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Ohio
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{{about|the U.S. state of Ohio|the river|Ohio River|other uses}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2017}}







factoids
Beautiful Ohio (1969)Hang On Sloopy (1985)OHIO'S STATE ROCK SONG DATE = JULY 1, 2005 ACCESSDATE = MARCH 27, 2009, Columbus, Ohio>ColumbusOHIO QUICK FACTS>PUBLISHER=OHIO HISTORICAL SOCIETYACCESSDATE=MARCH 26, 2009, |LargestCity = capitalGreater CincinnatiColumbus metropolitan area, Ohio>Greater Columbus(see footnotesAccording to the U.S. Census July 2017 Annual Estimate, Greater Columbus is the largest Metropolitan statistical area (MSA) that is entirely within Ohio, with a population of 2,078,725; and Greater Cincinnati is the largest MSA that is at least partially within Ohio, with a population of 2,179,082, approximately 25% of which is in Indiana or Kentucky. Which MSA is the largest in Ohio depends on the context.) FIRST=U.S. CENSUSWEBSITE=FACTFINDER2.CENSUS.GOV, | population_demonym = Ohioan; Buckeye (colloq.)Governor = Mike DeWine (R)|Lieutenant Governor = Jon A. Husted (R)Ohio General Assembly>General AssemblyOhio Senate>SenateOhio House of Representatives>House of RepresentativesSherrod Brown (Democratic Party (United States)>D)Rob Portman (R)|Representative = 12 Republicans 4 DemocratsYEAR=1998 ACCESSDATE=MARCH 26, 2009 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20090328210335/HTTP://WWW.USPS.COM/NCSC/LOOKUPS/USPS_ABBREVIATIONS.HTML DF=MDY-ALL, |OfficialLang = De jure: NoneDe facto: English| area_rank = 34th| area_total_sq_mi = 44,825| area_total_km2 = 116,096| area_land_sq_mi = 40,948| area_land_km2 = 106,156| area_water_sq_mi = 3,877| area_water_km2 = 10,040| area_water_percent = 8.7| population_rank = 7th|2010Pop = 11,689,442 (2018)| population_density_rank = 10th|2000DensityUS = 282|2000Density = 109TITLE=MEDIAN ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME, December 9, 2016, |IncomeRank = 36thURL=HTTP://WWW.MAHONINGCOUNTYOH.GOV/DEPARTMENTSAGENCIES/DEPARTMENTS/BOARDOFELECTIONS/CREATIONOFBOE/TABID/821/DEFAULT.ASPX DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=DECEMBER 1, 2008, mdy-all, |AdmittanceDate = March 1, 1803Eastern Time Zone>Eastern| utc_offset1 = -05:00Eastern Daylight Time>EDT| utc_offset1_DST = -04:00|Latitude = 38° 24′ N to 41° 59′ N|Longitude = 80° 31′ W to 84° 49′ W| width_mi = 220| width_km = 355| length_mi = 220| length_km = 355Campbell Hill (Ohio)>Campbell HillHTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML >TITLE=ELEVATIONS AND DISTANCES IN THE UNITED STATES UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY >YEAR=2001 DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=JULY 22, 2012, Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.| elevation_max_ft = 1,549| elevation_max_m = 472| elevation_ft = 850| elevation_m = 260Ohio River at {{nobreak>Indiana border}}| elevation_min_ft = 455| elevation_min_m = 139| iso_code = US-OH| website = www.ohio.gov}}







factoids
Coluber constrictor>Black racer snake (1995)Aesculus glabra>Buckeye (1953)|Beverage = Tomato juice (1965)|Colors =|Dance =|Dinosaur =|Firearm =|Food =Isotelus>Isotelus maximus, a trilobite (1985)|Gemstone = Ohio flint (1965)|Instrument =|Mineral =|Poem =|Rock =|Shell =|Ships =|Slogan = So Much to Discover|Soil =|Sport =|Tartan =|Toy =Trillium grandiflorum>Great white trillium (1986)Fruit: Pawpaw|Route Marker = OH-7.svg|Quarter = 2002 OH Proof.png|QuarterReleaseDate = 2002}}Ohio {{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Ohio.ogg|oʊ|ˈ|h|aɪ|oʊ}} is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, and the tenth most densely populated. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus. Ohio is bordered by Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, and West Virginia on the southeast.The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek".WEB,weblink Quick Facts About the State of Ohio, Ohio History Central, July 2, 2010, From Iroquois word meaning 'great river', BOOK, Marianne, Mithun, 1999, Borrowing,weblink 311–3, The Languages of Native North America, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 978-0-521-29875-9, Ohio ('large creek'), WEB,weblink Native Ohio, February 25, 2007, American Indian Studies, Ohio State University,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070202230727weblink">weblink February 2, 2007, Ohio comes from the Seneca (Iroquoian) ohiiyo' 'good river', Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, and the first under the Northwest Ordinance.BOOK, Mary Stockwell, Ohio Adventure,weblink Gibbs Smith, 978-1-4236-2382-3, 88, 2006, BOOK, William M. Davidson, A History of the United States,weblink 1902, Scott, Foresman and Company, 265, Ohio is historically known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes".WEB,weblink Why is Ohio known as the Buckeye State and why are Ohioans known as Buckeyes?, November 1998, December 7, 2018, Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transitioning to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor; the legislative branch, which comprises the bicameral Ohio General Assembly; and the judicial branch, led by the state Supreme Court. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives.WEB, Berg-Andersson, Richard E., The Math Behind the 2000 Census Apportionment of Representatives, The Green Papers, 2000,weblink March 25, 2009, Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state and a bellwether in national elections.WEB
, Pollard
, Kelvin
, Swing, Bellwether, and Red and Blue States
, Population Reference Bureau
, 2008
,weblink
, March 25, 2009, Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their home state.
Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP (2015), and is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan.

