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List of capitals in the United States

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List of capitals in the United States
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{{Use mdy dates|date=September 2019}}{{short description|List of capital cities in the United States of America}}This is a list of capital cities of the United States, including places that serve or have served as federal, state, insular area, territorial, colonial, and Native American capitals. Washington, D.C., has been the federal capital city of the United States since 1802. Each U.S. state has its own capital city, as do many of its insular areas. Most states have not changed their capital city since becoming a state, but the capital cities of their respective preceding colonies, territories, kingdoms, and republics typically changed multiple times. There have also been other governments within the current borders of the United States with their own capitals, such as the Republic of Texas, Native American nations, and other unrecognized governments.

Capitals of the United States

File:Albany Congress.jpeg|thumb|The Albany CongressAlbany Congress
  • The Albany Conference (June 18 – July 11, 1754), or "The Conference of Albany", was the first meeting at which representatives of British colonies in North America (seven of them) gathered to discuss questions of common interest. It met in the Stadt Huys, the City Hall of Albany, New York (demolished after a fire in 1836). The original purpose of the Conference was to coordinate relations with the Indians and common defensive measures against the French threat from Canada (see French and Indian WarAlbany Conference). However, the major topic of discussion at that meeting was the Albany Plan, presented by Benjamin Franklin, delegate from Pennsylvania, setting up a unified (though not independent) government for the colonies. Although the delegates approved the plan (after modifications) unanimously, it was not approved by any of the territorial governments, or by the British government. It was used later in the drafting of the Articles of Confederation.
  • The Stamp Act Congress (October 7–25, 1765), or First Congress of the American Colonies, met in City Hall, later named Federal Hall, in New York City. Demolished in 1812.
  • The Continental Congress, later called the First Continental Congress (September 5 – October 26, 1774), embryo of what would become the United States government, met in Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, today (2018) part of Independence National Historical Park. Delegate Joseph Galloway presented the Galloway Plan for a unified government, incorporating some elements of the Albany Plan, but it was not accepted.
  • The Second Continental Congress (1775–1781), in which the U.S. Declaration of Independence was debated and signed, and which starting in 1775 coordinated the American Revolutionary War, met primarily in the Pennsylvania State House, today Independence Hall, in Independence National Historic Park. The room as it was then is accurately depicted in the famous painting Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull, commissioned by Congress, which has hung in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda since 1825. The Articles of Confederation, though drafted in York, Pennsylvania, were adopted in Philadelphia in 1777, subject to the states' approval. The Second Continental Congress also met briefly in the following locations:
  • The Congress of the Confederation (1781–1789) did not have an official capitol. It met in the following locations:
  • The United States Constitution addressed (Article 1, section 8, clause 17) the need for a fixed U.S. Capitol. This led to the establishment of the District of Columbia and the founding of Washington as the nation's capital. Until the Capitol building was completed, and after it was burned by the British in 1814, requiring its rebuilding, Congress met in various places:
    • Federal Hall, New York City, New York: March 4, 1789, to December 5, 1790. This is where George Washington was inaugurated as first President. Demolished in 1812.
    • Congress Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, next to the Pennsylvania State House (Independence Hall) and also part of Independence National Historic Park: December 6, 1790, to May 14, 1800. Built for the purpose of being the U.S. capitol. This is pursuant to the Residence Act of 1790, which designated Philadelphia as the U.S. capital for 10 years.
    • United States Capitol. Territory of Columbia: November 17, 1800, to February 27, 1801; District of Columbia: February 27, 1801, to May 2, 1802; Washington, D.C.: May 3, 1802, to August 24, 1814, when the British burned it.
    • (President James Madison fled to the home of Quaker Caleb Bentley, in Brookeville, Maryland, where he stayed one night: August 26, 1814. The town claims to have been the "U.S. Capital for a Day" although Congress never met there.WEB, U.S. Capital for a Day, Sandra, Heiler,weblink Town of Brookeville, Maryland, May 18, 2018, )
    • Blodgett's Hotel (one of the few surviving buildings large enough to hold all members): September 19, 1814 – December 7, 1815BOOK, Burton, Harold H., Waggaman, Thomas E., The Story of the Place: Where First and A Streets Formerly Met at What Is Now the Site of the Supreme Court Building, 1952, Historical Society of Washington, Washington, DC., 141, 40067303,
    • Old Brick Capitol, Washington, D.C.: December 8, 1815, to 1819 (while the original Capitol was being rebuilt). Although the name says "old", the cornerstone was laid July 4, 1815. It was financed by Washington real-estate investors who heard rumors that some members of Congress were considering moving the national capital in the aftermath of the burning. Demolished in 1929.
    • United States Capitol, Washington, D.C.: 1819 to present with the exception of July 2, 1923.
    • Meacham, Oregon: July 2, 1923. President Warren G. Harding declared Meacham, Oregon, as the nation's capital for the day.WEB,weblink For a day, Meacham was 'capital of the United States all day long', The La Grande Observer, en, April 23, 2019, WEB,weblink Meacham re-dedicates historic marker, eastoregonian.com, en, April 23, 2019,

