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{{about|the People's Republic of China|the Republic of China|Taiwan|other uses}}{{redirect|PRC||PRC (disambiguation)}}{{pp-semi-protected|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|State in East Asia}}{{good article}}{{Use American English|date=August 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=November 2017}}

Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó {{small>(Pinyin)}}}}| image_flag = Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg| image_coat = People's Republic of China National Emblem.svg| symbol_type = National Emblem| national_motto = "March of the Volunteers"YìyÇ’ngjÅ«n JìnxíngqÇ”}}{{center|(File:March of the Volunteers instrumental.ogg)}}| image_map = People's Republic of China (orthographic projection).svg| map_width = 220px| map_caption = Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.Beijing{{efn>Romanized as "Peking" prior to the adoption of Pinyin.}}39N23type:city}}ShanghaiCHAN, KAM WING JOURNAL=EURASIAN GEOGRAPHY AND ECONOMICS VOLUME=48 PAGES=383–412 FORMAT=PDFARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130115173048/HTTP://COURSES.WASHINGTON.EDU/CHINAGEO/CHANCITYDEFINITIONSEGE2007.PDFDOI=10.2747/1538-7216.48.4.383, p. 395Standard ChineseHTTP://WWW.GOV.CN/ENGLISH/LAWS/2005-09/19/CONTENT_64906.HTM >TITLE=LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ON THE STANDARD SPOKEN AND WRITTEN CHINESE LANGUAGE (ORDER OF THE PRESIDENT NO.37) DATE=31 OCTOBER 2000QUOTE=FOR PURPOSES OF THIS LAW, THE STANDARD SPOKEN AND WRITTEN CHINESE LANGUAGE MEANS PUTONGHUA (A COMMON SPEECH WITH PRONUNCIATION BASED ON THE BEIJING DIALECT) AND THE STANDARDIZED CHINESE CHARACTERS., {{efnPortuguese language>Portuguese (Macau only), English (Hong Kong only).}}}}| languages_type = Official scriptSimplified Chinese{{efn>In the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese characters are used}}Mongolian language >Uyghur language >Standard Tibetan > Standard Zhuang >Languages of China{{Citation>url=|accessdate=17 April 2008}}}}| religion = See Religion in China| ethnic_groups = {{vunblistHan Chinese>Han|{{collapsible list|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;font-size:100%;List of ethnic groups in China>55 minorities{{efn|Ethnic minorities that are recognized officially.}}Zhuang people>Zhuang Manchu people>Man (Manchu) Uyghur people>Uygur (Uyghur) Hui people>Hui Miao people>Miao Yi people>Yi Tujia people>Tujia Ethnic Mongols in China>Mongol Tibetan people>Zang (Tibetan) Buyei >0.15% Koreans in China >1.05% others}}}}| demonym = ChineseUnitary state>Unitary Marxist-Leninist One-party state Socialist state>socialist republicCONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA>URL=HTTP://WWW.NPC.GOV.CN/ENGLISHNPC/CONSTITUTION/2007-11/15/CONTENT_1372963.HTMDATE=15 NOVEMBER 2007, 8 February 2015, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China>Party General Secretaryand PresidentXi Jinping{{efn>Xi Jinping holds four concurrent positions: General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (de facto paramount leader), President of the People's Republic of China (de jure head of state), and Chairman of the Central Military Commission (Commander-in-chief) for both state and party.weblink" title="">"New man at helm: Xi Jinping elected to lead China". 15 November 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2013.}}Premier of the People's Republic of China>Premier| leader_name2 = Li KeqiangCongress Chairman}}| leader_name3 = Li ZhanshuConference Chairman}}Wang Yang (politician)>Wang YangSecretariat of the Communist Party of China>Party Secretariat| leader_name5 = Wang HuningSecretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection>Secretary of the Discipline Inspection Commission| leader_name6 = Zhao LejiVice Premier of the People's Republic of China>Vice Premier| leader_name7 = Han ZhengVice President of the People's Republic of China>Vice PresidentWang Qishan{{efn>According to the official Orders of precedence in China (i.e. party comes first), the order of Wang would be inferior to the members of the Standing Committee of Politburo of CPC as he was not appointed office in the 19th Central Committee.}}| legislature = National People's CongressHistory of China>FormationQin's wars of unification#Conquest of Qi>First imperial unificationbce}}Xinhai Revolution>Republic established| established_date2 = 1 January 1912Chinese Civil War>People's Republic declaredlast=Peaslee contribution=Data Regarding the 'People's Republic of China'url= I, 2nd ed. >date=1956 location=Dordrecht last=Chaurasia contribution=Introduction p=1 url= location=New Delhi isbn=9788126903153 }}Chinese Communist Revolution>Proclamation of the People's Republic| established_date4 = 1 October 1949Constitution of China>Current constitution| established_date5 = 4 December 1982Macau>Last polity admitted| established_date6 = 20 December 1999| area_km2 = 9,596,961The area given is the official United Nations figure for Mainland China and excludes Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.HTTP://UNSTATS.UN.ORG/UNSD/DEMOGRAPHIC/PRODUCTS/DYB/DYB2007/TABLE03.PDF PUBLISHER=UN STATISTICS ACCESSDATE=31 JULY 2010 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20101224063215/HTTP://UNSTATS.UN.ORG/UNSD/DEMOGRAPHIC/PRODUCTS/DYB/DYB2007/TABLE03.PDF DF=, It also excludes the Trans-Karakoram Tract ({{convertkm2abbr=onsp=us}}), Aksai Chin ({{convertkm2abbr=onsp=us}}) and other territories in dispute with India. The total area of China is listed as {{convertkm2abbr=onEncyclopædia Britannica.HTTP://WWW.BRITANNICA.COM/EBCHECKED/TOPIC/111803/CHINA WORK=ENCYCLOPæDIA BRITANNICA, 16 November 2012, For further information, see Territorial changes of the People's Republic of China.}}| area_rank = 3rd/4th| area_sq_mi = 3,705,407 This figure was calculated using data from the CIA World Factbook.}}China}} {{UN_Population|ref}}| population_census = 1,339,724,852Year}}| population_estimate_rank = 1st| population_census_year = 2010| population_census_rank = 1stPUBLISHER=IMF, 16 May 2015, | population_density_sq_mi = 373 | population_density_rank = 83rdPUBLISHER=IMF, April 2018, | GDP_PPP_year = 2018| GDP_PPP_rank = 1st| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $18,066| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 79th| GDP_nominal = $14.092 trillion| GDP_nominal_year = 2018| GDP_nominal_rank = 2nd| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $10,087| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 71st| Gini = 46.2 | Gini_year = 2015| Gini_change = PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINADATE=19 JANUARY 2016, Taking the per capita disposable income of nationwide households by income quintiles, that of the low-income group reached 5,221 yuan, the lower-middle-income group 11,894 yuan, the middle-income group 19,320 yuan, the upper-middle-income group 29,438 yuan, and the high-income group 54,544 yuan. The Gini Coefficient for national income in 2015 was 0.462., | Gini_rank = | HDI = 0.752 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increase PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMEACCESSDATE=15 SEPTEMBER 2018, | HDI_rank = 86thRenminbi (yuan; Â¥){{efn>The Hong Kong Dollar is used in Hong Kong and Macau while the Macanese pataca is used in Macau only.}}| currency_code = CNY| time_zone = China Standard TimeUTC+8>+8yyyy-mm-dd or yyyymd >(Common Era; Chinese calendar>CE-1949)}}Motor vehicles and metros drive on the right in mainland China. Hong Kong and Macau use left-hand traffic except several parts of metro lines. The majority of the country's trains drive on the left. }}| calling_code = +86 .cn .中國 >.中国}}}} China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC) since 1949, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around (Demographics of China|{{#expr:{{replace|{{UN_Population|China}}|,||}}/1e9 round 3}} billion).{{UN_Population|ref}} Covering approximately {{convert|9600000|km2|sp=us}}, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,{{efn|The total area ranking relative to the United States depends on the measurement of the total areas of China and the United States. See List of countries and dependencies by area for more information.}}WEB,weblink The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency,, depending on the source consulted. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE.Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project by People's Republic of China Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin unified core China and established the first Chinese empire. The succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass,Tom (1989), 99; Day & McNeil (1996), 122; Needham (1986e), 1–2, 40–41, 122–123, 228. along with agricultural and medical improvements. The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern Song (960–1127) completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread widely in Asia, as the new maritime Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa.BOOK, Bowman, John S., Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture, 2000, Columbia University Press, New York, 104–105, Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic replaced the Qing dynasty. The Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed.Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates consistently above 6 percent.WEB, GDP growth (annual %),weblink World Bank, 25 May 2018, {{As of|2016}}, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP).WEB, GDP, PPP (current international $),weblink World Bank, 25 May 2018, China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods.NEWS,weblink China trade now bigger than US, Daily Telegraph, 10 February 2013, 15 February 2013, London, Garry, White, China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget. The PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is also a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, and the G20. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.WEB,weblink From Rural Transformation to Global Integration: The Environmental and Social Impacts of China's Rise to Superpower, Muldavin, Joshua, 9 February 2006, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 17 January 2010, NEWS,weblink A Point Of View: What kind of superpower could China be?, BBC, 19 October 2012, 21 October 2012, {{TOC limit|3}}


| sic=Zong1 gwe2| bpmf=ㄓㄨㄥ   ã„ã„¨ã„›ËŠ| xej=ﺟْﻮﻗُﻮَع| tp=Jhongguó| mps=JÅ«ngguó| gr=Jonggwo| myr=JÅ«nggwó| zh-dungan=Җунгуй| poj=Tiong-kok| tl=Tiong-kok| gan=Tung-koe̍t| hsn=Tan33-kwÉ›24/| wuu=Tsonå¹³-kohå…¥| j=Zung1gwok3| y=Jùnggwok or JÅ«nggwokz7gw3}} or {{IPAc-yueung.ok|3}}| h=Dung24-gued2| phfs=Chûng-koet| buc=Dṳ̆ng-guók| hhbuc=De̤ng-go̤h| mblmc=Dô̤ng-gŏ| showflag=p| order=stMiddle or Central State{{citation p=105 Political Theories in East Asian Context >title=Patriotism in East Asia editor2=Koichiro Matsuda publisher=Routledge date=2015 first=Naran }}}}}}

|sic=Zong1 hua2 Zen2 min2Gong4 hwe2 gwe2|bpmf=ㄓㄨㄥ   ã„ã„¨ã„šËŠã„–ㄣˊ   ã„‡ã„§ã„£ËŠã„ã„¨ã„¥Ë‹   ã„ã„œËŠ   ã„ã„¨ã„›ËŠ|xej=ﺟْﻮﺧُﻮَ ژٌمٍ ﻗْﻮحْقُوَع|zh-dungan=Җунхуа Жынмин Гунхәгуй|poj=Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok|tl=Tiong-huâ Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok|gan=Chungfa Ninmin Khungfokoet|wuu=Tsonå¹³ ghoå¹³ zinå¹³ minå¹³gon去 ghuå¹³ kohå…¥|j=Zung1waa4 Jan4man4 Gung6wo4gwok3z7w4j4m4g6w4gw3}}or{{|3}}|y=Jùng'wàh Yàhnmàhn Guhng'wòhgwokorJÅ«ng'wàh Yàhnmàhn Guhng'wòhgwok|hsn=/tan33 go13 Å‹in13 min13gan45 gu13 kwÉ›24/|h=Dung24 fa11 ngin11 min11 kiung55 fo11 gued2|phfs=Chûng-fà Ngìn-mìnKhiung-fò-koet|buc=Dṳ̆ng-huà ÃŒng-mìngGê̤ṳng-huò-guók|hhbuc=De̤ng-huá Cíng-míngGē̤ng-hó̤-go̤h|mblmc=Dô̤ng-uÇŽ Nêng-mÄ›ngGō̤ng-uÇŽ-gŏ70px|alt=Bügüde nayiramdaqu dumdadu arad ulus, ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ á  á ·á  á ³ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ)|monr=Bügüde nayiramdaqu dumdadu arad ulusཀྲུང་ཧྭ་མི་དམངས་སྤྱིམཐུན་རྒྱལ་ཁབ}}|wylie=krung hwa mi dmangs spyi mthun rgyal khab|zwpy=Zhunghua Mimang Jitun Gyalkab|uig=جۇڭخۇا خەلق جۇمھۇرىيىتى|uly=Jungxua Xelq Jumhuriyiti|uyy=Junghua HÉ™lⱪ Jumⱨuriyiti|sgs=Junghua HälkÌ‚ JumÄ¥uriyiti|usy=Җуңхуа Хәлқ Җумһурийити|zha=Cunghvaz Yinzminz Gunghozgoz|showflag=p|order=st}}The English word "China" is first attested in Richard Eden's 1555 translation{{efn|"[...] Next vnto this, is found the great China, whose kyng is thought to bee the greatest prince in the worlde, and is named Santoa Raia".Eden, Richard (1555), Decades of the New World, p. 230.BOOK, Western Views of China and the Far East, Volume 1, Asian Research Service, 1984, 34, Henry Allen, Myers, }} of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.{{efn|"[...] The Very Great Kingdom of China".{{citation |url=|p=211|title=The Book of Duarte Barbosa, Vol. II |last=Barbosa |first=Duarte |display-authors=0 |editor-last=Dames |editor-first=Mansel Longworth |location=London |date=1918 |isbn=978-81-206-0451-3 }} ().{{citation|first=Duarte |last=Barbosa |title=Livro em que dá Relação do que Viu e Ouviu no Oriente |editor=Augusto Reis Machado |display-editors=0 |location=Lisbon |date=1946 |url= |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate= 22 October 2008 |df=dmy }}. {{pt icon}}}}"China" in the Oxford English Dictionary (1989). {{ISBN|0-19-957315-8}}. The demonym, that is, the name for the people, and adjectival form "Chinese" developed later on the model of Portuguese ' and French '."-ese, suffix", and "Chinese, adj. and n.", in the Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press.{{efn|Eden used the now obsolete form Chinish: "...whence the Chinishe nation haue theyr prouision for shppyng..."Eden, Richard in R. Willes (1577). The History of Trauayle in the West and East Indies, p. 260}} Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian ChÄ«n (}}), which may be traced further back to Sanskrit CÄ«na (}})."China". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2000). Boston and New York: Houghton-Mifflin. CÄ«na was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata (5th century {{sc|bce}}) and the Laws of Manu (2nd century {{sc|bce}}).Wade, Geoff. "The Polity of Yelang and the Origin of the Name 'China'". Sino-Platonic Papers, No. 188, May 2009, p. 20. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived ultimately from the name of the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC),Martino, Martin, Novus Atlas Sinensis, Vienna 1655, Preface, p. 2. a proposal supported by many later scholars,BOOK, Bodde, Derk, Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe,weblink The Cambridge History of China: Volume 1, The Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 BC – AD 220, 20, 978-0-521-24327-8, 1978, JOURNAL, The Name China, Berthold Laufer, T'oung Pao, 13, 1, 719–726, 1912, 10.1163/156853212X00377, JOURNAL, Paul, Pelliot, L'origine du nom de "Chine", 727–742, T'oung Pao, Second Series, 13, 5, 1912, 4526318, although there are also a number of alternative suggestions.BOOK, Yule, Henry,weblink Cathay and the Way Thither, 3–7, 978-8120619661, 1866, The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China" ({{zh| s=| hp=}}). The shorter form is "China" ' {{nowrap|(}}),}} from ' ("central") and ' ("state"),{{efn|Although this is the present meaning of ', in Old Chinese (when its pronunciation was something like {{nowrap|/*qʷˤək/}})Baxter-Sagart. it meant the walled city of the Chinese and the areas they could control from them.}} a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne.{{efn|Its use is attested from the 6th-century Classic of History, which states "Huangtian bestowed the lands and the peoples of the central state to the ancestors" (). {{zh icon}}}} It was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing.{{citation |last=Wilkinson |first=Endymion |title=Chinese History: A Manual |url=|date=2000 |location=Cambridge |publisher=Harvard University Asia Center |series=Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph No. 52 |p=132|isbn=978-0-674-00249-4}} It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is also translated as {{nowrap|"Middle Kingdom"}} in English.BOOK, Tang, Xiaoyang, Greater China in an Era of Globalization,weblink 2010, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Lanham, MD, 978-0-7391-3534-1, 52–53, Guo, Sujian, Guo, Baogang, A more literary or inclusive name, alluding to the "land of Chinese civilization", is {{nowrap|(}}).}}{{citation |series=Routledge Research on Taiwan |publisher=Routledge |location=Abingdon |url=|p=220|title=Language, Politics, and Identity in Taiwan: Naming China |author=Hui-Ching Chang |author2=Richard Holt |display-authors=1 |isbn=978-1-135-04634-7|date=2014}} It developed during the Wei and Jin dynasties as a contraction of "the central state of the Huaxia". Before the PRC's establishment, the proposed name of the country was the People's Democratic Republic of China ({{zh| s=| t=| hp=Zhōnghuá Rénmín MínzhÇ” Gònghéguó}}) during the first CPPCC held on 15 June 1949.Proposed country name of the People's Republic of China (People's Daily – Chinese)WEB,weblink Dong Biwu Report: Central People Committee of the People's Republic of China (Chinese),, 15 September 2017, During the 1950s and 1960s, after the defeat of the Kuomintang in the Chinese Civil War, it was also referred to as "Communist China" or "Red China", to be differentiated from "Nationalist China" or "Free China".BOOK, Garver, John W., The Sino-American Alliance: Nationalist China and American Cold War Strategy in Asia, M.E. Sharp, April 1997, 978-0-7656-0025-7,



File:National Museum of China 2014.02.01 14-43-38.jpg|thumb|left|10,000 years old pottery, bce}}).Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago."Early Homo erectus Tools in China". Archaeological Institute of America. 2000. Retrieved 30 November 2012. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire,WEB,weblink The Peking Man World Heritage Site at Zhoukoudian, UNESCO, 6 March 2013, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; they have been dated to between 680,000 and 780,000 years ago.JOURNAL, 10.1038/nature07741, Mar 2009, Shen, G, Gao, X, Gao, B, Granger, De, Age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus determined with (26)Al/(10)Be burial dating, 458, 7235, 198–200, 0028-0836, 19279636, Nature, 2009Natur.458..198S, The fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens (dated to 125,000–80,000 years ago) have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County, Hunan.WEB,weblink Fossil teeth place humans in Asia '20,000 years early', BBC News, 14 October 2015, Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 {{sc|bce}},NEWS, 'Earliest writing' found in China, Paul, Rincon, 17 April 2003,weblink BBC News, Damaidi around 6000 {{sc|bce}},Qiu Xigui (2000). Chinese Writing. English translation of by Gilbert L. Mattos and Jerry Norman. Early China Special Monograph Series No. 4. Berkeley: The Society for the Study of Early China and the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley. {{ISBN|978-1-55729-071-7}}. Dadiwan from 5800–5400 {{sc|bce}}, and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium {{sc|bce}}. Some scholars have suggested that the Jiahu symbols (7th millennium {{sc|bce}}) constituted the earliest Chinese writing system.