Geography

{{Further|List of Ohio counties|List of cities in Ohio|List of villages in Ohio|List of Ohio townships|Ohio public lands|List of lakes in Ohio}}Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity.JOURNAL, January 24, 2008,weblink Ohio,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080124091721weblink">weblink February 12, 2003, Transportation delivers for Ohio, Department of Transportation, December 22, 2005, To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio {{convert|312|mi|km}} of coastline,JOURNAL,weblink Ohio Coastal Counties, Department of Natural Resources, Ohio, September 3, 2008, which allows for numerous cargo ports. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River (with the border being at the 1792 low-water mark on the north side of the river), and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, and West Virginia on the southeast. Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows:File:DSCN4516 portconneautflag e.jpg|right|thumb|The Ohio coast of Lake ErieLake ErieOhio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia (which at that time included what is now Kentucky and West Virginia), the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky (and, by implication, West Virginia) is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792.JOURNAL,weblink Find law, Ohio v. Kentucky, 444 U.S. 335, January 21, 1980, August 15, 2016, Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.The border with Michigan has also changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River.Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests.(File:Geographic regions ohio.svg|thumb|left|Physical geography of Ohio.)The rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, and distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state. In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region."JOURNAL,weblink History of the Appalachian Regional Commission, Appalachian Regional Commission, January 3, 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051222133844weblink">weblink December 22, 2005, mdy-all, This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia."Counties in Appalachia" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080917184038weblink |date=September 17, 2008 }}, Appalachian Regional Commission. Retrieved January 3, 2006. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there (1.476 million people.)weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20170526193218weblink">"GCT-T1 Ohio County Population Estimates—2005", The United States Census Bureau, retrieved January 3, 2006. True summation of Ohio Appalachia counties population (1,476,384) obtained by adding the 29 individual county populations together (July 1, 2005 data). Percentage obtained by dividing that number into that table's estimate of Ohio population as of July 1, 2005 (11,464,042)(File:Map of Ohio NA.png|thumb|right|Map of Ohio)Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, and Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, and the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and then the Mississippi.The worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton. As a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.WEB,weblink The History of the MCD: The Conservancy Act, January 13, 2007, Miami Conservancy District, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070314003325weblink">weblink March 14, 2007, mdy-all, Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the canal-building era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over {{convert|20|sqmi|km2}}, was the largest artificial lake in the world. (:Category:Canals in Ohio|Ohio's canal-building projects) were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state.

Climate

(File:Ohio Köppen.svg|thumb|upright=1.35|Köppen climate types in Ohio now showing majority as humid subtropical.)The climate of Ohio is a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa/Dfb) throughout most of the state, except in the extreme southern counties of Ohio's Bluegrass region section, which are located on the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate (Cfa) and Upland South region of the United States. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold. Precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round. Severe weather is not uncommon in the state, although there are typically fewer tornado reports in Ohio than in states located in what is known as the Tornado Alley. Severe lake effect snowstorms are also not uncommon on the southeast shore of Lake Erie, which is located in an area designated as the Snowbelt.Although predominantly not in a subtropical climate, some warmer-climate flora and fauna do reach well into Ohio. For instance, some trees with more southern ranges, such as the blackjack oak, Quercus marilandica, are found at their northernmost in Ohio just north of the Ohio River. Also evidencing this climatic transition from a subtropical to continental climate, several plants such as the Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Albizia julibrissin (mimosa), Crape Myrtle, and even the occasional needle palm are hardy landscape materials regularly used as street, yard, and garden plantings in the Bluegrass region of Ohio; but these same plants will simply not thrive in much of the rest of the state. This interesting change may be observed while traveling through Ohio on Interstate 75 from Cincinnati to Toledo; the observant traveler of this diverse state may even catch a glimpse of Cincinnati's common wall lizard, one of the few examples of permanent "subtropical" fauna in Ohio.Due to flooding resulting in severely damaged highways, Governor Mike DeWine declared a state of emergency in 37 Ohio counties in 2019.WEB, State of Emergency in 37 Ohio Counties Declared,weblink www.governor.ohio.gov, 21 March 2019, 20 March 2019, {| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin:auto;"!Location!Region!July (°F)!July (°C)!January (°F)!January (°C)Athens, Ohio>Athens Appalachian Ohio >| 4/–6Canton, Ohio>Canton Northeast Ohio >| 1/–7Cincinnati >Cincinnati metropolitan area>Southwest 86/66 30/19 39/23 3/–5Cleveland >Northeast Ohio>Northeast 82/64 28/18 34/21 1/–5Columbus, Ohio>Columbus Central Ohio >| 2/–5Dayton, Ohio>Dayton Miami Valley 87/67 31/19 36/22 2/–5Toledo, Ohio>Toledo Northwest Ohio >| 0/–7

