 78(26) 77(25) 67(19) 54(12) 37(3) 24(−4) 49(9) style="text-align:center;"! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Average min. temperature°F (°C) -1(−18) 2(−17) 10(−12) 21(−6) 30(−1) 36(2) 41(5) 38(3) 31(−1) 22(−6) 14(−10) 0(−18) 20(-7) style="text-align:center;"! style="background:#dcf0f0; color:navy;"| Average rainfallinches (mm) 2.6(66.0) 1.9(48.3) 1.6(40.6) 1.4(35.6) 1.9(48.3) 1.8(45.7) 1.3(33.0) 1.3(33.0) 1.5(38.1) 1.3(33.0) 2.3(58.4) 2.5(63.5) 21.4(543.6) Source:HTTP://COUNTRYSTUDIES.US/UNITED-STATES/WEATHER/WYOMING/JACKSON.HTM >TITLE=COUNTRYSTUDIES.US ACCESSDATE=JULY 31, 2010,

Location and size

As specified in the designating legislation for the Territory of Wyoming, Wyoming's borders are lines of latitude 41°N and 45°N, and longitude 104°3'W and 111°3'W (27° W and 34° W of the Washington Meridian), making the shape of the state a latitude-longitude quadrangle.JOURNAL, Willam J. Gribb, Lawrence M. Ostrech, Databases and Algorithms to Determine the Boundary of Wyoming, University of Wyoming, Department of Geography,weblink December 14, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081217015637weblink">weblink December 17, 2008, mdy-all, Wyoming is one of only three states (along with Colorado and Utah) to have borders along only straight latitudinal and longitudinal lines, rather than being defined by natural landmarks. This 7 degrees from West to East and 4 degrees from South to North was chosen by US Congress. Due to surveying inaccuracies during the 19th century, Wyoming's legal border deviates from the true latitude and longitude lines by up to half of a mile (0.8 km) in some spots, especially in the mountainous region along the 45th parallel.WEB,weblink Rectangular States and Kinky Borders, Ivars Peterson, December 14, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080705160310weblink">weblink July 5, 2008, Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, and on the west by Idaho. It is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, containing {{convert|97814|sqmi|km2}} and is made up of 23 counties. From the north border to the south border it is {{convert|276|mi|km}};Distance Calculator. Javascripter.net. Retrieved July 12, 2013. and from the east to the west border is {{convert|365|mi|km}} at its south end and {{convert|342|mi|km}} at the north end.

Natural landforms

Mountain ranges

File:Barns grand tetons mountains.jpg|thumb|Teton RangeTeton RangeFile:Cattle Drive near Pinedale, WY (14963962303).jpg|thumb|Green River valley in Wyoming]]The Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming. The state is a great plateau broken by many mountain ranges. Surface elevations range from the summit of Gannett Peak in the Wind River Mountain Range, at {{convert|13804|ft|m}}, to the Belle Fourche River valley in the state's northeast corner, at {{convert|3125|ft|m}}. In the northwest are the Absaroka, Owl Creek, Gros Ventre, Wind River, and the Teton ranges. In the north central are the Big Horn Mountains; in the northeast, the Black Hills; and in the southern region the Laramie, Snowy, and Sierra Madre ranges.The Snowy Range in the south central part of the state is an extension of the Colorado Rockies in both geology and appearance. The Wind River Range in the west central part of the state is remote and includes more than 40 mountain peaks in excess of {{convert|13000|ft|m|abbr=on}} tall in addition to Gannett Peak, the highest peak in the state. The Big Horn Mountains in the north central portion are somewhat isolated from the bulk of the Rocky Mountains.The Teton Range in the northwest extends for {{convert|50|mi|km}}, part of which is included in Grand Teton National Park. The park includes the Grand Teton, the second highest peak in the state.The Continental Divide spans north-south across the central portion of the state. Rivers east of the divide drain into the Missouri River Basin and eventually the Gulf of Mexico. They are the North Platte, Wind, Big Horn and the Yellowstone rivers. The Snake River in northwest Wyoming eventually drains into the Columbia River and the Pacific Ocean, as does the Green River through the Colorado River Basin.The Continental Divide forks in the south central part of the state in an area known as the Great Divide Basin where the waters that flow or precipitate into this area remain there and cannot flow to any ocean. Instead, because of the overall aridity of Wyoming, water in the Great Divide Basin simply sinks into the soil or evaporates.Several rivers begin in or flow through the state, including the Yellowstone River, Bighorn River, Green River, and the Snake River.

Islands

Wyoming has 32 named islands, the majority of which are in Jackson Lake and Yellowstone Lake within Yellowstone National Park in the northwest portion of the state. The Green River in the southwest also contains a number of islands.

