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2010 United States Census
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{{Use American English|date = March 2019}}{{short description|23rd national census of the United States, taken in 2010}}{{Use mdy dates|date=November 2018}}







factoids
9.7%| region_type = stateCalifornia (37,253,956)}}Wyoming (563,826)}}| previous_census = 2000 United States Census| previous_year = 2000| next_census = 2020 United States Census| next_year = 2020}}The 2010 United States Census (commonly referred to as the 2010 Census) is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010.WEB, Interactive Timeline,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101220032051weblink">weblink dead, December 20, 2010, About the 2010 Census, U.S. Census Bureau, June 17, 2010, 2011, The census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538,PRESS RELEASE, U.S. Census Bureau Announces 2010 Census Population Counts – Apportionment Counts Delivered to President,weblink United States Census Bureau, December 21, 2010, January 9, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101224044247weblink">weblink December 24, 2010, dead, mdy, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over 10 people as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000.

Introduction

File:2010CensusBarackObamaOvalOffice.jpg|thumb|left|U.S. President Barack Obama completing his census form in the Oval OfficeOval OfficeAs required by the United States Constitution, the U.S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U.S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U.S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code.WEB, Selby, W. Gardner, Americans must answer U.S. Census Bureau survey by law, though agency has not prosecuted since 1970,weblink politifact.com, January 6, 2017, January 9, 2014, On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves personally inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.NEWS,weblink Remote Alaska village is first eyed in census, Rachel, D'oro, Associated Press, Noorvik, Alaska, January 6, 2017, January 25, 2010, The Denver Post, More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U.S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010.WEB, 2010 Census forms arrive, kicking off once-a-decade head count,weblink NJ.com, January 6, 2017, March 15, 2010, The number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was approximately 134 million on April 1, 2010.WEB, Stand up and be counted,weblink The Economist, January 6, 2017, March 31, 2010, Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today."The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%.WEB,weblink Take 10 Map 2010 Census Participation Census Bureau, August 10, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100820144620weblink">weblink August 20, 2010, dead, mdy-all, From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up" (NRFU).In December 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U.S. President for apportionment, and later in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states.Personally identifiable information will be available in 2082.WEB, The "72-Year Rule" - History - U.S. Census Bureau,weblink www.census.gov, October 26, 2015, US Census Bureau, Census History Staff, PIO,

Major changes

The Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census.WEB,weblink Frequently Asked Questions, 2010 Census, U.S. Census Bureau, May 10, 2010, June 17, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110714082232weblink">weblink July 14, 2011, In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information. The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions:
  1. How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010?
  2. Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: (checkboxes for: children; relatives; non-relatives; people staying temporarily; none)
  3. Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – [Checkboxes for owned with a mortgage, owned free and clear, rented, occupied without rent.]
  4. What is your telephone number?
  5. What is Person 1's name? (last, first)
  6. What is Person 1's sex? (male, female)
  7. What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth?
  8. Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? (checkboxes for: "No", and several for "Yes" which specify groups of countries)
  9. What is Person 1's race? (checkboxes for 14 including "other". One possibility was "Black, African Am., or Negro")
  10. Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? (checkboxes for "No", and several locations for "Yes")
The form included space to repeat some or all of these questions for up to twelve residents total.In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download.Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey.WEB,weblink e-Census Unplugged: Why Americans Should Be Able to Complete the Census Online, Daniel, Castro, Information Technology & Innovation Foundation, Washington, D.C., March 29, 2010, February 2008, The survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years. A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, and no household will receive it more than once every five years.WEB, Chapter 4: Sample Design and Selection,weblink ACS Design and Methodology, U.S. Census Bureau, June 17, 2011, December 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111020045514weblink">weblink October 20, 2011, dead, mdy-all, In June 2009, the U.S. Census Bureau announced that it would count same-sex married couples. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option. When noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples (whether same-sex or opposite-sex) who were not married.WEB,weblink LGBT Fact Sheet, 2010.census.gov, October 12, 2017, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100528144411weblink">weblink May 28, 2010, mdy-all,

Cost

The 2010 census cost $13 billion, approximately $42 per capita; by comparison, the 2010 census per-capita cost for China was about US$1 and for India was US$0.40.NEWS,weblink Censuses: Costing the count, June 2, 2011, The Economist, June 17, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110610033208weblink">weblink June 10, 2011, live, mdy, Operational costs were $5.4 billion, significantly under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office (GAO) noted that the cost of conducting the census has approximately doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, and at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion.WEB,weblink 2010 Census: Cost and Design Issues Need to Be Addressed Soon (GAO-04-37), January 15, 2004, PDF, U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C., 54778614, December 27, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100107165327weblink">weblink January 7, 2010, live, mdy, In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in significantly under budget; of an almost $7 billion operational budget:NEWS, Census Bureau comes in under budget for 2010 operational costs,weblink CNN, August 10, 2010, August 10, 2010,
  • $650 million was saved in the budget for the door-to-door questioning (NRFU) phase because 72% of households returned mailed questionnaires;
  • $150 million was saved because of lower-than-planned costs in areas including Alaska and tribal lands; and
  • the $800 million emergency fund was not needed.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency also has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be immediately reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U.S. households that did not reply by mail were based on such outside interviews, Groves said.