Records

The highest recorded temperature was {{convert|113|F|C|lk=on}}, near Gallipolis on July 21, 1934.WEB,weblink All-Time Temperature Maximums By State (2003), November 7, 2006, National Climatic Data Center, The lowest recorded temperature was {{convert|-39|F|C}}, at Milligan on February 10, 1899,WEB,weblink All-Time Temperature Minimums By State (2003), November 7, 2006, National Climatic Data Center, during the Great Blizzard of 1899.WEB,weblink The Great Blizzard of 1899: Deep South, Deep Freeze, McLeod, Jaime, February 6, 2012, The Farmer's Almanac, February 5, 2016,

Earthquakes

Although few have registered as noticeable to the average resident, more than 200 earthquakes with a magnitude of 2.0 or higher have occurred in Ohio since 1776.JOURNAL, Michael C., Hansen, Earthquakes in Ohio,weblink 2015, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, June 13, 2019, The Western Ohio Seismic Zone and a portion of the Southern Great Lakes Seismic Zone are located in the state, and numerous faults lie under the surface.JOURNAL, Mark T., Baranoski, Structure Contour Map on the Precambrian Unconformity Surface in Ohio and Related Basement Features,weblink 2013, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, June 13, 2019, The most substantial known earthquake in Ohio history was the Anna (Shelby County) earthquake,WEB,weblink OhioSeis Earthquake FAQ: What was the biggest earthquake in Ohio?, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, June 13, 2019, which occurred on March 9, 1937. It was centered in western Ohio, and had a magnitude of 5.4, and was of intensity VIII.Historic Earthquakes: Western Ohio {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071213060325weblink |date=December 13, 2007 }}, U.S. Geological Survey.Other significant earthquakes in Ohio include:JOURNAL,weblink Historic United States Earthquakes. Ohio, United States, US, Geological Survey, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091007212652weblink">weblink October 7, 2009, mdy-all, one of magnitude 4.8 near Lima on September 19, 1884;JOURNAL,weblink Historic Earthquakes. Near Lima, OH, 1884‐9‐19, US, Geological Survey, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090909210752weblink">weblink September 9, 2009, mdy-all, one of magnitude 4.2 near Portsmouth on May 17, 1901;JOURNAL,weblink Historic Earthquakes. Near Portsmouth, OH, 1986‐1‐31, US, Geological Survey, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090909212604weblink">weblink September 9, 2009, mdy-all, and one of 5.0 in LeRoy Township in Lake County on January 31, 1986, which continued to trigger 13 aftershocks of magnitude 0.5 to 2.4 for two months.JOURNAL,weblink Historic Earthquakes. Northeast Ohio, 1986‐1‐31, US, Geological Survey, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090909212604weblink">weblink September 9, 2009, mdy-all, JOURNAL,weblink Northeastern Ohio Quake, January 1986, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, June 13, 2019, Notable Ohio earthquakes in the 21st century include one occurring on December 31, 2011, approximately {{convert|4|km|mi|sp=us}} northwest of Youngstown,JOURNAL,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120107125644weblink">weblink yes, January 7, 2012, Magnitude 4.0 – Youngstown‐Warren urban area, OH, US, Geological Survey, December 31, 2011, and one occurring on June 10, 2019, approximately {{convert|5|km|mi|sp=us}} north-northwest of Eastlake under Lake Erie;JOURNAL,weblink M 4.0 - 5km NNW of Eastlake, Ohio, US, Geological Survey, June 13, 2019, both registered a 4.0 magnitude.