Regions and administrative divisions

Counties

The state of Wyoming has 23 counties.(File:Wyoming counties map.png|thumb|left|upright=2.75|An enlargeable map of the 23 counties of Wyoming){| class="wikitable"The 23 counties of the state of Wyoming}}WEB,weblink County Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, 2017 Population Estimates, United States Census Bureau, Population Division, March 14, 2019, March 14, 2019, ! Rank! County! Population! Rank! County! Population 1Laramie County, Wyoming>Laramie 98,327 13Converse County, Wyoming>Converse 13,809 2Natrona County, Wyoming>Natrona 79,547 14Goshen County, Wyoming>Goshen 13,378 3Campbell County, Wyoming>Campbell 46,242 15Big Horn County, Wyoming>Big Horn 11,906 4Sweetwater County, Wyoming>Sweetwater 43,534 16Sublette County, Wyoming>Sublette 9,799 5Fremont County, Wyoming>Fremont 39,803 17Platte County, Wyoming>Platte 8,562 6Albany County, Wyoming>Albany 38,332 18Johnson County, Wyoming>Johnson 8,476 7Sheridan County, Wyoming>Sheridan 30,210 19Washakie County, Wyoming>Washakie 8,064 8Park County, Wyoming>Park 29,568 20Crook County, Wyoming>Crook 7,410 9Teton County, Wyoming>Teton 23,265 21Weston County, Wyoming>Weston 6,927 10Uinta County, Wyoming>Uinta 20,495 22Hot Springs County, Wyoming>Hot Springs 4,696 11Lincoln County, Wyoming>Lincoln 19,265 23Niobrara County, Wyoming>Niobrara 2,397 12Carbon County, Wyoming>Carbon 15,303 Wyoming Total 579,315Wyoming license plates have a number on the left that indicates the county where the vehicle is registered, ranked by an earlier census. Specifically, the numbers are representative of the property values of the counties in 1930.WEB,weblink TetonAT.com - Interesting Wyoming License Plate Fact, Tetonat.com, September 4, 2017, The county license plate numbers are:{| class="wikitable"! LicensePlatePrefix! County! LicensePlatePrefix! County! LicensePlatePrefix! County 1| Natrona 9| Big Horn 17| Campbell 2| Laramie 10| Fremont 18| Crook 3| Sheridan 11| Park 19| Uinta 4| Sweetwater 12| Lincoln 20| Washakie 5| Albany 13| Converse 21| Weston 6| Carbon 14| Niobrara 22| Teton 7| Goshen 15| Hot Springs 23| Sublette 8| Platte 16| Johnson| | 

Cities and towns

File:CheyenneWyoming.jpg|thumb|upright=0.75|City of Cheyenne, WyomingCheyenne, WyomingFile:Casperskyline.jpg|thumb|upright=0.75|City of Casper, WyomingCasper, WyomingFile:EvanstonWyoming.jpg|thumb|upright=0.75|City of Evanston, WyomingEvanston, WyomingFile:DowntownRawlins.jpg|thumb|upright=0.75|City of Rawlins, WyomingRawlins, WyomingThe State of Wyoming has 99 incorporated municipalities.{| class=wikitableMost Populous Wyoming Cities and TownsHTTPS://CENSUS.GOV/DATA/TABLES/2017/DEMO/POPEST/TOTAL-CITIES-AND-TOWNS.HTML, City and Town Population Totals: 2010-2017, 2017 Population Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, March 14, 2019, March 14, 2019, ! Rank! City! County! Population 1Cheyenne, Wyoming>CheyenneLaramie County, Wyoming>Laramie 63,624 2Casper, Wyoming>CasperNatrona County, Wyoming>Natrona 57,814 3Laramie, Wyoming>LaramieAlbany County, Wyoming>Albany 32,306 4Gillette, Wyoming>GilletteCampbell County, Wyoming>Campbell 30,560 5Rock Springs, Wyoming>Rock SpringsSweetwater County, Wyoming>Sweetwater 23,350 6Sheridan, Wyoming>SheridanSheridan County, Wyoming>Sheridan 17,860 7Green River, Wyoming>Green RiverSweetwater County, Wyoming>Sweetwater 12,070 8Evanston, Wyoming>EvanstonUinta County, Wyoming>Uinta 11,866 9Riverton, Wyoming>RivertonFremont County, Wyoming>Fremont 11,058 10Jackson, Wyoming>JacksonTeton County, Wyoming>Teton 10,532 11Cody, Wyoming>CodyPark County, Wyoming>Park 9,885 12Rawlins, Wyoming>RawlinsCarbon County, Wyoming>Carbon 8,858 13Lander, Wyoming>LanderFremont County, Wyoming>Fremont 7,551 14Torrington, Wyoming>TorringtonGoshen County, Wyoming>Goshen 6,691 15Powell, Wyoming>PowellPark County, Wyoming>Park 6,440 16Douglas, Wyoming>DouglasConverse County, Wyoming>Converse 6,350In 2005, 50.6% of Wyomingites lived in one of the 13 most populous Wyoming municipalities.

Metropolitan areas

The United States Census Bureau has defined two Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) and seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas (MiSA) for the State of Wyoming. In 2008, 30.4% of Wyomingites lived in either of the Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and 73% lived in either a Metropolitan Statistical Area or a Micropolitan Statistical Area.{| class=wikitableMetropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical AreasHTTPS://CENSUS.GOV/DATA/TABLES/2017/DEMO/POPEST/TOTAL-METRO-AND-MICRO-STATISTICAL-AREAS.HTML, Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Population Totals: 2010-2017, 2017 Population Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, March 14, 2019, March 14, 2019, ! Census Area! County! PopulationCheyenne, WY MSA>Cheyenne| Laramie County, Wyoming 98,327Casper, WY, MSA>Casper| Natrona County, Wyoming 79,547Gillette, WY, Μ μSA>Gillette| Campbell County, Wyoming 46,242Rock Springs, Wyoming micropolitan area>Rock Springs| Sweetwater County, Wyoming 43,534 Jackson| Teton County, Wyoming 23,265| Teton County, Idaho 11,381 style="text-align: right;" Total 34,646Riverton, Wyoming micropolitan area>Riverton| Fremont County, Wyoming 39,803Laramie, Wyoming micropolitan area>Laramie| Albany County, Wyoming 38,332Sheridan, Wyoming micropolitan area>Sheridan| Sheridan County, Wyoming 30,210Evanston, Wyoming micropolitan area>Evanston| Uinta County, Wyoming 20,495

Wind River Indian Reservation

File:WindRiverCanyon.JPG|thumb|Wind River CanyonWind River CanyonThe Wind River Indian Reservation is shared by the Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapaho tribes of Native Americans in the central western portion of the state near Lander. The reservation is home to 2,500 Eastern Shoshone and 5,000 Northern Arapaho.WEB,weblink Wind River Country: Wind River Indian Reservation, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090319064509weblink">weblink March 19, 2009, mdy-all, Chief Washakie established the reservation in 1868Background of Wind River Reservation {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090227071317weblink |date=February 27, 2009 }} as the result of negotiations with the federal government in the Fort Bridger Treaty.WEB,weblink Chiefe: The Rez, PBS. Independent Lens However, the Northern Arapaho were forced onto the Shoshone reservation in 1876 by the federal government after the government failed to provide a promised separate reservation.Today the Wind River Indian Reservation is jointly owned, with each tribe having a 50% interest in the land, water, and other natural resources.WEB,weblink Background - Northern Arapaho Tribe, Northernarapaho.com, September 4, 2017, The reservation is a sovereign, self-governed land with two independent governing bodies: the Eastern Shoshone Tribe and the Northern Arapaho Tribe. Until 2014, the Shoshone Business Council and Northern Arapaho Business Council met jointly as the Joint Business Council to decide matters that affect both tribes. Six elected council members from each tribe served on the joint council.