Early dynastic rule

{{Further|Dynasties in Chinese history}}File:Yinxu.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Yinxu, the ruins of the capital of the late bce}})According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 {{sc|bce}}.BOOK, Tanner, Harold M., China: A History, 2009, Hackett Publishing, 35–36,weblink 978-0872209152, The dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959."Bronze Age China". National Gallery of Art. Retrieved 11 July 2013. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period.BOOK, China: Five Thousand Years of History and Civilization, 2007, City University of HK Press, 25,weblink 9789629371401, The succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records.BOOK, Pletcher, Kenneth, The History of China, 2011, Britannica Educational Publishing, 35,weblink 9781615301812, The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century {{sc|bce}}.BOOK, Fowler, Jeaneane D., Merv, Fowler, Chinese Religions: Beliefs and Practices, 2008, Sussex Academic Press, 17,weblink 9781845191726, Their oracle bone script (from {{c.|lk=no|1500}} {{sc|bce}})William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol. 17, No. 3, Early Writing Systems. (Feb. 1986), pp. 420–436 (436).David N. Keightley, "Art, Ancestors, and the Origins of Writing in China", Representations, No. 56, Special Issue: The New Erudition. (Autumn, 1996), pp.68–95 (68). represents the oldest form of Chinese writing yet found,ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink 904, Pam, Hollister, Zhengzhou, International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania, Paul E., Schellinger, Robert M., Salkin, Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1996, 9781884964046, and is a direct ancestor of modern Chinese characters.BOOK, Allan, Keith, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Linguistics, 2013, Oxford University Press, 4,weblink 9780199585847, The Shang was conquered by the Zhou, who ruled between the 11th and 5th centuries {{sc|bce}}, though centralized authority was slowly eroded by feudal warlords. Some principalities eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou, no longer fully obeyed the Zhou king and continually waged war with each other in the 300-year Spring and Autumn period. By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th–3rd centuries {{sc|bce}}, there were seven powerful sovereign states in what is now China, each with its own king, ministry and army.

Imperial China

File:Chinesische-mauer.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|China's First Emperor, Qin Shi Huang, is famed for having united the Warring States' walls to form the Great Wall of China. Most of the present structure, however, dates to the Ming dynastyMing dynastyThe Warring States period ended in 221 {{sc|bce}} after the state of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms, reunited China and established the dominant order of totalitarian autocracy. King Zheng of Qin proclaimed himself the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty. He enacted Qin's legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of Chinese characters, measurements, road widths (i.e., cart axles' length), and currency. His dynasty also conquered the Yue tribes in Guangxi, Guangdong, and Vietnam.Sima Qian, Translated by Burton Watson. Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty I, p. 11-12. {{ISBN|0-231-08165-0}}. The Qin dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after the First Emperor's death, as his harsh authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion.Bodde, Derk. (1986). "The State and Empire of Ch'in", in The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. {{ISBN|0-521-24327-0}}.BOOK, The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han, Mark Edward, Lewis, Belknap Press, London, 2007, 978-0-674-02477-9, Following a widespread civil war during which the imperial library at Xianyang was burned,{{efn|Owing to Qin Shi Huang's earlier policy involving the "burning of books and burying of scholars", the destruction of the confiscated copies at Xianyang was an event similar to the destructions of the Library of Alexandria in the west. Even those texts that did survive had to be painstakingly reconstructed from memory, luck, or forgery.{{citation |last=Cotterell |first=Arthur |title=The Imperial Capitals of China |pp=35–36 |publisher=Pimlico |date=2011 }} The Old Texts of the Five Classics were said to have been found hidden in a wall at the Kong residence in Qufu. Mei Ze's "rediscovered" edition of the Book of Documents was only shown to be a forgery in the Qing dynasty.}} the Han dynasty emerged to rule China between 206 {{sc|bce}} and {{sc|ce}} 220, creating a cultural identity among its populace still remembered in the ethnonym of the Han Chinese. The Han expanded the empire's territory considerably, with military campaigns reaching Central Asia, Mongolia, South Korea, and Yunnan, and the recovery of Guangdong and northern Vietnam from Nanyue. Han involvement in Central Asia and Sogdia helped establish the land route of the Silk Road, replacing the earlier path over the Himalayas to India. Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world.WEB,weblink Dahlman, Carl J; Aubert, Jean-Eric. China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st century, World Bank Publications via, 22 October 2012, Despite the Han's initial decentralization and the official abandonment of the Qin philosophy of Legalism in favor of Confucianism, Qin's legalist institutions and policies continued to be employed by the Han government and its successors.BOOK, Candice, Goucher, Linda, Walton, World History: Journeys from Past to Present – Volume 1: From Human Origins to 1500 CE, 2013, Routledge, 108,weblink 9781135088224, File:Terracotta pmorgan.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|The Terracotta Army ({{c.|lk=no|210}} {{sc|bce}}) discovered outside the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor, now Xi'anXi'anAfter the end of the Han dynasty, a period of strife known as Three Kingdoms followed,Whiting, Marvin C. (2002). Imperial Chinese Military History. iUniverse. p. 214 whose central figures were later immortalized in one of the Four Classics of Chinese literature. At its end, Wei was swiftly overthrown by the Jin dynasty. The Jin fell to civil war upon the ascension of a developmentally-disabled emperor; the Five Barbarians then invaded and ruled northern China as the Sixteen States. The Xianbei unified them as the Northern Wei, whose Emperor Xiaowen reversed his predecessors' apartheid policies and enforced a drastic sinification on his subjects, largely integrating them into Chinese culture. In the south, the general Liu Yu secured the abdication of the Jin in favor of the Liu Song. The various successors of these states became known as the Northern and Southern dynasties, with the two areas finally reunited by the Sui in 581. The Sui restored the Han to power through China, reformed its agriculture and economy, constructed the Grand Canal, and patronized Buddhism. However, they fell quickly when their conscription for public works and a failed war with Korea provoked widespread unrest.Ki-Baik Lee (1984). A new history of Korea. Harvard University Press. {{ISBN|978-0-674-61576-2}}. p.47.David Andrew Graff (2002). Medieval Chinese warfare, 300–900. Routledge. {{ISBN|0-415-23955-9}}. p.13.Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, Chinese economy, technology, and culture entered a golden age.Adshead, S. A. M. (2004). T'ang China: The Rise of the East in World History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 54 The Tang Empire returned control of the Western Regions and the Silk Road,{{citation|last=Nishijima|first=Sadao|editor1-last=Twitchett|editor1-first=Denis|editor2-last=Loewe|editor2-first=Michael|chapter=The Economic and Social History of Former Han|title=Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220|year=1986|publisher=Cambridge University Press|location=Cambridge|isbn=978-0-521-24327-8|pages=545–607}} and made the capital Chang'an a cosmopolitan urban center. However, it was devastated and weakened by the An Shi Rebellion in the 8th century.City University of HK Press (2007). China: Five Thousand Years of History and Civilization. {{ISBN|962-937-140-5}}. p.71 In 907, the Tang disintegrated completely when the local military governors became ungovernable. The Song dynasty ended the separatist situation in 960, leading to a balance of power between the Song and Khitan Liao. The Song was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the developed shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade.Paludan, Ann (1998). Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors. London: Thames & Hudson. {{ISBN|0-500-05090-2}}. p. 136. File:Along the River During the Qingming Festival (detail of original).jpg|upright=0.9|thumb|A detail from Along the River During the Qingming Festival, a 12th-century painting showing everyday life in the Song dynasty's capital, Bianjing (present-day KaifengKaifengBetween the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly because of the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses. The Song dynasty also saw a revival of Confucianism, in response to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang,BOOK, Essentials of Neo-Confucianism: Eight Major Philosophers of the Song and Ming Periods, 1999, Greenwood Publishing Group, 3,weblink 9780313264498, and a flourishing of philosophy and the arts, as landscape art and porcelain were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity.WEB, Northern Song dynasty (960–1127),weblink Metropolitan Museum of Art, 27 November 2013, WEB,weblink zh:从汝窑、修内司窑和郊坛窑的技术传承看宋代瓷业的发展,, 15 February 2011, 15 August 2015, However, the military weakness of the Song army was observed by the Jurchen Jin dynasty. In 1127, Emperor Huizong of Song and the capital Bianjing were captured during the Jin–Song Wars. The remnants of the Song retreated to southern China.BOOK, Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250–1276, 1962, Stanford University Press, 22, 978-0-8047-0720-6, The 13th century brought the Mongol conquest of China. In 1271, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty; the Yuan conquered the last remnant of the Song dynasty in 1279. Before the Mongol invasion, the population of Song China was 120 million citizens; this was reduced to 60 million by the time of the census in 1300.Ping-ti Ho. "An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China", in Études Song, Series 1, No 1, (1970). pp. 33–53. A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Yuan in 1368 and founded the Ming dynasty as the Hongwu Emperor. Under the Ming dynasty, China enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture. It was during this period that Zheng He led the Ming treasure voyages throughout the world, reaching as far as Africa.NEWS,weblink The Guardian, Xan, Rice, Chinese archaeologists' African quest for sunken ship of Ming admiral, 25 July 2010, London, In the early years of the Ming dynasty, China's capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing. With the budding of capitalism, philosophers such as Wang Yangming further critiqued and expanded Neo-Confucianism with concepts of individualism and equality of four occupations.WEB, Wang Yangming (1472—1529),weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 9 December 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 9 November 2013, dmy-all, The scholar-official stratum became a supporting force of industry and commerce in the tax boycott movements, which, together with the famines and defense against Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) and Manchu invasions led to an exhausted treasury.WEB,weblink zh:论明末士人阶层与资本主义萌芽的关系,, 8 April 2012, 2 September 2015, In 1644, Beijing was captured by a coalition of peasant rebel forces led by Li Zicheng. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell. The Manchu Qing dynasty, then allied with Ming dynasty general Wu Sangui, overthrew Li's short-lived Shun dynasty and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing dynasty.

End of dynastic rule

File:Regaining the Provincial Capital of Ruizhou.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|A 19th-century depiction of the Taiping RebellionTaiping RebellionThe Qing dynasty, which lasted from 1644 until 1912, was the last imperial dynasty of China. Its conquest of the Ming (1618–1683) cost 25 million lives and the economy of China shrank drastically.John M. Roberts (1997). A Short History of the World. Oxford University Press. p. 272. {{ISBN|0-19-511504-X}}. After the Southern Ming ended, the further conquest of the Dzungar Khanate added Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang to the empire.The Cambridge History of China: Volume 10, Part 1, by John K. Fairbank, p37 The centralized autocracy was strengthened to crack down on anti-Qing sentiment with the policy of valuing agriculture and restraining commerce, the Haijin ("sea ban"), and ideological control as represented by the literary inquisition, causing social and technological stagnation.BOOK, zh:中国通史·明清史, 2010, 九州出版社, 104–112, 978-7-5108-0062-7, BOOK, zh:中华通史·第十卷, 1996, 花城出版社, 71, 978-7-5360-2320-8, In the mid-19th century, the dynasty experienced Western imperialism in the Opium Wars with Britain and France. China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the BritishAinslie Thomas Embree, Carol Gluck (1997). Asia in Western and World History: A Guide for Teaching. M.E. Sharpe. p.597. {{ISBN|1-56324-265-6}}. under the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, the first of the Unequal Treaties. The First Sino-Japanese War (1894–95) resulted in Qing China's loss of influence in the Korean Peninsula, as well as the cession of Taiwan to Japan.WEB,weblink Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), Encyclopædia Britannica, 12 November 2012, File:EightNationsCrime02.jpg|thumb|The Eight-Nation Alliance invaded China to defeat the anti-foreign Boxers and their Qing backers.]]The Qing dynasty also began experiencing internal unrest in which tens of millions of people died, especially in the White Lotus Rebellion, the failed Taiping Rebellion that ravaged southern China in the 1850s and 1860s and the Dungan Revolt (1862–77) in the northwest. The initial success of the Self-Strengthening Movement of the 1860s was frustrated by a series of military defeats in the 1880s and 1890s.In the 19th century, the great Chinese diaspora began. Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79, in which between 9 and 13 million people died."Dimensions of need – People and populations at risk". 1995. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Retrieved 3 July 2013. The Guangxu Emperor drafted a reform plan in 1898 to establish a modern constitutional monarchy, but these plans were thwarted by the Empress Dowager Cixi. The ill-fated anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901 further weakened the dynasty. Although Cixi sponsored a program of reforms, the Xinhai Revolution of 1911–12 brought an end to the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China.

Republic of China (1912–1949)

(File:Republic of China proclaimtion.png|250px|thumb|Sun Yat-sen proclaiming the establishment of the ROC in 1912)On 1 January 1912, the Republic of China was established, and Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang (the KMT or Nationalist Party) was proclaimed provisional president.Eileen Tamura (1997). China: Understanding Its Past. Volume 1. University of Hawaii Press. {{ISBN|0-8248-1923-3}}. p.146. However, the presidency was later given to Yuan Shikai, a former Qing general who in 1915 proclaimed himself Emperor of China. In the face of popular condemnation and opposition from his own Beiyang Army, he was forced to abdicate and re-establish the republic.Stephen Haw, (2006). Beijing: A Concise History. Taylor & Francis, {{ISBN|0-415-39906-8}}. p.143.(File:Chinese republic forever.jpg|thumb|left|alt=A drawing depicting two lions looking up in front of two flags. The flag on the left is red and blue with a white sun; while the one on the right is made of five vertical stripes (black, white, blue, yellow and red). Two circular pictures of two Chinese men stand in front of each flag.|Yuan Shikai (left) and Sun Yat-sen (right) with flags representing the early republic.)After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, China was politically fragmented. Its Beijing-based government was internationally recognized but virtually powerless; regional warlords controlled most of its territory.Bruce Elleman (2001). Modern Chinese Warfare. Routledge. {{ISBN|0-415-21474-2}}. p.149.Graham Hutchings (2003). Modern China: A Guide to a Century of Change. Harvard University Press. {{ISBN|0-674-01240-2}}. p.459. In the late 1920s, the Kuomintang, under Chiang Kai-shek, the then Principal of the Republic of China Military Academy, was able to reunify the country under its own control with a series of deft military and political maneuverings, known collectively as the Northern Expedition.Peter Zarrow (2005). China in War and Revolution, 1895–1949. Routledge. {{ISBN|0-415-36447-7}}. p.230.M. Leutner (2002). The Chinese Revolution in the 1920s: Between Triumph and Disaster. Routledge. {{ISBN|0-7007-1690-4}}. p.129. The Kuomintang moved the nation's capital to Nanjing and implemented "political tutelage", an intermediate stage of political development outlined in Sun Yat-sen's San-min program for transforming China into a modern democratic state.Hung-Mao Tien (1972). Government and Politics in Kuomintang China, 1927–1937 (Volume 53). Stanford University Press. {{ISBN|0-8047-0812-6}}. pp. 60–72.Suisheng Zhao (2000). China and Democracy: Reconsidering the Prospects for a Democratic China. Routledge. {{ISBN|0-415-92694-7}}. p.43. The political division in China made it difficult for Chiang to battle the Communist, People's Liberation Army (PLA) against whom the Kuomintang had been warring since 1927 in the Chinese Civil War. This war continued successfully for the Kuomintang, especially after the PLA retreated in the Long March, until Japanese aggression and the 1936 Xi'an Incident forced Chiang to confront Imperial Japan.David Ernest Apter, Tony Saich (1994). Revolutionary Discourse in Mao's Republic. Harvard University Press. {{ISBN|0-674-76780-2}}. p.198.File:1945 Mao and Chiang.jpg|thumb|Chiang Kai-shek and Mao ZedongMao ZedongThe Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), a theater of World War II, forced an uneasy alliance between the Kuomintang and the PLA. Japanese forces committed numerous war atrocities against the civilian population; in all, as many as 20 million Chinese civilians died."Nuclear Power: The End of the War Against Japan". BBC â€” History. Retrieved 14 July 2013. An estimated 200,000 Chinese were massacred in the city of Nanjing alone during the Japanese occupation."Judgement: International Military Tribunal for the Far East". Chapter VIII: Conventional War Crimes (Atrocities). November 1948. Retrieved 4 February 2013. During the war, China, along with the UK, the US and the Soviet Union, were referred to as "trusteeship of the powerful"BOOK, Doenecke, Justus D., Stoler, Mark A., Debating Franklin D. Roosevelt's Foreign Policies, 1933–1945,weblink 2005, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-8476-9416-7, and were recognized as the Allied "Big Four" in the Declaration by United Nations.BOOK, Yearbook of the United Nations 1946–1947, 1947, United Nations, Lake Success, NY, 243471225, 3,weblink 25 April 2015, The Moscow Declaration on general security, WEB,weblink Declaration by United Nations, United Nations, 20 June 2015, Along with the other three great powers, China was one of the four major Allies of World War II, and was later considered one of the primary victors in the war.Hoopes, Townsend, and Douglas Brinkley. FDR and the Creation of the U.N. (Yale University Press, 1997)BOOK, John Lewis, Gaddis, The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941–1947, 1972, Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-12239-9, 24–25, harv, After the surrender of Japan in 1945, Taiwan, including the Pescadores, was returned to Chinese control. China emerged victorious but war-ravaged and financially drained. The continued distrust between the Kuomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil war. Constitutional rule was established in 1947, but because of the ongoing unrest, many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented in mainland China.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Constitutional Reform and the Future of the Republic of China, 1991, M.E. Sharpe, 3,weblink Hung-mao, Tien, Harvey, Feldman, Constitutional Reform and the Future of the Republic of China, 9780873328807,

People's Republic of China (1949–present)