Major cities

{{See also|List of cities in Ohio}}{{Prose|section|date=May 2019}}{{Largest cities|name = Largest cities|country = OhioDATE=FEBRUARY 19, 2011 PUBLISHER=CITY POPULATION, July 13, 2015, |list_by_pop =|class = nav|div_name =|div_link = Counties of Ohio{{!}}County|city_1 = Columbus, Ohio{{!}}Columbus|div_1 = Franklin County, Ohio{{!}}Franklin|pop_1 = 879,170|img_1 = Columbus Skyline as seen from Children's Hospital.JPG|city_2 = Cleveland|div_2 = Cuyahoga County, Ohio{{!}}Cuyahoga|pop_2 = 385,525|img_2 = Cleveland city.jpg|city_3 = Cincinnati|div_3 = Hamilton County, Ohio{{!}}Hamilton|pop_3 = 301,301|img_3 = Downtown Cincinnati viewed from Devou Park.jpg|city_4 = Toledo, Ohio{{!}}Toledo|div_4 = Lucas County, Ohio{{!}}Lucas|pop_4 = 276,491|img_4 = Skyline of Toledo, Ohio.jpg|city_5 = Akron, Ohio{{!}}Akron|div_5 = Summit County, Ohio{{!}}Summit|pop_5 = 197,846|img_5 =|city_6 = Dayton, Ohio{{!}}Dayton|div_6 = Montgomery County, Ohio{{!}}Montgomery|pop_6 = 140,371|img_6 =|city_7 = Parma, Ohio{{!}}Parma|div_7 = Cuyahoga County, Ohio{{!}}Cuyahoga|pop_7 = 79,167|img_7 =|city_8 = Canton, Ohio{{!}}Canton|div_8 = Stark County, Ohio{{!}}Stark|pop_8 = 70,909|img_8 =|city_9 = Youngstown, Ohio{{!}}Youngstown|div_9 = Mahoning County, Ohio{{!}}Mahoning|pop_9 = 64,604|img_9 =|city_10 = Lorain, Ohio{{!}}Lorain|div_10 = Lorain County, Ohio{{!}}Lorain|pop_10 = 63,841|img_10 =| city_11 = Hamilton, Ohio{{!}}Hamilton| div_11 = Butler County, Ohio{{!}}Butler| pop_11 = 62,092| img_11 =| city_12 = Springfield, Ohio{{!}}Springfield| div_12 = Clark County, Ohio{{!}}Clark| pop_12 = 59,208| img_12 =| city_13 = Kettering, Ohio{{!}}Kettering| div_13 = Montgomery County, Ohio{{!}}Montgomery| pop_13 = 55,175| img_13 =| city_14 = Elyria, Ohio{{!}}Elyria| div_14 = Lorain County, Ohio{{!}}Lorain| pop_14 = 53,883| img_14 =| city_15 = Lakewood, Ohio{{!}}Lakewood| div_15 = Cuyahoga County, Ohio{{!}}Cuyahoga| pop_15 = 50,249| img_15 =| city_16 = Newark, Ohio{{!}}Newark| div_16 = Licking County, Ohio{{!}}Licking| pop_16 = 49,423| img_16 =| city_17 = Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio{{!}}Cuyahoga Falls| div_17 = Summit County, Ohio{{!}}Summit| pop_17 = 49,247| img_17 =| city_18 = Middletown, Ohio{{!}}Middletown| div_18 = Butler County, Ohio{{!}}Butler| pop_18 = 48,823| img_18 =| city_19 = Dublin, Ohio{{!}}Dublin| div_19 = Franklin County, Ohio{{!}}Franklin| pop_19 = 47,619| img_19 =| city_20 = Euclid, Ohio{{!}}Euclid| div_20 = Cuyahoga County, Ohio{{!}}Cuyahoga| pop_20 = 47,201| img_20 =}}Columbus (home of The Ohio State University, Franklin University, Capital University, and Ohio Dominican University) is the capital of Ohio, near the geographic center of the state.Other Ohio cities functioning as centers of United States metropolitan areas include:

Metropolitan and micropolitan areas{|class"wikitable"|+ Largest metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio

! Ohio Rank! U.S. Rank!Metropolitan statistical areaWEB,weblink OMB Bulletin No. 17-01: Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas, United States Office of Management and Budget, August 15, 2017, March 6, 2018, !2018 EstimateWEB,weblink Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 – United States – Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico, 2016 Population Estimates, United States Census Bureau, Population Division, March 2016, March 23, 2017, !2010 Census!Change!Counties {{nts|1}} {{nts|28}}Cincinnati metropolitan area>Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Areainvert=on2179082}}Brown County, Ohio>Brown, Butler County, Ohio, Clermont County, Ohio>Clermont, Clinton County, Ohio, Hamilton County, Ohio>Hamilton, Warren {{nts|2}} {{nts|32}}Columbus metropolitan area, Ohio>Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical Areainvert=on2078725}}Delaware County, Ohio>Delaware, Fairfield County, Ohio, Franklin County, Ohio>Franklin, Hocking County, Ohio, Licking County, Ohio>Licking, Madison County, Ohio, Morrow County, Ohio>Morrow, Perry County, Ohio, Pickaway County, Ohio>Pickaway, Union {{nts|3}} {{nts|33}}Greater Cleveland>Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Areainvert=on2058844}}Cuyahoga County, Ohio>Cuyahoga, Geauga County, Ohio, Lake County, Ohio>Lake, Lorain County, Ohio, Medina County, Ohio>Medina {{nts|4}} {{nts|73}}Dayton metropolitan area>Dayton, OH Metropolitan Statistical Areainvert=on799232}}Greene County, Ohio>Greene, Miami County, Ohio, Montgomery County, Ohio>Montgomery {{nts|5}} {{nts|82}}Akron metropolitan area>Akron, OH Metropolitan Statistical Areainvert=on703200}}Portage County, Ohio>Portage, Summit{| class="wikitable"|+ Largest combined statistical areas in Ohio! Ohio Rank! U.S. Rank! Combined statistical areas!data-sort-type="number"|2018 EstimateWEB,weblink Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 – United States – Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico, United States Census Bureau, Population Division, March 2018, March 31, 2018, !data-sort-type="number"|2010 Census!data-sort-type="number"|Change!Subdivisions {{nts|1}} {{nts|16}}Northeast Ohio>Cleveland-Akron-Canton, OH Combined Statistical Areainvert=on3515646}}| Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical AreaAkron, OH Metropolitan Statistical AreaCanton-Massillon, OH Metropolitan Statistical AreaAshtabula, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaNew Philadelphia-Dover, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaSandusky, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaNorwalk, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area {{nts|2}} {{nts|24}}Columbus metropolitan area, Ohio>Columbus-Marion-Zanesville, OH Combined Statistical Areainvert=on2308509}}| Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical AreaZanesville, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaChillicothe, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaMarion, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaMount Vernon, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaBellefontaine, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaCambridge, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaWashington Court House, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area {{nts|3}} {{nts|28}}|Cincinnati-Wilmington-Maysville, OH-KY-IN Combined Statistical Areainvert=on2174110}}| Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical AreaWilmington, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaMaysville, KY Micropolitan Statistical Area {{nts|4}} {{nts|52}}|Dayton-Springfield-Sidney, OH Combined Statistical Areainvert=on1080044}}| Dayton, OH Metropolitan Statistical AreaSpringfield, OH Metropolitan Statistical AreaGreenville, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaSidney, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaUrbana, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area {{nts|5}} {{nts|74}}|Youngstown-Warren, OH-PA Combined Statistical Areainvert=on673614}}| Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA Metropolitan Statistical AreaSalem, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaThe Cincinnati metropolitan area extends into Kentucky and Indiana, the Steubenville metropolitan area extends into West Virginia, The Toledo metropolitan area extends into Michigan, and the Youngstown metropolitan area extends into Pennsylvania.Ohio cities that function as centers of United States micropolitan areas include:{{div col|colwidth=18em}} {{div col end}}