Public lands

(File:Wyoming ref 2001.jpg|thumb|Wyoming terrain map)More than 48% of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U.S. government, leading Wyoming to rank sixth in the United States in total acres and fifth in percentage of a state's land owned by the federal government.MainEnvironment.org Public Land Ownership by State, 1995 Main Environment.org This amounts to about {{convert|30099430|acre|km2}} owned and managed by the United States government. The state government owns an additional 6% of all Wyoming lands, or another {{convert|3864800|acre|km2}}.The vast majority of this government land is administered by the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service in numerous national forests, a national grassland, and a number of vast swathes of public land, in addition to the Francis E. Warren Air Force Base in Cheyenne.(File:Map Wyoming NPS sites USA.gif|thumb|National Park Service sites map)In addition, Wyoming contains areas managed by the National Park Service and other agencies such as the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, including:National parks Memorial parkway National recreation areas National monuments National historic trails, landmarks and sites National fish hatcheries National wildlife refuges File:Castle Geyser (3678669019).jpg|Yellowstone National ParkFile:A110, Devils Tower National Monument, Wyoming, USA, 2004.jpg|Devils Tower National MonumentFile:Thunder Basin National Grassland Douglas.jpg|Thunder Basin National GrasslandFile:Seedskadee nwr sunset.jpg|Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge{{wide image|Wide angle tetons.jpg|900px|align-cap=center|Panoramic view of the Teton Range looking west from Jackson Hole, Grand Teton National Park}}

History

File:Alfred Jacob Miller - Fort Laramie - Walters 37194049.jpg|thumb|The first Fort LaramieFort LaramieSeveral Native American groups originally inhabited the region now known as Wyoming. The Crow, Arapaho, Lakota, and Shoshone were but a few of the original inhabitants white explorers encountered when they first visited the region. What is now southwestern Wyoming became a part of the Spanish Empire and later Mexican territory of Alta California, until it was ceded to the United States in 1848 at the end of the Mexican–American War. French-Canadian trappers from Québec and Montréal went into the state in the late 18th century, leaving French toponyms such as Téton and La Ramie. John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, itself guided by French Canadian Toussaint Charbonneau and his young Shoshone wife, Sacagawea, first described the region in 1807. At the time, his reports of the Yellowstone area were considered to be fictional.{{Gutenberg |no=42112 |name=The Yellowstone National Park |bullet=none }} Robert Stuart and a party of five men returning from Astoria discovered South Pass in 1812. The Oregon Trail later followed that route. In 1850, Jim Bridger located what is now known as Bridger Pass, which the Union Pacific Railroad used in 1868—as did Interstate 80, 90 years later. Bridger also explored Yellowstone and filed reports on the region that, like those of Colter, were largely regarded as tall tales at the time.The region acquired the name Wyoming by 1865, when Representative James Mitchell Ashley of Ohio introduced a bill to Congress to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming". The territory was named after the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, made famous by the 1809 poem Gertrude of Wyoming by Thomas Campbell, based on the Battle of Wyoming in the American Revolutionary War. The name ultimately derives from the Munsee word , meaning "at the big river flat".File:Wyoming Jeep Trail.JPG|thumb|upright=0.75|A backcounty road in the Sierra Madre Range of southeastern Wyoming near Bridger Peak]]The region's population grew steadily after the Union Pacific Railroad reached the town of Cheyenne in 1867, and the federal government established the Wyoming Territory on July 25, 1868.State of Wyoming â€“ General Facts About Wyoming {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070927200649weblink |date=September 27, 2007 }} Unlike mineral-rich Colorado, Wyoming lacked significant deposits of gold and silver, as well as Colorado's subsequent population boom. However, South Pass City did experience a short-lived boom after the Carissa Mine began producing gold in 1867.WEB,weblink South Pass City Historic Site, PDF, Wyoming State Parks, Historic Sites & Trails, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090227040747weblink">weblink February 27, 2009, mdy-all, Furthermore, copper was mined in some areas between the Sierra Madre Mountains and the Snowy Range near Grand Encampment.BOOK,weblink Mines Register: Successor to the Mines Handbook and the Copper Handbook, Describing the Non-ferrous Metal Mining Companies in the Western Hemisphere, 1911, Stevens, Horace Jared, Weed, Walter Harvey, Neale, Walter Garfield, Rand, Lenox Hawes, Sturgis, Edward Barney, Zimmerman, Joseph, 2, Once government-sponsored expeditions to the Yellowstone country began, reports by Colter and Bridger, previously believed to be apocryphal, were found to be true. This led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park, which became the world's first national park in 1872. Nearly all of Yellowstone National Park lies within the far northwestern borders of Wyoming.On December 10, 1869, territorial Governor John Allen Campbell extended the right to vote to women, making Wyoming the first territory and then United States state to grant suffrage to women. In addition, Wyoming was also a pioneer in welcoming women into politics. Women first served on juries in Wyoming (Laramie in 1870); Wyoming had the first female court bailiff (Mary Atkinson, Laramie, in 1870); and the first female justice of the peace in the country (Esther Hobart Morris, South Pass City, in 1870). Also, in 1924, Wyoming became the first state to elect a female governor, Nellie Tayloe Ross, who took office in January 1925.BOOK, Larson, T. A., History of Wyoming,weblink 1990, University of Nebraska Press, 978-0-803-27936-0, Due to its civil-rights history, one of Wyoming's state nicknames is "The Equality State", and the official state motto is "Equal Rights".Wyoming's constitution included women's suffrage and a pioneering article on water rights.BOOK, Frontier Spirit: The Story of Wyoming, Sodaro, Craig, Adams, Randy, 1996, Johnson Books, 978-1-55566-163-2, 136–39, Congress admitted Wyoming into the Union as the 44th state on July 10, 1890.Wyoming was the location of the Johnson County War of 1892, which erupted between competing groups of cattle ranchers. The passage of the federal Homestead Act led to an influx of small ranchers. A range war broke out when either or both of the groups chose violent conflict over commercial competition in the use of the public land.