File:Mao proclaiming the establishment of the PRC in 1949.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Mao ZedongMao ZedongMajor combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949 with the Communist Party in control of most of mainland China, and the Kuomintang retreating offshore, reducing the ROC's territory to only Taiwan, Hainan, and their surrounding islands. On 21 September 1949, Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China.WEB,weblink The Chinese people have stood up, UCLA Center for East Asian Studies, 16 April 2006,weblink" title="">weblink 18 February 2009, This was followed by a mass celebration in Tiananmen Square on 1 October, which became the new country's first National Day. In 1950, the People's Liberation Army succeeded in capturing Hainan from the ROCNEWS,weblink Red Capture of Hainan Island, The Tuscaloosa News, Google News Archive, 9 May 1950, 20 July 2013, and incorporating Tibet.WEB,weblink The Tibetans, University of Southern California, 20 July 2013, PDF, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 16 October 2013, However, remaining Kuomintang forces continued to wage an insurgency in western China throughout the 1950s.BOOK,weblink The Sino-American alliance: Nationalist China and American Cold War strategy in Asia, John W. Garver, 1997, M.E. Sharpe, 978-0-7656-0025-7, 169, 20 July 2013, In modern US history studies, the founding of PRC China is often termed as "the loss of China" as reflected in US state policy documents of the time, which thinkers such as Noam Chomsky call the beginning of McCarthyism.WEB, Noam Chomsky on the so called rise of China – Interview on 6 April 2017,weblink The regime consolidated its popularity among the peasants through land reform, which resulted in the execution of between 1 and 2 million landlords.Busky, Donald F. (2002). Communism in History and Theory. Greenwood Publishing Group. p.11. China developed an independent industrial system and its own nuclear weapons.WEB, A Country Study: China,weblink, 3 October 2017, The Chinese population almost doubled from around 550 million to over 900 million.BOOK, Madelyn Holmes,weblink Students and teachers of the new China: thirteen interviews, McFarland, 7 November 2011, 2008, 185, 978-0-7864-3288-2, However, the Great Leap Forward, a large-scale economic and social reform project, resulted in an estimated 45 million deaths between 1958 and 1961, mostly from starvation.NEWS,weblink Mao's Great Leap Forward 'killed 45 million in four years', 30 October 2010, The Independent, London, Arifa, Akbar, 17 September 2010, In 1966, Mao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution, sparking a decade of political recrimination and social upheaval which lasted until Mao's death in 1976. In October 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China in the United Nations, and took its seat as a permanent member of the Security Council.Michael Y.M. Kao. "Taiwan's and Beijing's Campaigns for Unification" in Harvey Feldman and Michael Y. M. Kao (eds., 1988): Taiwan in a Time of Transition. New York: Paragon House. p.188.After Mao's death, the Gang of Four was quickly arrested and held responsible for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution. Deng Xiaoping took power in 1978, and instituted significant economic reforms. The Communist Party loosened governmental control over citizens' personal lives, and the communes were gradually disbanded in favor of working contracted to households. This marked China's transition from a planned economy to a mixed economy with an increasingly open-market environment.Hart-Landsberg, Martin; and Burkett, Paul. "China and Socialism: Market Reforms and Class Struggle". Monthly Review. Retrieved 30 October 2008. China adopted its current constitution on 4 December 1982. In 1989, the violent suppression of student protests in Tiananmen Square brought sanctions against the Chinese government from various countries.WEB, The Impact of Tiananmen on China's Foreign Policy,weblink The National Bureau of Asian Research, 28 November 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 4 April 2014, Jiang Zemin, Li Peng and Zhu Rongji led the nation in the 1990s. Under their administration, China's economic performance pulled an estimated 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2%.Nation bucks trend of global poverty {{webarchive|url= |date=14 August 2011 }}. China Daily. 11 July 2003. Retrieved 10 July 2013.China's Average Economic Growth in 90s Ranked 1st in World. People's Daily. 1 March 2000. Retrieved 10 July 2013. The country formally joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, and maintained its high rate of economic growth under Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao's leadership in the 2000s. However, rapid growth also severely impacted the country's resources and environment,NEWS,weblink China's Environmental Crisis, The New York Times, 26 August 2007, 16 May 2012, China worried over pace of growth. BBC. Retrieved 16 April 2006. and caused major social displacement.China: Migrants, Students, Taiwan. Migration News. January 2006.In Face of Rural Unrest, China Rolls Out Reforms. Washington Post. 28 January 2006. Living standards continued to improve rapidly despite the late-2000s recession, but centralized political control remained tight.WEB,weblink Frontline: The Tank Man transcriptdate=11 April 2006 publisher=PBS, Preparations for a decadal Communist Party leadership change in 2012 were marked by factional disputes and political scandals.NEWS,weblink Bo Xilai scandal: Timeline, BBC, 5 September 2012, 11 September 2012, During China's 18th National Communist Party Congress in November 2012, Hu Jintao was replaced as General Secretary of the Communist Party by Xi Jinping.NEWS,weblink Xi Jinping crowned new leader of China Communist Party, The Daily Telegraph, 15 November 2012, 15 November 2012, London, Malcolm, Moore, WEB,, yes, 15 May 2016, New China leadership tipped to be all male,, 6 November 2012, Under Xi, the Chinese government began large-scale efforts to reform its economy,NEWS,, China frees up bank lending rates, BBC, 19 July 2013, 19 July 2013, NEWS,weblink China eyes fresh stimulus as economy stalls, sets 7pc growth floor, Daily Telegraph, 23 July 2013, 25 July 2013, London, Ambrose, Evans-Pritchard, which has suffered from structural instabilities and slowing growth.WEB,weblink The decade of Xi Jinping, Financial Times, 25 November 2012, 27 November 2012, NEWS,weblink China sees both industrial output and retail sales rise, BBC, 9 December 2012, 9 December 2012, NEWS,weblink China's exports and imports decline, BBC, 10 July 2013, 10 July 2013, NEWS,weblink China orders government debt audit, BBC, 29 July 2013, 29 July 2013, WEB, Chinese Imports: What’s Behind the Slowdown?,weblink International Monetary Fund, 28 May 2018, The Xi–Li Administration also announced major reforms to the one-child policy and prison system.


File:China Köppen.svg|thumb|Köppen climate typesKöppen climate typesChina's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in the arid north to subtropical forests in the wetter south. The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixth-longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is {{convert|14500|km|mi|sp=us}} long and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China and South China seas. China connects through the Kazakh border to the Eurasian Steppe which has been an artery of communication between East and West since the Neolithic through the Steppe route – the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Road(s).

Landscape and climate

{{Multiple image|direction=vertical
| image1 = 1 li jiang guilin yangshuo 2011.jpg
| caption1 = Li River near Guilin, Guangxi
| image2 = Biluthu Yinderitu.JPG
| caption2 = Yinderitu Lake in the Badain Jaran Desert in Inner Mongolia
| image3 =Muztagh Ata Xinjiang China.jpg
| caption3=Muztagh Ata of Kunlun Mountains in Taxkorgan, Xinjiang
}}The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and longitudes 73° and 135° E. China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast width. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate. Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west sit major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas. High plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert. The world's highest point, Mount Everest (8,848m), lies on the Sino-Nepalese border.NEWS, Nepal and China agree on Mount Everest's height,weblink BBC News, 8 April 2010, The country's lowest point, and the world's third-lowest, is the dried lake bed of Ayding Lake (−154m) in the Turpan Depression.WEB, Lowest Places on Earth,weblink National Park Service, 2 December 2013, China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer. In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist.BOOK, Regional Climate Studies of China, 2008, Springer, 1,weblink 9783540792420, The climate in China differs from region to region because of the country's highly complex topography.A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts, particularly the Gobi Desert.NEWS, Fighting Desertification,weblink Forbes, 7 March 2011, Terry, Waghorn, "Beijing hit by eighth sandstorm". BBC news. Retrieved 17 April 2006. Although barrier tree lines planted since the 1970s have reduced the frequency of sandstorms, prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices have resulted in dust storms plaguing northern China each spring, which then spread to other parts of east Asia, including Korea and Japan. China's environmental watchdog, SEPA, stated in 2007 that China is losing {{convert|4000|km2|abbr=on}} per year to desertification.JOURNAL, Coonan, Cliff,weblink The gathering sandstorm: Encroaching desert, missing water, The Independent, 9 November 2007, 23 July 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 24 April 2008, Water quality, erosion, and pollution control have become important issues in China's relations with other countries. Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people.NEWS,weblink Himalaya glaciers melting much faster, MSNBC, 24 November 2008, 21 September 2011, {{-}}


File:Giant Panda Eating.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|A giant panda, China's most famous endangered and endemic species, at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding in alt=|leftChina is one of 17 megadiverse countries,WEB,weblink Biodiversity Theme Report,, 10 December 2009, 27 April 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 11 August 2011, lying in two of the world's major ecozones: the Palearctic and the Indomalaya. By one measure, China has over 34,687 species of animals and vascular plants, making it the third-most biodiverse country in the world, after Brazil and Colombia.Countries with the Highest Biological Diversity {{webarchive|url= |date=26 March 2013 }}. 2004 data. Retrieved 24 April 2013. The country signed the Rio de Janeiro Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 5 January 1993.WEB,weblink List of Parties, 9 December 2012, It later produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, with one revision that was received by the convention on 21 September 2010.WEB,weblink [English translation: China Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan. Years 2011–2030], 9 December 2012, China is home to at least 551 species of mammals (the third-highest such number in the world),IUCN Initiatives – Mammals – Analysis of Data – Geographic Patterns 2012 {{webarchive|url= |date=12 May 2013 }}. IUCN. Retrieved 24 April 2013. Data does not include species in Taiwan. 1,221 species of birds (eighth),Countries with the most bird species {{webarchive|url= |date=16 February 2013 }}. 2004 data. Retrieved 24 April 2013. 424 species of reptiles (seventh)Countries with the most reptile species. 2004 data. Retrieved 24 April 2013. and 333 species of amphibians (seventh).IUCN Initiatives – Amphibians – Analysis of Data – Geographic Patterns 2012 {{webarchive|url= |date=12 May 2013 }}. IUCN. Retrieved 24 April 2013. Data does not include species in Taiwan. Wildlife in China share habitat with and bear acute pressure from the world's largest population of Homo sapiens. At least 840 animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local extinction in China, due mainly to human activity such as habitat destruction, pollution and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional Chinese medicine.Top 20 countries with most endangered species IUCN Red List {{webarchive|url= |date=24 April 2013 }}. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2013. Endangered wildlife is protected by law, and {{As of|2005|lc=y}}, the country has over 2,349 nature reserves, covering a total area of 149.95 million hectares, 15 percent of China's total land area.WEB, Nature Reserves,weblink, 2 December 2013, The Baiji has recently been confirmed extinct.China has over 32,000 species of vascular plants,Countries with the most vascular plant species {{webarchive|url= |date=12 January 2014 }}. 2004 data. Retrieved 24 April 2013. and is home to a variety of forest types. Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country, supporting animal species such as moose and Asian black bear, along with over 120 bird species. The understorey of moist conifer forests may contain thickets of bamboo. In higher montane stands of juniper and yew, the bamboo is replaced by rhododendrons. Subtropical forests, which are predominate in central and southern China, support as many as 146,000 species of flora. Tropical and seasonal rainforests, though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island, contain a quarter of all the animal and plant species found in China.BOOK, China, 2003, Rough Guides, 1213,weblink 3, 9781843530190, China has over 10,000 recorded species of fungi,BOOK, Conservation Biology: Voices from the Tropics, 2013, John Wiley & Sons, 208,weblink 9781118679814, and of them, nearly 6,000 are higher fungi.JOURNAL, Liu, Ji-Kai, Secondary metabolites from higher fungi in China and their biological activity, Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics, 2007, 1, 2, 94,weblink yes,weblink" title="">weblink 7 December 2013,

Environmental issues

{{See also|Water resources of China|Energy policy of China}}File:Wind power plants in Xinjiang, China.jpg|thumb|Wind turbines in XinjiangXinjiangFile:Chang'an avenue in Beijing.jpg|thumb|The traffic in BeijingBeijingIn recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution.BOOK, Ma, Xiaoying, Ortalano, Leonard, Environmental Regulation in China, 2000, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers,weblink 1, 978-0-8476-9399-3, NEWS,weblink China acknowledges 'cancer villages', BBC, 22 February 2013, 23 February 2013, While regulations such as the 1979 Environmental Protection Law are fairly stringent, they are poorly enforced, as they are frequently disregarded by local communities and government officials in favor of rapid economic development.NEWS,weblink Riot police and protesters clash over China chemical plant, BBC, 28 October 2012, Urban air pollution is a severe health issue in the country; the World Bank estimated in 2013 that 16 of the world's 20 most-polluted cities are located in China.NEWS, Beijing Orders Official Cars Off Roads to Curb Pollution,weblink 27 July 2013, Bloomberg L.P., 14 January 2013, And China is the country with the highest death toll because of air pollution. There are 1.14 million deaths caused by exposure to ambient air pollution.WEB,weblink WHO {{!, Ambient air pollution: A global assessment of exposure and burden of disease|website=WHO|access-date=2018-04-28}} China is the world's largest carbon dioxide emitter.NEWS, Global carbon emissions hit record high in 2012,weblink 3 November 2013, Reuters, 10 June 2013, The country also has significant water pollution problems: 40% of China's rivers had been polluted by industrial and agricultural waste by late 2011."China's decade plan for water" {{webarchive|url= |date=30 October 2011 }}. The Earth Institute. Columbia University. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2011. In 2014, the internal freshwater resources per capita of China reduced to 2,062m3, and it was below 500m3 in the North China Plain, while 5,920m3 in the world.WEB,weblink Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita (cubic meters), 29 August 2016, The World Bank, NEWS,weblink China works to ease water woes, BBC, 11 June 2013, 11 June 2013, NEWS,weblink 300 million Chinese drinking unsafe water, 23 December 2004, People's Daily, 27 March 2009, In China, heavy metals also cause environmental pollution. Heavy metal pollution is an inorganic chemical hazard, which is mainly caused by lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni). Five metals among them, Pb, Cr, As, Cd, and Hg, are the key heavy metal pollutants in China. Heavy metal pollutants mainly come from mining, sewage irrigation, the manufacturing of metal-containing products, and other related production activities. High level of heavy metal exposure can also cause permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities, including reading and learning disabilities, behavioral problems, hearing loss, attention problems, and disruption in the development of visual and motor function. According to the data of a national census of pollution, China has more than 1.5 million sites of heavy metals exposure. The total volume of discharged heavy metals in the waste water, waste gas and solid wastes are around 900,000 tons each year from 2005–2011.Hu, Hui, Qian Jin, and Philip Kavan. "A study of heavy metal pollution in China: Current status, pollution-control policies and countermeasures." Sustainability 6.9 (2014): 5820–5838.However, China is the world's leading investor in renewable energy and its commercialization, with $52 billion invested in 2011 alone;NEWS, Lisa, Friedman,weblink China Leads Major Countries With $34.6 Billion Invested in Clean Technology, The New York Times
, 25 March 2010, 27 April 2010, NEWS, Black, Richard,weblink China steams ahead on clean energy, BBC News, 26 March 2010, 27 April 2010, NEWS,weblink China Leads The World In Renewable Energy Investment, Forbes, 27 July 2012, 5 December 2012, Jack, Perkowski, it is a major manufacturer of renewable energy technologies and invests heavily in local-scale renewable energy projects.NEWS, Bradsher, Keith, 30 January 2010,weblink China leads global race to make clean energy, New York Times, "China's big push for renewable energy". Scientific American. 4 August 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2011.WEB, China to plow $361 billion into renewable fuel by 2020,weblink Reuters, 28 May 2018, By 2015, over 24% of China's energy was derived from renewable sources, while most notably from hydroelectric power: a total installed capacity of 197 GW makes China the largest hydroelectric power producer in the world."China tops the world in clean energy production." Ecosensorium. 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2011.WEB,weblink 2015 Key World Energy Statistics, 1 June 2016, report, PDF, International Energy Agency (IEA), China also has the largest power capacity of installed solar photovoltaics system and wind power system in the world.2016 Snapshot of Global Photovoltaic Markets, p.7, International Energy Agency, 2017WEB, AWEA 2016 Fourth Quarter Market Report,weblink AWEA, American Wind Energy Association, 9 February 2017,
In 2011, the Chinese government announced plans to invest four trillion yuan (US$619 billion) in water infrastructure and desalination projects over a ten-year period, and to complete construction of a flood prevention and anti-drought system by 2020."Splashing out: China to spend 4 trillion yuan on water projects" {{webarchive|url= |date=5 November 2015 }}. Want China Times. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011. In 2013, China began a five-year, US$277 billion effort to reduce air pollution, particularly in the north of the country.WEB, China to spend big to clean up its air,weblink Grist Magazine, 27 July 2013, John, Upton, 25 July 2013,

Political geography

(File:ROC Administrative and Claims.svg|upright=1.4|thumb|Map showing the ROC and PRC claims.|alt=|left)The People's Republic of China is the second-largest country in the world by land areaBOOK, Amitendu, Palit, China-India Economics: Challenges, Competition and Collaboration, 2012, Routledge, 4,weblink 9781136621628, after Russia, and is either the third- or fourth-largest by total area, after Russia, Canada and, depending on the definition of total area, the United States.{{efn|According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the total area of the United States, at {{convert|9522055|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|sp=us}}, is slightly smaller than that of China. Meanwhile, the CIA World Factbook states that China's total area was greater than that of the United States until the coastal waters of the Great Lakes was added to the United States' total area in 1996. From 1989 through 1996, the total area of US was listed as {{convert|9372610|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|sp=us}} (land area plus inland water only). The listed total area changed to {{convert|9629091|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|sp=us}} in 1997 (with the Great Lakes areas and the coastal waters added), to {{convert|9631418|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|sp=us}} in 2004, to {{convert|9631420|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|sp=us}} in 2006, and to {{convert|9826630|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|sp=us}} in 2007 (territorial waters added).}} China's total area is generally stated as being approximately {{convert|9600000|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|sp=us}}.WEB,weblink Geography –,, 31 May 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 13 September 2015, Specific area figures range from {{convert|9572900|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|sp=us}} according to the Encyclopædia Britannica,WEB,weblink United States, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 March 2008, {{convert|9596961|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|sp=us}} according to the UN Demographic Yearbook, to {{convert|9596961|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|sp=us}} according to the CIA World Factbook.WEB,weblink CIA – The World Factbook,, 23 November 2013, China has the longest combined land border in the world, measuring {{convert|22117|km|mi|abbr=on|sp=us}} from the mouth of the Yalu River to the Gulf of Tonkin. China borders 14 nations, more than any other country except Russia, which also borders 14.WEB, Which country borders the most other countries?,weblink, 5 December 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 19 October 2013, China extends across much of East Asia, bordering Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar (Burma) in Southeast Asia; India, Bhutan, Nepal, Afghanistan, and Pakistan{{efn|China's border with Pakistan and part of its border with India falls in the disputed region of Kashmir. The area under Pakistani administration is claimed by India, while the area under Indian administration is claimed by Pakistan.}} in South Asia; Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in Central Asia; and Russia, Mongolia, and North Korea in Inner Asia and Northeast Asia. Additionally, China shares maritime boundaries with South Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and the Philippines.