History

Native Americans

File:Sunwatch Aerial illustration HRoe 2018 400px.jpg|thumb|Artists conception of the Fort Ancient SunWatch Indian Village in Dayton ]]Archeological evidence of spear points of both the Folsom and Clovis types indicate that the Ohio Valley was inhabited by nomadic people as early as 13,000 BC.Knepper (1989), p. 9. These early nomads disappeared from Ohio by 1,000 BC. Between 1,000 and 800 BC, the sedentary Adena culture emerged. The Adena were able to establish "semi-permanent" villages because they domesticated plants, including, sunflowers, and "grew squash and possibly corn"; with hunting and gathering, this cultivation supported more settled, complex villages.Knepper (1989), p. 10. The most notable remnant of the Adena culture is the Great Serpent Mound, located in Adams County, Ohio.File:5NationsExpansion.jpg|thumb|upright=0.95|Iroquois conquests during the Beaver Wars (mid-1600s), which largely depopulated the upper and mid-Ohio RiverOhio RiverAround 100 BC, the Adena evolved into the Hopewell people who were also mound builders. Their complex, large and technologically sophisticated earthworks can be found in modern-day Marietta, Newark, and Circleville.Knepper (1989), p. 11. They were also a prolific trading society, with a trading network that spanned a third of the continent.Douglas T. Price; Gary M. Feinman (2008). Images of the Past, 5th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 274–277. The Hopewell disappeared from the Ohio Valley about 600 AD. The Mississippian Culture rose as the Hopewell Culture declined. Many Siouan-speaking peoples from the plains and east coast claim them as ancestors and say they lived throughout the Ohio region until approximately the 13th century.Knepper (1989), p. 13.There were three other cultures contemporaneous with the Mississippians: the Fort Ancient people, the Whittlesey Focus people and the Monongahela Culture."Monongahela culture-AD 1050-1635". Fort Hill Archeology. Retrieved 2010-01-14. All three cultures disappeared in the 17th century. Their origins are unknown. It is generally believed{{weasel inline|date=January 2019}} that the Shawnees may have absorbed the Fort Ancient people. It is also possible that the Monongahela held no land in Ohio during the Colonial Era. The Mississippian Culture were close to and traded extensively with the Fort Ancient people.Indians in the Ohio Valley were greatly affected{{how|date=January 2019}} by the aggressive tactics of the Iroquois Confederation, based in central and western New York.Knepper (1989), p. 14. After the Beaver Wars in the mid-17th century, the Iroquois claimed much of the Ohio country as hunting and, more importantly, beaver-trapping ground. After the devastation of epidemics and war in the mid-17th century, which largely emptied the Ohio country of indigenous people{{dubious|date=January 2019}} by the mid-to-late 17th century, the land gradually became repopulated by the mostly Algonquian. Many of these Ohio-country nations were multi-ethnic (sometimes multi-linguistic) societies born out of the earlier devastation brought about by disease,{{clarify|reason=no disease has been mentioned yet|date=January 2019}} war, and subsequent social instability. They subsisted on agriculture (corn, sunflowers, beans, etc.) supplemented by seasonal hunts. By the 18th century, they were part of a larger global economy brought about by European entry into the fur trade.Roseboom (1967), p. 20.The indigenous nations to inhabit Ohio in the historical period{{vague|reason=we haven't defined this time period|date=January 2019}} included the IroquoianPetun, Erie, Chonnonton, Wyandot, the Mingo Seneca & the Iroquois Confederacy, the AlgonquianMiami, Mascouten Lenape Shawnee & Odawa & the SiouanMosopelea.louis, franquelin, jean baptiste. "Franquelin's map of Louisiana.". LOC.gov. Retrieved August 17, 2017.Knepper (1989), pp. 14–17. Ohio country was also the site of Indian massacres, such as the Yellow Creek Massacre, Gnadenhutten and Pontiac's Rebellion school massacre.Knepper (1989), pp. 43–44. Most Native Peoples who remained in Ohio were slowly bought out{{where|date=January 2019}} and convinced to leave{{how|date=January 2019}}, or ordered to do so by law{{which|date=January 2019}}, in the early 19th century with the Indian Removal Act of 1830.{{cleanup|section|reason=This act affected only southern tribes in Mississippi and Alabama|date=January 2019}}