Demographics

{{US Census population|1870= 9118|1880= 20789|1890= 62555|1900= 92531|1910= 145965|1920= 194402|1930= 225565|1940= 250742|1950= 290529|1960= 330066|1970= 332416|1980= 469557|1990= 453588|2000= 493782|2010= 563626|estimate= 577737|estyear= 2018|align-fn=centerTITLE=RESIDENT POPULATION DATA – 2010 CENSUSACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 24, 2012ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20131019160532/HTTP://2010.CENSUS.GOV/2010CENSUS/DATA/APPORTIONMENT-POP-TEXT.PHP {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131019160532weblinkTITLE=HISTORICAL DECENNIAL CENSUS POPULATION FOR WYOMING COUNTIES, CITIES, AND TOWNSFORMAT=PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, POPULATION DIVISIONACCESSDATE=MARCH 14, 2019, }}

Population

File:Wyoming population map.png|thumb|upright=1.35|Wyoming population density map – the largest population centers are Cheyenne in the southeast and Casper in the east central section.]]The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of Wyoming was 577,737 in 2018, The center of population of Wyoming is in Natrona County.WEB,weblink State & County QuickFacts, 2013, U.S. Census Bureau, May 6, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110703080550weblink">weblink July 3, 2011, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Centers of Population by State, 2013, U.S. Census Bureau, May 9, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140103082820weblink">weblink January 3, 2014, mdy-all, In 2014, the United States Census Bureau estimated the population's racial composition was 92.7% white (82.9 non-Hispanic white), 2.7% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.6% Black or African American, 1.0% Asian American, and 0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander.WEB,weblink Wyoming QuickFacts, 2014, US Census Bureau, United States Census Bureau, January 12, 2016, As of 2011, 24.9% of Wyoming's population younger than age 1 were minorities.NEWS,weblink Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot, Exner, Rich, June 3, 2012, The Plain Dealer, According to the 2010 census, the racial composition of the population was 90.7% white, 0.8% black or African American, 2.4% American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.8% Asian American, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 2.2% from two or more races, and 3.0% from some other race. Ethnically, 8.9% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race) and 91.1% Non-Hispanic, with non-Hispanic whites constituting the largest non-Hispanic group at 85.9%.Wyoming QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. Quickfacts.census.gov. Retrieved July 12, 2013.As of 2015, Wyoming had an estimated population of 586,107, which was an increase of 1,954, or 0.29%, from the prior year and an increase of 22,481, or 3.99%, since the 2010 census. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 12,165 people (that is 33,704 births minus 21,539 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 4,035 people into the state. Immigration resulted in a net increase of 2,264 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 1,771 people. In 2004, the foreign-born population was 11,000 (2.2%). In 2005, total births in Wyoming numbered 7,231 (birth rate of 14.04 per thousand).WEB,weblink Hispanics fastest growing ethnic group in Wyoming, May 21, 2007, Billings Gazette via AP, May 7, 2008, dead,weblink" title="archive.today/20120721020117weblink">weblink July 21, 2012, mdy-all, Sparsely populated, Wyoming is the least populous state of the United States. Wyoming has the second-lowest population density in the country (behind Alaska) and is the sparsest populated of the 48 contiguous states. It is one of only two states with a smaller population than the nation's capital, Washington, D.C. (the other state is Vermont).According to the 2000 census, the largest ancestry groups in Wyoming are: German (26.0%), English (16.0%), Irish (13.3%), Norwegian (4.3%), and Swedish (3.5%).WEB, Census 2000 Summary file 3 - Wyoming,weblink American FactFinder, 18 March 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141129082905weblink">weblink November 29, 2014,

Birth data

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.{| class="wikitable"|+ Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother! Race! 2013WEB,weblink PDF, Births: Final Data for 2013, Cdc.gov, 4 September 2017, ! 2014WEB,weblink PDF, Births: Final Data for 2014, Cdc.gov, 4 September 2017, ! 2015WEB,weblink PDF, Births: Final Data for 2015, Cdc.gov, 4 September 2017, ! 2016WEB,weblink data, www.cdc.gov, PDF, ! 201weblinkWhite Americans>White:| 7,090 (92.7%)| 7,178 (93.2%)| 7,217 (92.9%)| ...| ...Non-Hispanic whites>Non-Hispanic White| 6,136 (80.3%)| 6,258 (81.3%)| 6,196 (79.8%)| 5,763 (78.0%)| 5,426 (78.6%)Native Americans in the United States>American Indian| 305 (4.0%)| 294 (3.8%)| 294 (3.8%)| 200 (2.7%)| 206 (3.0%)Asian Americans>Asian| 124 (1.6%)| 108 (1.4%)| 135 (1.7%)| 100 (1.3%)| 79 (1.1%)African Americans>Black| 125 (1.6%)| 116 (1.5%)| 119 (1.5%)| 63 (0.9%)| 45 (0.7%)Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic (of any race)| 926 (12.1%)| 895 (11.6%)| 963 (12.4%)| 973 (13.2%)| 892 (12.9%)| Total Wyoming| 7,644 (100%)| 7,696 (100%)| 7,765 (100%)| 7,386 (100%)| 6,903 (100%)
  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Government and politics

(File:Wyoming State Capitol.jpg|thumb|Wyoming State Capitol building, Cheyenne){{Further|Elections in Wyoming}}

State government

Wyoming's Constitution established three branches of government: the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.The Wyoming State Legislature comprises a House of Representatives with 60 members and a Senate with 30 members.The executive branch is headed by the governor and includes a secretary of state, auditor, treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. Wyoming does not have a lieutenant governor. Instead the secretary of state stands first in the line of succession.Wyoming's sparse population warrants it only a single at-large seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, and hence only three votes in the Electoral College.Wyoming is an alcoholic beverage control state.