{{See also|List of current Chinese provincial leaders}}{{multiple image
| align =right
| direction = vertical
| caption_align = center
| image1 = China Senate House.jpg
| caption1 = The Great Hall of the Peoplewhere the National People's Congress convenes
| image2 = Zhongnanhai06.jpg
| caption2 = The Zhongnanhai, home and workplace of the PRC President
}}China's constitution states that The People's Republic of China "is a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants," and that the state organs "apply the principle of democratic centralism."Chapter 1, Articles !, 3 Constitution of the People's Republic of China The PRC is one of the world's only socialist states openly endorsing communism (see Ideology of the Communist Party of China). The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian and corporatist,JOURNAL, China, Corporatism, and the East Asian Model, Jonathan, Unger, Anita, Chan, The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, 33, 33, January 1995, 29–53, 10.2307/2950087, 2950087, with heavy restrictions in many areas, most notably against free access to the Internet, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, the right to have children, free formation of social organizations and freedom of religion.WEB,weblink Freedom in the World 2011: China, Freedom House, 2011, 19 June 2013, Its current political, ideological and economic system has been termed by its leaders as the "people's democratic dictatorship", "socialism with Chinese characteristics" (which is Marxism adapted to Chinese circumstances) and the "socialist market economy" respectively.NEWS, Xi reiterates adherence to socialism with Chinese characteristics,weblink Xinhua, 5 January 2013,

Communist Party

File:HammerSickle Tiananmen.jpg|thumb|Sign in alt=China's constitution declares that the country is ruled "under the leadership" of the Communist Party of China (CPC).WEB,weblink Constitution of the People's Republic of Chinaaccessdate=14 July 2009, As China is a de facto one-party state, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (party leader) holds ultimate power and authority over state and government serving as the Paramount leader (China)>paramount leader.CHINA’S ‘CHAIRMAN OF EVERYTHING’: BEHIND XI JINPING’S MANY TITLES>URL=HTTPS://WWW.NYTIMES.COM/2017/10/25/WORLD/ASIA/CHINA-XI-JINPING-TITLES-CHAIRMAN.HTMLDATE=25 OCTOBER 2016elections in the People's Republic of China>electoral system is pyramidal. Local People's Congresses are direct election, and higher levels of People's Congresses up to the National People's Congress (NPC) are indirect election>indirectly elected by the People's Congress of the level immediately below.Article 97 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China The political system is decentralized, and provincial and sub-provincial leaders have a significant amount of autonomy.HTTP://WWW.CFR.ORG/PUBLICATION/14482/COMMUNIST_PARTY_OF_CHINA.HTML >TITLE=CFR.ORG ACCESSDATE=27 APRIL 2010 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100511033229/HTTP://WWW.CFR.ORG/PUBLICATION/14482/COMMUNIST_PARTY_OF_CHINA.HTML DF=DMY-ALL, List of political parties in China, have representatives in the NPC and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).DEMOCRATIC PARTIESWORK=PEOPLE'S DAILYdemocratic centralism",Constitution of the People's Republic of China. (1982) but critics describe the elected National People's Congress as a "rubber stamp (politics)>rubber stamp" body.HTTP://NEWS.BBC.CO.UK/2/SHARED/SPL/HI/IN_DEPTH/CHINA_POLITICS/GOVERNMENT/HTML/7.STM >TITLE=BBC, COUNTRY REPORT: CHINA ACCESSDATE=14 JULY 2009,


{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:left; float:right; margin-right:9px; margin-left:2px;" (File:Xi Jinping in 2016.jpg|115px) (File:Li Keqiang (cropped).jpg|100px)Xi JinpingGeneral Secretary of the Communist Party of Chinaand President of the People's Republic of China>PresidentLi KeqiangPremierThe President is the titular head of state, elected by the National People's Congress. The Premier is the head of government, presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions. The incumbent president is Xi Jinping, who is also the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, making him China's paramount leader. The incumbent premier is Li Keqiang, who is also a senior member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body.NEWS, Susan, Shirk, China's Next Leaders: A Guide to What's at Stake,weblink 31 May 2015, China File, 13 November 2012, There have been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels.WEB,weblink Beijingers Get Greater Poll Choiceswork=China Daily weblink" title="">Does China's Land-Tenure System Discourage Structural Adjustment?. 1 May 2006. USDA Economic Research Service. Retrieved 3 May 2006. However, the party retains effective control over government appointments: in the absence of meaningful opposition, the CPC wins by default most of the time. Political concerns in China include the growing gap between rich and poor and government corruption.weblink" title="">"China sounds alarm over fast-growing gap between rich and poor". Associated Press via Highbeam (subscription required to see full article). 11 May 2002. Retrieved 1 February 2013.Hasmath, R. (2012) "Red China's Iron Grip on Power: Communist Party Continues Repression {{webarchive>url= NEWSPAPER=BBC NEWS, 2 November 2012,

Administrative divisions

The People's Republic of China is divided into 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, each with a designated minority group; four municipalities; and two special administrative regions (SARs) which enjoy a degree of political autonomy. These 31 provincial-level divisions can be collectively referred to as "mainland China", a term which usually excludes two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau. Geographically, all 31 provincial divisions can be grouped into six regions, including North China, Northeast China, East China, South Central China, Southwest China and Northwest China.China considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province, although Taiwan is governed by the Republic of China, which rejects the PRC's claim.Gwillim Law (2 April 2005). Provinces of China. Retrieved 15 April 2006. None of the divisions are recognized by the ROC government, which claims the entirety of the PRC's territory.{{PRC provinces big imagemap alt}}{{PRC provinces small imagemap/province list}}{{-}}

Foreign relations

File:Peng Liyuan, Xi Jingping, Donald Trump and Melania Trump at the entrance of Mar-a-Lago, April 2017.jpg|thumb|300px|Chinese President Xi Jinping met with U.S. President Donald TrumpDonald TrumpThe PRC has diplomatic relations with 175 countries and maintains embassies in 162. Its legitimacy is disputed by the Republic of China and a few other countries; it is thus the largest and most populous state with limited recognition. In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.Chang, Eddy (22 August 2004). Perseverance will pay off at the UN {{webarchive|url= |date=6 August 2007 }}, The Taipei Times. China was also a former member and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, and still considers itself an advocate for developing countries.NEWS,weblink China says communication with other developing countries at Copenhagen summit transparent, 21 December 2009, 20 August 2010, People's Daily, Along with Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa, China is a member of the BRICS group of emerging major economies and hosted the group's third official summit at Sanya, Hainan in April 2011."BRICS summit ends in China". BBC. 14 April 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.File:SCO (orthographic projection).svg|thumb|left|#346733|Members}} {{legend2|#000080|Observers}} {{legend2|#800080|Dialogue partners}} {{legend2|#00A0A0|Observer applicants}} {{legend2|#00FF00|Disputed territories}}Under its interpretation of the One-China policy, Beijing has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the government of the Republic of China. Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions when foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to Taiwan,NEWS
, Taiwan's Ma to stopover in US: report
, 12 January 2010
, yes
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 9 September 2015
, especially in the matter of armament sales.NEWS,weblink The Times, London, 1 February 2010, China says US arms sales to Taiwan could threaten wider relations, Macartney, Jane, (File:Diplomatic relations of the People's Republic of China.svg|thumb|left|Diplomatic Relations of China)Much of current Chinese foreign policy is reportedly based on Premier Zhou Enlai's Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and is also driven by the concept of "harmony without uniformity", which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences.BOOK, Keith, Ronald C., China from the inside out – fitting the People's republic into the world, PlutoPress, 135–136, This policy may have led China to support states that are regarded as dangerous or repressive by Western nations, such as Zimbabwe, North Korea and Iran.NEWS, An Authoritarian Axis Rising?,weblink The Diplomat, 29 June 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 16 December 2013, China has a close economic and military relationship with Russia,WEB,weblink China, Russia launch largest ever joint military exercise, Deutsche Welle, 5 July 2013, 5 July 2013, and the two states often vote in unison in the UN Security Council.NEWS,weblink Energy to dominate Russia President Putin's China visit, BBC, 5 June 2012, NEWS,weblink Friction at the U.N. as Russia and China Veto Another Resolution on Syria Sanctions, The New York Times, 19 July 2012, 15 November 2012, Rick, Gladstone, NEWS,weblink Xi Jinping: Russia-China ties 'guarantee world peace', BBC, 23 March 2013, 23 March 2013,

Trade relations

In recent decades, China has played an increasing role in calling for free trade areas and security pacts amongst its Asia-Pacific neighbours. China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 11 December 2001. In 2004, it proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit (EAS) framework as a forum for regional security issues.Dillon, Dana; and Tkacik, John, Jr.; weblink" title="">China's Quest for Asia. Policy Review. December 2005 and January 2006. Issue No. 134. Retrieved 22 April 2006. The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three, India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inaugural summit in 2005. China is also a founding member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), along with Russia and the Central Asian republics.In 2000, the United States Congress approved "permanent normal trade relations" (PNTR) with China, allowing Chinese exports in at the same low tariffs as goods from most other countries.NEWS, Clinton signs China trade bill,weblink CNN,weblink" title="">weblink 5 May 2009, 10 October 2000, China has a significant trade surplus with the United States, its most important export market."US trade gap widens on increased Chinese imports". BBC News. 14 October 2010. In the early 2010s, US politicians argued that the Chinese yuan was significantly undervalued, giving China an unfair trade advantage."Chinese President Hu Jintao resists Obama calls on yuan". BBC News. 13 April 2010.NEWS,weblink Obama should call China a currency manipulator: Romney aide, Reuters, 24 September 2012, 6 October 2012, Doug, Palmer, NEWS,weblink US says China not a currency manipulator, BBC, 27 November 2012, 28 November 2012, In recent decades, China has followed a policy of engaging with African nations for trade and bilateral co-operation;McLaughlin, Abraham; "A rising China counters US clout in Africa" {{webarchive|url= |date=16 August 2007 }}. Christian Science Monitor. 30 March 2005.Lyman, Princeton N.; "China's Rising Role in Africa" {{webarchive|url= |date=15 July 2007 }}. 21 July 2005. Council of Foreign Relations. Retrieved 26 June 2007.Politzer, Malia. "China and Africa: Stronger Economic Ties Mean More Migration". Migration Information Source. August 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2013. in 2012, Sino-African trade totalled over US$160 billion.WEB,weblink China-Africa trade likely to hit record high, China Daily, 28 December 2012, 29 January 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 31 December 2012, China has furthermore strengthened its ties with major South American economies, becoming the largest trading partner of Brazil and building strategic links with Argentina."Is Brazil a derivative of China?". 24 August 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011."China, Argentina agree to further strategic ties". 9 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.China has the second biggest economy in the world. According to Bloomberg News, China is planning to reduce the average tariff rate on imports from its trading partners by October 2018. In July 2018, China had also cut import tariffs on approximately 1,500 consumer products so as to open up the economy of the country.WEB,weblink China plans import tariff cuts as soon as October: Bloomberg, Reuters, 20 September 2018, In September 2018, the US announced that it would increase tariffs on US$250 billion of goods from China, from 10% to 25%, leading China to also increase tariffs on US$110 billion of products from the US.WEB,weblink Trump hails trade deal with China as one of the largest ever made December 2, 2018, CNBC, December 2, 2018, In early December, however, there was a temporary reprieve in the 2018 China–United States trade war. During a dinner at the 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit, Donald Trump and Xi Jinping agreed to delay increases in tariffs for 90 days to allow time for negotiations of their trade disputes. "If at the end of that period, the parties are unable to reach an agreement, the 10 percent tariffs will be raised to 25 percent," according to a White House statement.NEWS,weblink Trump says China agreed to reduce tariffs on US car imports, BBC, December 3, 2018, Sarah Huckabee Sanders told the news media that China had agreed to purchase "a very substantial" amount of soy beans and other agricultural, energy, industrial, and other products from the US. A Chinese spokesman provided fewer specifics but said that the "two heads of state reached consensus to halt the mutual increase of new tariffs" and that the country would increase its purchases from the US to "gradually ease the imbalance in two-way trade".NEWS,weblink Donald Trump and Xi Jinping declare trade truce at G20, The Guardian, December 2, 2018,

Territorial disputes

{{See also|List of wars involving the People's Republic of China|Cross-Strait relations}}(File:China administrative.png|thumb|upright=0.9|Map depicting territorial disputes between the PRC and neighbouring states. For a larger map, .)Ever since its establishment after the second Chinese Civil War, the PRC has claimed the territories governed by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entity today commonly known as Taiwan, as a part of its territory. It regards the island of Taiwan as its Taiwan Province, Kinmen and Matsu as a part of Fujian Province and islands the ROC controls in the South China Sea as a part of Hainan Province and Guangdong Province. These claims are controversial because of the complicated Cross-Strait relations, with the PRC treating the One-China policy as one of its most important diplomatic principles.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 12 September 2013, Chinese Civil War,, To this day, since no armistice or peace treaty has ever been signed, there is controversy as to whether the Civil War has legally ended., 16 June 2013, In addition to Taiwan, China is also involved in other international territorial disputes. Since the 1990s, China has been involved in negotiations to resolve its disputed land borders, including a disputed border with India and an undefined border with Bhutan. China is additionally involved in multilateral disputes over the ownership of several small islands in the East and South China Seas, such as the Senkaku Islands and the Scarborough Shoal."China denies preparing war over South China Sea shoal". BBC. 12 May 2012.NEWS, Q&A: China-Japan islands row,weblink BBC News, 27 November 2013, On 21 May 2014 Xi Jinping, speaking at a conference in Shanghai, pledged to settle China's territorial disputes peacefully. "China stays committed to seeking peaceful settlement of disputes with other countries over territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests", he said.NEWS, Asian nations should avoid military ties with third party powers, says China's Xi,weblink 21 May 2014, China National News,

Emerging superpower status

China is regularly hailed as a potential new superpower, with certain commentators citing its rapid economic progress, growing military might, very large population, and increasing international influence as signs that it will play a prominent global role in the 21st century.NEWS,weblink China: witnessing the birth of a superpower, The Guardian, 18 June 2012, 6 March 2013, London, Jonathan, Watts, Others, however, warn that economic bubbles and demographic imbalances could slow or even halt China's growth as the century progresses.WEB
, China's utterly distorted economy is a train wreck waiting to happen
, World Tribune
, Sanders
, Sol
, 29 June 2007
, 27 March 2009
, yes
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 10 August 2009
, WEB,weblink Broken BRICs: Why the Rest Stopped Rising, Foreign Affairs, November 2012, 19 December 2012, Some authors also question the definition of "superpower", arguing that China's large economy alone would not qualify it as a superpower, and noting that it lacks the military power and cultural influence of the United States.Grinin, Leonid. "Chinese Joker in the World Pack" {{webarchive|url= |date=15 January 2013 }}. Journal of Globalization Studies. Volume 2, Number 2. November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2012.

Sociopolitical issues, human rights and reform

{{see also|Human rights in China|Hukou system|Social welfare in China|Elections in China|Censorship in China|Feminism in China}}File:港人燭光遊行至中聯辦悼念劉曉波 12.jpg|thumb|210px|March in memory of Chinese Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu XiaoboLiu XiaoboThe Chinese democracy movement, social activists, and some members of the Communist Party of China have all identified the need for social and political reform. While economic and social controls have been significantly relaxed in China since the 1970s, political freedom is still tightly restricted. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China states that the "fundamental rights" of citizens include freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the right to a fair trial, freedom of religion, universal suffrage, and property rights. However, in practice, these provisions do not afford significant protection against criminal prosecution by the state.BOOK, Guy, Sorman, 2008, Empire of Lies: The Truth About China in the Twenty-First Century, 46, 152,weblink 978-1-59403-284-4, WEB,weblink World Report 2009: China, Human Rights Watch, 14 July 2009, Although some criticisms of government policies and the ruling Communist Party are tolerated, censorship of political speech and information, most notably on the Internet,"China Requires Internet Users to Register Names". AP via My Way News. 28 December 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012.NEWS,, China Toughens Its Restrictions on Use of the Internet, New York Times, 28 December 2012, Keith, Bradsher, are routinely used to prevent collective action.JOURNAL, King, Gary, Pan, Jennifer, Roberts, Margaret E.,weblink How Censorship in China Allows Government Criticism but Silences Collective Expression, American Political Science Review, May 2013, 10.1017/S0003055413000014, 6 March 2015, Our central theoretical finding is that, contrary to much research and commentary, the purpose of the censorship program is not to suppress criticism of the state or the Communist Party., 107, 2, 326–343, In 2005, Reporters Without Borders ranked China 159th out of 167 states in its Annual World Press Freedom Index, indicating a very low level of press freedom.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 19 April 2008, Annual Worldwide Press Freedom Index – 2005, Reporters Without Borders, 30 April 2009, 14 July 2009, In 2014, China ranked 175th out of 180 countries.WEB,weblink World Press Freedom Index 2014, Reporters Without Borders, 10 March 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 14 February 2014, Rural migrants to China's cities often find themselves treated as second class citizens by the hukou household registration system, which controls access to state benefits.NEWS, Wingfield, Rupert,weblink China's rural millions left behind, BBC, 7 March 2006, 14 July 2009, NEWS, Luard, Tim,weblink China rethinks peasant apartheid, BBC, 10 November 2005, 14 July 2009, Property rights are often poorly protected, and taxation disproportionately affects poorer citizens. However, a number of rural taxes have been reduced or abolished since the early 2000s, and additional social services provided to rural dwellers.NEWS,weblink China to Abolish Contentious Agricultural Levy, Los Angeles Times, 30 December 2005, 27 April 2010, Ching-Ching, Ni, NEWS,weblink China ends school fees for 150m, BBC, 13 December 2006, 27 April 2010, A number of foreign governments, foreign press agencies, and NGOs also routinely criticize China's human rights record, alleging widespread civil rights violations such as detention without trial, forced abortions,NEWS,weblinkarticle/20140109/DAB75AAG2.html, 9 January 2014, Didi Tang, Forced abortion highlights abuses in China policy, Associated Press, forced confessions, torture, restrictions of fundamental rights, and excessive use of the death penalty.NEWS,, The Washington Post, China's Capital Cases Still Secret, Arbitrary, Maureen, Fan, Ariana Eunjung, Cha, 24 December 2008, 16 August 2010, NEWS,weblink Amnesty sees hope in China on death penalty, Yahoo news, 27 March 2012, 31 May 2015, The government suppresses popular protests and demonstrations that it considers a potential threat to "social stability", as was the case with the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.File:On the 20th anniversary of 8964 (1).jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Candlelight vigil on the 20th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square protests ]]Falun Gong was first taught publicly in 1992. In 1999, when there were 70 million practitioners,Seth Faison, "In Beijing: A Roar of Silent Protestors", The New York Times, 27 April 1999 the persecution of Falun Gong began, resulting in mass arrests, extralegal detention, and reports of torture and deaths in custody.BOOK, Amnesty International, Changing the soup but not the medicine: Abolishing re-education through labor in China, Dec 2013, London, UK,weblink yes,weblink 1 February 2016, BOOK, Mickey, Spiegel,weblink Dangerous Meditation: China's Campaign Against Falungong, Human Rights Watch, 2002, 978-1-56432-269-2, harv, The Chinese state is regularly accused of large-scale repression and human rights abuses in Tibet and Xinjiang, including violent police crackdowns and religious suppression.NEWS,weblink China 'moves two million Tibetans', BBC, 27 June 2013, 27 June 2013, NEWS,weblink Fresh unrest hits China's Xinjiang, BBC, 29 June 2013, 29 June 2013, At least 120,000 members of China's Muslim Uyghur minority have been detained in mass detention camps, termed "reeducation camps", aimed at changing the political thinking of detainees, their identities, and their religious beliefs.NEWS, China 'holding at least 120,000 Uighurs in re-education camps',weblink The Guardian, 25 January 2018, The state has even sought to control offshore reporting of tensions in Xinjiang, intimidating foreign-based reporters by detaining their family members.NEWS, China detains relatives of U.S. reporters in apparent punishment for Xinjiang coverage,weblink Denyer, Simon, 28 February 2018, 4 March 2018, Washington Post, The Chinese government has responded to foreign criticism by arguing that the right to subsistence and economic development is a prerequisite to other types of human rights, and that the notion of human rights should take into account a country's present level of economic development."China's Progress in Human Rights in 2004". July 2005. Retrieved 31 May 2015. It emphasizes the rise in the Chinese standard of living, literacy rate, and average life expectancy since the 1970s, as well as improvements in workplace safety and efforts to combat natural disasters such as the perennial Yangtze River floods."China seeks to improve workplace safety". USA Today. 30 January 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2012."China's reform and opening-up promotes human rights, says premier". Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the United States. 11 December 2003. Retrieved 28 April 2006. Furthermore, some Chinese politicians have spoken out in support of democratization, although others remain more conservative."Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao talks reform, but most countrymen never get to hear what he says". The Washington Post. 13 October 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2013. Some major reform efforts have been conducted. For instance, in November 2013 the government announced plans to relax the one-child policy and abolish the much-criticized re-education through labour program,WEB,weblink China ends one child policy, Slate, 15 November 2013, 16 November 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 16 November 2013, although human rights groups note that reforms to the latter have been largely cosmetic. During the 2000s and early 2010s, the Chinese government was increasingly tolerant of NGOs that offer practical, efficient solutions to social problems, but such "third sector" activity remained heavily regulated.WEB,weblink Service providers wanted, Development and Cooperation, 2 August 2012, 11 September 2012, BOOK,weblink The Chinese Corporatist State: Adaption, Survival and Resistance, 2013, Routledge, 9780415640725, Hsu, Jennifer, 124, en, Hasmath, Reza, According to the 2016 Global Slavery Index, an estimated 3,388,400 people are enslaved in modern-day China, or 0.25% of the population.WEB, Kevin Bales, et al, China,weblink The Global Slavery Index 2016, The Minderoo Foundation Pty Ltd, 13 March 2018, State-sponsored slavery is part of the Chinese penal system, and there are over a thousand slave labour prisons and camps, known collectively as the Laogai. Prisoners are not paid at all, and need their families to send money to them. Prisoners who refuse to work are beaten, and some are beaten to death. Many of the prisoners are political or religious dissidents, and some are recognized internationally as prisoners of conscience. "Laogai" in Chinese means forced labour and reform. A Chinese president said that they want to see two products coming out of the prisons: the man who has been reformed, and the product made by the man. Harry Wu, himself a former prisoner of the Laogai, filmed undercover footage of the Laogai, and was charged with stealing state secrets. For this, Harry Wu was sentenced to 15 years in prison, but only served 66 days before being deported to the United States.NEWS, Prison slaves: China is the world's factory, but does a dark secret lurk behind this apparent success story?,weblink 13 March 2018, Al Jazeera English, 2011, WEB, CBS: 60 minutes Chinese Labor Camps with Harry Wu (1991),weblink Youtube, NEWS, Chinese human rights campaigner Harry Wu dies: A former prisoner of conscience, Wu exposed the brutality of China's prison camps,weblink 13 March 2018, UCA News, April 27, 2016,