State capitals

(File:US_states_in_which_the_capital_is_the_largest_city.svg|thumb|right|350px|In purple: the 17 states whose capital is also their most populous city, as of 2016 estimates.)In this table, "Capital since" indicates the year in which the city started to continuously serve as the state's sole capital. Most states have changed their capital city at least once. The "Statehood" year for the 13 original states is when they ratified the United States Constitution.{| class="wikitable sortable"|+ State capitals of the United Statesthere's 50 capital! rowspan="2" |State!! rowspan="2" | Abr. !! rowspan="2" | State-hood !! rowspan="2" | Capital !! rowspan="2" | Capital since !! rowspan="2" | Area (mi²) !! colspan="4" |Population (2010)!! rowspan="2" | Notes
!Municipal (Within city proper boundaries)!Metropolitan (Both within the capital city proper and the surrounding area of the city proper)!Rank in state!Rank in US
Alabama > 1819 Montgomery, Alabama > 1846 align="right" 198,218 align="right" 2 align="center" Birmingham, Alabama>Birmingham is the state's largest city.
Alaska > 1959 Juneau, Alaska > 1906 align="right" 31,275 align="right" 3 align="center" | Largest capital by municipal land area.
Arizona > 1912 Phoenix, Arizona > 1889 align="right" 1,660,272 align="right" 1 align="center" | Phoenix is the most populous capital city in the United States of America.
Arkansas > 1836 Little Rock, Arkansas > 1821 align="right" 193,524 align="right" 1 align="center" |
California > 1850 Sacramento, California > 1854 align="right" 508,529 align="right" 6 align="center" |
Colorado > 1876 Denver, Colorado > 1867 align="right" 716,492 align="right" 1 align="center" |
Connecticut > 1788 Hartford, Connecticut > 1875 align="right" 124,775 align="right" 3 align="center" |
Delaware > 1787 Dover, Delaware > 1777 align="right" 36,047 align="right" 2 align="center" | Longest-serving capital in terms of statehood.
Florida > 1845 Tallahassee, Florida > 1824 align="right" 181,376 align="right" 7 align="center" |
Georgia (U.S. state)>Georgia GA align="center" Atlanta > 1868 align="right" 498,044 align="right" 1 align="center" | Most populous metro area of any state capital.
Hawaii > 1959 Honolulu align="center" 68.4 align="right" 953,207 align="center" 56
Idaho > 1890 Boise, Idaho > 1865 align="right" 205,671 align="right" 1 align="center" |
Illinois > 1818 Springfield, Illinois > 1837 align="right" 116,250 align="right" 6 align="center" |
Indiana > 1816 Indianapolis align="center" 361.5 align="right" 2,004,230 align="center" 16
Iowa > 1846 Des Moines, Iowa > 1857 align="right" 203,433 align="right" 1 align="center" |
Kansas > 1861 Topeka, Kansas > 1856 align="right" 127,473 align="right" 4 align="center" |
Kentucky > 1792 Frankfort, Kentucky > 1792 align="right" 25,527 align="right" 14
Louisiana > 1812 Baton Rouge, Louisiana > 1880 align="right" 225,374 align="right" 2 align="center" | Baton Rouge is located in the state's most populous parish. It is also home to the tallest state capitol building.
Maine > 1820 Augusta, Maine > 1832 align="right" 19,136 align="right" 8 Portland is a previous capital.
Maryland > 1788 Annapolis, Maryland > 1694 align="right" 38,394 align="right" 7 Smallest capital by land area. Capitol building is the oldest in the U.S. still in use.
Massachusetts > 1788 Boston align="center" 89.6 align="right" 4,628,910 align="center" 21 Longest continuously serving capital in the U.S.
Michigan > 1837 Lansing, Michigan > 1847 align="right" 114,297 align="right" 5 align="center" county seat (not counting the two state capitals that are Independent city (United States)>independent cities and not located in any county).
Minnesota > 1858 Saint Paul, Minnesota > 1849 align="right" 285,068 align="right" 2 align="center" |
Mississippi > 1817 Jackson, Mississippi > 1821 align="right" 173,514 align="right" 1 align="center" |
Missouri > 1821 Jefferson City, Missouri > 1826 align="right" 43,079 align="right" 15
Montana > 1889 Helena, Montana > 1875 align="right" 28,190 align="right" 6
Nebraska > 1867 Lincoln, Nebraska > 1867 align="right" 258,379 align="right" 2 align="center" |
Nevada > 1864 Carson City, Nevada > 1861 align="right" 55,274 align="right" 6 One of two independent cities that serves as a state capital.
New Hampshire > 1788 Concord, New Hampshire > 1808 align="right" 42,695 align="right" 3
New Jersey > 1787 Trenton, New Jersey > 1784 align="right" 84,913 align="right" 10 Served as the U.S. capital for a short period in the late 18th century.
New Mexico > 1912 Santa Fe, New Mexico > 1610 align="right" 75,764 align="right" 4 Longest serving capital in the United States. Highest elevation of any state capital.
New York (state)>New York NY align="center" Albany, New York>Albany align="center" 21.4 align="right" 857,592 align="center" |
North Carolina > 1789 Raleigh, North Carolina > 1792 align="right" 403,892 align="right" 2 align="center" |
North Dakota > 1889 Bismarck, North Dakota > 1883 align="right" 61,272 align="right" 2
Ohio > 1803 Columbus, Ohio > 1816 align="right" 892,553 align="right" 1 align="center" | Columbus is the largest city in Ohio, the second largest city in the Midwest, and the third largest state capital in the United States.
Oklahoma > 1907 nowrap="" Oklahoma City > 1910 align="right" 649,021 align="right" 1 align="center" |Shortest serving current state capital.
Oregon > 1859 Salem, Oregon > 1855 align="right" 154,637 align="right" 3 align="center" |
Pennsylvania > 1787 Harrisburg, Pennsylvania > 1812 align="right" 49,528 align="right" 9
Rhode Island > 1790 Providence, Rhode Island > 1900 align="right" 178,042 align="right" 1 align="center" |Also served as the state's capital 1636–1686 and 1689–1776. It was one of five co-capitals 1776–1853, and one of two co-capitals 1853–1900.
South Carolina > 1788 Columbia, South Carolina > 1786 align="right" 129,272 align="right" 2 align="center" |
South Dakota > 1889 Pierre, South Dakota > 1889 align="right" 13,646 align="right" 8
Tennessee > 1796 Nashville, Tennessee > 1826 align="right" 691,243 align="right" 1 align="center" |
Texas > 1845 Austin, Texas > 1839 align="right" 964,254 align="right" 4 align="center" | Austin is the largest state capital that is not also the state's largest city by population.
Utah > 1896 nowrap="" Salt Lake City > 1858 align="right" 186,440 align="right" 1 align="center" |
Vermont > 1791 Montpelier, Vermont > 1805 align="right" 7,855 align="right" 6 Least populous U.S. state capital.
Virginia > 1788 Richmond, Virginia > 1780 align="right" 204,214 align="right" 4 align="center" Independent city (United States)>independent cities that serves as a state capital.
Washington (state)>Washington WA align="center" Olympia, Washington>Olympia align="center" 16.7 align="right" 234,670 align="center" |
West Virginia > 1863 Charleston, West Virginia > 1885 align="right" 51,400 align="right" 1 align="center" | Charleston is the smallest capital city that is still the most populous city in its state.
Wisconsin > 1848 Madison, Wisconsin > 1838 align="right" 233,209 align="right" 2 align="center" |
Wyoming > 1890 Cheyenne, Wyoming > 1869 align="right" 59,466 align="right" 1

Insular area capitals

An insular area is a United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nation's federal district. Those insular areas with territorial capitals are listed below.{| class="wikitable sortable"|+ Capitals of United States Insular Areas! Insular area !! Abr. !! Date !! Capital !! Population (2010) !! Notes
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
American Samoa >Pago Pago >Fagatogo, American Samoa>Fagatogo the official seat of government stated in the territory's constitution since 1967.
Guam >Hagåtña, Guam>Hagåtña 1,051 Dededo is the area's largest village.
Northern Mariana Islands >Saipan >|
Puerto Rico >San Juan, Puerto Rico>San Juan 395,326 The city of San Juan was originally called Puerto Rico while the island was called San Juan Bautista.
United States Virgin Islands>U.S. Virgin Islands VI 1917 Charlotte Amalie, United States Virgin Islands >|

Former colonial, territorial, and state capitals

For the purposes of this list, the place the government met, or governing authorities resided, is given as a capital. Many of these "capitals" were never formally designated as such.

Former national capitals

Two of the 50 U.S. states, Hawaii and Texas, were once de jure sovereign states with diplomatic recognition from the international community.

Hawaii

During its history as a sovereign nation (Kingdom of Hawaii, 1795–1893; Republic of Hawaii, 1894–1898), five sites served as the capital of Hawaii: Annexed by the United States in 1898, Honolulu remained the capital, first of the Territory of Hawaii (1900–1959), and then of the state (since 1959).

Texas

During its history as a sovereign nation (Republic of Texas, 1836–1845), seven sites served as the capital of Texas: Annexed by the United States in 1845, Austin remains the capital of the state of Texas.

Native American capitals

Some Native American tribes, in particular the Five Civilized Tribes, organized their states with constitutions and capitals in Western style. Others, like the Iroquois, had long-standing, pre-Columbian traditions of a 'capitol' longhouse where wampum and council fires were maintained with special status. Since they did business with the U.S. Federal Government, these capitals can be seen as officially recognized in some sense.

Cherokee Nation

New Echota, now near Calhoun, Georgia was founded in 1825, realizing the dream and plans of Cherokee Chief Major Ridge. Major Ridge chose the site because of its centrality in the historic Cherokee Nation which spanned parts of Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Alabama, and because it was near the confluence of the Conasauga and Coosawattee rivers. The town's layout was partly inspired by Ridge's many visits to Washington D.C. and to Baltimore, but also invoked traditional themes of the Southeastern ceremonial complex. Complete with the Council House, Supreme Court, Cherokee syllabary printing press, and the houses of several of the Nation's constitutional officers, New Echota served as the capital until 1832 when the state of Georgia outlawed Native American assembly in an attempt to undermine the Nation. Thousands of Cherokee would gather in New Echota for the annual National Councils, camping along the nearby rivers and holding long stomp dances in the park-like woods that were typical of many Southeastern Native American settlements. The Cherokee National council grounds were moved to Red Clay, Tennessee on the Georgia state line in order to evade the Georgia state militia. The log cabins, limestone springs and park-like woods of Red Clay served as the capital until the Cherokee Nation was removed to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) on the Trail of Tears.BOOK, Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation, Ehle, John, Anchor Books Doubleday, 1988, 0385239548, New York,
  • Tahlequah 1839–1907, 1938–present
Tahlequah, in present-day Oklahoma, served as the capital of the original Cherokee Nation after Removal. After the Civil War, a turbulent period for the Nation which was involved in its own civil war resulting from pervasive anger and disagreements over removal from Georgia, the Cherokee Nation built a new National Capitol in Tahlequah out of brick. The building served as the capitol until 1907, when the Dawes Act finally dissolved the Cherokee Nation and Tahlequah became the county seat of Cherokee County, Oklahoma. The Cherokee National government was re-established in 1938 and Tahlequah remains the capital of the modern Cherokee Nation; it is also the capital of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians. Approximately four to eight hundred Cherokees escaped removal because they lived on a separated tract, purchased later with the help of Confederate Colonel William Holland Thomas, along the Oconaluftee River deep in the Smoky Mountains of North Carolina. Some Cherokees fleeing the Federal Army sent for the "round up," fled to the remote settlements separated from the rest of the Cherokee Territory in Georgia and North Carolina in order to remain in their homeland.WEB,weblink Qualla Boundary {{!, NCpedia|website=www.ncpedia.org|language=en|access-date=September 18, 2017}} In the 20th century, their descendants organized as the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; its capital is at Cherokee, North Carolina, in the tribally-controlled Qualla Boundary.