Judicial system

Wyoming's highest court is the Supreme Court of Wyoming, with five justices presiding over appeals from the state's lower courts. Wyoming is unusual in that it does not have an intermediate appellate court, like most states. This is largely attributable to the state's population and correspondingly lower caseload. Appeals from the state district courts go directly to the Wyoming Supreme Court. Wyoming also has state circuit courts (formerly county courts), of limited jurisdiction, which handle certain types of cases, such as civil claims with lower dollar amounts, misdemeanor criminal offenses, and felony arraignments. Circuit court judges also commonly hear small claims cases as well.Before 1972, Wyoming judges were selected by popular vote on a nonpartisan ballot. This earlier system was criticized by the state bar who called for the adoption of the Missouri Plan, a system designed to balance judiciary independence with judiciary accountability. In 1972, an amendment to Article 5 of the Wyoming Constitution, which incorporated a modified version of the plan, was adopted by the voters. Since the adoption of the amendment, all state court judges in Wyoming are nominated by the Judicial Nominating Commission and appointed by the Governor. They are then subject to a retention vote by the electorate one year after appointment.BOOK, Hubble, Larry, The Equality State: Government and Politics in Wyoming, 2008, Eddie Bowers Publishing Co., Peosta, Iowa, 978-1-57879-076-0, 91–92, 6th, etal,

Political history

{{further|Political party strength in Wyoming}}{| class=wikitable style="float:right; margin-left:2em"!! Party! Registered VotersWEB,weblink PDF, January 2017, Statewide Summary : Wyoming Voter Registration, Soswy.state.wy.us, September 4, 2017, ! Percent(File:Wyoming party registration by county.svg|160px)Party registration by county(December 2018):{{legend|#ffb2b2|2=Republican >= 40%}}{{legend|#e27f7f|2=Republican >= 50%}}{{legend|#d75d5d|2=Republican >= 60%}}{{legend|#d72f30|2=Republican >= 70%}}{{legend|#c21b18|2=Republican >= 80%}}{{Party colour|Republican Party (United States)}}Republican Party (United States)>Republican 176,355 67.18%{{Party color|Democratic Party (United States)}}Democratic Party (United States)>Democratic 47,108 17.94%{{Party colour|Independent (United States)}}No party affiliation >| 13.62%{{Party color|Libertarian Party (United States)}}Libertarian Party (United States)>Libertarian Party 2,386 0.91%{{Party color|Constitution Party (United States)}}Constitution Party (United States)>Constitution Party 793 0.30%|| 0.05%|Total Voters >262,524 >| 100.00%Wyoming's political history defies easy classification. The state was the first to grant women the right to vote and to elect a woman governor.WEB,weblink Today in History, The Library of Congress, July 20, 2012, On December 10, 1869, John Allen Campbell, the first Governor of the Wyoming Territory, approved the first law in United States history explicitly granting women the right to vote. This day was later commemorated as Wyoming Day. On November 5, 1889, voters approved the first constitution in the world granting full voting rights to women.WEB,weblink Today in History, The Library of Congress, July 27, 2012, While the state elected notable Democrats to federal office in the 1960s and 1970s, politics have become decidedly more conservative since the 1980s as the Republican Party came to dominate the state's congressional delegation. Today, Wyoming is represented in Washington by its two Senators, Mike Enzi and John Barrasso, and its one member of the House of Representatives, Congresswoman Liz Cheney. All three are Republicans; a Democrat has not represented Wyoming in the Senate since 1977 or in the House since 1978. The state has not voted for a Democrat for president since 1964, one of only eight times since statehood. At present, there is only one relatively reliably Democratic county, affluent Teton, and one swing county, college county Albany. In the 2004 presidential election, George W. Bush won his second-largest victory, with 69% of the vote. Former Vice President Dick Cheney is a Wyoming resident and represented the state in Congress from 1979 to 1989.Republicans are no less dominant at the state level. They have held a majority in the state senate continuously since 1936 and in the state house since 1964. However, Democrats held the governorship for all but eight years between 1975 and 2011. Uniquely, Wyoming elected Democrat Nellie Tayloe Ross as the first woman in United States history to serve as state governor. She served from 1925 to 1927, winning a special election after her husband, William Bradford Ross, unexpectedly died a little more than a year into his term.BOOK, Teva J. Scheer, Governor lady: the life and times of Nellie Tayloe Ross, University of Missouri Press, Columbia, 2005, 73, 978-0-8262-1626-7,