Colonial and Revolutionary eras

During the 18th century, the French set up a system of trading posts to control the fur trade in the region. Beginning in 1754, France and Great Britain fought the French and Indian War. As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the French ceded control of Ohio and the remainder of the Old Northwest to Great Britain.{{missing info|Dunmore's War|date=January 2019}}Pontiac's Rebellion in the 1760s, however, posed a challenge to British military control."Pontiac's Rebellion" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090403005247weblink |date=April 3, 2009 }}, Ohio History Central, July 1, 2005. This came to an end with the colonists' victory in the American Revolution. In the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Britain ceded all claims to Ohio country to the United States.

Northwest Territory

File:DSCN3504 ohiocompany e.JPG|thumb|Plaque commemorating the Northwest Ordinance outside Federal Hall National MemorialFederal Hall National MemorialThe United States created the Northwest Territory under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.Cayton (2002), p. 3. Slavery was not permitted in the new territory. Settlement began with the founding of Marietta by the Ohio Company of Associates, which had been formed by a group of American Revolutionary War veterans. Following the Ohio Company, the Miami Company (also referred to as the "Symmes Purchase") claimed the southwestern section, and the Connecticut Land Company surveyed and settled the Connecticut Western Reserve in present-day Northeast Ohio. Territorial surveyors from Fort Steuben began surveying an area of eastern Ohio called the Seven Ranges at about the same time.{{missing info|Treaty of Fort Stanwyx, Northwest Indian War, Battle of Fallen Timbers, Treaty of Greenville, Fort Washington, Harmar's Campaign, St. Clair's Massacre, Jay's Treaty & British cessions around the Great Lakes, 1796|date=December 2018}} The old Northwest Territory originally included areas previously known as Ohio Country and Illinois Country. As Ohio prepared for statehood, the Indiana Territory was created, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula and a sliver of southeastern Indiana called "The Gore".Under the Northwest Ordinance, areas of the territory could be defined and admitted as states once their population reached 60,000. Although Ohio's population numbered only 45,000 in December 1801, Congress determined that the population was growing rapidly and Ohio could begin the path to statehood. The assumption was that it would exceed 60,000 residents by the time it was admitted as a state. Furthermore, in regards to the Leni Lenape Native Americans living in the region, Congress decided that 10,000 acres on the Muskingum River in the present state of Ohio would "be set apart and the property thereof be vested in the Moravian Brethren ... or a society of the said Brethren for civilizing the Indians and promoting Christianity".WEB, Religion and the Congress of the Confederation, 1774–89,weblink Library of Congress, April 11, 2012,

Statehood and settlement

File:James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg|thumb|right|James A. Garfield, President of the United States from Ohio]]On February 19, 1803, U.S. President Thomas Jefferson signed an act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution.An act to provide for the due execution of the laws of the United States, within the state of Ohio, ch. 7, {{USStat|2|201}} (February 19, 1803). However, Congress had never passed a resolution formally admitting Ohio as the 17th state. The current custom of Congress declaring an official date of statehood did not begin until 1812,{{disputed inline|date=September 2017}} with Louisiana's admission as the 18th state. Although no formal resolution of admission was required, when the oversight was discovered in 1953, Ohio congressman George H. Bender introduced a bill in Congress to admit Ohio to the Union retroactive to March 1, 1803, the date on which the Ohio General Assembly first convened. At a special session at the old state capital in Chillicothe, the Ohio state legislature approved a new petition for statehood that was delivered to Washington, D.C. on horseback. On August 7, 1953 (the year of Ohio's 150th anniversary), President Eisenhower signed a congressional joint resolution that officially declared March 1, 1803, the date of Ohio's admittance into the Union.JOURNAL, Blue, Frederick J., The Date of Ohio Statehood, Ohio Academy of History Newsletter, Autumn 2002,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100911164131weblink">weblink September 11, 2010, Joint Resolution for admitting the State of Ohio into the Union, ({{USStatute|83|204|67|407|1953|08|07}}).WEB,weblink Clearing up the Confusion surrounding OHIO's Admission to Statehood, Ohio has had three capital cities: Chillicothe, Zanesville, and Columbus. Chillicothe was the capital from 1803 to 1810. The capital was then moved to Zanesville for two years, as part of a state legislative compromise to get a bill passed. The capital was then moved back to Chillicothe, which was the capital from 1812 to 1816. Finally, the capital was moved to Columbus, to have it near the geographic center of the state.Although many Native Americans had migrated west to evade American encroachment, others remained settled in the state, sometimes assimilating in part. In 1830 under President Andrew Jackson, the US government forced Indian Removal of most tribes to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.In 1835, Ohio fought with Michigan in the Toledo War, a mostly bloodless boundary war over the Toledo Strip. Only one person was injured in the conflict. Congress intervened, making Michigan's admittance as a state conditional on ending the conflict. In exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip, Michigan was given the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula, in addition to the eastern third that was already considered part of the state.(File:Ohio.JPG|left|thumb|Ohio state welcome sign, in an older (1990s) style)File:Ohio schild.jpg|thumb|left|Newer state sign, (US 52)]]