Muscogee Creek Nation

  • Hot Springs, Arkansas c. 1837–1866
After Removal from their Alabama-Georgia homeland, the Creek national government met near Hot Springs which was then part of their new territory as prescribed in the Treaty of Cusseta. However, the Union forced the Creeks to cede over three million acres (half of their land) of what is now Arkansas, after some Creeks fought with the Confederacy in the American Civil War.WEB,weblink Muscogee Creek Nation -Culture/history, Muscogee Creek Nation, Served as the National capital after the American Civil War. It was probably named after Ocmulgee, on the Ocmulgee river in Macon, a principle Coosa and later Creek town built with mounds and functioning as part of the Southeastern ceremonial complex. However, there were other traditional Creek "mother-towns" before removal. The Ocmulgee mounds were ceded illegally in 1821 with the Treaty of Indian Springs.

Iroquois Confederacy

  • Onondaga (Onondaga privilege c. 1450–present)
The Iroquois Confederacy or Haudenosaunee, which means "People of the Longhouse," was an alliance between the Five and later Six-Nations of Iroquoian language and culture of upstate New York.{{Citation|last=nysmuseum|title=Haudenosaunee or Iroquois?|date=September 30, 2014|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZSXL33JiKLY|accessdate=January 24, 2017}} These include the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and, after 1722, the Tuscarora Nations. Since the Confederacy's formation around 1450, the Onondaga Nation has held privilege of hosting the Iroquois Grand Council and the status of Keepers of the Fire and the Wampum —which they still do at the official Longhouse on the Onondaga Reservation.WEB,weblink Haudenosaunee Confederacy, www.haudenosauneeconfederacy.com, January 24, 2017, Now spread over reservations in New York and Ontario, the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee preserve this arrangement to this day in what they claim to be the "world's oldest representative democracy."WEB,weblink Haudenosaunee Confederacy, www.haudenosauneeconfederacy.com, January 24, 2017,

Seneca Nation of Indians

The Seneca Nation republic was founded in 1848 and has two capitals that rotate responsibilities every two years. Jimerson Town was founded in the 1960s following the formation of the Allegheny Reservoir. The Senecas also have an administrative longhouse in Steamburg but do not consider that location to be a capital.

Navajo Nation

Window Rock (Navajo: Tségháhoodzání), Arizona, is a small city that serves as the seat of government and capital of the Navajo Nation (1936–present), the largest territory of a sovereign Native American nation in North America. It lies within the boundaries of the St. Michaels Chapter, adjacent to the Arizona and New Mexico state line. Window Rock hosts the Navajo Nation governmental campus which contains the Navajo Nation Council, Navajo Nation Supreme Court, the offices of the Navajo Nation President and Vice President, and many Navajo government buildings.

Unrecognized national capitals

There have been a handful of nations within the current borders of the United States which were never officially recognized as legally independent sovereign entities; however, these nations did have de facto control over their respective regions during their existence.

Vermont Republic

Before joining the United States as the fourteenth state, Vermont was an independent republic known as the Vermont Republic. Two cities served as the capital of the Republic: The current capital of the State of Vermont is Montpelier.

State of Franklin

The State of Franklin was an autonomous, secessionist United States territory created, not long after the end of the American Revolution, from territory that later was ceded by North Carolina to the federal government. Franklin's territory later became part of the state of Tennessee. Franklin was never officially admitted into the Union of the United States and existed for only four years.

State of Muskogee

The State of Muskogee was a short-lived Native American state in Florida, created by the Englishman William Augustus Bowles, who was its "Director General", author of its Constitution and designer of its flag.BOOK, Landers, Jane, Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolutions, 2010, Harvard University Press, London, 102–103, It consisted of several tribes of Creeks and Seminoles. It existed from 1799 to 1803. It had one capital:

Republic of West Florida

The Republic of West Florida was a short-lived republic involving the area known today as Louisiana's Florida Parishes — at the time the westernmost portion of Spanish West Florida. The area was soon seized by the United States under President James Madison and incorporated into the Territory of Orleans. None of the Republic of West Florida was within the boundaries of modern Florida.

Republic of Indian Stream

The Republic of Indian Stream was an unrecognized independent nation within the present state of New Hampshire.

California Republic

Before being annexed by the United States in 1848 (following the Mexican–American War), a small portion of north-central California declared itself the California Republic, in an act of independence from Mexico, in 1846 (see Bear Flag Revolt). The republic only existed a month before it disbanded itself, to join the advancing American army and therefore became part of the United States.The very short-lived California Republic was never recognized by the United States, Mexico or any other nation. There was one de facto capital of the California Republic:

Confederate States

The Confederate States of America (C.S.A.) had two capitals during its existence. The first capital was established February 4, 1861, in Montgomery, Alabama, and remained there until it was moved to Richmond, Virginia, on May 29, 1861, after Virginia seceded on May 23.The individual state capitals remained the same in the Confederacy as they had been in the Union (U.S.A.), although as the advancing Union Army used those cities for military districts, some of the Confederate governments were relocated or moved out of state, traveling along with secessionist armies.
  • Montgomery, February 4, 1861 – May 29, 1861
  • Richmond, May 29, 1861 – April 3, 1865