Voter registration by county

Republicans have a majority of registered votes in all but 2 counties: Albany and Teton, where they have a plurality of registered voters.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center"!|! style="text-align:center;" colspan="2"| Republican! style="text-align:center;" colspan="2"| Democratic! style="text-align:center;" colspan="2"| NPA! style="text-align:center;" colspan="2"| Libertarian! style="text-align:center;" colspan="2"| Constitution! style="text-align:center;" colspan="2"| Others! style="text-align:center;" colspan="2"| Margin! style="text-align:center;"| Total! align=center | County! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| Voters! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| %! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| Voters! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| %! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| Voters! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| %! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| Voters! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| %! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| Voters! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| %! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| Voters! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| %! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| Voters! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| %! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| VotersAlbany County, Wyoming>|2981.72%390.23%10.00%2,32113.40%17,326Big Horn County, Wyoming>|290.52%400.72%00.00%4,14674.71%5,549Campbell County, Wyoming>|9.93%1861.00%510.27%270.14%14,38577.15%18,646Carbon County, Wyoming>|721.09%130.20%10.02%2,78242.13%6,604Converse County, Wyoming>|300.44%240.36%30.04%4,93473.08%6,751Crook County, Wyoming>|0.46%200.51%00.00%3,16780.60%3,929Fremont County, Wyoming>|17,451Goshen County, Wyoming>|6,007Hot Springs County, Wyoming>|2,672Johnson County, Wyoming>|4,588Laramie County, Wyoming>|41,965Lincoln County, Wyoming>|9,153Natrona County, Wyoming>|33,911Niobrara County, Wyoming>|1,350Park County, Wyoming>|15,592Platte County, Wyoming>|4,660Sheridan County, Wyoming>|14,971Sublette County, Wyoming>|4,519Sweetwater County, Wyoming>|17,439Teton County, Wyoming>|13,117Uinta County, Wyoming>|8,720Washakie County, Wyoming>|3,974Weston County, Wyoming>|3,630!State Total||176,355||67.18%||47,108||17.94%||35,745||13.62%||2,386||0.91%||793||0.30%||137||0.05%||129,247||49.24%||262,524

Culture

Languages

In 2010, 93.39% (474,343) of Wyomingites over the age of 5 spoke English as their primary language. 4.47% (22,722) spoke Spanish, 0.35% (1,771) spoke German, and 0.28% (1,434) spoke French. Other common non-English languages included Algonquian (0.18%), Russian (0.10%), Tagalog, and Greek (both 0.09%).WEB, Most Spoken Languages in Wyoming in 2010,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060619224705weblink">weblink dead, June 19, 2006, Modern Language Association, December 15, 2013, mdy-all, In 2007, the American Community Survey reported 6.2% (30,419) of Wyoming's population over five years old spoke a language other than English at home. Of those, 68.1% were able to speak English very well, 16.0% spoke English well, 10.9% did not speak English well, and 5.0% did not speak English at all.WEB,weblink Language Use in the United States: 2007, Hyon B. Shin, Robert A. Kominski, April 2010, United States Census Bureau, United States Department of Commerce, May 27, 2013,

Religion

According to a 2013 Gallup Poll, the religious affiliations of the people of Wyoming were: 49% Protestants, 18% Catholics, 9% Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and less than 1% Jewish.WEB,weblink Mississippi and Alabama Most Protestant States in U.S, Gallup.com, June 4, 2014, A 2010 ARDA report recognized as the largest denominations in Wyoming the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) with 62,804 (11%), the Catholic Church with 61,222 (10.8%) and the Southern Baptist Convention with 15,812 adherents (2.8%). The same report counted 59,247 Evangelical Protestants (10.5%), 36,539 Mainline Protestants (6.5%), 785 Eastern Orthodox Christians; 281 Black Protestants, as well as 65,000 adhering to other traditions and 340,552 not claiming any tradition.WEB, State Membership Report: Wyoming,weblink Association of Religion Data Archives, December 15, 2013, {{bar boxPUBLISHER=, left1=Religion float=left|bars ={{bar percent|Protestant|purple|43}}{{bar percent|None|black|26}}{{bar percent|Catholic|dodgerblue|14}}{{bar percent|Mormon|red|9}}{{bar percent|Jehovah's Witness|blue|3}}{{bar percent|Other Christian|Orange|1}}{{bar percent|Buddhist|green|1}}{{bar percent|Other|grey|3}}}}{{clear}}

Sports

Due to its sparse population, the state of Wyoming lacks any major professional sports teams. Some of the most popular sports teams in the state are the University of Wyoming Cowboys and Cowgirls teams – particularly football and basketball, which play in the Mountain West Conference. Their stadiums in Laramie are at about 7,200 feet (2,200 m) above sea level, the highest in NCAA Division I. High school sports are governed by the Wyoming High School Activities Association, which sponsors 12 sports.Rodeo is popular in Wyoming, and Casper has hosted the College National Finals Rodeo since 2001.

State symbols

(File:Indian Paintbrush in Grand Teton NP-NPS.jpg|thumb|State flower of Wyoming: Indian paintbrush)List of all Wyoming state symbols:

Economy and infrastructure

{{Further|Wyoming locations by per capita income}}File:Wind Power 4892597382.jpg|thumb|Wind farm in Uinta County ]]According to the 2012 United States Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Wyoming's gross state product was $38.4 billion.WEB, GDP by State,weblink Bureau of Economic Analysis, July 14, 2013, As of 2014 the population was growing slightly with the most growth in tourist-oriented areas such as Teton County. Boom conditions in neighboring states such as North Dakota were drawing energy workers away. About half of Wyoming's counties showed population losses.NEWS, Star-Tribune staff writers, Wyoming's population growth slows,weblink July 16, 2015, Casper Star-Tribune, March 29, 2015, ...according to Wyoming's Economic Analysis Division, The state makes active efforts through Wyoming Grown, an internet-based recruitment program, to find jobs for young people educated in Wyoming who have emigrated but may wish to return.NEWS, Julie Turkewitz, Wyoming, Long on Pride but Short on People, Hopes to Lure Some Back,weblink July 16, 2015, The New York Times, July 15, 2015, This effort has taken the form of an Internet-based recruitment program called Wyoming Grown. Young Wyomingites who have left the state sign up on the program's website, and quickly receive a call from a recruiter who helps link them to work here., As of November 2015, the state's unemployment rate was 4.0%.Bls.gov; Local Area Unemployment StatisticsThe composition of Wyoming's economy differs significantly from that of other states with most activity in tourism, agriculture, and energy extraction; and little in anything else.The mineral extraction industry and travel and tourism sector are the main drivers behind Wyoming's economy. The federal government owns about 50% of its landmass, while 6% is controlled by the state. Total taxable values of mining production in Wyoming for 2001 was over $6.7 billion. The tourism industry accounts for over $2 billion in revenue for the state.In 2002, more than six million people visited Wyoming's national parks and monuments. The key tourist attractions in Wyoming include Grand Teton National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Devils Tower National Monument, Independence Rock and Fossil Butte National Monument. Each year Yellowstone National Park, the world's first national park, receives three million visitors.Historically, agriculture has been an important component of Wyoming's economy. Its overall importance to the performance of Wyoming's economy has waned. However, agriculture is still an essential part of Wyoming's culture and lifestyle. The main agricultural commodities produced in Wyoming include livestock (beef), hay, sugar beets, grain (wheat and barley), and wool. More than 91% of land in Wyoming is classified as rural.Wyoming is the home of only a handful of companies with a regional or national presence. Taco John's and Sierra Trading Post, both in Cheyenne, are privately held. Cloud Peak Energy in Gillette and U.S. Energy Corp. (NASDAQ: USEG) in Riverton are Wyoming's only publicly traded companies.