Civil War and growth

Ohio's central position and its population gave it an important place during the Civil War. The Ohio River was a vital artery for troop and supply movements, as were Ohio's railroads. The industry of Ohio made the state one of the most important states in the Union during the Civil war. Ohio contributed more soldiers per-capita than any other state in the Union. In 1862, the state's morale was badly shaken in the aftermath of the battle of Shiloh, a costly victory in which Ohio forces suffered 2,000 casualties.Knepper (1989), pp. 233–234. Later that year, when Confederate troops under the leadership of Stonewall Jackson threatened Washington, D.C., Ohio governor David Tod still could recruit 5,000 volunteers to provide three months of service.Roseboom and Weisenburger (1967), p. 188. From July 12 to July 23, 1863, Southern Ohio and Indiana were attacked in Morgan's Raid. While this raid was insignificant and small, it aroused fear among people in Ohio and Indiana.WEB,weblink's_Raid, Morgan's Raid - Ohio History Central, www.ohiohistorycentral.org, Almost 35,000 Ohioans died in the conflict, and 30,000 were physically wounded.Cayton (2002), p. 129. By the end of the Civil War, the Union's top three generals–Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Philip Sheridan–were all from Ohio.Morris (1992), pp. 10–11.Cayton (2002), pp. 128–129.

Industrialization

{{missing info|industrial revolution, WWI, great depression, WW2|date=December 2018}}In 1912 a Constitutional Convention was held with Charles B. Galbreath as secretary. The result reflected the concerns of the Progressive Era. It introduced the initiative and the referendum. Also, it allowed the General Assembly to put questions on the ballot for the people to ratify laws and constitutional amendments originating in the Legislature. Under the Jeffersonian principle that laws should be reviewed once a generation, the constitution provided for a recurring question to appear on Ohio's general election ballots every 20 years. The question asks whether a new convention is required. Although the question has appeared in 1932, 1952, 1972, and 1992, it has never been approved. Instead, constitutional amendments have been proposed by petition to the legislature hundreds of times and adopted in a majority of cases.

Demographics

{{US Census population|1800= 45365|1810= 230760|1820= 581434|1830= 937903|1840= 1519467|1850= 1980329|1860= 2339511|1870= 2665260|1880= 3198062|1890= 3672329|1900= 4157545|1910= 4767121|1920= 5759394|1930= 6646697|1940= 6907612|1950= 7946627|1960= 9706397|1970= 10652017|1980= 10797630|1990= 10847115|2000= 11353140|2010= 11536504|estimate= 11689442|estyear= 2018|align-fn=centerTITLE=RESIDENT POPULATION DATA – 2010 CENSUS ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 18, 2012 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20131019160532/HTTP://2010.CENSUS.GOV/2010CENSUS/DATA/APPORTIONMENT-POP-TEXT.PHP FORMAT=PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, POPULATION DIVISIONACCESSDATE=JANUARY 16, 2019, }}

Population

From just over 45,000 residents in 1800, Ohio's population grew at rates of over 10% per decade (except for the 1940 census) until the 1970 census, which recorded just over 10.65 million Ohioans.WEB, Census of Population: 1970, Part 37 – Ohio, Section 1, United States Census Bureau, 1970,weblink March 27, 2009, Growth then slowed for the next four decades.WEB, Balistreri, Kelly, Ohio Population News: Why did Ohio lose a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives?, Center for Family and Demographic Research at Bowling Green State University, February 2001,weblink March 27, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080516165832weblink">weblink May 16, 2008, mdy-all, The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Ohio was 11,689,442 on July 1, 2018, a 1.33% increase since the 2010 United States Census. Ohio's population growth lags that of the entire United States, and Caucasians are found in a greater density than the United States average. {{As of|2000}}, Ohio's center of population is located in Morrow County,WEB, 2000 Population and Geographic Centers of Ohio, Ohio Department of Development, Office of Strategic Research, March 2001,weblink March 26, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051124004820weblink">weblink November 24, 2005, mdy-all, in the county seat of Mount Gilead.WEB, Population and Population Centers by State: 2000, United States Census Bureau, December 6, 2008,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130508041813weblink">weblink May 8, 2013, mdy-all, This is approximately {{convert|6346|ft|m}} south and west of Ohio's population center in 1990.(File:Population Growth Ohio.png|thumb|Graph of Ohio's population growth from 1800 to 2000.)As of 2011, 27.6% of Ohio's children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups."Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer. June 3, 2012.6.2% of Ohio's population is under five years of age, 23.7 percent under 18 years of age, and 14.1 percent were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.2 percent of the population.