Historical state, colonial, and territorial capitals

Most of the original Thirteen Colonies had their capitals occupied or attacked by the British during the American Revolutionary War. State governments operated where and as they could. The City of New York was occupied by British troops from 1776 to 1783. A similar situation occurred during the War of 1812, during the American Civil War in many Confederate states, and during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680–1692 in New Mexico.Twenty-two state capitals have been a capital longer than their state has been a state, since they served as the capital of a predecessor territory, colony, or republic. Boston, Massachusetts, has been a capital city since 1630; it is the oldest continuously-running capital in the United States. Santa Fe, New Mexico, is the oldest capital city, having become capital in 1610 and interrupted only by the aforementioned Pueblo Revolt. An even older Spanish city, St. Augustine, Florida, served as a colonial capital from 1565 until about 1820, more than 250 years.The table below includes the following information:
  1. The state, the year in which statehood was granted, and the state's capital are shown in bold type. NOTE: For the first thirteen states, formerly the Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain on the Atlantic seaboard, the year of statehood is shown as 1776 (United States Declaration of Independence) rather than the subsequent year each state ratified the 1787 United States Constitution. (See List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union.)
  2. The year listed for each capital is the starting date; the ending date is the starting date for the successor unless otherwise indicated.
  3. In many cases, capital cities of historical jurisdictions were outside of a state's present borders. (Those cities are generally indicated with the two-letter abbreviation for the U.S. state in which the former administrative capital is now located.)
{{clear}}{|class=wikitable|+Historical capitals in the United States of America!State!!Capital!!Date!!Notes style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
AlabamaCapitals of Alabama. Alabama Department of Archives and History. Updated October 29, 2001. Accessed June 9, 2005.Statehood in 1819St. Augustine, Florida>San Agustín1565Capital of the Spain colony of Spanish Florida>La Florida.
Savannah, Georgia>Kingdom of Great Britain>British proprietary colony Province of Georgia>Colony of Georgia.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Province of Georgia.
Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta, Georgia>Augusta (GA)1778
Heard's Fort, Georgia>Heard's Fort (GA)1780
Augusta, Georgia>Augusta (GA)1781
Savannah, Georgia>Savannah (GA)1782
Ebenezer, Georgia>Ebenezer (GA)1782
Savannah, Georgia>Savannah (GA)1784
Augusta, Georgia>Augusta (GA)1786
Louisville, Georgia>Louisville (GA)1796
Natchez, Mississippi>Natchez (MS)1798rowspan=2|Capitals of the Mississippi Territory.
Washington, Mississippi>Washington (MS)1802
St. Stephens, Alabama>St. Stephens1817Capital of the Alabama Territory.
Huntsville, Alabama>Huntsville1819rowspan=3Alabama>State of Alabama.
Cahaba, Alabama>Cahawba1820
Tuscaloosa, Alabama>Tuscaloosa1826
Montgomery, Alabama>Montgomery1846Capital of the State of Alabama.(Capital of the Confederate States of America in 1861.)
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
AlaskaFrequently Asked Questions About Alaska {{webarchiveweblink >date=June 13, 2005 }}. Statewide Library Electronic Doorway. Updated September 21, 2004. Accessed June 9, 2005; based on Alaska Blue Book 1993–94, 11th ed., Juneau, Department of Education, Division of State Libraries, Archives & Museums. ExploreNorth: The History of Sitka {{webarchiveweblink >date=February 18, 2005 }}. Department of Community and Economic Development, Alaska Community Database Online. Accessed June 9, 2005.Statehood in 1959Sitka, Alaska>Russian colony of Russian America>Alaska.
|Capital of the Department of Alaska.
Capitals of the District of Alaska.
'''Juneau, Alaska'''>|1906
|Capital of the Territory of Alaska.
1959>Capital of the Alaska>State of Alaska.
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
ArizonaCapitals before the Capitol {{webarchiveweblink >date=March 7, 2005 }}. Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records. Accessed June 9, 2005.Statehood in 1912Santa Fe, New Mexico#History>New Mexico#Territory>New Mexico 1848–1850.
|Capital of the U.S. Territory of New Mexico 1850–1912.
Mesilla, New Mexico>Mesilla (NM)1862Capital of the Confederate States of America Arizona Territory (Confederate States of America)>Territory of Arizona (southern New Mexico and Arizona 1862).
San Antonio>San Antonio (TX)1862Capital of the government-in-exile of the Confederate States of America Arizona Territory (Confederate States of America)>Territory of Arizona 1862–1865.
Fort Whipple, Arizona>Fort Whipple1864rowspan=5|Capitals of the U.S. Territory of Arizona.
Prescott, Arizona>Prescott1864
Tucson, Arizona>Tucson1867
Prescott, Arizona>Prescott1877
'''Phoenix, Arizona'''>|1889
1912>Capital of the Arizona>State of Arizona.
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
ArkansasEducational Materials: Facts {{webarchiveweblink >date=June 26, 2005 }}. Arkansas Secretary of State. Accessed June 9, 2005. Washington State Park 19th century village in SW Arkansas. Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism, Confederate Capital Old Division of State Parks. 2003. Accessed June 9, 2005.Statehood in 1836St. LouisSaint-LouisSan LuisSt. Louis>Spain>Spanish (though predominantly French-speaking) district of Illinois Country>Alta Louisiana.
French First Republic>French district of La Haute-Louisiane.
|Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
|Capital of the Louisiana Territory.
|Capital of the Missouri Territory.
Arkansas Post>Capitals of the Arkansas Territory.The name Arkansas has been pronounced and spelled in a variety of fashions. The region was organized as the Territory of Arkansaw on July 4, 1819, but the territory was admitted to the United States>Union as the Arkansas on June 15, 1836. The name was historically pronounced {{IPAc-en>ˈknɔː}}, {{IPAc-enˈæzs}}, and several other variants. In 1881, the Arkansas General Assembly passed the following concurrent resolution (Arkansas Statutes, Title 1, Chapter 4, Section 105):Whereas, confusion of practice has arisen in the pronunciation of the name of our state and it is deemed important that the true pronunciation should be determined for use in oral official proceedings.And, whereas, the matter has been thoroughly investigated by the State Historical Society and the Eclectic Society of Little Rock, which have agreed upon the correct pronunciation as derived from history, and the early usage of the American immigrants.Be it therefore resolved by both houses of the General Assembly, that the only true pronunciation of the name of the state, in the opinion of this body, is that received by the French from the Native Americans and committed to writing in the French word representing the sound. It should be pronounced in three (3) syllables, with the final "s" silent, the "a" in each syllable with the Italian sound, and the accent on the first and last syllables. The pronunciation with the accent on the second syllable with the sound of "a" in "man" and the sounding of the terminal "s" is an innovation to be discouraged.Citizens of the State of Kansas often pronounce the Arkansas River {{IPAc-en|ɑr|ˈ|k|æ|n|z|ə|s}} in a manner similar to the common pronunciation of the name of their state.
'''Little Rock, Arkansas'''>|1821
1836>Capital of the Arkansas>State of Arkansas.(Washington, Arkansas was the Confederate States of America>Confederate state capital 1863–1865.)
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CaliforniaBOOK, Ebbert, Brian S., E. Dotson Wilson, California's Legislature, State of California, 2006, Sacramento, California, 157–165, October 3, 2006History of California>Statehood in 1850Loreto, Baja California Sur>Loreto (BCS)1770rowspan=2Spain>Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colonies of las Californias.
Presidio of Monterey, California>|1777
Spain>Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España province of Alta California.
Mexico>Mexican province of Alta California.
|Capital of the U.S. military government of California.
Provisional government of California>Provisional Government of California.
San Jose, California>Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe1850rowspan=4Capitals of the California>State of California
Vallejo, California>Vallejo1852
Benicia, California>Benicia1853
Sacramento, California>Sacramento{{ref[d]}}1854
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ColoradoEarly Capitol and Legislative Assembly Locations Colorado State Archives, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour. Updated June 20, 2003. Accessed June 9, 2005.Statehood in 1876History of Denver>Denver CityFrom December 3, 1859, to December 3, 1861, History of Denver was formally the History of Denver>City of Denver, Auraria, and Highland.1859rowspan=2|Capitals of the extralegal Territory of Jefferson.
Golden, Colorado#History>Golden City1860
History of Denver>Denver City1861rowspan=4|Capitals of the Territory of Colorado.
Old Colorado City>Colorado City1862
Golden, Colorado#History>Golden City1862
History of DenverDenverOn November 15, 1902, the History of Denver>City of Denver became the Denver.>|1867
1876>Capital of the Colorado>State of Colorado.
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ConnecticutStatehood in 1776Fort Amsterdam>Fort Amsterdam (NY)1625Capital of the Netherlands colony of New Netherland.
Hartford, Connecticut>Hartford1639Capital of the English Colony of Connecticut 1639–1686.
New Haven, Connecticut>New-Haven1640Capital of the English Colony of New-Haven until its merger into the Connecticut Colony in 1662.
Boston>Boston (MA)1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Hartford, Connecticut>Hartford1689Capital of the English Colony of Connecticut.
joint capitals1701Hartford, Connecticut and New Haven, Connecticut>New-Haven served as the "co-capitals" of the English Colony of Connecticut, with the Assembly holding its May session in Hartford and its October session in New-Haven.
Hartford, Connecticut>Hartford and New Haven, Connecticut joint capitals of the Kingdom of Great Britain>British Colony of Connecticut.
1776>Hartford, Connecticut>Hartford and New Haven, Connecticut joint capitals of the Connecticut>State of Connecticut.
Hartford, Connecticut>Hartford1875Capital of the State of Connecticut.
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DelawareStatehood in 1776Fort Christina>Fort Kristina1638Capital of the Sweden colony of New Sweden>Nya Sverige.
Fort Amsterdam>Netherlands>Dutch province of New Netherland.
Kingdom of England>English Colony of New-York.
Netherlands>Dutch military government of New Netherland.
Kingdom of England>English Colony of New-York.
Philadelphia>Philadelphia (PA)1682Capital of the English Colony of Pennsylvania.
New Castle, Delaware>Kingdom of England>English Lower Counties on the Delaware.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Lower Counties on the Delaware.
1776>Capitals of the State of Delaware.
Dover, Delaware>Dover1777
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FloridaFlorida State History. Florida Division of Historical Resources.Statehood in 1845Fort Caroline>Fort de la Caroline1564Capital of the Kingdom of France colony of Fort Caroline>La Caroline 1564–1565.