File:J-10a zhas.png|upright=1.1|thumb|Chengdu Fighter J-10 produced by the Chengdu Aircraft Corporation (CAC) for the People's Liberation Army Air ForcePeople's Liberation Army Air ForceWith 2.3 million active troops, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the largest standing military force in the world, commanded by the Central Military Commission (CMC).NEWS,weblink The new generals in charge of China's guns, BBC, 14 November 2012, 10 December 2012, China has the second-biggest military reserve force, only behind North Korea. The PLA consists of the Ground Force (PLAGF), the Navy (PLAN), the Air Force (PLAAF), and the People's Liberation Army Rocket Force (PLARF). According to the Chinese government, China's military budget for 2017 totalled US$151,5 billion, constituting the world's second-largest military budget, although the military expenditures-GDP ratio with 1,3% of GDP is below world average. However, many authorities – including SIPRI and the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense – argue that China does not report its real level of military spending, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget.WEB,weblink Mar. 2014: Deciphering China's latest defence budget figures, SIPRI, March 2014, 9 February 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 9 February 2015, Annual Report To Congress – Military Power of the People's Republic of China 2009 (PDF). Retrieved 27 November 2011.File:PLANS Liaoning (CV-16) 20161225.jpg|upright=1.3|left |thumb|Aircraft carrier Liaoning a Type 001 aircraft carrier and the first aircraft carrier commissioned into the People's Liberation Army Navy Surface ForcePeople's Liberation Army Navy Surface ForceAs a recognized nuclear weapons state, China is considered both a major regional military power and a potential military superpower.Nolt, James H. Analysis: The China-Taiwan military balance. Asia Times. 1999. Retrieved 15 April 2006. According to a 2013 report by the US Department of Defense, China fields between 50 and 75 nuclear ICBMs, along with a number of SRBMs.WEB,weblink Military and Security Developments Involving the People's Republic of China 2013, US Secretary of Defense, PDF, 2013, 25 June 2013, However, compared with the other four UN Security Council Permanent Members, China has relatively limited power projection capabilities.WEB, Martin, Andrew,weblink THE DRAGON BREATHES FIRE: CHINESE POWER PROJECTION,, 18 August 2005, 26 June 2013, To offset this, it has developed numerous power projection assets since the early 2000s – its first aircraft carrier entered service in 2012,WEB, China's first aircraft carrier completes sea trial,weblink Xinhua News Agency, 15 August 2011, 15 August 2011, NEWS,weblink China: Aircraft Carrier Now in Service, 25 September 2012, 26 September 2012, The Wall Street Journal, and it maintains a substantial fleet of submarines, including several nuclear-powered attack and ballistic missile submarines."China unveils fleet of submarines". The Guardian. 22 April 2009. Retrieved 16 October 2011. China has furthermore established a network of foreign military relationships along critical sea lanes.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 5 December 2016, India, Japan join hands to break China's 'string of pearls', Times of India, 30 May 2013, 7 July 2013, File:J-20 at Airshow China 2016.jpg|upright=1.1|thumb|A PLA air force Chengdu J-20 stealth fighter aircraft]]China has made significant progress in modernising its air force in recent decades, purchasing Russian fighter jets such as the Sukhoi Su-30, and also manufacturing its own modern fighters, most notably the Chengdu J-10, J-20 and the Shenyang J-11, J-15, J-16, and J-31.WEB,weblink IN FOCUS: Long march ahead for Chinese naval airpower,, 26 November 2012, 26 November 2012, WEB,weblink J-10,, 28 March 2009, 27 April 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 21 September 2013, dmy-all, China is furthermore engaged in developing an indigenous stealth aircraft and numerous combat drones.WEB,weblink Inside China's Secret Arsenal, Popular Science, 20 December 2012, 20 December 2012, "Early Eclipse: F-35 JSF Prospects in the Age of Chinese Stealth." China-Defense. Retrieved 23 January 2011."Chengdu J-20 – China's 5th Generation Fighter." {{Webarchive|url= |date=2 January 2011 }} Retrieved 23 January 2011. Air and Sea denial weaponry advances have increased the regional threat from the perspective of Japan as well as Washington.Washington Journal. (12 August 2015) "U.S. Military Approach toward China". Mark Perry, Politico writer, interview by Steve Scanlan, host. C-Span. Retrieved 12 August 2015. C-Span websiteAl Jazeera America Wire Service. (11 May 2015) Japan moves to boost role of military. Retrieved 12 August 2015. Al Jazerra America website China has also updated its ground forces, replacing its ageing Soviet-derived tank inventory with numerous variants of the modern Type 99 tank, and upgrading its battlefield C3I and C4I systems to enhance its network-centric warfare capabilities.weblink" title="">Ground Forces. Retrieved 31 May 2015. In addition, China has developed or acquired numerous advanced missile systems,weblink" title="">Surface-to-air Missile System. 2006. Retrieved 31 May 2015.BOOK, HQ-19 (S-400) (China), Jane's Weapons: Strategic, IHS, 23 December 2008, including anti-satellite missiles,"China plays down fears after satellite shot down". Agence France-Presse via ChannelNewsAsia. 20 January 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2013. cruise missiles"Chinese Navy Tests Land Attack Cruise Missiles: Implications for Asia-Pacific". New Pacific Institute. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012. and submarine-launched nuclear ICBMs."China expanding its nuclear stockpile". The Washington Times. 25 August 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute's data, China became the world's third largest exporter of major arms in 2010–14, an increase of 143 percent from the period 2005–09.WEB, The United States leads upward trend in arms exports, Asian and Gulf states arms imports up, says SIPRI,weblink, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), 18 March 2015, Chinese officials stated that spending on the military will rise to U.S. $173B in 2018. fox{{clear}}In August 2018, China tested its first hypersonic flight. The China Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics (CAAA) claims to have successfully conducted the test with the aircraft Starry Sky-2 that touched a speed of Mach 6 - which is six times the speed of sound.WEB,weblink China claims to have successfully tested its first hypersonic aircraft, 7 August 2018,


File:Graph of Major Developing Economies by Real GDP per capita at PPP 1990-2013.png|thumb|China and other major developing economies by GDP per capita at purchasing-power parity, 1990–2013. The rapid economic growth of China (blue) is readily apparent.WEB, World Bank World Development Indicators,weblink World Bank, 8 December 2014, ]]China had the largest economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline.WEB,weblink Dahlman, Carl J, Aubert, Jean-Eric, China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st Century. WBI Development Studies. World Bank Publications., Institute of Education Sciences, 26 July 2014, WEB,weblink Angus Maddison. Chinese Economic Performance in the Long Run. Development Centre Studies. Accessed 2007. p.29, PDF, 15 September 2017, {{As of|2017}}, China has the world's second-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totalling approximately US$12.014 trillion according to the International Monetary Fund.WEB,weblink World Economic Outlook Database, 17 April 2018, International Monetary Fund, Note: figures exclude Taiwan, and special administrative regions of China, special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau., In terms of purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP, China's economy is the largest in the world, with a 2014 PPP GDP of US$17.632 trillion. In 2013, its PPP GDP per capita was US$12,880, while its nominal GDP per capita was US$7,589. Both cases put China behind around eighty countries (out of 183 countries on the IMF list) in global GDP per capita rankings.WEB,weblink Estimates for 2014 nominal GDP, International Monetary Fund, 2014, 10 February 2015, File:Lujiazui tallest buildings.jpg|thumb|Shanghai World Financial Center, Jin Mao Tower and Shanghai Tower, Lujiazui ]]A survey by Swiss Bank UBS and PwC showed that in 2017 China produced billionaires at the rate of two a week. The number of billionaires increased in China from 318 to 373.WEB,weblink China 'creates two billionaires a week', BBC News, 26 October 2018,

Economic history and growth

From its founding in 1949 until late 1978, the People's Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy. Following Mao's death in 1976 and the consequent end of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more market-oriented mixed economy under one-party rule. Agricultural collectivization was dismantled and farmlands privatized, while foreign trade became a major new focus, leading to the creation of Special Economic Zones (SEZs). Inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs) were restructured and unprofitable ones were closed outright, resulting in massive job losses. Modern-day China is mainly characterized as having a market economy based on private property ownership,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 9 September 2009, China is already a market economy—Long Yongtu, Secretary General of Boao Forum for Asia,, 2008, 14 July 2009, and is one of the leading examples of state capitalism."Communism Is Dead, But State Capitalism Thrives". Vahan Janjigian. Forbes. 22 March 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2013."The Winners And Losers In Chinese Capitalism". Gady Epstein. Forbes. 31 August 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2013. The state still dominates in strategic "pillar" sectors such as energy production and heavy industries, but private enterprise has expanded enormously, with around 30 million private businesses recorded in 2008.John Lee. weblink" title="">"Putting Democracy in China on Hold". The Center for Independent Studies. 26 July 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2013.WEB,,weblink, People, 13 July 2005, 27 April 2010, WEB,weblink, BusinessWeek, 22 August 2005, 27 April 2010, WEB,weblink Microsoft Word – China2bandes.doc, PDF, OECD, 27 April 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 2015, File:Alibaba group Headquarters.jpg|upright=0.9|thumb|left|Headquarters of Alibaba Group in HangzhouHangzhouSince economic liberalization began in 1978, China has been among the world's fastest-growing economies,WEB, China's Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States,weblink Congressional Research Service, 5 September 2013, relying largely on investment- and export-led growth.NEWS,weblink China must be cautious in raising consumption, China Daily, 8 February 2009, WEB, Exports of goods and services (% of GDP),weblink World Bank, 28 May 2018, WEB, Foreign direct investment, net inflows (% of GDP), World Bank,weblink 28 May 2018, According to the IMF, China's annual average GDP growth between 2001 and 2010 was 10.5%. Between 2007 and 2011, China's economic growth rate was equivalent to all of the G7 countries' growth combined.NEWS, Walker, Andrew,weblink Will China's Economy Stumble?, BBC, 16 June 2011, 1 November 2011, According to the Global Growth Generators index announced by Citigroup in February 2011, China has a very high 3G growth rating.WEB, Joe Weisenthal,weblink 3G Countries,, 22 February 2011, 1 November 2011, Its high productivity, low labor costs and relatively good infrastructure have made it a global leader in manufacturing. However, the Chinese economy is highly energy-intensive and inefficient;WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 17 December 2005, China Quick Facts, World Bank, 26 July 2008, China became the world's largest energy consumer in 2010,NEWS,weblink China Becomes World's Biggest Energy Consumer, 19 July 2010, Wall Street Journal, 19 July 2010, Spencer, Swartz, Shai, Oster, relies on coal to supply over 70% of its energy needs, and surpassed the US to become the world's largest oil importer in September 2013.WEB,weblink The Ultimate Guide To China's Voracious Energy Use, Business Insider, 17 August 2012, 12 December 2012, NEWS, China overtakes US as the biggest importer of oil,weblink 11 October 2013, BBC, 10 October 2013, In the early 2010s, China's economic growth rate began to slow amid domestic credit troubles, weakening international demand for Chinese exports and fragility in the global economy.NEWS,weblink China's economy slows but data hints at rebound, BBC, 18 October 2012, NEWS,weblink China Loses Control of Its Frankenstein Economy, Bloomberg L.P., 24 June 2013, 25 June 2013, NEWS,weblink The lowdown on China's slowdown: It's not all bad, CNN Money, 15 July 2013, 16 July 2013, File:Shanghaistockexchange.jpg|thumb|The Shanghai Stock Exchange building in Shanghai's Lujiazui financial district. Shanghai has the (List of cities by GDP|25th-largest city GDP]] in the world, totalling US$304 billion in 2011"Shanghai's GDP grows 8.2% in 2011". China Daily. 20 January 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2012.)In recent years, government claimed growth numbers have come under increased scrutiny, with both non-Chinese financial and economic observes as well as Chinese government officials claiming the government has been inflating its economic output. Examples include, the provincial government in Liaoning publicly admitted that the government has been cooking the books when publishing it's economic data from 2011 to 2014, making an overclaim of over 20%. Tianjin's trillion yuan GDP claim for 2016, was in fact a third lower, at 665 billion yuan ($103 billion).WEB,weblink China’s Economic Numbers Have a Credibility Problem, 19 April 2018,, WEB, Post Magazine,weblink Can you still trust China’s economic data after province admits cooking books? | South China Morning Post,, 2017-08-23, 2018-08-14, WEB,weblink Why Chinese officials are coming clean over cooking the books, Regarding the credibility of official data, china's premier has been quoted as saying the GDP numbers are "man-made" and unreliable and should be used "for reference only".NEWS,weblink Is China Cooking the Books on Economic Expansion?, 2015, Andrew Soergel,, A Wall Street Journal survey of 64 select economists found that 96% of respondents think China's GDP estimates don't "accurately reflect the state of the Chinese economy.",WEB,weblink WSJ Survey: China’s Growth Statements Make U.S. Economists Skeptical, Jeffrey, Sparshott, 11 September 2015,, while some analysts claim the Chinese growth rate is overstated by 2-3%.WEB,weblink What Do U.S. Economists Think of Official China Statistics? ‘Only a Fool Would Believe Them’, Jeffrey, Sparshott, 11 September 2015, (File:Pudong area of Shanghai, at night.jpg|thumb|Sightseeing boats ply the river in Shanghai, providing just a tiny percent of the revenue from tourism)In the online realm, China's e-commerce industry has grown more slowly than the EU and the US, with a significant period of development occurring from around 2009 onwards. According to Credit Suisse, the total value of online transactions in China grew from an insignificant size in 2008 to around RMB 4 trillion (US$660 billion) in 2012. The Chinese online payment market is dominated by major firms such as Alipay, Tenpay and China UnionPay.WEB, China's Internet Giants Lead in Online Finance,weblink The Financialist, Credit Suisse, 15 February 2014, John Watling, 14 February 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 19 February 2014, dmy-all, Tourism is a major contributor to the economy. In 2017, this sector contributed about CNY 8.77 trillion (USD 1.35 trillion), 11.04% of the GDP, and contributed direct and indirect employment of up to 28.25 million people. There were 139.48 million inbound trips and five billion domestic trips.WEB, 2017 China Tourism Facts & Figures,weblink China Travel Guide, 21 October 2018, WEB, China Inbound Tourism in 2016,weblink China Travel News, 1 September 2018,

China in the global economy{|class"wikitable" style"float: right; margin-left: 10px"

! style="text-align:center; background:#cfb;" colspan="2" |Share of world GDP (PPP)WEB,weblink Report for Selected Countries and Subjects,, en-US, 2018-09-19, ! style="background:#cfb;"|Year! style="background:#cfb;"|Share1980 style="text-align:right;" |2.32%1990 style="text-align:right;" |4.11%|20007.40%|201013.89%2017 style="text-align:right;" |18.23%China is a member of the WTO and is the world's largest trading power, with a total international trade value of US$3.87 trillion in 2012. Its foreign exchange reserves reached US$2.85 trillion by the end of 2010, an increase of 18.7% over the previous year, making its reserves by far the world's largest.NEWS,weblink China's Foreign-Exchange Reserves Surge, Exceeding $2 Trillion, 15 July 2009, Bloomberg L.P., 19 July 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 13 June 2010, WEB,weblink China's forex reserves reach USD 2.85 trillion,, 1 November 2011, In 2012, China was the world's largest recipient of inward foreign direct investment (FDI), attracting $253 billion.WEB, FDI in Figures,weblink OECD, 28 November 2013, In 2014, China's foreign exchange remittances were $US64 billion making it the second largest recipient of remittances in the world.WEB,weblink Pakistan’s remittances, Sakib Sherani,, 17 December 2015, China also invests abroad, with a total outward FDI of $62.4 billion in 2012, and a number of major takeovers of foreign firms by Chinese companies.NEWS, Being eaten by the dragon,weblink The Economist, 11 November 2010, In 2009, China owned an estimated $1.6 trillion of US securities,NEWS,weblink China must keep buying US Treasuries for now-paper, Reuters, 19 August 2009, 20 August 2009, and was also the largest foreign holder of US public debt, owning over $1.16 trillion in US Treasury bonds."Washington learns to treat China with care". 29 July 2009.NEWS,weblink Factbox: US-China Interdependence Outweighs Trade Spat, Reuters, 23 September 2009, 25 September 2009, Lucy, Hornby, China's undervalued exchange rate has caused friction with other major economies,NEWS,weblink 2007 trade surplus hits new record – $262.2B, 11 January 2008, China Daily, 19 July 2010, NEWS,weblink China widens yuan, non-dollar trading range to 3%, 23 September 2005, 19 July 2010, and it has also been widely criticized for manufacturing large quantities of counterfeit goods.Intellectual Property Rights. Asia Business Council. September 2005. Retrieved 13 January 2012.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 14 February 2007, MIT CIS: Publications: Foreign Policy Index, 15 May 2010, According to consulting firm McKinsey, total outstanding debt in China increased from $7.4 trillion in 2007 to $28.2 trillion in 2014, which reflects 228% of China's GDP.WEB,weblink Germany's finance minister is worried about China's debt and shadow banking, 16 April 2015, Business Insider, Scutt, David, In 2017 the Institute of International Finance reported that China's debt had reached 304% of its GDP.WEB, China's Debt Surpasses 300%,weblink 15 July 2017, {| cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0"| ImageSize = width:200 height:140PlotArea = left:60 bottom:20 top:10 right:0AlignBars = justifyDateFormat = yyyyPeriod = from:0 till:20000TimeAxis = orientation:horizontalColors =
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Graph comparing the 2014 nominal GDPsof major economies in US$ billions (International Monetary Fund)HTTP://WWW.IMF.ORG/EXTERNAL/PUBS/FT/WEO/2014/02/WEODATA/WEOREPT.ASPX?PR.X=86&PR.Y=1&SY=2012&EY=2019&SCSM=1&SSD=1&SORT=COUNTRY&DS=.&BR=1&C=924%2C132%2C134%2C158%2C111&S=NGDPD&GRP=0&A=WORK=WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOKDATE=OCTOBER 2014, 18 February 2015, China ranked 29th in the Global Competitiveness Index in 2009,weblink" title="">The Global Competitiveness Report 2009–2010 World Economic Forum. Retrieved on 24 September 2009. although it is only ranked 136th among the 179 countries measured in the 2011 Index of Economic Freedom."2011 Index of Economic Freedom". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 17 April 2011. In 2014, Fortune's Global 500 list of the world's largest corporations included 95 Chinese companies, with combined revenues of US$5.8 trillion.WEB,weblink Global 500, 2014, Fortune (magazine), Fortune, 27 January 2015, The same year, Forbes reported that five of the world's ten largest public companies were Chinese, including the world's largest bank by total assets, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China.WEB,weblink The World's Largest Companies: China Takes Over The Top Three Spots, Forbes, 7 May 2014, 27 January 2015,

