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Spanish language
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{{Short description|Romance language}}{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2017}}







factoids
, {{IPA-es >kasteˈʎano|}}Spain, Hispanic America, Equatorial Guinea (see #Geographical distribution>below)| speakers = 480 million native speakers| date = 2018PUBLISHER=INSTITUTO CERVANTES, 2018, second language>L2 speakers and speakers with limited capacity (2018) + 22 million students | familycolor = Indo-EuropeanItalic languages>ItalicRomance languages>RomanceWestern Romance languages>WesternIberian Romance languages>Ibero-RomanceWest Iberian languages>West-Iberian| fam7 = Castilian languagesOld Spanish language>Old SpanishLatin script>Latin (Spanish alphabet)Spanish Braille titlestyle = font-weight:normal; background:transparent; text-align:left; List of countries where Spanish is an official language>20 countries|Argentina}}Bolivia}}Chile}}Colombia}}Costa Rica}}Cuba}}Dominican Republic}}Ecuador}}El Salvador}}Equatorial Guinea}}Guatemala}}Honduras}}Mexico}} Nicaragua}}Panama}}Paraguay}}Peru}}Spain}}Uruguay}}Venezuela}}}}{{Collapsible list |titlestyle=font-weight:normal; background:transparent; text-align:left;|title=Dependent entity|Puerto Rico}}}}{{Collapsible list |titlestyle=font-weight:normal; background:transparent; text-align:left;|title=Significant minority|Andorra}}Belize}}United States}}}}{{Collapsible list |titlestyle=font-weight:normal; background:transparent; text-align:left;| title = Internationalorganizations|African Union}}CARICOM}}25px) CELACEuropean Union}}25px) ALADI25px) Latin American ParliamentMercosur}}30px) OSCEOrganization of American States}}United Nations}}Union of South American Nations}}|Organization of Ibero-American States}}Association of Spanish Language Academies( and 22 other national Spanish language academies)| iso1 = es| iso2 = spa| iso3 = spa| lingua = 51-AAA-b| notice = IPA| sign = Signed Spanish (Mexico, Spain and presumably elsewhere)| glotto = stan1288| glottorefname = Spanish| map = Hispanophone global world map language 2.svg#001E60|Spanish as official language}}{{legend|#004F96|Unofficial, but spoken by more than 25% of the population}}{{legend|#0086D8|Unofficial, but spoken by 10-20% of the population}}{{legend|#78C0FF|Unofficial, but spoken by 5-9% of the population}}{{legend|#B8E1FF|Spanish-based creole languages spoken}}}}Spanish ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Spanish.ogg|ˈ|s|p|æ|n|ɪ|ʃ}}; {{audio|Espanolpronunciation.ogg|español}}), known in the Middle Ages as CastilianNote that in English, "Castilian" or "Castilian Spanish" may be understood as referring to European Spanish (peninsular Spanish) to the exclusion of dialects in the New World or to Castilian Spanish to the exclusion of any other dialect, rather than as a synonym for the entire language. ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Castilian.ogg|k|æ|ˈ|s|t|ɪ|l|i|ə|n}}, {{audio|es_castellano_001.ogg|castellano}}), is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin. Asterisks mark the 2010 estimates for the top dozen languages.WEB,weblink Summary by language size, WEB,weblink The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency, www.cia.gov, WEB,weblink Logga in på NE, www.ne.se, Según la revista Ethnology en su edición de octubre de 2009 (eldia.es {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100323134957weblink |date=23 March 2010 }})Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. The oldest Latin texts with traces of Spanish come from mid-northern Iberia in the 9th century,{{Citation | url =weblink | title = La RAE avala que Burgos acoge las primeras palabras escritas en castellano | language = Spanish| publisher = El Mundo | place = ES | date = 7 November 2010}} and the first systematic written use of the language happened in Toledo, then capital of the Kingdom of Castile, in the 13th century. Beginning in 1492, the Spanish language was taken to the viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the Americas, as well as territories in Africa, Oceania and the Philippines.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130118163355weblink">weblink 18 January 2013, Spanish languages "Becoming the language for trade" in Spain and, sejours-linguistiques-en-espagne.com, 11 May 2010, Around 75% of modern Spanish vocabulary is derived from Latin and, through Latin, Ancient Greek.BOOK, Robles, Heriberto Camacho Becerra, Juan José Comparán Rizo, Felipe Castillo, Manual de etimologías grecolatinas, 1998, Limusa, México, 968-18-5542-6, 19, 3., BOOK, Comparán Rizo, Juan José, Raices Griegas y latinas, Ediciones Umbral, 978-968-5430-01-2, 17,weblink es, Spanish vocabulary has been in contact with Arabic from an early date, having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula.BOOK, Versteegh, Kees, The Arabic language, 2003, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 0-7486-1436-2, 228,weblink Repr., BOOK, Lapesa, Raphael, Historia de la lengua española, 1960, Madrid, 97,weblink JOURNAL, Quintana, Lucía, Mora, Juan Pablo, Enseñanza del acervo léxico árabe de la lengua española, ASELE. Actas XIII, 2002, 705,weblink : "El léxico español de procedencia árabe es muy abundante: se ha señalado que constituye, aproximadamente, un 8% del vocabulario total" With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin.BOOK, Dworkin, Steven N., A History of the Spanish Lexicon: A Linguistic Perspective, 2012, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 0-19-954114-0, 83,weblink BOOK, Macpherson, I. R., Spanish phonology., 1980, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 0-7190-0788-7, 93,weblink BOOK, Martínez Egido, José Joaquín, Constitución del léxico español, 2007, 15,weblink It has also been influenced by Basque, Iberian, Celtiberian, Visigothic, and by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages.WEB, Cervantes, Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de, La época visigoda / Susana Rodríguez Rosique {{!, Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes|url=http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/obra-visor/la-poca-visigoda-0/html/00f49212-82b2-11df-acc7-002185ce6064_2.html|website=www.cervantesvirtual.com|language=es}}Additionally, it has absorbed vocabulary from other languages, particularly the Romance languages—French, Italian, Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Occitan, and Sardinian—as well as from Quechua, Nahuatl, and other indigenous languages of the Americas.{{Harvcoltxt|Penny|1991|pp=224–236}}Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. It is also used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the African Union and many other international organizations.WEB, Official Languages {{!, United Nations|url =weblink|website = www.un.org|accessdate = 19 November 2015}}Despite its large number of speakers, the Spanish language does not feature prominently in scientific writing, with the exception of the humanities.NEWS, March 5, 2014, El español se atasca como lengua científica,weblink Servicio de Información y Noticias Científicas, Spanish, January 29, 2019, {{TOC limit|3}}

Estimated number of speakers

It is estimated that more than 437 million people speak Spanish as a native language, which qualifies it as second on the lists of languages by number of native speakers.WEB,weblink Summary by language size, Ethnologue, Instituto Cervantes claims that there are an estimated 477 million Spanish speakers with native competence and 572 million Spanish speakers as a first or second language—including speakers with limited competence—and more than 21 million students of Spanish as a foreign language.Cervantes.es – Instituto Cervantes (2017)Spanish is the official or national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, and 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some 418 million. It is also an optional language in the Philippines as it was a Spanish colony from 1569 to 1899. In the European Union, Spanish is the mother tongue of 8% of the population, with an additional 7% speaking it as a second language.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2013-01-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160106183351weblink">weblink 6 January 2016, Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States.WEB,weblink Most Studied Foreign Languages in the U.S, Infoplease.com, 20 August 2012, In 2011 it was estimated by the American Community Survey that of the 55 million Hispanic United States residents who are five years of age and over, 38 million speak Spanish at home.WEB,weblink American Community Survey (ACS), US Census Bureau, According to a 2011 paper by U.S. Census Bureau Demographers Jennifer Ortman and Hyon B. Shin, the number of Spanish speakers is projected to rise through 2020 to anywhere between 39 million and 43 million, depending on the assumption one makes about immigration. Most of these Spanish speakers will be Hispanic, with Ortman and Shin projecting between 37.5 million and 41 million Hispanic Spanish speakers by 2020.