Technology

In 2005, Lockheed Martin won a six-year, $500 million contract to capture and standardize data for the census. The contract included systems, facilities, and staffing.NEWS, Lockheed Gets Census Job, harps://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/02/AR2005100201032.html, The Washington Post, October 3, 2005, September 28, 2015, 0190-8286, Mary, Mosquera, The final value of that contract was in excess of one billion dollars.REPORT, 2010 CENSUS PLANNING MEMORANDA SERIES No 195,weblink May 22, 2012, February 10, 2016, Information technology was about a quarter of the projected $11.3 billion cost of the decennial census.NEWS,weblink Preparing for a decennial task, Aliya, Sternstein, June 13, 2005, Federal Computer Week, 1105 Media, Falls Church, Virginia, December 27, 2009, The use of high-speed document scanning technology, such as ImageTrac scanners developed by IBML, helped Lockheed Martin complete the project on schedule and under budget."IBML Scanning Platform Helps Lockheed Martin Team Complete 2010 Census Project On Schedule, Under Budget". Health IT Outcomes. Retrieved January 20, 2015.This was the first census to use hand-held computing devices with GPS capability, although they were only used for the address canvassing operation. Enumerators (information gatherers) that had operational problems with the device understandably made negative reports. During the 2009 Senate confirmation hearings for Robert Groves, President Obama's Census Director appointee, there was much mention of contracting problems but very little criticism of the units themselves.WEB,weblink Have feds cheapened contract bonuses?, FCW, March 28, 2008, August 9, 2013, Chan, Wade-Hahn, In rural areas there was a problem with transmission of data to and from the HHC. Since the units were updated nightly with important changes and reprogramming, operator implementation of proper procedure was imperative. Dramatic dysfunction and delays were caused if the units were not put into sleep mode overnight. The Census Bureau chose to conduct the primary operation, Non-Response Follow Up (NRFU), without using the handheld computing devices.WEB,weblink Press Releases, Harris.com, October 12, 2017, WEB,weblink U.S. Census Bureau – Use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS), Ask.census.gov, October 12, 2017, {{Dead link|date=September 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}

Marketing and undercounts

Due to allegations surrounding previous censuses that poor people and non-whites are routinely undercounted, for the 2010 census, the Census Bureau tried to avoid that bias by enlisting tens of thousands of intermediaries, such as churches, charities and firms, to explain to people the importance of being counted.In April 2009, the Census Bureau announced that it intended to work with community organizations in an effort to count all illegal immigrants in the United States for the census.NEWS, Ballasy, Nicholas, Census Bureau: We'll Work with 'Community Organizations' to Count All Illegal Aliens in 2010, Cybercast News Service, April 2, 2009,weblink June 17, 2011, The Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) was given a contract to help publicize the importance of the census count and to encourage individuals to fill out their forms. In September 2009, after controversial undercover videos showing four ACORN staffers giving tax advice to a man and a woman posing as a prostitute, the Bureau canceled ACORN's contract.NEWS,weblink Census Bureau Cuts Its Ties With Acorn, Sherman, Jake, September 12, 2009, The Wall Street Journal, June 17, 2011, Various American celebrities, including Demi Lovato and Eva Longoria,WEB,weblink Demi Lovato And Eva Longoria Urge Census Participation, March 19, 2010, Looktothestars.org, October 12, 2017, were used in public service announcements targeting younger people to fill out census forms. Wilmer Valderrama and Rosario Dawson have helped spread census awareness among young Hispanics, a historically low participating ethnicity in the U.S. Census.WEB,weblink Rosario Dawson, Wilmer Valderrama Encourage Latinos To Complete 2010 Census In New PSA's, icelebz.com, April 28, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100221065454weblink">weblink February 21, 2010, dead, mdy-all, Rapper Ludacris also participated in efforts to spread awareness of the 2010 Census.WEB,weblink Ludacris 2010 Census Campaign In New York, Killerhiphop.com, October 12, 2017, The Census Bureau hired about 635,000 people to find those U.S. residents who had not returned their forms by mail; as of May 28, 2010, 113 census workers had been victims of crime while conducting the census.WEB,weblink US Census Takers Attacked on the Job, National Ledger, May 28, 2010, May 30, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100531064523weblink">weblink May 31, 2010, live, mdy, {{Update after|2014|8|16}} As of June 29, there were 436 incidents involving assaults or threats against enumerators, more than double the 181 incidents in 2000; one enumerator, attempting to hand-deliver the census forms to a Hawaii County police officer, was arrested for trespassing – the officer's fellow policemen made the arrest.NEWS, Census worker taken to court for trespassing,weblink Associated Press, July 5, 2010, January 6, 2017, The resident continued to refuse to take the Census, and [census worker Russell] Haas said he waited outside a chain-link fence while the resident called his co-workers at the Hawai‘i County Police Department. When police arrived, instead of asking the resident to accept the forms as required by federal law, the officers crumpled the papers into Haas' chest and handcuffed him, Haas said....Haas said he told officers that it was his duty to leave the Census forms with the resident, and that he would leave as soon as he did it. The officers were enforcing state law and had not been trained on the federal Census law, Hawaii County Police Maj. Sam Thomas said., New York Post, Some political conservatives and libertarians questioned the validity of the questions and even encouraged people to refuse to answer questions for privacy and constitutional reasons. Michele Bachmann, a former conservative Republican Representative from Minnesota, stated that she would not fill out her census form other than to indicate the number of people living in her household because "the Constitution doesn't require any information beyond that."NEWS,weblink Rep. Bachmann Refuses To Fill Out 2010 Census, Swami, Perana, June 18, 2009, Political Hotsheet, CBS News, April 15, 2010, Former Republican Representative and Libertarian presidential candidate Bob Barr stated that the census has become too intrusive, going beyond the mere enumeration (i.e., count) intended by the framers of the U.S. Constitution.WEB,weblink Census goes too far with children, Atlanta Journal Constitution, September 8, 2009, According to political commentator Juan Williams, "Census participation rates have been declining since 1970, and if conservatives don't participate, doubts about its accuracy and credibility may become fatal."As a result, the Census Bureau undertook an unprecedented advertising campaign targeted at encouraging white political conservatives to fill out their forms, in the hope of avoiding an undercount of this group. The 2010 U.S. Census was the primary sponsor at NASCAR races in Atlanta, Bristol, and Martinsville, and sponsored the No. 16 Ford Fusion driven by Greg Biffle for part of the season, because of a marketing survey that indicated most NASCAR fans lean politically conservative.NEWS,weblink Marketing the 2010 census with a conservative-friendly face, Juan, Williams, March 1, 2010, Washington Post, March 25, 2011, It also ran an advertisement during the 2010 Super Bowl, and hired singer Marie Osmond, who is thought to have many conservative fans, to publicize the census.