St. Augustine, FloridaSan AgustínSt. Augustine>Spain>Spanish colony of Spanish FloridaLa Florida 1565–1763.The Spain>Spanish name Spanish FloridaLa Florida originally referred to all of the North America>American continent north of Mexico. As other European nations colonized North America, the extent of La Florida shrank to encompass only the Spanish territorial claims in the southeastern portion of the present United States.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British province of East Florida 1763–1783.
Spain>Spanish province of Florida Oriental 1783–1821.
Pensacola, FloridaSanta María de OchusePensacola>Kingdom of Great Britain>British province of British West Florida 1763–1783.
Spain>Spanish province of Florida Occidental 1783–1821.
'''Tallahassee, Florida'''>|Capital of the Florida Territory.
1845>Capital of the Florida>State of Florida.
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'''Georgia (U.S. state)'''Jackson, Edwin L. Story of Georgia's Capitols and Capital Cities {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071009145856weblink History of Georgia (U.S. state)>Statehood in 1776St. Augustine, Florida>San Agustín1565Capital of the Spain colony of Spanish Florida>La Florida.
Savannah, Georgia>Kingdom of Great Britain>British Proprietary colony Province of Georgia>Colony of Georgia.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Province of Georgia.
1776>Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta, Georgia>Augusta1778
Heard's Fort, Georgia>Heard's Fort1780
Augusta, Georgia>Augusta1781
Savannah, Georgia>Savannah1782
Ebenezer, Georgia>Ebenezer1782
Savannah, Georgia>Savannah1784
Augusta, Georgia>Augusta1786
Louisville, Georgia>Louisville1796
Milledgeville, Georgia>Milledgeville1807
Macon, Georgia>Macon1864
Milledgeville, Georgia>Milledgeville1865
Atlanta>|1868
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HawaiiStatehood in 1959Lahaina, Hawaii>Lahaina1820rowspan=2|Capitals of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
Honolulu1845
|Capital of the Republic of Hawaii.
|Capital of the Territory of Hawaii.
1959>Capital of the Hawaii>State of Hawai{{okina}}i.
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IdahoChronological History of Idaho. Idaho Office of the Governor. Created 2000. Accessed June 9, 2005.Statehood in 1890Oregon City, Oregon>|Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country.
Capitals of the Territory of Oregon (all of Idaho 1848–1853, southern Idaho 1853–1859.)
Salem, Oregon>Salem (OR)1851
Olympia, Washington>Olympia (WA)1853Capital of the Territory of Washington (northern Idaho 1853–1859, all of Idaho 1859–1863.)
Lewiston, Idaho>Lewiston1863rowspan=2|Capitals of the Territory of Idaho.
'''Boise, Idaho'''>|1865
1890>Capital of the Idaho>State of Idaho.
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IllinoisPast Capitols; based on Illinois Bluebook, 1975–1976. Created March 5, 2005. Accessed June 10, 2005.Statehood in 1818Marietta, Ohio>Marietta (OH)1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes, Indiana>Vincennes (IN)1800Capital of the Territory of Indiana.
Kaskaskia, Illinois>|Capital of the Territory of Illinois.
1818>Capitals of the State of Illinois.
Vandalia, Illinois>Vandalia1820
Springfield, Illinois>Springfield1839
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IndianaStatehood in 1816Marietta, Ohio>Marietta (OH)1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes, Indiana>Vincennes1800rowspan=2|Capitals of the Territory of Indiana.
Corydon, Indiana>|1813
1816>Capitals of the State of Indiana.
Indianapolis>|1825
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IowaSabin, Henry. Making of Iowa, chapter 24: Locating a Capital. Originally published 1900 by A. Flanagan Co. of Chicago and New York; published online by Iowa History Project, posted August 25, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005.Statehood in 1846St. LouisSaint-LouisSan LuisSt. Louis (MO)>Spain>Spanish (though predominantly French-speaking) district of Illinois Country>Alta Louisiana.
French First Republic>French district of La Haute-Louisiane.
|Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
|Capital of the Louisiana Territory.
|Capital of the Missouri Territory (1812–1821).
Detroit>Detroit (MI)1834Capital of the Territory of Michigan.
Belmont, Wisconsin>Belmont (WI)1836rowspan=2|Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington, Iowa>|1837
Capitals of the Territory of Iowa.
Iowa City, Iowa>|1841
1846>Capitals of the State of Iowa.
Des Moines, Iowa>Des Moines1857
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KansasHarding, Eldon. Stories from the Kansas State Capital: Choosing a Capital City--Why Topeka? {{webarchiveweblink >date=March 12, 2005 }}. Kansas State Historical Society. April 2001. Accessed June 10, 2005.Statehood in 1861St. LouisSaint-LouisSan LuisSt. Louis>Spain>Spanish (though predominantly French-speaking) district of Illinois Country>Alta Louisiana.
French First Republic>French district of La Haute-Louisiane.
|Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
|Capital of the Louisiana Territory.
|Capital of the Missouri Territory (1812–1821).
Pawnee, Kansas>Pawnee1855Capital of the Kansas Territory (July 2 – 6).
Shawnee Methodist Mission>Shawnee Mission1855Capital of the Kansas Territory.
Lecompton, Kansas>Lecomptonrowspan=2|Capital de jure (pro-slavery) of the Territory of Kansas.
Topeka, Kansas>TopekaCapital de facto (anti-slavery) of the Territory of Kansas.
Minneola, Franklin County, Kansas>Minneola1858Declared capital by territorial legislature, although this action was later declared void.FITZGERALD>FIRST1=DANIELDATE=1988UNIVERSITY PRESS OF KANSAS>ISBN=0700603689, 61–65,
Topeka, Kansas>Topeka1861Capital of the State of Kansas.
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KentuckyKentucky's State Capitols {{webarchiveweblink >date=August 13, 2006 }}. Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives. Accessed July 24, 2006.Statehood in 1792Williamsburg, Virginia>Kingdom of England>English Colony of Virginia.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Colony of Virginia.
Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond, Virginia>Richmond (VA)1780
Frankfort, Kentucky>Frankfort1792'''Capital of the Kentucky'''.(The government initially met at Lexington but Frankfort was quickly named the capital. Bowling Green, Kentucky>Bowling Green was the rival Confederate state capital 1861–62.)
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LouisianaNote: The Louisiana Capitals information may be incorrect or incomplete. See HTTP://WWW.STATE.LA.US/ABOUT_HISTORY2.HTM >TITLE=ARCHIVED COPY URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=JUNE 15, 2006, and elsewhere.Statehood in 1812St. Augustine, Florida>San Agustín1565Capital of the Spain colony of Spanish Florida>La Florida.
Old Mobile Site>La Mobile1702rowspan=3Kingdom of France>French colony of La Louisiane.
Biloxi, Mississippi>Bilocci1720
New OrleansLa Nouvelle-OrléansNueva OrleansNew Orleans>|1722
Spain>Spanish district of Baja Louisiana.
French First Republic>French district of La Basse-Louisiane.
|Capital of the Territory of Orleans.
1812>Capitals of the State of Louisiana.
Donaldsonville, Louisiana>Donaldsonville1830
New Orleans>|1831
Baton Rouge, Louisiana>Baton Rouge1849
Opelousas, Louisiana>Opelousas1862
Shreveport, Louisiana>Shreveport1863
New Orleans>|1865
Baton Rouge, Louisiana>Baton Rouge1882
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MaineStudents Questions Frequently Ask {{webarchiveweblink >date=March 13, 2005 }}. Maine State Senate. Accessed June 10, 2005.Statehood in 1820Saint Croix Island, Maine>ÃŽle Sainte-Croix1604rowspan=2France>French colony of l'Acadie.
Port Royal, Annapolis County, Nova Scotia>Port-Royal (NS)1605
Boston>Kingdom of England>English Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
Kingdom of England>English Dominion of New-England in America.
|Capital of the dissident Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
Kingdom of England>English Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Province of Massachusetts Bay.
|Capital of the dissident Province of Massachusetts Bay.
|Capital of the State of Massachusetts Bay.
Massachusetts>Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Portland, Maine>1820>Maine>State of Maine.
1827Capital de facto of the State of Maine.
'''Augusta, Maine'>de jure'' of the Maine>State of Maine.
Capital of the Maine>State of Maine.
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MarylandHistorical Chronology. Maryland State Archives. Accessed July 24, 2006.Statehood in 1776St. Mary's City, Maryland>St. Mary's City1634Capital of the Kingdom of England Proprietary colony>proprietary Colony of Maryland.
Annapolis, MarylandAnnapolis>Kingdom of England>English Province of Maryland.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Province of Maryland.
1776>Capital of the Maryland>State of Maryland.(Capital of the United States of America 1783–1784.)
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MassachusettsStatehood in 1776Plymouth, Massachusetts>Plimouth1620Capital of the English Colony of New-Plimouth 1620–1686.
Boston1630Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay 1630–1686.
Kingdom of England>English Dominion of New-England in America 1686–1689.
Plymouth, Massachusetts>Plimouth1688Capital of the dissident Colony of New-Plimouth 1688–1692.
Boston1689Capital of the dissident Colony of Massachusetts Bay 1689–1692.
Kingdom of England>English Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Province of Massachusetts Bay.
|Capital of the dissident Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1776>|Capital of the State of Massachusetts Bay.
Capital of the Massachusetts>Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
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MichiganMichigan in Brief State of Michigan. Updated March 7, 2005. Accessed June 10, 2005.Statehood in 1837Marietta, Ohio>Marietta (OH)1788rowspan=2|Capitals of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio (all of Michigan 1788–1800, eastern Michigan 1800–1803.)
Chillicothe, Ohio>Chillicothe (OH)rowspan=2|1800
Vincennes, Indiana>Vincennes (IN)rowspan=2Territory of Indiana (western Michigan 1800–1803; all of Michigan 1803–1805, a portion of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan>Upper Peninsula 1805–1816.)
Corydon, Indiana>Corydon (IN)1813
Detroit1805Capital of the Territory of Michigan (Lower Peninsula 1805–1818, all of Michigan 1818–1837.)(Detroit was occupied by British Armed Forces 1812–1813.)
1837>Capitals of the State of Michigan.
Lansing, Michigan>Lansing1847
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MinnesotaSaint Paul's 150th birthday {{webarchiveweblink >date=April 11, 2005 }}. City of Saint Paul, Minnesota. Accessed June 9, 2005.Statehood in 1858St. Louis>Spain>Spanish (though predominantly French-speaking) district of History of Missouri>Alta Louisiana 1765–1800.
France>French district of la Haute-Louisiane (west of Mississippi River 1800–1804.)
|Capital of the District of Louisiana (west of Mississippi River under the authority of the Indiana Territory 1804–1805.)
|Capital of the Territory of Louisiana (west of Mississippi River 1805–1812.)
|Capital of the Territory of Missouri (west of Mississippi River 1812–1821.)
Marietta, Ohio>Marietta (OH)1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio (east of Mississippi River 1788–1800.)
Vincennes, Indiana>Vincennes (IN)1800Capital of the Territory of Indiana (east of Mississippi River 1800–1809.)