Names of the language

{{rewrite section|date=December 2014}}(File:Castellano-Español.png|right|thumb|Map indicating places where the language is called castellano or español)In Spain and in some other parts of the Spanish-speaking world, Spanish is called not only (Spanish) but also (Castilian), the language from the kingdom of Castile, contrasting it with other languages spoken in Spain such as Galician, Basque, Asturian, Catalan, Aragonese and Occitan.The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to (lit. "the other Spanish languages"). Article III reads as follows:Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. ... The other Spanish languages shall also be official in their respective Autonomous Communities...}}The Spanish Royal Academy, on the other hand, currently uses the term in its publications, but from 1713 to 1923 called the language .The (a language guide published by the Spanish Royal Academy) states that, although the Spanish Royal Academy prefers to use the term in its publications when referring to the Spanish language, both terms— and —are regarded as synonymous and equally valid.Diccionario panhispánico de dudas, 2005, p. 271–272.Two etymologies for have been suggested. The Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary derives the term from the Provençal word , and that in turn from the Medieval Latin word , 'from—or pertaining to—Hispania'.WEB,weblink Diccionario de la lengua española, es, Buscon.rae.es, 6 November 2010, Other authoritiesRamón Menéndez Pidal, Manual de gramática histórica española (Espasa-Calpe, 1968), §66.2Lloyd A. Kasten and Florian J. Cody, Tentative Dictionary of Medieval Spanish (2nd ed., Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 2001) attribute it to a supposed mediaeval Latin *, with the same meaning.

History

File:CartulariosValpuesta.jpg|right|thumb|The Visigothic Cartularies of Valpuesta, written in a late form of Latin, were declared in 2010 by the Spanish Royal Academy as the record of the earliest words written in Castilian, predating those of the Glosas EmilianensesGlosas EmilianensesThe Spanish language evolved from Vulgar Latin, which was brought to the Iberian Peninsula by the Romans during the Second Punic War, beginning in 210 BC. Previously, several pre-Roman languages (also called Paleohispanic languages)—unrelated to Latin, and some of them unrelated even to Indo-European—were spoken in the Iberian Peninsula. These languages included Basque (still spoken today), Iberian, Celtiberian and Gallaecian.The first documents to show traces of what is today regarded as the precursor of modern Spanish are from the 9th century. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern era, the most important influences on the Spanish lexicon came from neighboring Romance languages—Mozarabic (Andalusi Romance), Navarro-Aragonese, Leonese, Catalan, Portuguese, Galician, Occitan, and later, French and Italian. Spanish also borrowed a considerable number of words from Arabic, as well as a minor influence from the Germanic Gothic language through the migration of tribes and a period of Visigoth rule in Iberia. In addition, many more words were borrowed from Latin through the influence of written language and the liturgical language of the Church. The loanwords were taken from both Classical Latin and Renaissance Latin, the form of Latin in use at that time.According to the theories of Ramón Menéndez Pidal, local sociolects of Vulgar Latin evolved into Spanish, in the north of Iberia, in an area centered in the city of Burgos, and this dialect was later brought to the city of Toledo, where the written standard of Spanish was first developed, in the 13th century.BOOK, A History Of The Spanish Language, Penny, Ralph, 2002, Cambridge University Press, 2, 20–21, In this formative stage, Spanish developed a strongly differing variant from its close cousin, Leonese, and, according to some authors, was distinguished by a heavy Basque influence (see Iberian Romance languages). This distinctive dialect spread to southern Spain with the advance of the , and meanwhile gathered a sizable lexical influence from the Arabic of Al-Andalus, much of it indirectly, through the Romance Mozarabic dialects (some 4,000 Arabic-derived words, make up around 8% of the language today).WEB,weblink Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford University Press, 24 July 2008, The written standard for this new language was developed in the cities of Toledo, in the 13th to 16th centuries, and Madrid, from the 1570s.The development of the Spanish sound system from that of Vulgar Latin exhibits most of the changes that are typical of Western Romance languages, including lenition of intervocalic consonants (thus Latin }} > Spanish ). The diphthongization of Latin stressed short {{smallcaps|e}} and {{smallcaps|o}}—which occurred in open syllables in French and Italian, but not at all in Catalan or Portuguese—is found in both open and closed syllables in Spanish, as shown in the following table:{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"! Latin || Spanish || Ladino || Aragonese || Asturian || Galician || Portuguese || Catalan || Gascon / Occitan || French || Sardinian || Italian || Romanian || |Englishpetra}} colspan="4" , 'stone'terra}} colspan="4" colspan="2" | 'land'moritur}} colspan="3" 'dies (v.)'mortem}} colspan="4" 'death'(File:Linguistic map Southwestern Europe.gif|thumb|Chronological map showing linguistic evolution in southwest Europe)Spanish is marked by the palatalization of the Latin double consonants {{smallcaps|nn}} and {{smallcaps|ll}} (thus Latin}} > Spanish , and Latin }} > Spanish).The consonant written or in Latin and pronounced {{IPA|[w]}} in Classical Latin had probably "fortified" to a bilabial fricative {{IPA|/β/}} in Vulgar Latin. In early Spanish (but not in Catalan or Portuguese) it merged with the consonant written b (a bilabial with plosive and fricative allophones). In modern Spanish, there is no difference between the pronunciation of orthographic and , with some exceptions in Caribbean Spanish.{{Citation needed|date=March 2015}}Peculiar to Spanish (as well as to the neighboring Gascon dialect of Occitan, and attributed to a Basque substratum) was the mutation of Latin initial into whenever it was followed by a vowel that did not diphthongize. The , still preserved in spelling, is now silent in most varieties of the language, although in some Andalusian and Caribbean dialects it is still aspirated in some words. Because of borrowings from Latin and from neighboring Romance languages, there are many -/-doublets in modern Spanish: and (both Spanish for "Ferdinand"), and (both Spanish for "smith"), and (both Spanish for "iron"), and and (both Spanish for "deep", but means "bottom" while means "deep"); (Spanish for "to make") is cognate to the root word of (Spanish for "to satisfy"), and ("made") is similarly cognate to the root word of (Spanish for "satisfied").Compare the examples in the following table:{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"! Latin || Spanish || Ladino || Aragonese || Asturian || Galician || Portuguese || Catalan || Gascon / Occitan || French || Sardinian || Italian || Romanian || Englishfilium}} (or ) , 'son'facere}} colspan="2" | 'to do'febrem}} colspan="4" , , (or ) () 'fever'focum}} colspan="3" , , 'fire'Some consonant clusters of Latin also produced characteristically different results in these languages, as shown in the examples in the following table:{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"! Latin || Spanish || Ladino || Aragonese || Asturian || Galician || Portuguese || Catalan || Gascon / Occitan || French || Sardinian || Italian || Romanian || Englishclāvem}} , colspan="2" | 'key'flamma}} , colspan="2" , colspan="2" | 'flame'plÄ“num}} , , 'plenty, full'octō}} colspan="2" | 'eight'multum}} () (arch.)  (arch.)  (arch.) () 'much,very,many'File:Juan de Zúñiga dibujo con orla.jpg|thumb|upright|Antonio de NebrijaAntonio de NebrijaIn the 15th and 16th centuries, Spanish underwent a dramatic change in the pronunciation of its sibilant consonants, known in Spanish as the , which resulted in the distinctive velar {{IPA|[x]}} pronunciation of the letter {{angle bracket|j}} and—in a large part of Spain—the characteristic interdental {{IPA|[θ]}} ("th-sound") for the letter {{angle bracket|z}} (and for {{angle bracket|c}} before {{angle bracket|e}} or {{angle bracket|i}}). See History of Spanish (Modern development of the Old Spanish sibilants) for details.The , written in Salamanca in 1492 by Elio Antonio de Nebrija, was the first grammar written for a modern European language.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Spanish Language Facts, Encyclopedia.com, 6 November 2010, According to a popular anecdote, when Nebrija presented it to Queen Isabella I, she asked him what was the use of such a work, and he answered that language is the instrument of empire.BOOK, Crow, John A., Spain: the root and the flower, 151,weblink 2005, University of California Press, 978-0-520-24496-2, In his introduction to the grammar, dated 18 August 1492, Nebrija wrote that "... language was always the companion of empire."BOOK, Thomas, Hugh, Rivers of Gold: the rise of the Spanish empire, from Columbus to Magellan, 78, 2005, Random House Inc., 978-0-8129-7055-5,weblink From the sixteenth century onwards, the language was taken to the Spanish-discovered America and the Spanish East Indies via Spanish colonization of America. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, author of Don Quixote, is such a well-known reference in the world that Spanish is often called ("the language of Cervantes").JOURNAL, La lengua de Cervantes, Spanish,weblink Ministerio de la Presidencia de España, PDF, 24 August 2008, harv, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081003083955weblink">weblink 3 October 2008, In the twentieth century, Spanish was introduced to Equatorial Guinea and the Western Sahara, and to areas of the United States that had not been part of the Spanish Empire, such as Spanish Harlem in New York City. For details on borrowed words and other external influences upon Spanish, see Influences on the Spanish language.