Reapportionment

File:HouseDelegations2013-23.svg|upright=1.8|thumb|right|The 435 seats of the House grouped by state, as apportioned after the 2010 Census]]The results of the 2010 census determined the number of seats that each state receives in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 2012 elections. Consequently, this affected the number of votes each state has in the Electoral College for the 2012 presidential election.Because of population changes, eighteen states had changes in their number of seats. Eight states gained at least one seat, and ten states lost at least one seat. The final result involved 12 seats being switched.NEWS,weblink APPORTIONMENT POPULATION AND NUMBER OF REPRESENTATIVES, BY STATE: 2010 CENSUS, US Census, December 21, 2010, December 21, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110124054026weblink">weblink January 24, 2011, {| class="wikitable" style="vertical-align:bottom;"! Gained four seats|| | Gained two seats|| |Gained one seat|| |Lost one seat|| |Lost two seats style="vertical-align:top;"United States congressional delegations from Texas>TexasUnited States congressional delegations from Florida>FloridaUnited States congressional delegations from Arizona>ArizonaUnited States congressional delegations from GeorgiaUnited States congressional delegations from Nevada>NevadaUnited States congressional delegations from South CarolinaUnited States congressional delegations from Utah>UtahWashingtonUnited States congressional delegations from Illinois>IllinoisUnited States congressional delegations from IowaUnited States congressional delegations from Louisiana>LouisianaUnited States congressional delegations from MassachusettsUnited States congressional delegations from Michigan>MichiganUnited States congressional delegations from MissouriUnited States congressional delegations from New Jersey>New JerseyPennsylvaniaUnited States congressional delegations from New York>New YorkOhioMap of 2010 Reapportionment{{clr}}