Kaskaskia, Illinois>Kaskaskia (IL)1809Capital of the Territory of Illinois (east of Mississippi River 1809–1818.)
Detroit>Detroit (MI)1818Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Mississippi River 1818-1834, all of Minnesota 1834–1836.)
Belmont, Wisconsin>Belmont (WI)1836rowspan=2|Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington, Iowa>|1837
1838Capital of the Territory of Iowa (west of Mississippi River 1838–1841.)
Madison, Wisconsin>Madison (WI)Capital of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Mississippi River 1838–1848.)
Iowa City, Iowa>Iowa City (IA)1841Capital of the Territory of Iowa (west of Mississippi River 1841–1846.)
'''Saint Paul, Minnesota'''>|Capital of the Territory of Minnesota.
1858>Capital of the Minnesota>State of Minnesota.
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MississippiBunn, Mike and Clay Williams, Capitals and Capitols: The Places and Spaces of Mississippi's Seat of Government {{webarchiveweblink >date=May 11, 2005 }}. Mississippi History Now. Mississippi Historical Society Online. Posted September 2003. Accessed June 10, 2005.Statehood in 1817St. Augustine, Florida>San Agustín1565Capital of the Spain colony of Spanish Florida>La Florida.
Savannah, Georgia>Kingdom of Great Britain>British Proprietary colony Province of Georgia>Colony of Georgia.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Province of Georgia.
Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta, Georgia>Augusta (GA)1778
Heard's Fort, Georgia>Heard's Fort (GA)1780
Augusta, Georgia>Augusta (GA)1781
Savannah, Georgia>Savannah (GA)1782
Ebenezer, Georgia>Ebenezer (GA)1782
Savannah, Georgia>Savannah (GA)1784
Augusta, Georgia>Augusta (GA)1786
Louisville, Georgia>Louisville (GA)1796
Natchez, Mississippi>Natchez1798rowspan=2|Capitals of the Territory of Mississippi.
Washington, Mississippi>Washington1802
Natchez, Mississippi>Natchez1817rowspan=2Capitals of the Mississippi>State of Mississippi.
Jackson, Mississippi>Jackson1821
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MissouriStatehood in 1821St. LouisSaint-LouisSan LuisSt. Louis>Spain>Spanish (though predominantly French-speaking) district of Illinois Country>Alta Louisiana.
French First Republic>French district of La Haute-Louisiane.
|Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
|Capital of the Louisiana Territory.
|Capital of the Missouri Territory.
Saint Charles, Missouri>Saint Charles1821rowspan =2Capitals of the Missouri>State of Missouri.(A Confederate States of America state government in exile operated from Neosho, Missouri>Neosho 1861–1863, and from Marshall, Texas, 1863–1865.)
Jefferson City, Missouri>Jefferson City1826
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MontanaLambert, Kirby. Montana's crown jewel of architecture: The Montana state capitol {{webarchiveweblink >date=September 27, 2011 }} Montana: The Magazine of Western History, Montana Historical Society. Summer 2002. Accessed June 10, 2005.Statehood in 1889St. Louis>Spain>Spanish (though predominantly French-speaking) district of Illinois Country>Alta Louisiana (east of Continental Divide 1763–1800.)
France>French district of la Haute-Louisiane (east of Continental Divide 1800–1804.)
|Capital of the District of Louisiana (east of Continental Divide under the authority of the Indiana Territory 1804–1805.)
|Capital of the Territory of Louisiana (east of Continental Divide 1805–1812.)
|Capital of the Territory of Missouri (east of Continental Divide 1812–1821.)
Fort Vancouver, Washington>Fort Vancouver (WA)1825Capital de facto of the Oregon Country (west of Continental Divide 1818–1843.)
Oregon City, Oregon>|Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon (west of Continental Divide 1843–1848.)
Capitals of the Territory of Oregon (west of Continental Divide 1848–1853.)
Salem, Oregon>Salem (OR)1851
Olympia, Washington>Olympia (WA)1853Capital of the Territory of Washington (west of Continental Divide 1853–1863.)
Omaha, Nebraska>Omaha (NE)1854Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (east of Continental Divide 1854–1861.)
Yankton, South Dakota>Yankton (SD)1861Capital of the Territory of Dakota (east of Continental Divide 1861–1863.)
Lewiston, Idaho>Lewiston (ID)1863Capital of the Territory of Idaho.
Bannack, Montana>Bannack1864rowspan=3|Capitals of the Territory of Montana.
Virginia City, Montana>Virginia City1865
'''Helena, Montana'''>|1875
1889>Capital of the Montana>State of Montana.
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NebraskaStatehood in 1867St. Louis>Spain>Spanish (though predominantly French-speaking) district of History of Missouri>Alta Louisiana.
France>French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
|Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
|Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
|Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Omaha, Nebraska>Omaha1854rowspan=2|Capitals of the Territory of Nebraska.
Lincoln, NebraskaLincoln>|1867
1867>Capital of the Nebraska>State of Nebraska.
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NevadaRocha, Guy Nevada State Archives Historical Myth a Month: Myth #28, Las Vegas: Nevada's Next State Capital {{webarchiveweblink >date=August 22, 2003 }}. Updated July 14, 2003. Accessed June 9, 2005; originally published as Sierra Sage, Carson City/Carson Valley, Nevada. May 1998 edition.Statehood in 1864Fillmore, Utah>Fillmore (UT)1850rowspan=2|Capitals of the Territory of Utah.
Salt Lake City>Salt Lake City (UT)1858
'''Carson City, Nevada'''>|Capital of the Territory of Nevada.
1864>Capital of the Nevada>State of Nevada.
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New HampshireNew Hampshire Senate Page For Kids. New Hampshire General Court. Accessed June 9, 2005. New Hampshire History in Brief. New Hampshire Division of Historical Resources. Created 1989. Accessed June 9, 2005.Statehood in 1776Boston>Boston (MA)1630Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
Portsmouth, New Hampshire>Portsmouth1680Capital of the English Province of New Hampshire.
Boston>Boston (MA)1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Portsmouth, New Hampshire>|Capital of the dissident Province of New Hampshire.
Kingdom of England>English Province of New Hampshire.
Kingdom of England>English Province of New Hampshire under jurisdiction of the Royal Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Province of New Hampshire under jurisdiction of the Royal Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Province of New Hampshire.
Exeter, New Hampshire>American Revolutionary War>Revolutionary War government of New Hampshire.
1776>Capitals of the State of New Hampshire.
Concord, New Hampshire>Concord1808
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New JerseyStatehood in 1776Fort Amsterdam>Netherlands>Dutch colony of New Netherland.
Netherlands>Dutch province of New Netherland.
Elizabeth, New Jersey>Elizabethtown (now Elizabeth)1665Capital of the English Province of New Jersey.
Perth Amboy, New Jersey>Perth Amboyrowspan=2Kingdom of England>English Province of East Jersey 1673–1688.
Burlington, New Jersey>BurlingtonCapital of the English Province of West Jersey 1673–1688.
Boston>Boston (MA)1688Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America 1688–1689.
Perth Amboy, New Jersey>Perth Amboyrowspan=2Kingdom of England>English Province of East Jersey 1689–1702.
Burlington, New Jersey>BurlingtonCapital of the English Province of West Jersey 1689–1702.
joint capitals1702East Jersey and West Jersey were re-united as the English Province of New Jersey in 1702. Perth Amboy and Burlington served jointly as the capital until 1784.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Province of New Jersey.
1776>New Jersey>State of New Jersey.
Trenton, New Jersey>Trenton1784'''Capital of the New Jersey'''.(Capital of the United States>United States of America in 1784.)
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New MexicoStatehood in 1912Ohkay Owingeh, New Mexico>San Juan de los Caballeros1598rowspan=2Spain>Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colony of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
Santa Fe, New Mexico#History>La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Asís1610
Ciudad Juárez#History>El Paso del Norte (now Ciudad Juárez CHH)1680Capital of the Spain Viceroyalty of New Spain>Virreinato de la Nueva España colony-in-exile of Santa Fe de Nuevo México (Pueblo Revolt 1680–1692).
Santa Fe, New MexicoLa Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de AsísSanta Fe>Spain>Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colony of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
First Mexican Empire>Mexican province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
First Mexican Republic>Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
|Capital of the U.S. military government of New Mexico 1846.
|Capital of the U.S. provisional government of New Mexico 1846–1850.
|Capital of the U.S. Territory of New Mexico 1850–1912.
Mesilla, New Mexico>Mesilla1862Capital of the Confederate States of America Arizona Territory (Confederate States of America)>Territory of Arizona (southern New Mexico and Arizona 1862).
San Antonio>San Antonio (TX)1862Capital of the government-in-exile of the Confederate States of America Arizona Territory (Confederate States of America)>Territory of Arizona 1862–1865.
Santa Fe, New Mexico>Santa Fe1912Capital of the State of New Mexico.
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'''New York (state)'''History of New York (state)>Statehood in 1776Fort Amsterdam>Netherlands>Dutch colony of New Netherland (Novum Belgium).
Netherlands>Dutch province of New Netherland.
Kingdom of England>English Province of New York.
Netherlands>Dutch military government of New Netherland.
Kingdom of England>English Province of New York.
Boston>Boston (MA)1688Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
New York City>Leisler's Rebellion>dissident government of New-York.
Kingdom of England>English Province of New York.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Province of New York.
1776>Capitals of the State of New York.
Kingston, New York>Kingston1777
Hurley (town), New York>Hurley1777
Poughkeepsie, New York>Poughkeepsie1777
New York City>New York1788Capital of the New York (state).(Capital of the United States>United States of America 1785–1788 and 1789–1790.)
Albany, New York>Albany1797Capital of the State of New York.
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North CarolinaStatehood in 1776St. Augustine, Florida>San Agustín (FL)1565Capital of the Spain colony of Spanish Florida>la Florida.
Charlestown, South Carolina>Kingdom of England>English Province of Carolina.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Province of Carolina.
New Bern, North Carolina>Kingdom of Great Britain>British Province of North Carolina.
1776>Capitals of the State of North Carolina.
Fayetteville, North Carolina>Fayetteville1789
Raleigh, North Carolina>Raleigh1794
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North DakotaStatehood in 1889St. Louis>Spain>Spanish (though predominantly French-speaking) district of History of Missouri>Alta Louisiana.
France>French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
|Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
|Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
|Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Detroit>Detroit (MI)1834Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1834–1836.)
Belmont, Wisconsin>Belmont (WI)1836rowspan=2Territory of Wisconsin (east of Missouri River and White Earth River (North Dakota)>White Earth River 1836–1838.)