Grammar

File:Cervantes Jáuregui.jpg|thumb|upright|Miguel de Cervantes, considered by many the greatest author of Spanish literature, and author of Don QuixoteDon QuixoteMost of the grammatical and typological features of Spanish are shared with the other Romance languages. Spanish is a fusional language. The noun and adjective systems exhibit two genders and two numbers, in addition articles and some pronouns and determiners have a neuter gender in singular. There are about fifty conjugated forms per verb, with 3 tenses: past, present, future; 2 aspects for past: perfective, imperfective; 4 moods: indicative, subjunctive, conditional, imperative; 3 persons: first, second, third; 2 numbers: singular, plural; 3 verboid forms: infinitive, gerund, and past participle. Verbs express T-V distinction by using different persons for formal and informal addresses. (For a detailed overview of verbs, see Spanish verbs and Spanish irregular verbs.)Spanish syntax is considered right-branching, meaning that subordinate or modifying constituents tend to be placed after their head words. The language uses prepositions (rather than postpositions or inflection of nouns for case), and usually—though not always—places adjectives after nouns, as do most other Romance languages.The language is classified as a subject–verb–object language; however, as in most Romance languages, constituent order is highly variable and governed mainly by topicalization and focus rather than by syntax. It is a "pro-drop", or "null-subject" language—that is, it allows the deletion of subject pronouns when they are pragmatically unnecessary. Spanish is described as a "verb-framed" language, meaning that the direction of motion is expressed in the verb while the mode of locomotion is expressed adverbially (e.g. subir corriendo or salir volando; the respective English equivalents of these examples—'to run up' and 'to fly out'—show that English is, by contrast, "satellite-framed", with mode of locomotion expressed in the verb and direction in an adverbial modifier).Subject/verb inversion is not required in questions, and thus the recognition of declarative or interrogative may depend entirely on intonation.

Phonology

{{IPA notice}}(File:Miguel Hache - voice.ogg|thumb|Spanish spoken in Spain)The Spanish phonemic system is originally descended from that of Vulgar Latin. Its development exhibits some traits in common with the neighboring dialects—especially Leonese and Aragonese—as well as other traits unique to Castilian. Castilian is unique among its neighbors in the aspiration and eventual loss of the Latin initial {{IPA|/f/}} sound (e.g. Cast. vs. Leon. and Arag. ).{{Harvcoltxt|Zamora Vicente|1967|pp=117 and 222}} The Latin initial consonant sequences , , and in Spanish typically become (originally pronounced {{IPA|[ʎ]}}), while in Aragonese they are preserved, and in Leonese they present a variety of outcomes, including {{IPA|[tʃ]}}, {{IPA|[ʃ]}}, and {{IPA|[ʎ]}}. Where Latin had before a vowel (e.g. ) or the ending , (e.g. ), Old Spanish produced {{IPA|[ʒ]}}, that in Modern Spanish became the velar fricative {{IPA|[x]}} (, , where neighboring languages have the palatal lateral {{IPA|[ʎ]}} (e.g. Portuguese , ; Catalan , ).

Segmental phonology

(File:Spanish vowel chart.svg|thumb|upright=1.15|Spanish vowel chart, from {{Harvcoltxt|Ladefoged|Johnson|2010|p=227}})The Spanish phonemic inventory consists of five vowel phonemes ({{IPA|/a/}}, {{IPA|/e/}}, {{IPA|/i/}}, {{IPA|/o/}}, {{IPA|/u/}}) and 17 to 19 consonant phonemes (the exact number depending on the dialect{{Harvcoltxt|Hualde|2014|p=39}}). The main allophonic variation among vowels is the reduction of the high vowels {{IPA|/i/}} and {{IPA|/u/}} to glides—{{IPA|[j]}} and {{IPA|[w]}} respectively—when unstressed and adjacent to another vowel. Some instances of the mid vowels {{IPA|/e/}} and {{IPA|/o/}}, determined lexically, alternate with the diphthongs {{IPA|/je/}} and {{IPA|/we/}} respectively when stressed, in a process that is better described as morphophonemic rather than phonological, as it is not predictable from phonology alone.The Spanish consonant system is characterized by (1) three nasal phonemes, and one or two (depending on the dialect) lateral phoneme(s), which in syllable-final position lose their contrast and are subject to assimilation to a following consonant; (2) three voiceless stops and the affricate {{IPA|/tʃ/}}; (3) three or four (depending on the dialect) voiceless fricatives; (4) a set of voiced obstruents—{{IPA|/b/}}, {{IPA|/d/}}, {{IPA|/ɡ/}}, and sometimes {{IPA|/ʝ/}}—which alternate between approximant and plosive allophones depending on the environment; and (5) a phonemic distinction between the "tapped" and "trilled" r-sounds (single {{angle bracket|r}} and double {{angle bracket|rr}} in orthography).In the following table of consonant phonemes, {{IPA|/ʎ/}} is marked with an asterisk (*) to indicate that it is preserved only in some dialects. In most dialects it has been merged with {{IPA|/ʝ/}} in the merger called . Similarly, {{IPA|/θ/}} is also marked with an asterisk to indicate that most dialects do not distinguish it from {{IPA|/s/}} (see ), although this is not a true merger but an outcome of different evolution of sibilants in Southern Spain.The phoneme {{IPA|/ʃ/}} is in parentheses () to indicate that it appears only in loanwords. Each of the voiced obstruent phonemes {{IPA|/b/}}, {{IPA|/d/}}, {{IPA|/ʝ/}}, and {{IPA|/ɡ/}} appears to the right of a pair of voiceless phonemes, to indicate that, while the voiceless phonemes maintain a phonemic contrast between plosive (or affricate) and fricative, the voiced ones alternate allophonically (i.e. without phonemic contrast) between plosive and approximant pronunciations.{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto; text-align: center;"Martínez-Celdrán|Fernández-Planas|Carrera-Sabaté|2003|p=255}}!! colspan=2 | Labial! colspan=2 | Dental! colspan=2 | Alveolar! colspan=2 | Palatal! colspan=2 | Velar! Nasal style="border-left:0; width:25px;"m}} style="border-left:0; width:25px;"n}} style="border-left:0; width:25px;"ɲ}}! Stop{{IPAlink{{IPAlink|b}}{{IPAlinkt}} rowspan="2" style="border-left:0; width:25px;"d̪|d}}{{IPAlink{{IPAlink|ʝ}}{{IPAlink{{IPAlink|ɡ}}! Continuant{{IPAlink|f}}{{IPAlink|θ}}*{{IPAlink({{IPAlink|ʃ}}){{IPAlink|x}}! Lateral style="border-left: 0;"l}} style="border-left: 0;"ʎ}}*! Flap style="border-left: 0;"ɾ}}! Trill style="border-left: 0;"r}}