Mineral and energy production

File:Liebherr T282C Coal Haul Truck.png|thumb|(North Antelope Rochelle Mine]], the largest estimated coal mine reserve in the world, as of 2013Praveen Duddu (October 20, 2013). "The 10 biggest coal mines in the world". mining-technology.com. Verdict Media Limited. Retrieved October 31, 2018.)File:Rig wind river.jpg|thumb|upright|A natural gas rig west of the Wind River RangeWind River RangeWyoming's mineral commodities include coal, natural gas, coalbed methane, crude oil, uranium, and trona.
  • Coal: Wyoming produced 395.5 million short tons (358.8 million metric tons) of coal in 2004, greater than any other state.WEB,weblink EIA State Energy Profiles: Wyoming, June 12, 2008, June 24, 2008, Wyoming possesses a reserve of 68.7 billion tons (62.3 billion metric tons) of coal. Major coal areas include the Powder River Basin and the Green River Basin
  • Coalbed methane (CBM): The boom for CBM began in the mid-1990s. CBM is characterized as methane gas that is extracted from Wyoming's coal bed seams. It is another means of natural gas production. There has been substantial CBM production in the Powder River Basin. In 2002, the CBM production yield was 327.5 billion cubic feet (9.3 km3).
  • Crude oil: Wyoming produced {{convert|53.4|Moilbbl}} of crude oil in 2007. The state ranked fifth nationwide in oil production in 2007. Petroleum is most often used as a motor fuel, but it is also utilized in the manufacture of plastics, paints, and synthetic rubber.
  • Diamonds: The Kelsey Lake Diamond Mine, located in Colorado less than {{convert|1000|ft|m}} from the Wyoming border, produced gem quality diamonds for several years. The Wyoming craton, which hosts the kimberlite volcanic pipes that were mined, underlies most of Wyoming.
  • Natural gas: Wyoming produced 1.77 trillion cubic feet (50.0 billion m3) of natural gas in 2016. The state ranked 6th nationwide for natural gas production in 2016.US Energy Information Administration, Natural Gas Production, accessed 14 June 2017. The major markets for natural gas include industrial, commercial, and domestic heating.
  • Trona: Wyoming possesses the world's largest known reserve of trona,NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20130112020407weblink">weblink dead, January 12, 2013, Soda ash companies enjoy record year, Gearino, Jeff, Casper Star Tribune, February 16, 2009, a mineral used for manufacturing glass, paper, soaps, baking soda, water softeners, and pharmaceuticals. In 2008, Wyoming produced 46 million short tons (41.7 million metric tons) of trona, 25% of the world's production.
  • Wind power: Because of Wyoming's geography and high-altitude, the potential for wind power in Wyoming is one of the highest of any state in the US. The Chokecherry and Sierra Madre Wind Energy Project is the largest commercial wind generation facility under development in North America.WEB,weblink Power Company of Wyoming: Chokecherry and Sierra Madre Wind Energy Project, Powercompanyofwyoming.com, September 4, 2017, Carbon County is home to the largest proposed wind farm in the US. However, construction plans have been halted because of proposed new taxes on wind power energy production.WEB, Paterson, Leigh, Construction of Largest U.S. Wind Farm Is on Hold,weblink 21 June 2016, wyomingpublicmedia.org, June 14, 2016,
  • Uranium: Although uranium mining in Wyoming is much less active than it was in previous decades, recent increases in the price of uranium have generated new interest in uranium prospecting and mining.