Burlington, Iowa>|1837
Capitals of the Territory of Iowa (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1838–1846.)
Iowa City, Iowa>Iowa City (IA)1841
Saint Paul, Minnesota>Saint Paul (MN)1849Capital of the Territory of Minnesota (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1849–1858.)
Omaha, Nebraska>Omaha (NE)1854Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (west of Missouri River or White Earth River 1854–1861.)
Yankton, South Dakota>Yankton (SD)1861rowspan=2|Capitals of the Territory of Dakota.
'''Bismarck, North Dakota'''>|1883
1889>Capital of the North Dakota>State of North Dakota.
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
OhioStatehood in 1803Marietta, Ohio>Marietta1788rowspan=2|Capitals of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Chillicothe, Ohio>|1800
1803>Capitals of the State of Ohio.
Zanesville, Ohio>Zanesville1810
Chillicothe, Ohio>Chillicothe1812
Columbus, Ohio>Columbus1816
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
OklahomaStatehood in 1907St. Louis>Spain>Spanish (though predominantly French-speaking) district of History of Missouri>Alta Louisiana.
France>French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
|Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
|Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
|Capital of the Territory of Missouri.
Arkansas Post>Arkansas Post (AR)1819rowspan=2|Capitals of the Territory of Arkansaw (south of the parallel 36°30' north 1819–1824, southeastern Oklahoma 1824–1828.)
Little Rock, Arkansas>Little Rock (AR)1821
Tahlequah, Oklahoma>Tahlequah1838Capital of the Cherokee Nation.
Tuskahoma, Oklahoma>Tuskahoma1838Capital of the Choctaw Nation.
Tishomingo, Oklahoma>Tishomingo1855Capital of the Chickasaw Nation.
Wewoka, Oklahoma>Wewoka1866Capital of the Seminole Nation.
Okmulgee, Oklahoma>Okmulgee1867Capital of the Creek Nation.
Pawhuska, Oklahoma>Pawhuska?Capital of the Osage Nation.
Guthrie, Oklahoma>|Capital of the Territory of Oklahoma.
1907>Capitals of the State of Oklahoma.
Oklahoma City>|1910
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
OregonOregon Legislative Assembly History. Oregon State Archives. Accessed February 17, 2012.Statehood in 1859Champoeg, Oregon>Champoeg1843Temporary capital of the disputed Oregon Country.
Oregon City, Oregon>|Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country.BOOK, Clarke, S.A., Pioneer Days of Oregon History, J.K. Gill Company, 1905,
Capitals of the Territory of Oregon.
Salem, Oregon>Salem1851
Corvallis, Oregon>Corvallis1855
'''Salem, Oregon'''>|1855
1859>Capital of the Oregon>State of Oregon.
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
PennsylvaniaThe History of Pennsylvania's Capital. Pennsylvania Department of Education. Accessed July 24, 2006.Statehood in 1776Philadelphia1682Capital of the Kingdom of England Proprietary colony>proprietary Colony of Pennsylvania.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British proprietary Colony of Pennsylvania.
1776>Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.(Capital of the United States>United States of America 1776, 1777, 1778–1783, and 1790–1800.)
Lancaster, Pennsylvania>Lancaster1799Capital of the Pennsylvania.(Capital of the United States>United States of America 1777.)
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania>Harrisburg1812Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
Rhode IslandStatehood in 1776Providence, Rhode Island>Providence1636Capital of the Kingdom of England History of Rhode Island>Colony of Providence 1636–1644.
Portsmouth, Rhode Island>Kingdom of England>English Colony of Aquidneck Island 1639–1644.
Kingdom of England>English Colony of Rhode Island.
Providence, Rhode Island>Providence1644Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
Boston>Boston (MA)1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Providence, Rhode Island>Kingdom of England>English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
1776>Rhode Island>State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations rotated among the county seats of the state's five counties: Providence, Rhode Island, Newport, Rhode Island>Newport, East Greenwich, Rhode Island, South Kingstown, Rhode Island>South Kingstown, and Bristol.
Rhode Island>State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations alternated sessions between Providence and Newport.
Providence, Rhode Island>Providence1900Capital of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
South CarolinaStatehood in 1776St. Augustine, Florida>San Agustín (FL)1565Capital of the Spain colony of Spanish Florida>la Florida.
Charlestown, South Carolina>Kingdom of England>English Province of Carolina.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Province of Carolina.
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Province of South Carolina.
1776>Capitals of the State of South Carolina.
Columbia, South Carolina>Columbia1786
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
South DakotaStatehood in 1889St. Louis>Spain>Spanish (though predominantly French-speaking) district of History of Missouri>Alta Louisiana.
France>French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
|Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
|Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
|Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Detroit>Detroit (MI)1834Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Missouri River 1834–1836.)
Belmont, Wisconsin>Belmont (WI)1836rowspan=2|Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Missouri River 1836–1838.)
Burlington, Iowa>|1837
Capitals of the Territory of Iowa (east of Missouri River 1838–1846.)
Iowa City, Iowa>Iowa City (IA)1841
Saint Paul, Minnesota>Saint Paul (MN)1849Capital of the Territory of Minnesota (east of Missouri River 1849–1858.)
Omaha, Nebraska>Omaha (NE)1854Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (west of Missouri River 1854–1861.)
Yankton, South Dakota>Yankton1861rowspan=2|Capitals of the Territory of Dakota.
Bismarck, North Dakota>Bismarck (ND)1883
Pierre, South Dakota>Pierre1889Capital of the State of South Dakota.
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
TennesseeCapital Cities. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. 2002. Accessed March 12, 2006.Statehood in 1796New Bern, North Carolina>Kingdom of Great Britain>British Province of North Carolina.
North Carolina>State of North Carolina.
Rocky Mount, Tennessee>Rocky Mount1790rowspan=2|Capitals of the Territory South of the River Ohio.
Knoxville, Tennessee>|1791
1796>Tennessee>State of Tennessee.
Kingston, Tennessee>Kingston1807Capital of the State of Tennessee for one day in 1807 to fulfill treaty obligations with the Cherokee Nation.
Knoxville, Tennessee>Knoxville1807rowspan=5Capitals of the Tennessee>State of Tennessee.
Nashville, Tennessee>Nashville1812
Knoxville, Tennessee>Knoxville1817
Murfreesboro, Tennessee>Murfreesboro1818
Nashville, Tennessee>Nashville1826
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
TexasStatehood in 1845Los Adaes>Los Adaes (LA)1729rowspan=2New Spain>Spanish colony of Tejas.
San Antonio>San Antonio de Béxar (now San Antonio)1772
Saltillo>Saltillo (COA)1824rowspan=2First Mexican Republic>Mexican province of Coahuila y Tejas.
Monclova>Monclova (COA)1833
Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas>Washington (now Washington-on-the-Brazos)1836rowspan=7|Capitals of the Republic of Texas.
Galveston, Texas>Galveston1836
Harrisburg, Houston>Harrisburg1836
Velasco, Texas>Velasco1836
West Columbia, Texas>Columbia1836
Houston>|1837
'''Austin, Texas'''>|1839
1845>Capital of the Texas>State of Texas.
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
UtahStatehood in 1896Salt Lake City>|Capital of the extralegal State of Deseret.
Fillmore, Utah>Fillmore1850rowspan=2|Capitals of the Territory of Utah.
Salt Lake City1858
1896>Capital of the Utah>State of Utah.
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
VermontEarly History of Montpelier, Vermont {{webarchiveweblink >date=February 12, 2005 }}. Vermont Historical Society. Accessed June 9, 2005; adapted from Esther Munroe Swift, Vermont Place-Names: Footprints of History, 1977, 1996, and Montpelier Heritage Group, Three Walking Tours of Montpelier, Vt., 1991.Statehood in 1791Westminster (town), Vermont>Westminster1777rowspan=2|Capitals of the Republic of New Connecticut.
Windsor, Vermont>|1777
|Capital of the Vermont Republic.
1791>Capitals of the State of Vermont.
Montpelier, Vermont>Montpelier1805
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
VirginiaAbout Our Capital {{webarchiveweblink >date=June 25, 2006 }}. Virginia General Assembly. Accessed July 20, 2006.Statehood in 1776Jamestown, Virginia>Jamestown1619rowspan=2Kingdom of England>English Colony of Virginia.
Williamsburg, Virginia>|1698
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Colony of Virginia.
1776>Virginia>Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond, Virginia>Richmond1780'''Capital of the Virginia'''.(Capital of the Confederate States of America 1861–1865.)(A rival United States>pro-Union state government operated from Wheeling, West Virginia 1861–1863 and from Alexandria, Virginia>Alexandria 1863–1865.)
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
'''Washington (state)'''The History of Olympia. City of Olympia. Accessed June 9, 2005.History of Washington (state)>Statehood in 1889Champoeg, Oregon>Champoeg (OR)1843Temporary capital of the disputed Oregon Country.
Oregon City, Oregon>|Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country.
Capitals of the Territory of Oregon.
Salem, Oregon>Salem (OR)1851
'''Olympia, Washington'''>|Capital of the Territory of Washington.
1889>Capital of the Washington (state)>State of Washington.
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
West VirginiaStatehood in 1863Jamestown, Virginia>Jamestown (VA)1619rowspan=2Kingdom of England>English Colony of Virginia.
Williamsburg, Virginia>|1698
Kingdom of Great Britain>British Colony of Virginia.
Capitals of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond, Virginia>Richmond (VA)1780
Wheeling, West Virginia>United States>pro-Union government of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
1863>Capitals of the State of West Virginia.
Charleston, West Virginia>Charleston1870
Wheeling, West Virginia>Wheeling1875
Charleston, West Virginia>Charleston1885
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
WisconsinCravens, Stanley H. "Capitals and Capitols in Early Wisconsin" {{webarchiveweblink >date=June 23, 2006 }}. Wisconsin Blue Book {{webarchiveweblink >date=February 9, 2006 }}, 1983–1984 edition.Statehood in 1848Marietta, Ohio>Marietta (OH)1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes, Indiana>Vincennes (IN)1800Capital of the Territory of Indiana.
Kaskaskia, Illinois>Kaskaskia (IL)1809Capital of the Territory of Illinois.
Detroit>Detroit (MI)1818Capital of the Territory of Michigan.
Belmont, Wisconsin>Belmont1836rowspan=3|Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington, Iowa>Burlington (IA)1837
'''Madison, Wisconsin'''>|1838
1848>Capital of the Wisconsin>State of Wisconsin.
style="border-top: solid 2px #000"
WyomingSaban, Mary Thompson, Wyoming Sage: Brief History of Wyoming. Updated January 17, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005.Statehood in 1890Lewiston, Idaho>Lewiston (ID)1863Capital of the Territory of Idaho.
Yankton, South Dakota>Yankton (SD)1864Capital of the Territory of Dakota.
'''Cheyenne, Wyoming'''>|Capital of the Territory of Wyoming.
1890>Capital of the Wyoming>State of Wyoming.