Prosody

Spanish is classified by its rhythm as a syllable-timed language: each syllable has approximately the same duration regardless of stress.{{Harvcoltxt|Cressey|1978|p=152}}{{Harvcoltxt|Abercrombie|1967|p=98}}Spanish intonation varies significantly according to dialect but generally conforms to a pattern of falling tone for declarative sentences and wh-questions (who, what, why, etc.) and rising tone for yes/no questions.John B. Dabor, Spanish Pronunciation: Theory and Practice (3rd ed.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1997), Ch. 7WEB,weblink John B. Dalbor's Voice Files to Accompany Spanish Pronunciation, Auburn.edu, 20 August 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120308071525weblink">weblink 8 March 2012, There are no syntactic markers to distinguish between questions and statements and thus, the recognition of declarative or interrogative depends entirely on intonation.Stress most often occurs on any of the last three syllables of a word, with some rare exceptions at the fourth-last or earlier syllables. The tendencies of stress assignment are as follows:{{Harvcoltxt|Eddington|2000|p=96}}
  • In words that end with a vowel, stress most often falls on the penultimate syllable.
  • In words that end with a consonant, stress most often falls on the last syllable, with the following exceptions: The grammatical endings (for third-person-plural of verbs) and (whether for plural of nouns and adjectives or for second-person-singular of verbs) do not change the location of stress. Thus, regular verbs ending with and the great majority of words ending with are stressed on the penult. Although a significant number of nouns and adjectives ending with are also stressed on the penult (, , ), the great majority of nouns and adjectives ending with are stressed on their last syllable (, , , ).
  • Preantepenultimate stress (stress on the fourth-to-last syllable) occurs rarely, only on verbs with clitic pronouns attached ( 'saving them for him/her/them/you').
In addition to the many exceptions to these tendencies, there are numerous minimal pairs that contrast solely on stress such as ('sheet') and ('savannah'); ('boundary'), ('[that] he/she limits') and ('I limited'); ('liquid'), ('I sell off') and ('he/she sold off').The orthographic system unambiguously reflects where the stress occurs: in the absence of an accent mark, the stress falls on the last syllable unless the last letter is {{angle bracket|n}}, {{angle bracket|s}}, or a vowel, in which cases the stress falls on the next-to-last (penultimate) syllable. Exceptions to those rules are indicated by an acute accent mark over the vowel of the stressed syllable. (See Spanish orthography.)

Geographical distribution

{{See also|Hispanophone}}(File:Geographical places of the spanish language.png|thumb|Geographical distribution of the Spanish language{{legend|#800000|Official or co-official language}}{{legend|#D40000|1,000,000+}}{{legend|#FF8080|100,000+}}{{legend|#FFD5D5|20,000+}}Active learning of Spanish.WEB,weblink Instituto Cervantes 06-07, PDF, 21 April 2010, )Spanish is the primary language of 20 countries worldwide. It is estimated that the combined total number of Spanish speakers is between 470 and 500 million, making it the second most widely spoken language in terms of native speakers.WEB,weblink Most widely spoken Languages in the World, Nations Online, 27 August 2009, WEB,weblink CIA The World Factbook United States, Cia.gov, 5 February 2011, Spanish is the third most spoken language by total number of speakers (after Mandarin and English). Internet usage statistics for 2007 also show Spanish as the third most commonly used language on the Internet, after English and Mandarin.WEB,weblink Internet World Users by Language, 2008, Miniwatts Marketing Group,

Europe

(File:Knowledge of Spanish in European Union.svg|thumb|Percentage of people who self reportedly know enough Spanish to hold a conversation, in the EU, 2005{{legend|#554400|Native country}}{{legend|#AA8800|More than 8.99%}}{{legend|#E5B700|Between 4% and 8.99%}}{{legend|#FFDD55|Between 1% and 3.99%}}{{legend|#FFEEAA|Less than 1%}})In Europe, Spanish is an official language of Spain, the country after which it is named and from which it originated. It is widely spoken in Gibraltar, and also commonly spoken in Andorra, although Catalan is the official language there.WEB,weblink Background Note: Andorra, U.S. Department of State: Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, January 2007, 20 August 2007, Spanish is also spoken by small communities in other European countries, such as the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany.WEB,weblink BBC Education — Languages Across Europe — Spanish, Bbc.co.uk, 20 August 2012, Spanish is an official language of the European Union. In Switzerland, which had a massive influx of Spanish migrants in the 20th century, Spanish is the native language of 2.2% of the population.WEB
,weblink
, Swiss Federal Statistical Office > Languages
, 10 March 2014
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071030014132weblink">weblink
, 30 October 2007
, dmy-all
,

Americas

Hispanic America

Most Spanish speakers are in Hispanic America; of all countries with a majority of Spanish speakers, only Spain and Equatorial Guinea are outside the Americas. Nationally, Spanish is the official language—either de facto or de jure—of Argentina, Bolivia (co-official with Quechua, Aymara, Guarani, and 34 other languages), Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (co-official with 63 indigenous languages), Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay (co-official with Guaraní),Constitución de la República del Paraguay, Article 140 Peru (co-official with Quechua, Aymara, and "the other indigenous languages"Constitución Política del Perú, Article 48), Puerto Rico (co-official with English),NEWS,weblinkdate=29 January 1993 accessdate=6 October 2007, Uruguay, and Venezuela.Spanish has no official recognition in the former British colony of Belize; however, per the 2000 census, it is spoken by 43% of the population.WEB
,weblink
, PDF
, Central Statistical Office, Ministry of Budget Management
, Belize
, Population Census, Major Findings
, 2000
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070621080522weblink">weblink
, 21 June 2007
, 20 December 2007
, yes
,
, WEB,weblink Belize Population and Housing Census 2000, UCR, CR, 21 April 2010, Mainly, it is spoken by the descendants of Hispanics who have been in the region since the seventeenth century; however, English is the official language.WEB,weblink World Factbook, Belize, CIA, 5 February 2011, yes,weblink 13 May 2013, Due to their proximity to Spanish-speaking countries, Trinidad and Tobago and Brazil have implemented Spanish language teaching into their education systems. The Trinidad government launched the Spanish as a First Foreign Language (SAFFL) initiative in March 2005.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101103080637weblink">weblink 3 November 2010, FAQ, The Secretariat for The Implementation of Spanish, Government of the Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, 10 January 2012, yes, In 2005, the National Congress of Brazil approved a bill, signed into law by the President, making it mandatory for schools to offer Spanish as an alternative foreign language course in both public and private secondary schools in Brazil.WEB,weblink Brazilian Law 11.161, Presidência da República, 5 August 2005, 31 March 2014, In September 2016 this law was revoked by Michel Temer after impeachment of Dilma Rousseff.NEWS,weblink Novo ensino médio terá currículo flexível e mais horas de aula, O Globo, 23 September 2016, 23 September 2016, In many border towns and villages along Paraguay and Uruguay, a mixed language known as Portuñol is spoken.JOURNAL, Lipski, John M, Too close for comfort? the genesis of "portuñol/portunhol", Timothy L, Face, Carol A, Klee, 1–22, Somerville, MA, Cascadilla Proceedings Project, 2006, PDF, Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium,weblink 29 December 2008,