Controversies

Some objected to the counting of persons who are in the United States illegally.NEWS, Our Unconstitutional Census,weblink The Wall Street Journal, August 9, 2009, John S., Baker, Elliott, Stonecipher, August 9, 2009, NEWS, Census 2010: Latino Pastors Urge Census Boycott,weblink Washington Post, April 22, 2009, Republican senators David Vitter and Bob Bennett tried unsuccessfully to add questions on immigration status to the census form.Organizations such as the Prison Policy Initiative argued that the census counts of incarcerated men and women as residents of prisons, rather than of their pre-incarceration addresses, skewed political clout and resulted in misleading demographic and population data.JOURNAL, PDF,weblink Prisoners of the Census: Electoral and Financial Consequences of Counting Prisoners Where They Go, Not Where They Come From, Eric, Lotke, Peter, Wagner, Pace Law Review, 24, 2, Spring 2004, 587–607, Pace Law School, White Plains, New York, 0272-2410, Originally presented at Prison Reform Revisited: a symposium held at Pace University School of Law and the New York State Judicial Institute, Oct. 16–18, 2003. Research supported by grants from the Soros Justice Fellowship Program of the Open Society Institute. Retrieved January 2, 2010.The term "Negro" was used in the questionnaire as one of the options for African Americans (Question 9. What is Person (number)'s race? ... Black, African Am., or Negro) as a choice to describe one's race. Census Bureau spokesman Jack Martin explained that "many older African-Americans identified themselves that way, and many still do. Those who identify themselves as Negroes need to be included."WEB,weblink U.S. Census Bureau interactive form, Question 9, January 8, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100108084300weblink">weblink January 8, 2010, dead, mdy, NEWS,weblink Use of word Negro on 2010 census forms raises memories of Jim Crow, McFadden, Katie, McShane, Larry, Daily News (New York), NYDailyNews.com, January 6, 2010, January 8, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100109012939weblink">weblink January 9, 2010, live, mdy, The word was also used in the 2000 Census, with over 56,000 people identifying themselves as "Negro".NEWS,weblink Should the Census Be Asking People if They Are Negro?, Time, January 23, 2010, February 7, 2010, Barbara, Kiviat,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100126090118weblink">weblink January 26, 2010, live, mdy, The 2010 census contained ten questions about age, gender, ethnicity, home ownership, and household relationships. Six of the ten questions were to be answered for each individual in the household. Federal law has provisions for fining those who refuse to complete the census form.Frequently Asked Questions on the National Census from the ACLU websiteDetroit Mayor Dave Bing held a press conference on March 22, 2011 to announce that the city would challenge its census results.NEWS,weblink Bing plans to challenge Detroit census numbers, Cwiek, Sarah, MichiganRadio.com, March 22, 2011, June 15, 2011, The challenge, being led by the city's planning department, cited an inconsistency as an example showing a downtown census tract which lost only 60 housing units, but 1,400 people, implying that a downtown jail or dormitory was missed in canvassing.NEWS,weblink Detroit census challenge, Davidson, Kate, MichiganRadio.com, May 2, 2011, June 15, 2011, NYC Mayor Michael Bloomberg held a conference on March 27, 2011, to announce that the city would also challenge his city's census results, specifically the apparent undercounting in the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn.NYC To File Formal Challenge to 2010 Census under Count Question Resolution Process WEB,weblink Archived copy, March 31, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110330064242weblink">weblink March 30, 2011, Bloomberg said that the numbers for Queens and Brooklyn, the two most populous boroughs, are implausible.On the 2010 Census Results {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110528071135weblink |date=May 28, 2011 }} According to the Census, they grew by only 0.1% and 1.6%, respectively, while the other boroughs grew by between 3% and 5%. He also stated that the census showed improbably high numbers of vacant housing in vital neighborhoods such as Jackson Heights, Queens.The District of Columbia announced in August 2011 that it would also challenge its census results. The Mayor's Office claimed that the detailed information provided for 549 census blocks is "nonsensical", listing examples of census data that show housing units located in the middle of a street that does not actually exist. However, officials do not believe the city's total population will drastically change as a result of the challenge.NEWS, DeBonis, Mike, District challenges its 2010 Census count,weblink August 14, 2011, The Washington Post, August 10, 2011,

Clemons v. Department of Commerce

A 2009 lawsuit, Clemons v. Department of Commerce (see also controversy and history of United States congressional apportionment), sought a court order for Congress to reapportion the House of Representatives with a greater number of members following the census, to rectify under- and over-representation of some states under the so-called 435 rule established by the Apportionment Act of 1911, which limits the number of U.S. Representatives to that number, meaning that some states are slightly underrepresented proportionate to their true population and that others are slightly overrepresented by the same standard.{{Clarify|date=December 2010}} Had this occurred, it would have also affected Electoral College apportionment for the 2012–2020 presidential elections.WEB,weblink Apportionment.US - The Case, Apportionment.us, October 12, 2017, After the court order was not granted, the plaintiffs appealed the case to the United States Supreme Court, and on December 13, 2010, the Supreme Court vacated and remanded with instructions to dismiss the complaint for lack of jurisdiction.WEB,weblink Supreme Court orders for December 13, 2010, Supremecourt.gov, October 12, 2017,