Class and income inequality

{{see also|Income inequality in China}}China's middle-class population (if defined as those with annual income of between US$10,000 and US$60,000) had reached more than 300 million by 2012.NEWS, China's growing middle class,weblink CNN, 26 April 2012, More than 75 percent of China's urban consumers are expected to earn between 60.000 and 229.000 RMB per year by 2022.WEB, Mapping China's middle class,weblink McKinsey Quarterly, McKinsey, 28 May 2018, According to the Hurun Report, the number of US dollar billionaires in China increased from 130 in 2009 to 251 in 2012, giving China the world's second-highest number of billionaires.WEB,weblink Richest People In China Got Poorer, Says Hurun Rich List 2012, Ibtimes, 25 September 2012, 31 May 2015, "China's billionaires double in number". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 7 September 2011. China's domestic retail market was worth over 20 trillion yuan (US$3.2 trillion) in 2012WEB,weblink China retail sales growth accelerates, China Daily, 18 January 2013, 26 April 2013, and is growing at over 12% annually {{As of|2013|lc=y}},WEB,weblink China's retail sales up 12.4 pct in Q1, Global Times, 15 April 2013, 26 April 2013, while the country's luxury goods market has expanded immensely, with 27.5% of the global share."Super Rich have Craze for luxury goods". China Daily. 3 March 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2010. However, in recent years, China's rapid economic growth has contributed to severe consumer inflation,weblink" title="">"China inflation exceeding 6%". BusinessWeek. 14 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011."Steep rise in Chinese food prices". BBC. 16 April 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2011. leading to increased government regulation."China's GDP grows 9.1% in third quarter". Financial Times. 18 October 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2013. China has a high level of economic inequality,NEWS, Income inequality on the rise in China,weblink Al Jazeera, 12 January 2013, which has increased in the past few decades.NEWS, Inequality in China: Rural poverty persists as urban wealth balloons,weblink BBC News, 29 June 2011, In 2012, China's official Gini coefficient was 0.474.NEWS, Income inequality: Delta blues,weblink The Economist, 23 January 2013, 23 January 2013, WEB, Gini coefficient in China: inequality of income distribution in China from 2005 to 2016,weblink Statista, 28 May 2018, A study conducted by Southwestern University of Finance and Economics showed that China's Gini coefficient actually had reached 0.61 in 2012, and top 1% Chinese held more than 25% of China's wealth.The Controversial Chinese Economist Uncovering Tough Truths, Bloomberg Businessweek, 24 March 2017

Internationalization of the renminbi

Following the 2008 global financial crisis, China realized the dependency on the US Dollar and the weakness of the international monetary system.JOURNAL,weblink Does Internationalizing the RMB Make Sense for China?, Huang, Yukon, Fall 2013, Cato Journal, 28 July 2014, The RMB Internationalization accelerated in 2009 when China established dim sum bond market and expanded the Cross-Border Trade RMB Settlement Pilot Project, which helps establish pools of offshore RMB liquidity.WEB,weblink Hong Kong as Offshore Renminbi Centre – Past and Prospects, 18 February 2014, 24 July 2014, HKMA, Chan, Norman T.L., "RMB Settlement", Kasikorn Research Center, Bangkok, 8 February 2011 In November 2010, Russia began using the Chinese renminbi in its bilateral trade with China.NEWS, Sidestepping the U.S. Dollar, a Russian Exchange Will Swap Rubles and Renminbi,weblink The New York Times, 10 October 2013, Andrew E., Kramer, 14 December 2010, This was soon followed by Japan,WEB, Kosuke Takahashi, Japan, China bypass US in currency trade,weblink Asia Times Online, 16 October 2013, Australia,WEB, China and Australia Announce Direct Currency Trading,weblink Direct trading between the two currencies will commence on the China Foreign Exchange Trade System (CFETS) and the Australian foreign exchange market on 10 April 2013., Department of the Treasury (Australia), 22 October 2013, Singapore,WEB, New Initiatives to Strengthen China-Singapore Financial Cooperation,weblink Monetary Authority of Singapore, 22 October 2013, the United Kingdom,WEB, Chancellor George Osborne cements London as renminbi hub,weblink Financial Times, The two countries agreed to allow direct renminbi-sterling trading in Shanghai and offshore, making the pound the fourth currency to trade directly against the renminbi, while Chinese banks will be permitted to set up branches in London., and Canada.WEB, Bank of Canada announces signing of reciprocal 3-year Canadian dollar/renminbi bilateral swap arrangement,weblink As part of the initiative announced today by the Government of Canada to promote increased trade and investment between Canada and China, as well as to support domestic financial stability should market conditions warrant, Governor Stephen S. Poloz and Governor Zhou Xiaochuan of the People's Bank of China have signed an agreement establishing a reciprocal 3-year, Canadian dollar (Can$)/renminbi (RMB) currency swap line., Bank of Canada, 11 November 2014, As a result of the rapid internationalization of the renminbi, it became the eighth-most-traded currency in the world in 2013.WEB, RMB now 8th most widely traded currency in the world,weblink Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication, 10 October 2013,

Science and technology


File:Chinese Gunpowder Formula.JPG|thumb|Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the ce}}.China was once a world leader in science and technology up until the Ming dynasty. Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions, such as papermaking, printing, the compass, and gunpowder (the Four Great Inventions), became widespread across East Asia, the Middle East and later to Europe. Chinese mathematicians were the first to use negative numbers.WEB,weblink In Our Time: Negative Numbers, BBC, 19 June 2013, Struik, Dirk J. (1987). A Concise History of Mathematics. New York: Dover Publications. p.32–33. "In these matrices we find negative numbers, which appear here for the first time in history." By the 17th century, Europe and the Western world surpassed China in scientific and technological advancement.BOOK, Chinese Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, 179, 1996, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 137–138,weblink 978-0-7923-3463-7, The causes of this early modern Great Divergence continue to be debated by scholars to this day.JOURNAL, Frank, Andre, Andre Gunder Frank, Review of The Great Divergence, Journal of Asian Studies, 60, 1, 2001, 180–182, 10.2307/2659525,weblink 2659525, After repeated military defeats by the European colonial powers and Japan in the 19th century, Chinese reformers began promoting modern science and technology as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement. After the Communists came to power in 1949, efforts were made to organize science and technology based on the model of the Soviet Union, in which scientific research was part of central planning.BOOK, Yu, Q. Y., The Implementation of China's Science and Technology Policy, 1999, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2,weblink 9781567203325, After Mao's death in 1976, science and technology was established as one of the Four Modernizations,BOOK, Vogel, Ezra F., Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China, 2011, Harvard University Press, 129,weblink 9780674055445, and the Soviet-inspired academic system was gradually reformed.BOOK, DeGlopper, Donald D., Soviet Influence in the 1950s,weblink Library of Congress, China: a country study, 1987,

Modern era

Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, China has made significant investments in scientific research,WEB, R&D share for basic research in China dwindles,weblink Chemistry World, with $163 billion spent on scientific research and development in 2012.WEB,weblink A Peek Into the 'Black Box' of Where China’s Hefty R&D Budget Goes, Bloomberg, 1 October 2014, 9 February 2017, Science and technology are seen as vital for achieving China's economic and political goals, and are held as a source of national pride to a degree sometimes described as "techno-nationalism".JOURNAL, David, Kang, Adam, Segal,weblink The Siren Song of Technonationalism, Far Eastern Economic Review, March 2006, 18 April 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 10 March 2013, Nonetheless, China's investment in basic and applied scientific research remains behind that of leading technological powers such as the United States and Japan. Chinese-born scientists have won the Nobel Prize in Physics four times, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and Physiology or Medicine once respectively, though most of these scientists conducted their Nobel-winning research in western nations.{{efn|Tsung-Dao Lee,WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957, Nobel Media AB, 26 July 2014, Chen Ning Yang, Daniel C. Tsui,WEB, The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998,weblink 6 December 2013, Charles K. Kao,WEB, The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009,weblink 6 December 2013, Yuan T. Lee,WEB,weblink Yuan T. Lee – Biographical, 6 December 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 9 November 2013, Tu YouyouWEB, Nobel Prize announcement,weblink Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet,, 5 October 2015, }}File:Long March 2D launching off pad with VRSS-1.jpg|thumb|Jiuquan Satellite Launch CenterJiuquan Satellite Launch CenterChina is developing its education system with an emphasis on science, mathematics and engineering; in 2009, China graduated over 10,000 Ph.D. engineers, and as many as 500,000 BSc graduates, more than any other country."Desperately seeking math and science majors" CNN. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2012. China is also the world's second-largest publisher of scientific papers, producing 121,500 in 2010 alone, including 5,200 in leading international scientific journals."China publishes the second most scientific papers in international journals in 2010: report". Xinhua. 2 December 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2012. Chinese technology companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal computing,NEWS,weblink Who's afraid of Huawei?, The Economist, 4 August 2012, 11 August 2012, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 17 August 2012, Shares in China's Lenovo rise on profit surge, New Straits Times, 17 August 2012, NEWS,weblink Lenovo ousts HP as world's top PC maker, says Gartner, BBC, 11 October 2012, and Chinese supercomputers are consistently ranked among the world's most powerful.NEWS,weblink China retakes supercomputer crown, BBC, 17 June 2013, 18 June 2013, NEWS,weblink 'Titan' supercomputer is world's most powerful, The Daily Telegraph, 12 November 2012, 13 November 2012, London, Christopher, Williams, China is also expanding its use of industrial robots; from 2008 to 2011, the installation of multi-role robots in Chinese factories rose by 136 percent.WEB,weblink Robots to boost China's economy, People's Daily, 6 January 2013, 29 January 2013, The Chinese space program is one of the world's most active, and is a major source of national pride.NEWS,weblink China Now Tops U.S. in Space Launches, Wired (magazine), Wired, 16 April 2012, 24 October 2012, David, Axe, David Eimer, "China's huge leap forward into space threatens US ascendancy over heavens". Daily Telegraph. 5 November 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2013. In 1970, China launched its first satellite, Dong Fang Hong I, becoming the fifth country to do so independently.WEB,, yes, 15 May 2016, China Celebrates 30th Anniversary Of First Satellite Launch, Long, Wei, Space daily, 25 April 2000, In 2003, China became the third country to independently send humans into space, with Yang Liwei's spaceflight aboard Shenzhou 5; {{As of|2015|lc=y}}, ten Chinese nationals have journeyed into space, including two women. In 2011, China's first space station module, Tiangong-1, was launched, marking the first step in a project to assemble a large manned station by the early 2020s.NEWS,, Rocket launches Chinese space lab, BBC, 29 September 2011, 20 May 2012, In 2013, China successfully landed the Chang'e 3 lander and Yutu rover onto the lunar surface; China plans to collect lunar soil samples by 2017.WEB, Rincon, Paul,weblink China lands Jade Rabbit robot rover on Moon, BBC News, 14 December 2013, 26 July 2014, In 2016, China's 2nd space station module, Tiangong-2, was launched from Jiuquan aboard a Long March 2F rocket on 15 September 2016. Then Shenzhou 11 successfully docked with Tiangong-2 on 19 October 2016.



(File:P1994-2011.gif|thumb|280px|Internet penetration rates in East Asian and Chinese Regions 1995-2012)China currently has the largest number of active cellphones of any country in the world, with over 1 billion users by February 2012.NEWS, China Mobile Phone Users Now Top One Billion,weblink Forbes, 30 March 2012, Russell, Flannery, It also has the world's largest number of internet and broadband users,NEWS,weblink China Surpasses US in Number of Internet Users, New York Times, 26 July 2008, 26 July 2008, David, Barboza, with over 688 million internet users {{As of|2016|lc=y}}, equivalent to around half of its population.NEWS,weblink China's Internet Speed Ranks 91st in the World, New York Times, 3 June 2016, The national average broadband connection speed is 9.46 Mbit/s, ranking China 91st in the world in terms of internet speed. {{as of|2013|July}}, China accounts for 24% of the world's internet-connected devices.WEB, China Report: Device and App Trends in the #1 Mobile Market,weblink, 25 July 2013, 31 May 2015, Since 2011 China is the nation with the most installed telecommunication bandwidth in the world. By 2014, China hosts more than twice as much national bandwidth potential than the U.S., the historical leader in terms of installed telecommunication bandwidth (China: 29% versus US:13% of the global total).JOURNAL, Hilbert, Martin, June 2016, The bad news is that the digital access divide is here to stay: Domestically installed bandwidths among 172 countries for 1986–2014, Telecommunications Policy, 40, 6, 567–581, 10.1016/j.telpol.2016.01.006, 0308-5961, China Telecom and China Unicom, the world's two largest broadband providers, accounted for 20% of global broadband subscribers. China Telecom alone serves more than 50 million broadband subscribers, while China Unicom serves more than 40 million.WEB,weblink Broadband provider rankings: The Rise and Rise of China,, 28 July 2010, 1 November 2011, Several Chinese telecommunications companies, most notably Huawei and ZTE, have been accused of spying for the Chinese military.NEWS, Huawei, ZTE Provide Opening for China Spying, Report Says,weblink Bloomberg L.P., 8 October 2012, 26 October 2012, China is developing its own satellite navigation system, dubbed Beidou, which began offering commercial navigation services across Asia in 2012,NEWS,weblink China's Beidou GPS-substitute opens to public in Asia, BBC, 27 December 2012, 27 December 2012, and is planned to offer global coverage by 2020."The final frontier" {{webarchive|url= |date=15 January 2013 }}. China Daily. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2013.


File:Balinghe Bridge-3.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|The Baling River Bridge is one of the highest bridges in the world.]]Since the late 1990s, China's national road network has been significantly expanded through the creation of a network of national highways and expressways. In 2011 China's highways had reached a total length of {{convert|85000|km|mi|abbr=on|sp=us}}, making it the longest highway system in the world.NEWS, Once China Catches Up—What Then?,weblink Forbes, 17 September 2013, In 1991, there were only six bridges across the main stretch of the Yangtze River, which bisects the country into northern and southern halves. By October 2014, there were 81 such bridges and tunnels.China has the world's largest market for automobiles, having surpassed the United States in both auto sales and production. Auto sales in 2009 exceeded 13.6 millionWEB,weblink China auto sales officially surpass US in 2009, 13.6 million vehicles sold, Industry News, 8 January 2010, 14 May 2010, and may reach 40 million by 2020.NEWS,weblink China premium car sector remains bright spot, Reuters, 23 April 2012, 24 April 2012, A side-effect of the rapid growth of China's road network has been a significant rise in traffic accidents,WEB, Road Traffic Accidents Increase Dramatically Worldwide,weblink Population Reference Bureau, 16 November 2013, with poorly enforced traffic laws cited as a possible cause—in 2011 alone, around 62,000 Chinese died in road accidents.NEWS,weblink Chinese bus collides with tanker, killing 36, BBC, 26 August 2012, 28 August 2012, In urban areas, bicycles remain a common mode of transport, despite the increasing prevalence of automobiles – {{As of|2012|lc=y}}, there are approximately 470 million bicycles in China.File:PEKT3E.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Terminal 3 of Beijing Capital International AirportBeijing Capital International AirportChina's railways, which are state-owned, are among the busiest in the world, handling a quarter of the world's rail traffic volume on only 6 percent of the world's tracks in 2006."Chinese Railways Carry Record Passengers, Freight" Xinhua 21 June 2007NEWS, China's trains desperately overcrowded for Lunar New Year,weblink Seattle Times, 22 January 2009, {{As of|2013}}, the country had {{convert|103144|km|mi|0|abbr=on|sp=us}} of railways, the third longest network in the world.WEB,weblink" title="">weblink National Railway Administration of the People's Republic of China, zh:2013年铁道统计公报, 2014-04-10, zh-hans, All provinces and regions are connected to the rail network except Macau. The railways strain to meet enormous demand particularly during the Chinese New Year holiday, when the world's largest annual human migration takes place. In 2013, Chinese railways delivered 2.106 billion passenger trips, generating 1,059.56 billion passenger-kilometers and carried 3.967 billion tons of freight, generating 2,917.4 billion cargo tons-kilometers.China's high-speed rail (HSR) system started construction in the early 2000s. Today it has over {{convert|19000|km|mi|0|abbr=off|sp=us}} of dedicated lines alone, a length that exceeds rest of the world's high-speed rail tracks combined,NEWS,weblink Chinese high speed network to double in latest master plan, UK, DVV Media, Railway Gazette, 24 October 2016, making it the longest HSR network in the world.WEB,weblink zh:中国高铁总里程达11028公里占世界一半, Sohu Business, 5 March 2014, zh-hans, With an annual ridership of over 1.1 billion passengers in 2015 it is the world's busiest.WEB,weblink China Exclusive: Five bln trips made on China's bullet trains – Xinhua {{!,||access-date=24 October 2016}} The network includes the Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway, the single longest HSR line in the world, and the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, which has three of longest railroad bridges in the world.NEWS,weblink China opens world's longest high-speed rail route, BBC, 26 December 2012, 26 December 2012, The HSR track network is set to reach approximately {{convert|16000|km|mi|abbr=on|sp=us}} by 2020."China boasts biggest high-speed rail network". Agence France-Presse via The Raw Story. 24 July 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2012. The Shanghai Maglev Train, which reaches {{convert|431|km/h|0|abbr=on|sp=us}}, is the fastest commercial train service in the world."Top ten fastest trains in the world" 29 August 2013File:A maglev train coming out, Pudong International Airport, Shanghai.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|The Shanghai Maglev TrainShanghai Maglev TrainSince 2000, the growth of rapid transit systems in Chinese cities has accelerated. {{as of|2016|January}}, 26 Chinese cities have urban mass transit systems in operation and 39 more have metro systems approvedNEWS,weblink China to let more cities build metro systems – Economic Information Daily, 16 May 2016, Reuters, 24 October 2016, with a dozen more to join them by 2020.NEWS, China's Building Push Goes Underground,weblink Wall Street Journal, 10 November 2013, 16 November 2013, The Shanghai Metro, Beijing Subway, Guangzhou Metro, Hong Kong MTR and Shenzhen Metro are among the longest and busiest in the world.File:CR400AF-2001@BJN (20170626110730).jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|The China Standardized EMU, also known as Fuxing Hao, is an indigenous Chinese bullet train whose maximum operating speed reaches 350 km/h (217 mph)]]There were approximately 200 airports in 2015 with around 240 planned by 2020. More than two-thirds of the airports under construction worldwide in 2013 were in China,NEWS,weblink Primed to be world leader, China Daily, 5 July 2013, 18 November 2013, and Boeing expects that China's fleet of active commercial aircraft in China will grow from 1,910 in 2011 to 5,980 in 2031. With rapid expansion in civil aviation, the largest airports in China have also joined the ranks of the busiest in the world. In 2013, Beijing's Capital Airport ranked second in the world by passenger traffic (it was 26th in 2002). Since 2010, the Hong Kong International Airport and Shanghai Pudong International Airport have ranked first and third in air cargo tonnage.Some 80% of China's airspace remains restricted for military use, and Chinese airlines made up eight of the 10 worst-performing Asian airlines in terms of delays.NEWS,weblink China 'suffers worst flight delays', BBC, 12 July 2013, 12 July 2013, China has over 2,000 river and seaports, about 130 of which are open to foreign shipping. In 2012, the Ports of Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Ningbo-Zhoushan, Guangzhou, Qingdao, Tianjin, Dalian ranked in the top in the world in container traffic and cargo tonnage."Top 50 World Container Ports" World Shipping Council {{webarchive|url= |date=27 August 2013 }} Accessed 2 June 2014{{Wide image|Panorama Yangshan.jpg|900px|The Port of Shanghai's deep water harbor on Yangshan Island in the Hangzhou Bay became the world's busiest container port in 2010}}