United States

{{See also|New Mexican Spanish}}(File:Spanish spoken at home in the United States.svg|thumb|upright=1.35|right|Spanish spoken in the United States and Puerto Rico. Darker shades of green indicate higher percentages of Spanish speakers.)According to 2006 census data, 44.3 million people of the U.S. population were Hispanic or Hispanic American by origin;U.S. Census Bureau Hispanic or Latino by specific origin. 38.3 million people, 13 percent of the population over five years old speak Spanish at home.WEB,weblink United States. S1601. Language Spoken at Home, 3 September 2009, U.S. Census Bureau, 2007, 2005–2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, United States Census Bureau, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090105024941weblink">weblink 5 January 2009, The Spanish language has a long history of presence in the United States due to early Spanish and, later, Mexican administration over territories now forming the southwestern states, also Louisiana ruled by Spain from 1762 to 1802, as well as Florida, which was Spanish territory until 1821.Spanish is by far the most common second language in the US, with over 50 million total speakers if non-native or second-language speakers are included.WEB,weblink Más 'speak spanish' que en España, 6 October 2007, (in Spanish) While English is the de facto national language of the country, Spanish is often used in public services and notices at the federal and state levels. Spanish is also used in administration in the state of New Mexico.BOOK, Crawford, John, Language loyalties: a source book on the official English controversy, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1992, 62, The language also has a strong influence in major metropolitan areas such as those of Los Angeles, Miami, San Antonio, New York, San Francisco, Dallas, and Phoenix; as well as more recently, Chicago, Las Vegas, Boston, Denver, Houston, Indianapolis, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Salt Lake City, Atlanta, Nashville, Orlando, Tampa, Raleigh and Baltimore-Washington, D.C. due to 20th- and 21st-century immigration.

Africa

File:donato ndongo.jpg|thumb|right|Donato Ndongo-BidyogoDonato Ndongo-BidyogoFile:Museo de la Guerra en Rabuni, sede del gobierno de la RASD.jpg|thumb|left|Bilingual signage of Museum of the Sahrawi People's Liberation Army in Western Sahara written in Spanish and Arabic.]]In Africa, Spanish is official (along with Portuguese and French) in Equatorial Guinea, as well as an official language of the African Union. In Equatorial Guinea, Spanish is the predominant language when native and non-native speakers (around 500,000 people) are counted, while Fang is the most spoken language by number of native speakers.WEB,weblink Equatorial Guinea (2000), Ethnologue, 21 April 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081225145951weblink">weblink 25 December 2008, WEB,weblink CIA World Factbook – Equatorial Guinea, 20 September 2007, CIA, 5 February 2011, Spanish is also spoken in the integral territories of Spain in North Africa, which include the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the Plazas de soberanía, and the Canary Islands archipelago (population 2,000,000), located some {{convert|100|km|abbr=on}} off the northwest coast of mainland Africa. In northern Morocco, a former Spanish protectorate that is also geographically close to Spain, approximately 20,000 people speak Spanish as a second language, while Arabic is the de jure official language. A small number of Moroccan Jews also speak the Sephardic Spanish dialect Haketia (related to the Ladino dialect spoken in Israel). Spanish is spoken by some small communities in Angola because of the Cuban influence from the Cold War and in South Sudan among South Sudanese natives that relocated to Cuba during the Sudanese wars and returned in time for their country's independence.{{Citation | publisher = Radio France International | language = Spanish| url =weblink | title = Los cubanos, la élite de Sudán del Sur | accessdate = 20 December 2011 | place = FR | date = 6 July 2011}}In Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, Spanish was officially spoken during the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Today, Spanish in this disputed territory is maintained by populations of Sahrawi nomads numbering about 500,000 people, and is de facto official alongside Arabic in the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, although this entity receives limited international recognition.WEB,weblink Como saharauis queremos conservar el español, 3 March 2008, 15 March 2015, Spanish, WEB,weblink Historia de un país, 15 March 2015, Spanish,

Asia-Pacific

{{See also|Spanish language in the Philippines}}{{multiple image| align = right| image1 = La-solidaridad2.jpg| width1 = 125| alt1 = | caption1 = | image2 = La Illustracion Filipina (1892).jpg| width2 = 130| alt2 = | caption2 = | footer = La Solidaridad newspaper and Juan Luna (a Filipino Ilustrado).}}Spanish was an official language of the Philippines from the beginning of Spanish administration in 1565 to a constitutional change in 1973. During Spanish colonization (1565–1898), it was the language of government, trade and education, and spoken as a first language by Spaniards and educated Filipinos. In the mid-nineteenth century, the colonial government set up a free public education system with Spanish as the medium of instruction. This increased use of Spanish throughout the islands led to the formation of a class of Spanish-speaking intellectuals called the Ilustrados. By the time of Philippine independence in 1898, around 70% of the population had knowledge of Spanish, with 10% speaking it as their first and only language and about 60% of the population spoke it as their second or third language.WEB, Spanish,weblink Estadisticas: El idioma español en Filipinas, Busco enlaces, ES, 15 November 2000, 6 November 2010, Despite American administration after the defeat of Spain in the Spanish–American War in 1898, the usage of Spanish continued in Philippine literature and press during the early years of American administration. Gradually, however, the American government began increasingly promoting the use of English, and it characterized Spanish as a negative influence of the past. Eventually, by the 1920s, English became the primary language of administration and education.WEB,weblink The loss of Spanish, Ambeth Ocampo, Ambeth, Ambeth Ocampo, Ocampo, 4 December 2007, Philippine Daily Inquirer (INQUIRER.net), Makati City, Philippines, Opinion,weblink 26 July 2010, 26 July 2010, But despite a significant decrease in influence and speakers, Spanish remained an official language of the Philippines when it became independent in 1946, alongside English and Filipino, a standardized version of Tagalog.File:bandera 03.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|left|Early flag of the Filipino revolutionaries ("Long live the Philippine Republic!"). The first two constitutions were written in Spanish.]]Spanish was removed from official status in 1973 under the administration of Ferdinand Marcos, but regained its status as an official language two months later under Presidential Decree No. 155, dated 15 March 1973.WEB,weblink Presidential Decree No. 155 : PHILIPPINE LAWS, STATUTES and CODES : CHAN ROBLES VIRTUAL LAW LIBRARY, Chanrobles.com, 24 March 2014, It remained an official language until 1987, with the ratification of the present constitution, in which it was re-designated as a voluntary and optional auxiliary language.Article XIV, Sec 7: "For purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and, until otherwise provided by law, English. The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis." In 2010, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo encouraged the reintroduction of Spanish-language teaching in the Philippine education system.WEB, Rodríguez-Ponga, Rafael, New Prospects for the Spanish Language in the Philippines,weblink 1 March 2015, But by 2012, the number of secondary schools at which the language was either a compulsory subject or an elective had become very limited.WEB,weblink PNoy (President Benigno Aquino III) and Spain’s Queen Sofia welcome return of Spanish language in Philippine schools, Amita O., Legaspi, 3 July 2012, GMA News, Today, despite government promotions of Spanish, less than 0.5% of the population report being able to speak the language proficiently.{{Citation|url=https://www.census.gov.ph/data/sectordata/popproj_tab1r.html |publisher=National Statistics Office |title=Medium projection |date=2010 |place=PH |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110811190921weblink |archivedate=11 August 2011 }} Aside from standard Spanish, a Spanish-based creole language—Chavacano—developed in the southern Philippines. The number of Chavacano-speakers was estimated at 1.2 million in 1996. However, it is not mutually intelligible with Spanish.Spanish creole: {{Citation |first=Antonio |last=Quilis |title=La lengua española en Filipinas |year=1996 |page=54 and 55 |url=http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/01350553135573500088680/209438_0013.pdf |publisher=Cervantes virtual |format=PDF}} Speakers of the Zamboangueño variety of Chavacano were numbered about 360,000 in the 2000 census.{{Harvcoltxt|Rubino|2008|p=279}} The local languages of the Philippines also retain some Spanish influence, with many words being derived from Mexican Spanish, owing to the administration of the islands by Spain through New Spain until 1821, and then directly from Madrid until 1898.{{Citation|url=http://www.thecorpusjuris.com/laws/constitutions/8-philippineconstitutions/68-1973-constitution.html|title=1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines|publisher=The corpus juris|accessdate=6 April 2008|at=Article XV, Section 3(3)|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080417201402weblink|archive-date=17 April 2008|dead-url=yes|df=dmy-all}}WEB, Spanish Influence on Language, Culture, and Philippine History,weblink 15 March 2015, Spanish loan words are present in the local languages of Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Marshall Islands and Micronesia, all of which formerly comprised the Spanish East Indies.WEB,weblink The Influence of German on the Lexicon of Palauan and Kosraean (Dissertation), Engelberg, Stefan, 23 August 2012, WEB, Spanish language in Philippines,weblink 1 March 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150318055051weblink">weblink 18 March 2015, dmy-all,