State rankings

{{see also|List of U.S. states and territories by population}}The state with the highest percentage rate of growth was Nevada, while the state with the largest population increase was Texas.WEB,weblink Texas Adds Four Congressional Seats as State's Hispanic Population Grows, Bloomberg.com, October 12, 2017, {{subscription required|date=October 2017}} Michigan, the 8th largest by population, was the only state to lose population (although Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory, lost population as well), and the District of Columbia saw its first gain since the 1950s.WEB,weblink USA Today 2010 Census, Usatoday.com, October 12, 2017, Note that the resident populations listed below do not include people living overseas. For Congressional apportionment, the sum of a state's resident population and its population of military personnel and federal contractors living overseas (but not other citizens overseas, such as missionaries or expatriate workers) is used.WEB,weblink PDF, Congressional Apportionment, Census.gov, October 12, 2017, {| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align: right;"|+ Population and population change in the United States by state! Rank! State! Population as of2000 Census! Population as of2010 CensusWEB,weblink Resident Population Data: Population Change, December 23, 2010, United States Census Bureau, December 23, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101225031104weblink">weblink December 25, 2010, dead, mdy, ! data-sort-type="number" |Change! data-sort-type="number" |Percentchange| 1{{flaggCalifornia}}| 33,871,648| 37,253,956| 3,382,308 {{increase}}| 10.0% {{increase}}| 2{{flaggTexas}}| 20,851,820| 25,145,561| 4,293,741 {{increase}}| 20.6% {{increase}}| 3{{flaggNew York}}| 18,976,457| 19,378,102| 401,645 {{increase}}| 2.1% {{increase}}| 4{{flaggFlorida}}| 15,982,378| 18,801,310| 2,818,932 {{increase}}| 17.6% {{increase}}| 5{{flaggIllinois}}| 12,419,293| 12,830,632| 411,339 {{increase}}| 3.3% {{increase}}| 6{{flaggPennsylvania}}| 12,281,054| 12,702,379| 421,325 {{increase}}| 3.4% {{increase}}| 7{{flaggOhio}}| 11,353,140| 11,536,504| 183,364 {{increase}}| 1.6% {{increase}}| 8{{flaggMichigan}}| 9,938,444| 9,883,640| −54,804 {{decrease}}| −0.6% {{decrease}}| 9{{flaggGeorgia (U.S. state)|name=Georgia}}| 8,186,453| 9,687,653| 1,501,200 {{increase}}| 18.3% {{increase}}| 10{{flaggNorth Carolina}}| 8,049,313| 9,535,483| 1,486,170 {{increase}}| 18.5% {{increase}}| 11{{flaggNew Jersey}}| 8,414,350| 8,791,894| 377,544 {{increase}}| 4.5% {{increase}}| 12{{flaggVirginia}}| 7,078,515| 8,001,024| 922,509 {{increase}}| 13.0% {{increase}}| 13{{flaggWashington}}| 5,894,121| 6,724,540| 830,419 {{increase}}| 14.1% {{increase}}| 14{{flaggMassachusetts}}| 6,349,097| 6,547,629| 198,532 {{increase}}| 3.1% {{increase}}| 15{{flaggIndiana}}| 6,080,485| 6,483,802| 403,317 {{increase}}| 6.6% {{increase}}| 16{{flaggArizona}}| 5,130,632| 6,392,017| 1,261,385 {{increase}}| 24.6% {{increase}}| 17{{flaggTennessee}}| 5,689,283| 6,346,105| 656,822 {{increase}}| 11.5% {{increase}}| 18{{flaggMissouri}}| 5,595,211| 5,988,927| 393,716 {{increase}}| 7.0% {{increase}}| 19{{flaggMaryland}}| 5,296,486| 5,773,552| 477,066 {{increase}}| 9.0% {{increase}}| 20{{flaggWisconsin}}| 5,363,675| 5,686,986| 323,311 {{increase}}| 6.0% {{increase}}| 21{{flaggMinnesota}}| 4,919,479| 5,303,925| 384,446 {{increase}}| 7.8% {{increase}}| 22{{flaggColorado}}| 4,301,261| 5,029,196| 727,935 {{increase}}| 16.9% {{increase}}| 23{{flaggAlabama}}| 4,447,100| 4,779,736| 332,636 {{increase}}| 7.5% {{increase}}| 24{{flaggSouth Carolina}}| 4,012,012| 4,625,364| 613,352 {{increase}}| 15.3% {{increase}}| 25{{flaggLouisiana}}| 4,468,976| 4,533,372| 64,396 {{increase}}| 1.4% {{increase}}| 26{{flaggKentucky}}| 4,041,769| 4,339,367| 297,598 {{increase}}| 7.4% {{increase}}| 27{{flaggOregon}}| 3,421,399| 3,831,074| 409,675 {{increase}}| 12.0% {{increase}}| 28{{flaggOklahoma}}| 3,450,654| 3,751,351| 300,697 {{increase}}| 8.7% {{increase}}| 29{{flaggConnecticut}}| 3,405,565| 3,574,097| 168,532 {{increase}}| 4.9% {{increase}}| 30{{flaggIowa}}| 2,926,324| 3,046,355| 120,031 {{increase}}| 4.1% {{increase}}| 31{{flaggMississippi}}| 2,844,658| 2,967,297| 122,639 {{increase}}| 4.3% {{increase}}| 32{{flaggArkansas}}| 2,673,400| 2,915,918| 242,518 {{increase}}| 9.1% {{increase}}| 33{{flaggKansas}}| 2,688,418| 2,853,118| 164,700 {{increase}}| 6.1% {{increase}}| 34{{flaggUtah|1913}}| 2,233,169| 2,763,885| 530,716 {{increase}}| 23.8% {{increase}}| 35{{flaggNevada}}| 1,998,257| 2,700,551| 702,294 {{increase}}| 35.1% {{increase}}| 36{{flaggNew Mexico}}| 1,819,046| 2,059,179| 240,133 {{increase}}| 13.2% {{increase}}| 37{{flaggWest Virginia}}| 1,808,344| 1,852,994| 44,650 {{increase}}| 2.5% {{increase}}| 38{{flaggNebraska}}| 1,711,263| 1,826,341| 115,078 {{increase}}| 6.7% {{increase}}| 39{{flaggIdaho}}| 1,293,953| 1,567,582| 273,629 {{increase}}| 21.1% {{increase}}| 40{{flaggHawaii}}| 1,211,537| 1,360,301| 148,764 {{increase}}| 12.3% {{increase}}| 41{{flaggMaine}}| 1,274,923| 1,328,361| 53,438 {{increase}}| 4.2% {{increase}}| 42{{flaggNew Hampshire}}| 1,235,786| 1,316,470| 80,684 {{increase}}| 6.5% {{increase}}| 43{{flaggRhode Island}}| 1,048,319| 1,052,567| 4,248 {{increase}}| 0.4% {{increase}}| 44{{flaggMontana}}| 902,195| 989,415| 87,220 {{increase}}| 9.7% {{increase}}| 45{{flaggDelaware}}| 783,600| 897,934| 114,334 {{increase}}| 14.6% {{increase}}| 46{{flaggSouth Dakota}}| 754,844| 814,180| 59,336 {{increase}}| 7.9% {{increase}}| 47{{flaggAlaska}}| 626,932| 710,231| 83,299 {{increase}}| 13.3% {{increase}}| 48{{flaggNorth Dakota}}| 642,200| 672,591| 30,391 {{increase}}| 4.7% {{increase}}| 49{{flaggVermont}}| 608,827| 625,741| 16,914 {{increase}}| 2.8% {{increase}}{{flaggDistrict of Columbia}}| 572,059| 601,723| 29,664 {{increase}}| 5.2% {{increase}}{{flaggWyoming}}| 493,782| 563,626| 69,844 {{increase}}| 14.1% {{increase}} class="sortbottom"|  {{flaggUnited States}}| 281,421,906| 308,745,538| 27,323,632 {{increase}}| 9.7% {{increase}}