Taxes

Unlike most other states, Wyoming does not levy an individual or corporate income tax. In addition, Wyoming does not assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state. Wyoming has a state sales tax of 4%. Counties have the option of collecting an additional 1% tax for general revenue and a 1% tax for specific purposes, if approved by voters. Food for human consumption is not subject to sales tax.Votes back repeal of food tax {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060414230521weblink |date=April 14, 2006 }}, Billings Gazette, March 3, 2006 There also is a county lodging tax that varies from 2% to 5%. The state collects a use tax of 5% on items purchased elsewhere and brought into Wyoming.All property tax is based on the assessed value of the property and Wyoming's Department of Revenue's Ad Valorem Tax Division supports, trains, and guides local government agencies in the uniform assessment, valuation and taxation of locally assessed property. "Assessed value" means taxable value; "taxable value" means a percent of the fair market value of property in a particular class. Statutes limit property tax increases. For county revenue, the property tax rate cannot exceed 12 mills (or 1.2%) of assessed value. For cities and towns, the rate is limited to 8 mills (0.8%). With very few exceptions, state law limits the property tax rate for all governmental purposes.Personal property held for personal use is tax-exempt. Inventory if held for resale, pollution control equipment, cash, accounts receivable, stocks and bonds are also exempt. Other exemptions include property used for religious, educational, charitable, fraternal, benevolent and government purposes and improvements for handicapped access. Mine lands, underground mining equipment, and oil and gas extraction equipment are exempt from property tax but companies must pay a gross products tax on minerals and a severance tax on mineral production.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130117043021weblink">weblink dead, January 17, 2013, Getting the Story Right; Mineral Taxation in Wyoming and West Virginia, West Virginia Center on Budget and Policy Blog, November 10, 2012, Wyoming Statutes Section 39-13-103Wyoming does not collect inheritance taxes. There is limited estate tax related to federal estate tax collection.In 2008, the Tax Foundation ranked Wyoming as having the single most "business friendly" tax climate of all 50 states.WEB,weblink The Tax Foundation – Tax Research Areas – Wyoming, Taxfoundation.org, July 31, 2010, Wyoming state and local governments in fiscal year 2007 collected $2.242 billion in taxes, levies, and royalties from the oil and gas industry. The state's mineral industry, including oil, gas, trona, and coal provided $1.3 billion in property taxes from 2006 mineral production.WEB,weblink Petroleum Association of Wyoming, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080920105654weblink">weblink September 20, 2008, mdy-all, Wyoming receives more federal tax dollars per capita in aid than any other state except Alaska. The federal aid per capita in Wyoming is more than double the United States average.WEB,weblink Federal Aid to States for Fiscal Year 2010, PDF, June 4, 2014, As of 2016, Wyoming does not require the beneficial owners of LLCs to be disclosed in the filing, which creates an opportunity for a tax haven, according to Clark Stith of Clark Stith & Associates in Rock Springs, Wyoming, a former Republican candidate for Wyoming secretary of state.WEB,weblink registration, Panama Papers Include Nevada, Wyoming Among Offshore Tax Havens, taxnotes.com, Tax Analysts, 5 April 2016, Hamilton, Amy, October 31, 2018,

Transportation

{{Further|List of Wyoming railroads|List of airports in Wyoming|State highways in Wyoming}}{{ussm|wyoming.PNG|wy|right}}The largest airport in Wyoming is Jackson Hole Airport, with over 500 employees.WEB,weblink Airport Improvement Projects - Jackson Hole Airport (JAC), Jackson Hole, Wyoming, Jacksonholeairport.com, September 4, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120113100443weblink">weblink January 13, 2012, dead, mdy-all, Three interstate highways and thirteen United States highways pass through Wyoming. In addition, the state is served by the Wyoming state highway system.Interstate 25 enters the state south of Cheyenne and runs north, intersecting Interstate 80 immediately west of Cheyenne. It passes through Casper and ends at Interstate 90 near Buffalo. Interstate 80 crosses the Utah border west of Evanston and runs east through the southern third of the state, passing through Cheyenne before entering Nebraska near Pine Bluffs. Interstate 90 comes into Wyoming near Parkman and cuts through the northeastern part of the state. It serves Gillette and enters South Dakota east of Sundance.U.S. Routes 14, 16, and the eastern section of U.S. 20 all have their western terminus at the eastern entrance to Yellowstone National Park and pass through Cody. U.S. 14 travels eastward before joining I-90 at Gillette. U.S. 14 then follows I-90 to the South Dakota border. U.S. 16 and 20 split off of U.S. 14 at Greybull and U.S. 16 turns east at Worland while U.S. 20 continues south Shoshoni. U.S. Route 287 carries traffic from Fort Collins, Colorado into Laramie, Wyoming through a pass between the Laramie Mountains and the Medicine Bow Mountains, merges with US 30 and I-80 until it reaches Rawlins, where it continues north, passing Lander. Outside of Moran, U.S. 287 is part of a large interchange with U.S. Highways 26, 191, and 89, before continuing north to the southern entrance of Yellowstone. U.S. 287 continues north of Yellowstone, but the two sections are separated by the national park.Other U.S. highways that pass through the state are United States Highways are 18, 26, 30, 85, 87, 89, 189, 191, 212, and 287.Wyoming is one of only two states (the other being South Dakota) in the 48 contiguous states not served by Amtrak.WEB, Amtrak National Facts,weblink Amtrak.com, 18 March 2016, dead,weblink March 10, 2016, mdy-all, It was once served by Amtrak's San Francisco Zephyr and Pioneer lines. {{citation needed|date=April 2019}}{{clear}}

Education

(File:Rocky Mountain Herbarium University of Wyoming.JPG|thumb|The Rocky Mountain Herbarium at the University of Wyoming)Public education is directed by the state superintendent of public instruction, an elected state official. Educational policies are set by the State Board of Education, a nine-member board appointed by the governor. The constitution prohibits the state from establishing curriculum and textbook selections; these are the prerogatives of local school boards. The Wyoming School for the Deaf was the only in-state school dedicated to supporting deaf students in Wyoming, but it closed in the summer of 2000.NEWS,weblink Deaf alumni saddened by school's fate, Watt, Meghan, October 1, 2007, Casper Star-Tribune, 2017-04-08, en,

Higher education

Wyoming has one public four-year institution, the University of Wyoming in Laramie and one private four-year college, Wyoming Catholic College, in Lander, Wyoming. In addition, there are seven two-year community colleges spread throughout the state.Before the passing of a new law in 2006, Wyoming had hosted unaccredited institutions, many of them suspected diploma mills.Alleged "diploma mills" flocking to Wyoming, by Mead Gruver, The Seattle Times, February 9, 2005 The 2006 law is forcing unaccredited institutions to make one of three choices: move out of Wyoming, close down, or apply for accreditation. The Oregon State Office of Degree Authorization predicted in 2007 that in a few years the problem of diploma mills in Wyoming might be resolved.Unaccredited Colleges {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070715144241weblink |date=July 15, 2007 }}, Potential problems with degree suppliers located in these states – Wyoming, Oregon State Office of Degree Authorization{{Clear}}

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

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