Spanish speakers by country

The following table shows the number of Spanish speakers in some 79 countries.{| class="wikitable sortable" ! style="width:18%;"|Country! style="width:12%;" data-sort-type="number"|PopulationWEB,weblink UN 2011 to 2100 estimate, MS Excel PDF, UN Population data, 7 February 2018, ! style="width:16%;" data-sort-type="number"|Spanish as a native language speakersEthnologue, 18th Ed.: (:es:Anexo:Hablantes de español según Ethnologue (edición 18)).! style="width:14%;" data-sort-type="number"| Native speakers or very good speakers as a second language{{Citation | publisher = Page TS2: Population older than 15 years old of each country. page T74: Speakers who speak Spanish very well. Page T46: Speakers who speak well enough in order to be able to have a conversation. (:es:Anexo:Hablantes de español en la U.E. según el Eurobarómetro (2012)) | place = EU | format = PDF | url =weblink | title = Eurobarometer | year = 2012}}! style="width:14%;" data-sort-type="number"|Total number of Spanish speakers (including limited competence speakers){{Citation | url =weblink | chapter = Cifras | publisher = Instituto Cervantes | title =El español: una lengua viva | number = 2015 | format = PDF | place = ES | language = Spanish |page=10}} Students across the World.{{Citation | url =weblink | title = Demografía de la lengua española | page = 10 | place = ES | language = Spanish}}, to countries with official Spanish status. style="background:#efefef;"Mexico}} url =weblink publisher = CONAPO estimate language = Spanish}} url =weblink place = USA contribution = MX}}: Spanish only 92.7%{{formatnum:122866722}} (98.5%) style="background:#fff;"United States}} url =weblink publisher = Census Bureau | title = (1 July, 2017) Population clock}} url =weblink publisher = Census Bureau title = Table}}) (13.4%)HTTP://FACTFINDER.CENSUS.GOV/FACES/TABLESERVICES/JSF/PAGES/PRODUCTVIEW.XHTML?PID=ACS_17_1YR_S1601&PRODTYPE=TABLE>TITLE=AMERICAN FACTFINDER – RESULTSWORK=CENSUS.GOV, URL=HTTP://WWW.PEWHISPANIC.ORG/2012/04/04/IV-LANGUAGE-USE-AMONG-LATINOS/ PUBLISHER=PEWHISPANIC.ORG ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2014, of the 57.4 mill. HispanicsHTTPS://FACTFINDER.CENSUS.GOV/FACES/TABLESERVICES/JSF/PAGES/PRODUCTVIEW.XHTML?PID=ACS_16_1YR_B03003&PRODTYPE=TABLE >TITLE=CENSUS BUREAU (01/JULY/2016) DATE= URL=HTTP://WWW.PEWRESEARCH.ORG/FACT-TANK/2013/08/13/SPANISH-IS-THE-MOST-SPOKEN-NON-ENGLISH-LANGUAGE-IN-U-S-HOMES-EVEN-AMONG-NON-HISPANICS/ PUBLISHER=PEWRESEARCH.ORG ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2014, )PUBLISHER=, 7.8 million students and some of the 9 million undocumented Hispanics not accounted by the CensusThere are 9 million illegal Hispanics in USA, some of them aren't in the census ({{Citation weblink > publisher = Impre date = 19 April 2009 language = Spanish}})){{citation url =weblink access-date = 5 February 2016 weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160224203228weblink">weblink > archive-date = 24 February 2016 df = dmy-all }}{{Citation last = Ansón weblink > title = José Ma. Ansón: "Casi cincuenta millones" hablan español en EE. UU. access-date = 5 February 2016 weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160224203229weblink">weblink > archive-date = 24 February 2016 df = dmy-all }}HTTP://WWW.UNIVISION.COM/CONTENT/CONTENT.JHTML?CID=1145765 >TITLE=LA AMENAZA AL IDIOMA ESPAñOL – VOCES DE UNIVISION DATE= DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=11 OCTOBER 2011, {{Citation last = Rodríguez Barilari weblink > title = Congresos de la lengua language = Spanish}}{{Citation weblink > language = Spanish publisher = ABC de Sevilla title = Más de 70 expertos participaran en la III Acta Internacional de la Lengua Española}}{{citation url =weblink date = 13 March 2011}} (The United States is now the second-largest Spanish-speaking country in the world, with more Spanish speakers than Spain, and exceeded only by Mexico). style="background:#efefef;"Spain}}PUBLISHER=INE LANGUAGE = SPANISH ACCESSDATE = 2 JANUARY 2017, | {{formatnum:43009382}} (92,1%){{formatnum:46138186}} (98.8%) style="background:#efefef;"Colombia}}LAST=DATE=PUBLISHER=DANELANGUAGE=SPANISHARCHIVE-DATE=ACCESSDATE=18 JUNE 2019, dmy-all, |44,999,500 (98,9%)45,136,000 (99,2%) style="background:#efefef;"Argentina}}DATE= 40,872,286 people is the census population result for 2010{{Citation weblink > title=Estimaciones y proyecciones de población 2010-2040: Total del país publisher = INDEC}}}}According to Ethnologue (see HTTP://WWW.ETHNOLOGUE.COM/COUNTRY/AR/LANGUAGES >TITLE=ARGENTINA POSTSCRIPT=NONE, ), there were 40,3 million speakers Spanish as mother tongue in 2013. The Argentinian population in 2013 was projected to be 42,2 million.}}{{formatnum:43780542}} (99.4%) style="background:#efefef;"Venezuela}}WORK=INE.GOV.VE, (2017) quote = There are 1,098,244 people who speak other language as their mother tongue (main languages: Chinese 400,000, Portuguese 254,000, Wayuu 199,000, Arabic 110,000) weblink > publisher = Ethnologue contribution = Languages}}{{formatnum:31466173}} (98.8%) style="background:#efefef;"Peru}}URL= HTTP://WWW.INEI.GOB.PE/MEDIA/PRINCIPALES_INDICADORES/LIBRO.PDF TITLE= CIFRAS YEAR = 2017 PLACE = PERU > ACCESSDATE =, quote = Spanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other 0.2% title = The World factbook url =weblink place = United States}}{{Citation > quote = There are 5,782,260 people who speak other language as mother tongue (main languages: Quechua (among 32 Quechua's varieties) 4,773,900, Aymara (2 varieties) 661 000, Chinese 100,000). weblink > title = Country publisher = Ethnologue}}{{formatnum:28945966}} (86.6%) style="background:#efefef;"Chile}} ARCHIVEDATE= 14 FEBRUARY 2010 TITLE = INFORMES PUBLISHER = INE CHILE>CL PAGE = 36 LANGUAGE = SPANISH, 21 April 2010, quote = There are 281,600 people who speak another language, mainly Mapudungun (250.000) weblink > title = Country publisher = Ethnologue}}{{formatnum:18147601}} (99.3%) style="background:#efefef;"Ecuador}} url =weblink Ecuador>EC publisher = INEC format = SWF}}TITLE=(2011) DATE=19 FEBRUARY 1999, 24 March 