Metropolitan rankings

{{see also|List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas}}These are core metropolitan rankings versus combined statistical areas. For full list with current data, go to Metropolitan Statistics.{|class="wikitable sortable"|+The top 25 Metropolitan Statistical Areas of the United States of America!Rank!Metropolitan Statistical Area!2010 Census!Encompassing Combined Statistical Area {{nts|1}}|New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area|19,567,410|New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area {{nts|2}}|Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area|12,828,837|Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area {{nts|3}}|Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area|9,461,105|Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI Combined Statistical Area {{nts|4}}|Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area|6,426,214|Dallas-Fort Worth, TX-OK Combined Statistical Area {{nts|5}}|Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metropolitan Statistical Area|5,965,343|Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area {{nts|6}}|Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area|5,920,416|Houston-The Woodlands, TX Combined Statistical Area {{nts|7}}|Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area|5,636,232|Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area {{nts|8}}|Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area|5,564,635|Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie, FL Combined Statistical Area {{nts|9}}|Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area|5,286,728|Atlanta–Athens-Clarke County–Sandy Springs, GA Combined Statistical Area {{nts|10}}|Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH Metropolitan Statistical Area|4,552,402|Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT Combined Statistical Area {{nts|11}}|San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area|4,335,391|San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area {{nts|12}}|Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI Metropolitan Statistical Area|4,296,250|Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI Combined Statistical Area {{nts|13}}|Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area|4,224,851|Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area {{nts|14}}|Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ Metropolitan Statistical Area|4,192,887| {{nts|15}}|Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA Metropolitan Statistical Area|3,439,809|Seattle-Tacoma, WA Combined Statistical Area {{nts|16}}|Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area|3,348,859|Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI Combined Statistical Area {{nts|17}}|San Diego-Carlsbad, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area|3,095,313| {{nts|18}}|St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area|2,787,701|St. Louis-St. Charles-Farmington, MO-IL Combined Statistical Area {{nts|19}}|Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area|2,783,243| {{nts|20}}|Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD Metropolitan Statistical Area|2,710,489|Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area {{nts|21}}|Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area|2,543,482|Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area {{nts|22}}|Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area|2,356,285|Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-OH-WV Combined Statistical Area {{nts|23}}|Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA Metropolitan Statistical Area|2,226,009|Portland-Vancouver-Salem, OR-WA Combined Statistical Area {{nts|24}}|Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area|2,217,012|Charlotte-Concord, NC-SC Combined Statistical Area {{nts|25}}|San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area|2,142,508|