See also

Notes

{{note|border|[a]}} Even though the urbanized area of Carson City is about {{convert|15|mi|km}} from the California border, the larger Consolidated Municipality of Carson City does form part of the Nevada state border. Similarly, the City and Borough of Juneau extends eastward to British Columbia, although the urbanized area of Juneau is about {{convert|35|mi|km}} from the Canada–US borderweblink{{note|mutiny|[b]}} Congress was forced to move from Philadelphia due to a riot of angry soldiers. See: Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783{{note|dc|[c]}} President James Madison fled to the home of Caleb Bentley in Brookeville, Maryland following the burning of Washington on August 24–25, 1814. As such, the town claims to have been the "U.S. Capital for a Day" despite the fact that Congress never met there. See: WEB,weblink A Brief History, 2006, Town of Brookeville, Maryland, October 7, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081207142226weblink">weblink December 7, 2008, {{note|San Fran|[d]}} Due to flooding in Sacramento, San Francisco served as a temporary capital from January 24, 1862 to May 15, 1862. See WEB, California's State Capitols 1850–present,weblink .{{note|dc|[e]}} The District of Columbia was formed February 27, 1801, with the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801. The city of Washington was founded in 1791 and construction of the new capital began while it was still part of Maryland. President John Adams moved to the White House on November 1, 1800 and the 6th United States Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800.{{citation |author=Carter II, Edward C. |title=Benjamin Henry Latrobe and the Growth and Development of Washington, 1798-1818 |journal=Records of the Columbia Historical Society |date=1971–1972 |pages=139}}

References

{{reflist|2}}

Further reading

  • Christian Montes. American Capitals: A Historical Geography (University of Chicago Press; 2014) 394 pages; scholarly study of geographic and other factors that have shaped the designation of capitals in all 50 states

External links

{{sister project links|state capital}} {{Navboxes|list ={{US state capitals}}{{USStateLists}}{{Location of US capital}}}}

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