2014, {{formatnum:16357194}} (98.1%) style="background:#efefef;"Guatemala}}| 16,945,000 contribution = GT title = The World factbook weblink > publisher = CIA}}{{formatnum:14640480}} (86.4%) style="background:#efefef;"Cuba}}| 11,559,000 TYPE = REPORT PUBLISHER=ETHNOLOGUE, 20 August 2012, {{formatnum:11489646}} (99.4%) style="background:#efefef;"Dominican Republic}}| 10,819,000TITLE=(2011) DATE=19 FEBRUARY 1999, 24 March 2014, {{formatnum:10775724}} (99.6%) style="background:#efefef;"Bolivia}}PUBLISHER=INE ACCESSDATE=21 APRIL 2010 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20101011115006/HTTP://WWW.INE.GOB.BO/INDICE/INDICE.ASPX?D1=0301&D2=6 DF=, | {{formatnum:6464547}} (58%)According to the 1992 Census, 58 per cent of the population speaks Spanish as its mother tongue. unicef.org{{formatnum:9797132}} (87.9%) style="background:#efefef;"Honduras}}DATE= DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=19 MAY 2011, | 8,658,501 (207,750 with other mother tongue)There are 207,750 people who speak another language, mainly Garifuna (98,000).: Ethnologue{{formatnum:8777687}} (99.0%) style="background:#efefef;"Paraguay}}title=Informe 2017year=2017page=7Spain>ESformat=PDF}}| 4,721,526 (67.9%)According to the 1992 census, 50% use both Spanish and the indigenous language Guarani at home, 37% speak Guarani only, 7% speak Spanish only.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130907120032weblink">findarticles.com. About 75 percent can speak Spanish.pressreference.com{{formatnum:6953646}} (2,232,120 limited proficiency) style="background:#fff;"France}}PUBLISHER=INSEE.FR ACCESSDATE=20 AUGUST 2012, | 477,564 (1%Eurobarometr 2012 (page T40): Native speakers. of 47,756,439)| 1,910,258 (4%Eurobarometr 2012 (page T74): Non native people who speak Spanish very well. of 47,756,439) | 6,685,901 (14%Eurobarometr 2012 (page T64): Non native people who speak Spanish well enough in order to be able to have a conversation. of 47,756,439Eurobarometr 2012 (page TS2): Population older than 15. (age scale used for the Eurobarometer survey)) style="background:#efefef;"El Salvador}}| 6,349,939| 6,330,889 (99.7%)There are 14,100 people who speak other language as their mother tongue (main language, Kekchí with 12,300 speakers): Ethnologue.{{formatnum:6349939}} (19,050 limited proficiency) style="background:#efefef;"Nicaragua}}| 6,218,321| 6,037,990 (97.1%) (490,124 with other mother tongue)There are 490,124 people who speak another language, mainly Mískito (154,000).: Ethnologue{{formatnum:6218321}} (180,331 limited proficiency) style="background:#fff;"Brazil}} language = Portuguese url =weblink year = 2016 | place = BR}}| 460,018| 460,018| 6,056,018 (460,018 native speakers + 96,000 limited proficiency + 5,500,000 can hold a conversation) style="background:#fff;"Italy}}PUBLISHER=ISTAT.IT ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2014, | 255,459Languages of Italy| 1,037,248 (2% of 51,862,391)| 5,704,863 (11% of 51,862,391) style="background:#efefef;"Costa Rica}}PUBLISHER=INEC ACCESSDATE=5 FEBRUARY 2011 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120327062704/HTTP://WWW.INEC.GO.CR/WEB/HOME/PAGPRINCIPAL.ASPX DF=, WORK=ETHNOLOGUE, {{formatnum:4851256}} (99.2%) style="background:#efefef;"Panama}}Census INE estimate for 2013 {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111007193855weblink |date=7 October 2011 }} (véase "Proyección de Población por municipio 2008–2020") url =weblink publisher = Ethnologue}}{{formatnum:3504439}} (93.1%) style="background:#efefef;"Uruguay}}YEAR= 2016, url =weblink publisher = Ethnologue}}{{formatnum:3441940}} (98.9%) style="background:#efefef;"Puerto Rico}}| 3,474,182WEB
,weblink
, 2015 US. census Bureau
, PDF
,
,
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151223044815weblink">weblink
, 23 December 2015
,
, US. Census Bureau {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150924081747weblink |date=24 September 2015 }}){{formatnum:3432492}} (98.8%) style="background:#fff;"Morocco}}PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS/POPULATION DIVISIONACCESSDATE=10 JANUARY 2016, title = El español en el mundo weblink > archive-url =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121017230300weblink">weblink archive-date = 2012-10-17 trans-title = Spanish in the world format = PDF Spain>ES | page = 6 }}| 6,586El español en el contexto Sociolingüístico marroquí: Evolución y perspectivas (page 39): Between 4 and 7 million people have Spanish knowledge (M. Ammadi, 2002) {{webarchive >url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131106191132weblink TITLE=EUROMONITOR, 2012WORK=EXTERIORES.GOB.ES, style="background:#fff;"United Kingdom}}PUBLISHER=U.K. GOV. CENSUS ACCESSDATE=20 APRIL 2016, | 120,000Languages of the United Kingdom| 518,480 (1% of 51,848,010)| 3,110,880 (6% of 51,848,010) background:#efefef;"Philippines}} url =weblink title = Medium projection place = PH}}|LANGUAGE=ES DATE=18 FEBRUARY 2009 DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=9 FEBRUARY 2014, first = Antonio title = La lengua española en Filipinas page = 54 and 55 weblink > publisher = Cervantes virtual title = Ten Reasons weblink > publisher = Mepsyd page = 23}}{{Citationpublisher=Spanish differences deadurl=yes weblink >archivedate=21 December 2012 }}weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121017230300weblink">Spanish in the world 2012 (Instituto Cervantes): 3,017,265 Spanish speakers. 