City rankings

{{see also|List of United States cities by population}}{| class="wikitable sortable"! Rank! City! State! Population! Land Area (square miles)! Population Density (per square mile)! Region| 1New York City>New YorkNew York (state)>New York8175133}}302.6}}27016.3}}Northeastern United States (U.S. Census Bureau)>Northeast | 2| Los Angeles| California3792621}}468.7}}8091.8}}Western United States>West | 3| Chicago| Illinois2695598}}227.6}}11843.6}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 4| Houston| Texas2099451}}599.6}}3501.4}}Southern United States>South | 5| Philadelphia| Pennsylvania1526006}}134.1}}11379.6}}Northeastern United States (U.S. Census Bureau)>Northeast | 6Phoenix, Arizona>Phoenix| Arizona1445632}}516.7}}2797.8}}Western United States>West | 7| San Antonio| Texas1327407}}460.9}}2880.0}}Southern United States>South | 8| San Diego| California1307402}}325.2}}4020.3}}Western United States>West | 9| Dallas| Texas1197816}}340.5}}3517.8}}Southern United States>South | 10San Jose, California>San Jose| California945942}}176.5}}5359.4}}Western United States>West | 11Jacksonville, Florida>Jacksonville| Florida821784}}747.0}}1100.1}}Southern United States>South | 12| Indianapolis| Indiana820445}}361.4}}2270.2}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 13| San Francisco| California805235}}46.9}}17169.2}}Western United States>West | 14Austin, Texas>Austin| Texas790390}}297.9}}2653.2}}Southern United States>South | 15Columbus, Ohio>Columbus| Ohio787033}}217.2}}3623.5}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 16Fort Worth, Texas>Fort Worth| Texas741206}}339.8}}2181.3}}Southern United States>South | 17Louisville, Kentucky>Louisville | Kentucky741,096}}385.09}}1866.3}}Southern United States>South | 18Charlotte, North Carolina>Charlotte| North Carolina731424}}297.7}}2456.9}}Southern United States>South | 19| Detroit| Michigan713777}}138.8}}5142.5}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 20El Paso, Texas>El Paso| Texas649121}}255.2}}2543.6}}Southern United States>South | 21Memphis, Tennessee>Memphis| Tennessee646889}}315.1}}2053.0}}Southern United States>South | 22| Baltimore| Maryland620961}}80.9}}7675.7}}Southern United States>South | 23| Boston| Massachusetts617594}}48.3}}12786.6}}Northeastern United States (U.S. Census Bureau)>Northeast | 24| SeattleWashington (U.S. state)>Washington608660}}83.9}}7254.6}}Western United States>West | 25Washington, D.C.>Washington| District of Columbia601723}}61.0}}9864.3}}Southern United States>South | 26Nashville, Tennessee>Nashville | Tennessee601222}}475.1}}1265.5}}Southern United States>South | 27| Denver| Colorado600158}}153.0}}3922.6}}Western United States>West | 28| Milwaukee| Wisconsin594833}}96.1}}6189.7}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 29Portland, Oregon>Portland| Oregon583776}}134.3}}4346.8}}Western United States>West | 30Las Vegas, Nevada>Las Vegas| Nevada583756}}135.8}}4298.6}}Western United States>West | 31| Oklahoma City| Oklahoma579999}}606.4}}956.5}}Southern United States>South | 32Albuquerque, New Mexico>Albuquerque| New Mexico545852}}187.7}}2908.1}}Western United States>West | 33Tucson, Arizona>Tucson| Arizona520116}}226.7}}2294.3}}Western United States>West | 34Fresno, California>Fresno| California494665}}112.0}}4416.7}}Western United States>West | 35Sacramento, California>Sacramento| California466488}}97.9}}4764.9}}Western United States>West | 36Long Beach, California>Long Beach| California462257}}50.3}}9190.0}}Western United States>West | 37Kansas City, Missouri>Kansas City| Missouri459787}}315.0}}1459.6}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 38Mesa, Arizona>Mesa| Arizona439041}}136.5}}3216.4}}Western United States>West | 39Virginia Beach, Virginia>Virginia Beach | Virginia437994}}249.0}}1759.0}}Southern United States>South | 40| AtlantaGeorgia (U.S. state)>Georgia420003}}133.2}}3153.2}}Southern United States>South | 41Colorado Springs, Colorado>Colorado Springs| Colorado416427}}194.5}}2141.0}}Western United States>West | 42Omaha, Nebraska>Omaha| Nebraska408958}}127.1}}3217.6}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 43Raleigh, North Carolina>Raleigh| North Carolina403892}}142.9}}2826.4}}Southern United States>South | 44| Miami| Florida399457}}35.9}}11126.9}}Southern United States>South | 45| Cleveland| Ohio396815}}77.7}}5107.0}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 46San Juan, Puerto Rico>San Juan| Puerto Rico395326}}47.9}}8253.1}}| | 47Tulsa, Oklahoma>Tulsa| Oklahoma391906}}196.8}}1991.4}}Southern United States>South | 48Oakland, California>Oakland| California390724}}55.8}}7002.2}}Western United States>West | 49| Minneapolis| Minnesota382578}}54.0}}7084.8}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 50Wichita, Kansas>Wichita| Kansas382368}}159.3}}2400.3}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 51Arlington, Texas>Arlington| Texas365438}}95.9}}3810.6}}Southern United States>South | 