Water supply and sanitation

Water supply and sanitation infrastructure in China is facing challenges such as rapid urbanization, as well as water scarcity, contamination, and pollution.WEB,weblink China: High and dry: Water shortages put a brake on economic growth, Financial Times, 14 May 2013, 15 May 2013, Hook, Leslie, According to data presented by the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO and UNICEF in 2015, about 36% of the rural population in China still did not have access to improved sanitation.WEB,weblink Website of the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation, 14 February 2016, JMP (WHO and UNICEF), PDF, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, dmy-all, In June 2010, there were 1,519 sewage treatment plants in China and 18 plants were added each week.Global Water Intelligence:"New directions in Chinese wastewater", October 2010, p. 22, quoting the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development The ongoing South–North Water Transfer Project intends to abate water shortage in the north.NEWS, Wang, Yue, Chinese Minister Speaks Out Against South-North Water Diversion Project,weblink 9 March 2014, Forbes Asia, 20 February 2014,


(File:PRC Population Density.svg|thumb|upright=0.9|A 2009 population density map of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan. The eastern coastal provinces are much more densely populated than the western interior)(File:China population.svg|thumb|upright=0.9|right|Population of China from 1960-2017.|alt=Y-axis : Number of inhabitants in millions.)The national census of 2010 recorded the population of the People's Republic of China as approximately 1,370,536,875. About 16.60% of the population were 14 years old or younger, 70.14% were between 15 and 59 years old, and 13.26% were over 60 years old.WEB, Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census[1] (No. 1),weblink National Bureau of Statistics of China, 31 May 2015, The population growth rate for 2013 is estimated to be 0.46%.WEB, POPULATION GROWTH RATE,weblink CIA, 29 September 2013, Although a middle-income country by Western standards, China's rapid growth has pulled hundreds of millions of its people out of poverty since 1978. Today, about 10% of the Chinese population lives below the poverty line of US$1 per day, down from 64% in 1978. In 2014, the urban unemployment rate of China was about 4.1%.WEB,weblink China´s 2013 urban unemployment rate at 4.1 pct CCTV News – CNTV English, 27 December 2013, 12 March 2014, WEB,weblink China's 2013 urban unemployment rate at 4.1%, Business Standard, 24 January 2014, 12 March 2014, Given concerns about population growth, China implemented a two-child limit during the 1970s, and, in 1979, began to advocate for an even stricter limit of one child per family. Beginning in the mid 1980s, however, given the unpopularity of the strict limits, China began to allow some major exemptions, particularly in rural areas, resulting in what was actually a "1.5"-child policy from the mid 1980s to 2015 (ethnic minorities were also exempt from one child limits). The next major loosening of the policy was enacted in December 2013, allowing families to have two children if one parent is an only child.NEWS, China formalizes easing of one-child policy,weblink USA Today, 28 December 2013, In 2016, the one-child policy was replaced in favor of a two-child policy.WEB,weblink Top legislature amends law to allow all couples to have two children, Xinhua News Agency, 27 December 2015, Data from the 2010 census implies that the total fertility rate may be around 1.4, although due to underreporting of births it may be closer to 1.5-1.6.NEWS,weblink The most surprising demographic crisis, The Economist, 5 May 2011, 1 November 2011, According to one group of scholars, one-child limits had little effect on population growthJOURNAL, Wang, Feng, Yong, Cai, Baochang, Gu,weblink Population, Policy, and Politics: How Will History Judge China’s One-Child Policy?, Population and Development Review, 38, 2012, 115–29, 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00555.x, or the size of the total population.JOURNAL, Whyte, Martin K., Wang, Feng, Cai, Yong, 2015, Challenging Myths about China's One-Child Policy,weblink The China Journal, However, these scholars have been challenged. Their own counterfactual model of fertility decline without such restrictions implies that China averted more than 500 million births between 1970 and 2015, a number which may reach one billion by 2060 given all the lost descendants of births averted during the era of fertility restrictions, with one-child restrictions accounting for the great bulk of that reduction.JOURNAL, Goodkind, Daniel, The Astonishing Population Averted by China's Birth Restrictions: Estimates, Nightmares, and Reprogrammed Ambitions, DEMOGRAPHY, 2017, 1375-1399, 54, The policy, along with traditional preference for boys, may have contributed to an imbalance in the sex ratio at birth.NEWS,weblink Shortage of girls forces China to criminalize selective abortion, The Daily Telegraph, 9 January 2005, 22 October 2012, London, Simon, Parry, NEWS,weblink Chinese facing shortage of wives, 12 January 2007, BBC News, 23 March 2009, According to the 2010 census, the sex ratio at birth was 118.06 boys for every 100 girls,"Chinese mainland gender ratios most balanced since 1950s: census data". Xinhua. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011. which is beyond the normal range of around 105 boys for every 100 girls.WEB, The odds that you will give birth to a boy or girl depend on where in the world you live,weblink Pew Research Center, 24 September 2013, The 2010 census found that males accounted for 51.27 percent of the total population. However, China's sex ratio is more balanced than it was in 1953, when males accounted for 51.82 percent of the total population.

Ethnic groups

File:China Post logo with (New) Tai Lü script in Mohan, Yunnan.jpg|thumb|A trilingual sign in Sibsongbanna, with Tai Lü languageTai Lü languageChina officially recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, the largest ofwhich are the Han Chinese, who constitute about 91.51% of the totalpopulation.WEB,weblink Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1), National Bureau of Statistics of China, 28 April 2011, 14 June 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2013, The Han Chinese – the world's largest single ethnic groupNEWS, A Guide to China's Ethnic Groups,weblink Washington Post, Lilly, Amanda, 7 July 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 9 December 2013, dmy-all, – outnumber other ethnic groups in every provincial-level division except Tibet and Xinjiang.BOOK, China's Geography: Globalization and the Dynamics of Political, Economic, and Social Change, 2011, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 102,weblink 9780742567849, Ethnic minorities account for about 8.49% of the population of China, according tothe 2010 census. Compared with the 2000 population census, the Han population increased by 66,537,177 persons, or 5.74%, while the population of the 55 national minorities combined increased by 7,362,627 persons, or 6.92%. The 2010 census recorded a total of 593,832 foreign nationals living in China. The largest such groups were from South Korea (120,750), theUnited States (71,493) and Japan (66,159)."Major Figures on Residents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and Foreigners Covered by 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2015.


(File:China linguistic map.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|1990 map of Chinese ethnolinguistic groups)There are as many as 292 living languages in China.Languages of China – from Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. The languages most commonly spoken belong to the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family, which contains Mandarin (spoken by 70% of the population),BOOK, Language Planning and Policy in Asia: Japan, Nepal, Taiwan and Chinese characters, Kaplan, Robert B., Richard B. Baldauf, Multilingual Matters, 2008, 9781847690951, 42, and other varieties of Chinese language: Yue (including Cantonese and Taishanese), Wu (including Shanghainese and Suzhounese), Min (including Fuzhounese, Hokkien and Teochew), Xiang, Gan and Hakka. Languages of the Tibeto-Burman branch, including Tibetan, Qiang, Naxi and Yi, are spoken across the Tibetan and Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau. Other ethnic minority languages in southwest China include Zhuang, Thai, Dong and Sui of the Tai-Kadai family, Miao and Yao of the Hmong–Mien family, and Wa of the Austroasiatic family. Across northeastern and northwestern China, local ethnic groups speak Altaic languages including Manchu, Mongolian and several Turkic languages: Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Salar and Western Yugur. Korean is spoken natively along the border with North Korea. Sarikoli, the language of Tajiks in western Xinjiang, is an Indo-European language. Taiwanese aborigines, including a small population on the mainland, speak Austronesian languages.weblink" title="">"Languages". 2005. Retrieved 31 May 2015.Standard Mandarin, a variety of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect, is the official national language of China and is used as a lingua franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds.BOOK, Rough Guide Phrasebook: Mandarin Chinese, 2011, Rough Guides, 19,weblink 9781405388849, Chinese characters have been used as the written script for the Sinitic languages for thousands of years. They allow speakers of mutually unintelligible Chinese varieties to communicate with each other through writing. In 1956, the government introduced simplified characters, which have supplanted the older traditional characters in mainland China. Chinese characters are romanized using the Pinyin system. Tibetan uses an alphabet based on an Indic script. Uyghur is most commonly written in Persian alphabet based Uyghur Arabic alphabet. The Mongolian script used in China and the Manchu script are both derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet. Zhuang uses both an official Latin alphabet script and a traditional Chinese character script.


{{See also|List of cities in China|List of cities in China by population|Metropolitan regions of China}}File:China Top 10 Biggest Cities.png|thumb|upright=0.9|Map of the ten largest cities in China (2010)]]China has urbanized significantly in recent decades. The percent of the country's population living in urban areas increased from 20% in 1980 to over 55% in 2016.WEB, Urban population (% of total),weblink World Bank, 28 May 2018, WEB,weblink Preparing for China's urban billion, McKinsey Global Institute, February 2009, 6, 52, 18 February 2015, NEWS,weblink Urbanisation: Where China's future will happen, The Economist, 19 April 2014, 18 February 2015, WEB, National Data,weblink, 20 January 2016, It is estimated that China's urban population will reach one billion by 2030, potentially equivalent to one-eighth of the world population. {{As of|2012}}, there are more than 262 million migrant workers in China, mostly rural migrants seeking work in cities.NEWS,weblink China Now Has More Than 260 Million Migrant Workers Whose Average Monthly Salary Is 2,290 Yuan ($374.09), International Business Times, 28 May 2013, 18 February 2015, China has over 160 cities with a population of over one million,NEWS, China's urban explosion: A 21st century challenge,weblink CNN, 20 January 2012, 18 February 2015, including the seven megacities (cities with a population of over 10 million) of Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Shenzhen, and Wuhan.NEWS, China's mega city: the country's existing mega cities,weblink The Telegraph, 24 January 2011, London, WEB, Overview,weblink Shenzhen Municipal E-government Resources Center, 17 October 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 25 May 2017, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Wu-Where? Opportunity Now In China's Inland Cities, 7 August 2012, NPR, By 2025, it is estimated that the country will be home to 221 cities with over a million inhabitants. The figures in the table below are from the 2010 census,WEB, Tabulation of the 2010 Census of the People's Republic of China,weblink China Statistics Press, and are only estimates of the urban populations within administrative city limits; a different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations). The large "floating populations" of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult;Francesco Sisci. "China's floating population a headache for census". The Straits Times. 22 September 2000. the figures below include only long-term residents.{{Largest cities of China}}


File:Tsinghua Observatory.jpg|thumb|Beijing's Tsinghua University, one of the top-ranked universities in ChinaWEB, Zhejiang University surpasses Tsinghua as top university of China,weblink, 17 June 2011, ]]Since 1986, compulsory education in China comprises primary and junior secondary school, which together last for nine years.WEB, 9-year Compulsory Education,weblink, 11 December 2013, In 2010, about 82.5 percent of students continued their education at a three-year senior secondary school.NEWS, China eyes high school enrollment rate of 90%,weblink China Daily, 8 August 2011, The Gaokao, China's national university entrance exam, is a prerequisite for entrance into most higher education institutions. In 2010, 27 percent of secondary school graduates are enrolled in higher education.NEWS, China's higher education students exceed 30 million,weblink People's Daily, 11 March 2011, This number increased significantly over the last years, reaching a tertiary school enrollment of 48.4 percent in 2016.WEB, School enrollment, tertiary (% gross),weblink World Bank, 28 May 2018, Vocational education is available to students at the secondary and tertiary level.WEB, Vocational Education in China,weblink, 11 December 2013, In February 2006, the government pledged to provide completely free nine-year education, including textbooks and fees."China pledges free 9-year education in rural west". China Economic Net. 21 February 2006. Retrieved 18 February 2013. Annual education investment went from less than US$50 billion in 2003 to more than US$250 billion in 2011.NEWS, In Education, China Takes the Lead,weblink New York Times, 16 January 2013, However, there remains an inequality in education spending. In 2010, the annual education expenditure per secondary school student in Beijing totalled ¥20,023, while in Guizhou, one of the poorest provinces in China, only totalled ¥3,204.NEWS, Chinese Education: The Truth Behind the Boasts,weblink Bloomberg Businessweek, 4 April 2013, Free compulsory education in China consists of primary school and junior secondary school between the ages of 6 and 15. In 2011, around 81.4% of Chinese have received secondary education.WEB,weblink School enrollment, secondary (% gross), World Bank, 18 October 2013, By 2007, there were 396,567 primary schools, 94,116 secondary schools, and 2,236 higher education institutions in China.NEWS, FACTBOX: Education in China,weblink Xinhua, 7 August 2008, {{As of|2010}}, 94% of the population over age 15 are literate.WEB,weblink Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above), World Bank, 9 July 2013, In 1949, only 20% of the population could read, compared to 65.5% thirty years later.BOOK, Galtung, Marte Kjær, Stenslie, Stig, 2014, 49 Myths about China,weblink Rowman & Littlefield, 189, 978-1442236226, In 2009, Chinese students from Shanghai achieved the world's best results in mathematics, science and literacy, as tested by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide evaluation of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance."China Beats Out Finland for Top Marks in Education". TIME. 2009. Retrieved 18 February 2013. Despite the high results, Chinese education has also faced both native and international criticism for its emphasis on rote memorization and its gap in quality from rural to urban areas.WEB,weblink China's Top Economic Risk? Education., Balding, Christopher, November 19, 2017, Bloomberg Opinion, Bloomberg, September 26, 2018,


{{See also|Pharmaceutical industry in China}}File:China Human Dev SVG.svg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|Chart showing the rise of China's Human Development IndexHuman Development IndexThe National Health and Family Planning Commission, together with its counterparts in the local commissions, oversees the health needs of the Chinese population.WEB, Ministry National Health and Family Planning Commission,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 28 September 2014,, 6 September 2015, An emphasis on public health and preventive medicine has characterized Chinese health policy since the early 1950s. At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaign, which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as treating and preventing several diseases. Diseases such as cholera, typhoid and scarlet fever, which were previously rife in China, were nearly eradicated by the campaign. After Deng Xiaoping began instituting economic reforms in 1978, the health of the Chinese public improved rapidly because of better nutrition, although many of the free public health services provided in the countryside disappeared along with the People's Communes. Healthcare in China became mostly privatized, and experienced a significant rise in quality. In 2009, the government began a 3-year large-scale healthcare provision initiative worth US$124 billion.NEWS, China's $124 Billion Health-Care Plan Aims to Boost Consumption,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 29 October 2013, Bloomberg L.P., 22 January 2009, By 2011, the campaign resulted in 95% of China's population having basic health insurance coverage.NEWS, Great Progress, but More Is Needed,weblink New York Times, 1 November 2011, In 2011, China was estimated to be the world's third-largest supplier of pharmaceuticals, but its population has suffered from the development and distribution of counterfeit medications.NEWS, Barboza, David, 2,000 Arrested in China in Counterfeit Drug Crackdown,weblink New York Times, 5 August 2012, 23 March 2013, {{As of|2012}}, the average life expectancy at birth in China is 75 years,WEB, Life expectancy at birth, total (years),weblink World Bank, 28 October 2013, and the infant mortality rate is 12 per thousand.WEB, Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births),weblink World Bank, 28 October 2013, Both have improved significantly since the 1950s.{{efn|The national life expectancy at birth rose from about 31 years in 1949 to 75 years in 2008,NEWS,weblink Life expectancy increases by 44 years from 1949 in China's economic powerhouse Guangdong, People's Daily, 4 October 2009, and infant mortality decreased from 300 per thousand in the 1950s to around 33 per thousand in 2001."China's Infant Mortality Rate Down". 11 September 2001. Retrieved 3 May 2006.}} Rates of stunting, a condition caused by malnutrition, have declined from 33.1% in 1990 to 9.9% in 2010.JOURNAL, Stone, R., Despite Gains, Malnutrition Among China's Rural Poor Sparks Concern, 10.1126/science.336.6080.402, Science, 336, 6080, 402, 2012, 22539691, 2012Sci...336..402S, Despite significant improvements in health and the construction of advanced medical facilities, China has several emerging public health problems, such as respiratory illnesses caused by widespread air pollution,WEB,weblink 750,000 a year killed by Chinese pollution, 22 July 2007, Financial Times, 2 July 2007, McGregor, Richard, hundreds of millions of cigarette smokers,"China's Tobacco Industry Wields Huge Power" article by Didi Kirsten Tatlow in The New York Times 10 June 2010 and an increase in obesity among urban youths."Serving the people?". 1999. Bruce Kennedy. CNN. Retrieved 17 April 2006."Obesity Sickening China's Young Hearts". 4 August 2000. People's Daily. Retrieved 17 April 2006. China's large population and densely populated cities have led to serious disease outbreaks in recent years, such as the 2003 outbreak of SARS, although this has since been largely contained."China's latest SARS outbreak has been contained, but biosafety concerns remain". 18 May 2004. World Health Organization. Retrieved 17 April 2006. In 2010, air pollution caused 1.2 million premature deaths in China.NEWS, Air Pollution Linked to 1.2 Million Premature Deaths in China,weblink New York Times, 1 April 2013, Edward, Wong,