Birth data

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.{| class="wikitable"|+ Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother! Race! 201weblink 201weblink 201weblink 201weblink 201weblinkWhite Americans>White| 109,749 (79.0%)| 110,003 (78.9%)| 109,566 (78.7%)| ...| ... Non-Hispanic Whites>Non-Hispanic White| 104,059 (74.9%)| 104,102 (74.6%)| 103,586 (74.4%)| 100,225 (72.6%)| 98,762 (72.1%)African Americans>Black| 24,952 (18.0%)| 24,931 (17.9%)| 25,078 (18.0%)| 22,337 (16.2%)| 22,431 (16.4%)Asian Americans>Asian| 3,915 (2.8%)| 4,232 (3.0%)| 4,367 (3.1%)| 4,311 (3.1%)| 4,380 (3.2%)Native Americans in the United States>American Indian| 320 (0.2%)| 301 (0.2%)| 253 (0.2%)| 128 (0.1%)| 177 (0.1%)Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic (of any race)| 6,504 (4.7%)| 6,884 (4.9%)| 6,974 (5.0%)| 7,420 (5.4%)| 7,468 (5.5%)| Total Ohio| 138,936 (100%)| 139,467 (100%)| 139,264 (100%)| 138,085 (100%)| 136,832 (100%)
  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Ancestry

According to the 2010 United States Census, the racial composition of Ohio was the following:WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140305164937weblink">weblink y, American FactFinder - Results, U. S. Census, Bureau, March 5, 2014, factfinder.census.gov, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141218203429weblink">weblink y, American FactFinder - Results, U. S. Census, Bureau, December 18, 2014, factfinder.census.gov, {| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"|+ Ohio Racial Breakdown of Population! Racial composition !! 1990WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080725044857weblink">weblink yes, July 25, 2008, Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States, July 25, 2008, !! 2000WEB,weblink Population of Ohio: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts, !! 2010WEB,weblink US Census Bureau 2010 Census, www.census.gov, White American>White 87.8% 85.0% 82.7%African American >| 12.2%Asian American>Asian 0.8% 1.2% 1.7%Native Americans in the United States>Native 0.2% 0.2% 0.2%Native Hawaiian andPacific Islander>other Pacific Islander – – –Race and ethnicity in the United States Census>Other race 0.5% 0.8% 1.1%Multiracial American>Two or more races – 1.4% 2.1%In 2010, there were 469,700 foreign-born residents in Ohio, corresponding to 4.1% of the total population. Of these, 229,049 (2.0%) were naturalized US citizens and 240,699 (2.1%) were not. The largest groups were:WEB,weblink American FactFinder - Results, factfinder2.census.gov, Mexico (54,166), India (50,256), China (34,901), Germany (19,219), Philippines (16,410), United Kingdom (15,917), Canada (14,223), Russia (11,763), South Korea (11,307), and Ukraine (10,681). Though predominantly white, Ohio has large black populations in all major metropolitan areas throughout the state, Ohio has a significant Hispanic population made up of Mexicans in Toledo and Columbus, and Puerto Ricans in Cleveland and Columbus, and also has a significant and diverse Asian population in Columbus.The largest ancestry groups (which the Census defines as not including racial terms) in the state are:WEB,weblink American FactFinder - Results, factfinder2.census.gov, Ancestries claimed by less than 1% of the population include Sub-Saharan African, Puerto Rican, Swiss, Swedish, Arab, Greek, Norwegian, Romanian, Austrian, Lithuanian, Finnish, West Indian, Portuguese and Slovene.(File:Ohio population map.png|thumb|Ohio population density map.)

Languages

About 6.7% of the population age 5 years and over reported speaking a language other than English, with 2.2% of the population speaking Spanish, 2.6% speaking other Indo-European languages, 1.1% speaking Asian and Austronesian languages, and 0.8% speaking other languages. Numerically: 10,100,586 spoke English, 239,229 Spanish, 55,970 German, 38,990 Chinese, 33,125 Arabic, and 32,019 French. In addition 59,881 spoke a Slavic language and 42,673 spoke another West Germanic language according to the 2010 Census.WEB,weblink American FactFinder - Results, U.S. Census, Bureau, factfinder2.census.gov, Ohio also had the nation's largest population of Slovene speakers, second largest of Slovak speakers, second largest of Pennsylvania Dutch (German) speakers, and the third largest of Serbian speakers.WEB,weblink Data Center Language List,

Religion

File:Amish - On the way to school by Gadjoboy-crop.jpg|thumb|upright=0.75|right| AmishAmishAccording to a Pew Forum poll, as of 2008, 76% of Ohioans identified as Christian.WEB, Religious Composition of Ohio, The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, 2008,weblink March 27, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080306022953weblink">weblink March 6, 2008, Specifically, 26% of Ohio's population identified as Evangelical Protestant, 22% as Mainline Protestant, and 21% as Catholic. 17% of the population is unaffiliated with any religious body. 1.3% (148,380) were Jewish.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Jewish Population in the United States, by State, Jewish Virtual Library, May 14, 2013, There are also small minorities of Jehovah's Witnesses (1%), Muslims (1%), Hindus (

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