52Bakersfield, California>Bakersfield| California347483}}142.2}}2443.6}}Western United States>West | 53| New Orleans| Louisiana343829}}169.4}}2029.7}}Southern United States>South | 54| Honolulu| Hawaii337256}}60.5}}5574.5}}Western United States>West | 55Anaheim, California>Anaheim| California336265}}49.8}}6752.3}}Western United States>West | 56Tampa, Florida>Tampa| Florida335709}}113.4}}2960.4}}Southern United States>South | 57Aurora, Colorado>Aurora| Colorado325078}}154.7}}2101.3}}Western United States>West | 58Santa Ana, California>Santa Ana| California324528}}27.3}}11887.5}}Western United States>West | 59St. Louis, Missouri>Saint Louis | Missouri319294}}61.9}}5158.2}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 60| Pittsburgh| Pennsylvania305704}}55.4}}5518.1}}Northeastern United States (U.S. Census Bureau)>Northeast | 61Corpus Christi, Texas>Corpus Christi| Texas305215}}160.6}}1900.5}}Southern United States>South | 62Riverside, California>Riverside| California303871}}81.1}}3746.9}}Western United States>West | 63| Cincinnati| Ohio296943}}77.9}}3811.8}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 64Lexington, Kentucky>Lexington| Kentucky295803}}283.6}}1043.0}}Southern United States>South | 65Anchorage, Alaska>Anchorage| Alaska291826}}1704.7}}171.2}}Western United States>West | 66Stockton, California>Stockton| California291707}}61.7}}4727.8}}Western United States>West | 67Toledo, Ohio>Toledo| Ohio287208}}80.7}}3559.0}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 68St. Paul, Minnesota>Saint Paul| Minnesota285068}}52.0}}5482.1}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 69Newark, New Jersey>Newark| New Jersey277140}}24.2}}11452.1}}Northeastern United States (U.S. Census Bureau)>Northeast | 70Greensboro, North Carolina>Greensboro| North Carolina269666}}126.5}}2131.7}}Southern United States>South | 71Buffalo, New York>BuffaloNew York (state)>New York261310}}40.4}}6468.1}}Northeastern United States (U.S. Census Bureau)>Northeast | 72Plano, Texas>Plano| Texas259841}}71.6}}3629.1}}Southern United States>South | 73Lincoln, Nebraska>Lincoln| Nebraska258379}}89.1}}2899.9}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 74Henderson, Nevada>Henderson| Nevada257729}}107.7}}2393.0}}Western United States>West | 75Fort Wayne, Indiana>Fort Wayne| Indiana253691}}110.6}}2293.8}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 76Jersey City, New Jersey>Jersey City| New Jersey247597}}14.8}}16729.5}}Northeastern United States (U.S. Census Bureau)>Northeast | 77St. Petersburg, Florida>Saint Petersburg| Florida244769}}61.7}}3967.1}}Southern United States>South | 78Chula Vista, California>Chula Vista| California243916}}49.6}}4917.7}}Western United States>West | 79Norfolk, Virginia>Norfolk | Virginia242803}}54.1}}4488.0}}Southern United States>South | 80Orlando, Florida>Orlando| Florida238300}}102.4}}2327.1}}Southern United States>South | 81Chandler, Arizona>Chandler| Arizona236123}}64.4}}3666.5}}Western United States>West | 82Laredo, Texas>Laredo| Texas236091}}88.9}}2655.7}}Southern United States>South | 83Madison, Wisconsin>Madison| Wisconsin233209}}76.8}}3036.6}}Midwestern United States>Midwest | 84Winston-Salem, North Carolina>Winston-Salem| North Carolina229617}}132.4}}1734.3}}Southern United States>South | 85Lubbock, Texas>Lubbock| Texas229573}}122.4}}1875.6}}Southern United States>South | 86Baton Rouge, Louisiana>Baton Rouge| Louisiana229493}}76.9}}2984.3}}Southern United States>South | 87Durham, North Carolina>Durham| North Carolina228330}}107.4}}2126.0}}Southern United States>South | 88Garland, Texas>Garland| Texas226876}}57.1}}3973.3}}Southern United States>South | 89Glendale, Arizona>Glendale| Arizona226721}}60.0}}3778.7}}Western United States>West | 90Reno, Nevada>Reno| Nevada225221}}103.0}}2186.6}}Western United States>West | 91Hialeah, Florida>Hialeah| Florida224669}}21.5}}10449.7}}Southern United States>South | 92Chesapeake, Virginia>Chesapeake | Virginia222209}}340.8}}652.0}}Southern United States>South | 93Scottsdale, Arizona>Scottsdale| Arizona217385}}183.9}}1182.1}}Western United States>West | 94North Las Vegas, Nevada>North Las Vegas| Nevada216961}}101.3}}2141.8}}Western United States>West | 95Irving, Texas>Irving| Texas216290}}67.0}}3228.2}}Southern United States>South | 96Fremont, California>Fremont| California214089}}77.5}}2762.4}}Western United States>West | 97Irvine, California>Irvine| California212375}}66.1}}3212.9}}Western United States>West | 98Birmingham, Alabama>Birmingham| Alabama212237}}146.1}}1452.7}}Southern United States>South | 99Rochester, New York>RochesterNew York (state)>New York210565}}35.8}}5881.7}}Northeastern United States (U.S. Census Bureau)>Northeast | 100San Bernardino, California>San Bernardino| California209924}}59.2}}3546.0}}Western United States>West

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{Commons category|2010 United States Census}} {{USCensus}}

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