File:Taoists performing a rite at the Baiyun Temple of Shanghai.jpg|thumb|Taoist priests of the Zhengyi order bowing during a rite at the White Cloud Temple of Shanghai. Taoism is a set of orders of philosophy and rite that operate as frameworks of Chinese religion, alongside vernacular ritual traditions.]]Freedom of religion is guaranteed by China's constitution, although religious organizations that lack official approval can be subject to state persecution."China bans religious activities in Xinjiang". Financial Times. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.Constitution of the People's Republic of China. Chapter 2, Article 36. The government of the People's Republic of China is officially atheist. Religious affairs and issues in the country are overseen by the State Administration for Religious Affairs.WEB,weblink" title="">weblink zh:国家宗教事务局, National Religious Affairs Administration, 30 August 2015, File:Fushou (Fortune and Longevity) Taoist Temple at Tianchi (Heavenly Lake) in Fukang, Changji, Xinjiang.jpg|thumb|200px|Temple of Fortune and Longevity, at the Heavenly Lake of Tianshan in Fukang, Changji, XinjiangXinjiangOver the millennia, Chinese civilization has been influenced by various religious movements. The "three teachings", including Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism (Chinese Buddhism), historically have a significant role in shaping Chinese culture,BOOK, Yao, Xinzhong, Yao Xinzhong, 2010, Chinese Religion: A Contextual Approach, A&C Black, London, 9781847064752, pp. 9–11.BOOK, Miller, James, Chinese Religions in Contemporary Societies, 2006, ABC-CLIO, 9781851096268, p. 57. enriching a theological and spiritual framework which harkens back to the early Shang and Zhou dynasty. Chinese popular or folk religion, which is framed by the three teachings and other traditions,Tam Wai Lun, "Local Religion in Contemporary China", in BOOK, Xie, Zhibin, 2006, Religious Diversity and Public Religion in China, Ashgate Publishing, 9780754656487, p. 73. consists in allegiance to the shen (}}), a character that signifies the "energies of generation", who can be deities of the environment or ancestral principles of human groups, concepts of civility, culture heroes, many of whom feature in Chinese mythology and history.{{citation|first=Stephen F.|last=Teiser|chapter=The Spirits of Chinese Religion|chapter-url=|title=Religions of China in Practice|editor=Donald S. Lopez Jr.|location=Princeton, NJ|publisher=Princeton University Press|year=1996}}. Extracts in The Chinese Cosmos: Basic Concepts. Among the most popular cults are those of Mazu (goddess of the seas),JOURNAL, Laliberté, André, Religion and the State in China: The Limits of Institutionalization, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, 40, 2, 3–15, 2011,weblink {{ISSN|1868-4874}} (online), {{ISSN|1868-1026}} (print). p. 7: "[...] while provincial leaders in Fujian nod to Taoism with their sponsorship of the Mazu Pilgrimage in Southern China, the leaders of Shanxi have gone further with their promotion of worship of the Yellow Emperor ({{zh|labels=no |t=黃帝 |p=Huáng Dì}})". Huangdi (one of the two divine patriarchs of the Chinese race),{{citation|last=Sautman|first=Barry|authorlink=Barry Sautman|chapter=Myths of Descent, Racial Nationalism and Ethnic Minorities in the People's Republic of China|pages=75–95|title=The Construction of Racial Identities in China and Japan: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives|editor1-last=Dikötter|editor1-first=Frank|location=Honolulu|publisher=University of Hawaii Press|year=1997|isbn=978-9622094437}} pp. 80–81. Guandi (god of war and business), Caishen (god of prosperity and richness), Pangu and many others. China is home to many of the world's tallest religious statues, including the tallest of all, the Spring Temple Buddha in Henan.Clear data on religious affiliation in China is difficult to gather due to varying definitions of "religion" and the unorganized, diffusive nature of Chinese religious traditions. Scholars note that in China there is no clear boundary between three teachings religions, Buddhism, Taoism and local folk religious practice. A 2015 poll conducted by Gallup International found that 61% of Chinese people self-identified as "convinced atheist",WEB, Gallup International Religiosity Index,weblink Washington Post, WIN-Gallup International, April 2015, though it is worthwhile to note that Chinese religions or some of their strands are definable as non-theistic and humanistic religions, since they do not believe that divine creativity is completely transcendent, but it is inherent in the world and in particular in the human being.CONFERENCE, Joseph A., Adler, The Heritage of Non-Theistic Belief in China, (Conference paper) Toward a Reasonable World: The Heritage of Western Humanism, Skepticism, and Freethought, San Diego, CA, 2011,weblink PDF, According to a 2014 study, approximately 74% are either non-religious or practise Chinese folk belief, 16% are Buddhists, 2% are Christians, 1% are Muslims, and 8% adhere to other religions including Taoists and folk salvationism.China Family Panel Studies 2014 survey. See release #1 (weblink" title="">archived) and release #2 (weblink" title="">archived). The tables also contain the results of CFPS 2012 and Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) results for 2006, 2008 and 2010.ARTICLE, Wenzel-Teuber, Katharina, Statistics on Religions and Churches in the People's Republic of China – Update for the Year 2016, Religions & Christianity in Today's China, VII, 2, 26–53,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 22 July 2017, yes, dmy-all, In addition to Han people's local religious practices, there are also various ethnic minority groups in China who maintain their traditional autochthone religions. The various folk religions today comprise 2–3% of the population, while Confucianism as a religious self-identification is common within the intellectual class. Significant faiths specifically connected to certain ethnic groups include Tibetan Buddhism and the Islamic religion of the Hui, Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and other peoples in Northwest China.


File:11 Temple of Heaven.jpg|thumb|The Temple of Heaven, a center of heaven worship and an UNESCO World Heritage site, symbolizes the Interactions Between Heaven and Mankind.WEB, Temple of Heaven: an Imperial Sacrificial Altar in Beijing,weblink UNESCOUNESCOSince ancient times, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism and conservative philosophies. For much of the country's dynastic era, opportunities for social advancement could be provided by high performance in the prestigious imperial examinations, which have their origins in the Han dynasty.BOOK, China: Understanding Its Past, 1997, University of Hawaii Press, 29, The literary emphasis of the exams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China, such as the belief that calligraphy, poetry and painting were higher forms of art than dancing or drama. Chinese culture has long emphasized a sense of deep history and a largely inward-looking national perspective. Examinations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today.JOURNAL, Historical and Contemporary Exam-driven Education Fever in China, KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 2005, 2, 1, 17–33,weblink yes,weblink 14 March 2015, dmy, File:Youyicun garden.jpg|thumb|left|Classical Gardens of SuzhouClassical Gardens of SuzhouThe first leaders of the People's Republic of China were born into the traditional imperial order, but were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and reformist ideals. They sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sexism, and the Confucian system of education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and culture of obedience to the state. Some observers see the period following the establishment of the PRC in 1949 as a continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history, while others claim that the Communist Party's rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture, especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, where many aspects of traditional culture were destroyed, having been denounced as "regressive and harmful" or "vestiges of feudalism". Many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, art, literature, and performing arts like Peking opera,WEB,weblink Tour Guidebook: Beijing, China National Tourism Administration, 14 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 9 July 2013, yes, dmy-all, were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time. Access to foreign media remains heavily restricted.WEB, Why China is letting 'Django Unchained' slip through its censorship regime,weblink Quartz (publication), Quartz, 13 March 2013, 12 July 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2013, Today, the Chinese government has accepted numerous elements of traditional Chinese culture as being integral to Chinese society. With the rise of Chinese nationalism and the end of the Cultural Revolution, various forms of traditional Chinese art, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival,WEB,weblink "China: Traditional arts". Library of Congress – Country Studies,, 1 November 2011, WEB,weblink China: Cultural life: The arts, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 November 2011, and folk and variety art in particular have sparked interest nationally and even worldwide.WEB,weblink "China: Folk and Variety Arts". Library of Congress – Country Studies,, 1 November 2011, China is now the third-most-visited country in the world,NEWS,weblink What is the world's favourite holiday destination?, BBC, 4 August 2013, 5 August 2013, with 55.7 million inbound international visitors in 2010.WEB,weblink Microsoft Word – UNWTO Barom07 2 en.doc, PDF, UNWTO, 2010,weblink 20 October 2010, 14 May 2010, It also experiences an enormous volume of domestic tourism; an estimated 740 million Chinese holidaymakers travelled within the country in October 2012 alone.NEWS,weblink China's Economy: What the Tourist Boom Tells Us, TIME (magazine), TIME, 17 October 2012, 18 October 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 18 October 2012,


File:Pekin przedstawienie tradycjnego teatru chinskiego 7.JPG|upright=0.9|thumb|The stories in Journey to the West are common themes in Peking operaPeking operaChinese literature is based on the literature of the Zhou dynasty.WEB,weblink zh:中国文学史概述,, 18 July 2015, {{webarchive|url= |date=22 July 2015 }} Concepts covered within the Chinese classic texts present a wide range of thoughts and subjects including calendar, military, astrology, herbology, geography and many others.WEB,weblink The Canonical Books of Confucianism – Canon of the Literati, 14 November 2013, 14 January 2014, Some of the most important early texts include the I Ching and the Shujing within the Four Books and Five Classics which served as the Confucian authoritative books for the state-sponsored curriculum in dynastic era.WEB, zh:什么是四书五经,weblink, 6 June 2014, 15 July 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 22 July 2015, dmy-all, Inherited from the Classic of Poetry, classical Chinese poetry developed to its floruit during the Tang dynasty. Li Bai and Du Fu opened the forking ways for the poetic circles through romanticism and realism respectively.WEB,weblink zh:李白杜甫优劣论,, 18 April 2011, 21 July 2015, Chinese historiography began with the Shiji, the overall scope of the historiographical tradition in China is termed the Twenty-Four Histories, which set a vast stage for Chinese fictions along with Chinese mythology and folklore.JOURNAL, Guo, Dan,weblink zh:史传文学与中国古代小说, 明清小说研究, April 1997, 18 July 2015, Pushed by a burgeoning citizen class in the Ming dynasty, Chinese classical fiction rose to a boom of the historical, town and gods and demons fictions as represented by the Four Great Classical Novels which include Water Margin, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Journey to the West and Dream of the Red Chamber.WEB,weblink zh:第一章 中国古典小说的发展和明清小说的繁荣,, 18 July 2015, Along with the wuxia fictions of Jin Yong and Liang Yusheng,WEB,weblink zh:金庸作品从流行穿越至经典, Baotou News, 12 March 2014, 18 July 2015, {{webarchive|url= |date=22 July 2015 }} it remains an enduring source of popular culture in the East Asian cultural sphere.JOURNAL,weblink zh:四大名著在日、韩的传播与跨文化重构, Journal of Northeast Normal University (Philosophy and Social Sciences), June 2010, 18 July 2015,
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Bian Lian (Face-Changing) Performer
In the wake of the New Culture Movement after the end of the Qing dynasty, Chinese literature embarked on a new era with written vernacular Chinese for ordinary citizens. Hu Shih and Lu Xun were pioneers in modern literature."新文化运动中的胡适与鲁迅". 中共杭州市委党校学报. April 2000. Retrieved 18 July 2015. Various literary genres, such as misty poetry, scar literature, young adult fiction and the xungen literature, which is influenced by magic realism,"魔幻现实主义文学与"寻根"小说" {{webarchive|url= |date=23 July 2015 }}. 文学评论. February 2006. Retrieved 18 July 2015. emerged following the Cultural Revolution. Mo Yan, a xungen literature author, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2012."莫言:寻根文学作家". 东江时报. 12 October 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2015.


File:Chinese foods from different regional cuisines.jpg|upright=0.9|thumb|Foods from different regional cuisines: laziji from Sichuan cuisine; xiaolongbao from Jiangsu cuisine; rice noodle roll from Cantonese cuisine; and (Peking duck]] from Shandong cuisineWEB, zh:鲁菜泰斗颜景祥,weblink 凤凰网山东, 16 September 2013, 17 July 2015, )Chinese cuisine is highly diverse, drawing on several millennia of culinary history and geographical variety, in which the most influential are known as the "Eight Major Cuisines", including Sichuan, Cantonese, Jiangsu, Shandong, Fujian, Hunan, Anhui, and Zhejiang cuisines.WEB, Eight Major Cuisines,weblink, 2 June 2011, 17 July 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 12 September 2015, dmy-all, All of them are featured by the precise skills of shaping, heating, colorway and flavoring.WEB, zh:【外国人最惊叫的烹饪技法】食材、刀工、火候、调料。,weblink, 15 November 2014, 17 July 2015, Chinese cuisine is also known for its width of cooking methods and ingredients,WEB, zh:中国美食成外国网友"噩梦" 鸡爪内脏鱼头不敢吃,weblink, 23 September 2013, 17 July 2015, as well as food therapy that is emphasized by traditional Chinese medicine.WEB, zh:中医强调"药疗不如食疗" 食疗有三大优势,weblink, 1 April 2011, 17 July 2015, Generally, China's staple food is rice in the south, wheat based breads and noodles in the north. The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions. And the bean products, such as tofu and soy milk, remain as a popular source of protein.JOURNAL,weblink zh:中国居民豆类及豆制品的消费现状, Food and Nutrition in China, January 2008, 17 July 2015, Pork is now the most popular meat in China, accounting for about three-fourths of the country's total meat consumption.NEWS, China's Hunger For Pork Will Impact The U.S. Meat Industry,weblink Forbes, 19 June 2013, While pork dominates the meat market, there is also pork-free Buddhist cuisine and Chinese Islamic cuisine. Southern cuisine, due to the area's proximity to the ocean and milder climate, has a wide variety of seafood and vegetables; it differs in many respects from the wheat-based diets across dry northern China. Numerous offshoots of Chinese food, such as Hong Kong cuisine and American Chinese food, have emerged in the nations that play host to the Chinese diaspora.


File:Dragon boat racing.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|left|Dragon boatDragon boatChina has become a prime sports destination worldwide. The country gained the hosting rights for several major global sports tournaments including the 2008 Summer Olympics, the 2015 World Championships in Athletics, the upcoming 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup and the upcoming 2022 Winter Olympics.China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the world. There is evidence that archery (shèjiàn) was practiced during the Western Zhou dynasty. Swordplay (jiànshù) and cuju, a sport loosely related to association footballBOOK, Historical Dictionary of Soccer, 2011, Scarecrow Press, 2,weblink 978-0-8108-7188-5, date back to China's early dynasties as well.WEB,weblink Sport in Ancient China, JUE LIU (刘珏) (The World of Chinese), 31 August 2013, 28 June 2014, File:FloorGoban.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|right|Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent and was invented in China more than 2,500 years ago.]]File:Echecs chinois.JPG|thumb|right|XiangqiXiangqiPhysical fitness is widely emphasized in Chinese culture, with morning exercises such as qigong and t'ai chi ch'uan widely practiced,JOURNAL, Thornton, E. W., Sykes, K. S., Tang, W. K., 10.1093/heapro/dah105, Health benefits of Tai Chi exercise: Improved balance and blood pressure in middle-aged women, Health Promotion International, 19, 1, 33–38, 2004, 14976170, and commercial gyms and private fitness clubs are gaining popularity across the country.WEB,weblink China health club market – Huge potential & challenges, China Sports Business, 1 July 2011, 31 July 2012, Basketball is currently the most popular spectator sport in China.WEB,weblink" title="">weblink zh:2014年6岁至69岁人群体育健身活动和体质状况抽测结果发布, Wenzhou People's Government, 7 August 2014, 23 November 2015, The Chinese Basketball Association and the American National Basketball Association have a huge following among the people, with native or ethnic Chinese players such as Yao Ming and Yi Jianlian held in high esteem.NEWS,weblink Yao Ming, 30 March 2007, Beech, Hannah, Time Magazine, 28 April 2003,weblink" title="">weblink 5 July 2011, China's professional football league, now known as Chinese Super League, was established in 1994, it is the largest football market in Asia.WEB,weblink zh:足球不给劲观众却不少 中超球市世界第9亚洲第1, Sohu Sports, 14 July 2013, 17 July 2015, Other popular sports in the country include martial arts, table tennis, badminton, swimming and snooker. Board games such as go (known as wéiqí in Chinese), xiangqi, mahjong, and more recently chess, are also played at a professional level.weblink" title="">"Chinese players dominate at Malaysia open chess championship". 2 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011. In addition, China is home to a huge number of cyclists, with an estimated 470 million bicycles {{As of|2012|lc=y}}.NEWS,weblink Bike-Maker Giant Says Fitness Lifestyle Boosting China Sales, Bloomberg L.P., 17 August 2012, 8 September 2012, Many more traditional sports, such as dragon boat racing, Mongolian-style wrestling and horse racing are also popular.Qinfa, Ye. "Sports History of China". Retrieved 21 April 2006.China has participated in the Olympic Games since 1932, although it has only participated as the PRC since 1952. China hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where its athletes received 51 gold medals – the highest number of gold medals of any participating nation that year.NEWS,weblink China targets more golds in 2012, BBC Sport, 27 August 2008, 27 November 2011, China also won the most medals of any nation at the 2012 Summer Paralympics, with 231 overall, including 95 gold medals.WEB,weblink Medal Count,, 9 September 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 30 August 2012, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink China dominates medals; U.S. falls short at Paralympics, USA Today, 9 September 2012, 19 June 2013, In 2011, Shenzhen in Guangdong, China hosted the 2011 Summer Universiade. China hosted the 2013 East Asian Games in Tianjin and the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics in Nanjing. Beijing and its nearby city Zhangjiakou of Hebei province will also collaboratively host the 2022 Olympic Winter Games, which will make Beijing the first city in the world to hold both the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics.WEB,weblink Beijing 2022 Winter Games Olympics - results & video highlights, 23 February 2018, International Olympic Committee, 23 February 2018, en,

See also





Further reading

  • BOOK, Meng, Fanhua, Phenomenon of Chinese Culture at the Turn of the 21st century, 2011, Silkroad Press, Singapore, 978-981-4332-35-4,
  • Farah, Paolo (2006). "Five Years of China's WTO Membership: EU and US Perspectives on China's Compliance with Transparency Commitments and the Transitional Review Mechanism". Legal Issues of Economic Integration. Kluwer Law International. Volume 33, Number 3. pp. 263–304. Abstract.
  • Heilig, Gerhard K. (2006/2007). China Bibliography – Online.
  • Jacques, Martin (2009).(When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Birth of a New Global Order). Penguin Books. Rev. ed. (28 August 2012). {{ISBN|978-1-59420-185-1}}
  • Jaffe, Amy Myers, "Green Giant: Renewable Energy and Chinese Power", Foreign Affairs, vol. 97, no. 2 (March / April 2018), pp. 83–93.
  • BOOK, Lagerwey, John,weblink 2010, China: A Religious State, University of Hong Kong Press, Hong Kong, 978-9888028047, harv,
  • BOOK, Sang Ye, China Candid: The People on the People's Republic, 2006, University of California Press, 978-0-520-24514-3,
  • BOOK, Selden, Mark, The People's Republic of China: Documentary History of Revolutionary Change, 1979, Monthly Review Press, New York, 978-0-85345-532-5,
  • BOOK, Shambaugh, David L., 2008, China's Communist Party: Atrophy and Adaptation,weblink University of California Press, Washington, D.C.; Berkeley, 9780520254923, harv,

External links

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General information



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