439,000 with native knowledge, 2,557,773 with limited knowledge (page 6), and 20,492 Spanish students (page 10).NESTOR DIAZ: MORE THAN 2 MILLION SPANISH SPEAKERS AND AROUND 3 MILLION WITH CHAVACANO SPEAKERS>URL=HTTP://WWW.ARESPRENSA.COM/CMS/CMS/FRONT_CONTENT.PHP?IDART=208 PUBLISHER=ARESPRENSA.COM ACCESSDATE=20 AUGUST 2012, The figure of 2 900 000 Spanish speakers is in {{Citation weblink > title = Pluricentric languages: differing norms in different nations first = RW url =weblink publisher = Sispain}} style="background:#fff;"Germany}} url =weblink date = 31 March 2015 publisher = Destatis}}|| 644,091 (1% of 64,409,146)| 2,576,366 (4% of 64,409,146) style="background:#efefef;"Equatorial Guinea}} YEAR = 2010 ACCESSDATE=21 APRIL 2010, | 1,683Spanish according to INE 2011 918,000 (90.5%)14% of the population speaks Spanish natively and other 74% as a second language: {{Citation weblink > title = CVC place = ES format = PDF year = 2007}} style="background:#fff;"Romania}}PUBLISHER=EPP.EUROSTAT.EC.EUROPA.EU ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2014, || 182,467 (1% of 18,246,731) | 912,337 (5% of 18,246,731) style="background:#fff;"Portugal}}| 10,636,888Eurostat 1 January 2010|| 323,237 (4% of 8,080,915)| 808,091 (10% of 8,080,915) style="background:#fff;"Canada}} url=http://www.statcan.gc.ca/start-debut-eng.html publisher = GC | place = CA}}PUBLISHER=2.STATCAN.GC.CA ACCESSDATE=2016, mequieroir.com of 740,000There are 740,000 Hispanics in Canada in 2015, according to "Hispanovation: La creciente influencia hispánica en Canadá" (Social Media Week in Toronto): www.univision.com, www.abc.es.)>| 736,653 style="background:#fff;"Netherlands}}PUBLISHER=CBS.NL ACCESSDATE=20 AUGUST 2012, || 133,719 (1% of 13,371,980)| 668,599 (5% of 13,371,980 ) style="background:#fff;"Sweden}}2012 census{{webarchive >url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131105201119weblink |date=5 November 2013 }}| 77,912 (1% of 7,791,240)| 77,912 (1% of 7,791,240)| 467,474 (6% of 7,791,240) style="background:#fff;"Australia}}PUBLISHER=CENSUSDATA.ABS.GOV.AU ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2014, PUBLISHER=ABS.GOV.AU ACCESSDATE=14 JUNE 2013, | 111,400| 447,175Page 32 of the "Demografía de la lengua española" style="background:#fff;"Belgium}}PUBLISHER=EPP.EUROSTAT.EC.EUROPA.EU ACCESSDATE=20 AUGUST 2012, || 89,395 (1% of 8,939,546)| 446,977 (5% of 8,939,546) style="background:#fff;"Benin}}WEBSITE=WWW.INSAE-BJ.ORG, ||| 412,515 (students) style="background:#fff;"Ivory Coast}}PUBLISHER=, ||| 341,073 (students) style="background:#fff;"Poland}}| 38,092,000|| 324,137 (1% of 32,413,735)| 324,137 (1% of 32,413,735) style="background:#fff;"Austria}}| 8,205,533|| 70,098 (1% of 7,009,827)| 280,393 (4% of 7,009,827) style="background:#fff;"Algeria}}| 33,769,669||| 223,422 style="background:#fff;"Belize}}statisticsbelize.org.bz (2009 mid-year) {{webarchive >url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131209073216weblink |date=9 December 2013 }}| 173,597| 173,597| 195,597 (62.8%)Page 32 of Demografía de la lengua española (52,1% native speakers + 11,7% with some Spanish knowledge)) style="background:#fff;"Senegal}}| 12,853,259||| 205,000 (students) style="background:#fff;"Denmark}}| 5,484,723||45,613 (1% of 4,561,264)|182,450 (4% of 4,561,264) style="background:#fff;"Israel}}| 7,112,359|| 130,000| 175,231Pages 34, 35 of the "Demografía de la lengua española", page 35. style="background:#fff;"Japan}}| 127,288,419DATE=2012, iom.int, | 100,229| 167,514 (60,000 students) style="background:#fff;"Gabon}}| 1,545,255www.state.gov. 2015 estimate||| 167,410 (students) style="background:#fff;"Switzerland}}| 7,581,520FIRST=BUNDESAMT FüRWEBSITE=WWW.BFS.ADMIN.CHARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160114180444/HTTP://WWW.BFS.ADMIN.CH/BFS/PORTAL/DE/INDEX/THEMEN/01/05/BLANK/KEY/SPRACHEN.HTMLDF=DMY-ALL, 111,942 Spaniards in 2016 (INE) + 17,113 Peruvians in 2012 (weblink) + 5706 Argentines in 2012 (weblink) + 2864 Chileans in 2012| 150,782PUBLISHER=, style="background:#fff;"Ireland}}weblink {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111130161432weblink|date=30 November 2011}}|| 35,220 (1% of 3,522,000)| 140,880 (4% of 3,522,000) style="background:#fff;"Finland}}| 5,244,749||| 133,200 (3% of 4,440,004) style="background:#fff;"Bulgaria}}| 7,262,675|| 130,750 (2% of 6,537,510)| 130,750 (2% of 6,537,510) style="background:#fff;"Bonaire}} and {{flag|Curaçao}}| 223,652| 10,699| 10,699| 125,534 style="background:#fff;"Norway}}| 5,165,800PUBLISHER=CVC.CERVANTES.ES ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2014, || 103,309 style="background:#fff;"Czech Republic}}LANGUAGE=CS DATE=31 DECEMBER 2013 DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=31 MARCH 2014, ||| 90,124 (1% of 9,012,443) style="background:#fff;"Hungary}}PUBLISHER=KSH.HU ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2014, ||| 83,206 (1% of 8,320,614) style="background:#fff;"Aruba}}DEAD-URL=YES TITLE=RESULTADO 2010 – PERSONA DATE=6 OCTOBER 2010, 20 August 2012, | 6,800| 6,800| 75,402 style="background:#fff;"Trinidad and Tobago}}weblink {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120107040217weblink|date=7 January 2012}}| 4,100| 4,100WEBSITE=CVC.CERVANTES.ES, style="background:#fff;"Cameroon}}| 21,599,100Evolution de la population par sexe de 1976 à 2012 en: Annuaire Statistique du Cameroun 2010. Consultado el 23 August 2012.||| 63,560 (students) style="background:#fff;"Andorra}}| 84,484| 33,305| 33,305| 54,909 style="background:#fff;"Slovenia}}||| 35,194 (2% of 1,759,701) | 52,791 (3% of 1,759,701) style="background:#fff;"New Zealand}}|PUBLISHER=STATS.GOVT.NZ ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100604223109/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOVT.NZ/METHODS_AND_SERVICES/POPULATION_CLOCK.ASPX DF=DMY-ALL, | 21,645| 47,322 (25,677 students) style="background:#fff;"Slovakia}}| 5,455,407||| 45,500 (1% of 4,549,955) style="background:#fff;"China}}PUBLISHER=STATS.GOV.CN ACCESSDATE=20 AUGUST 2012 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120418131915/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/ENGLISH/NEWSANDCOMINGEVENTS/T20110428_402722237.HTM, 18 April 2012, ||| 30,000 (students)25,000 Spanish students in the university + 5,000 in the "Instituto Cervantes"cervantes.es (page 4) style="background:#fff;"Gibraltar}}PUBLISHER=GIBRALTAR.GOV.GI ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140105204953/HTTPS://WWW.GIBRALTAR.GOV.GI/STATISTICS/FAQS, 5 January 2014, | 22,758 (77.3%www.um.es (5.2. Datos descriptivos de los usos de español e inglés, Gráfico 2). 77.3% of the Gibraltar population speak Spanish with their mother more, or equal than English.)|| style="background:#fff;"Lithuania}}DEAD-URL=YES TITLE=(2013) DATE=, 24 March 2014, ||| 28,297 (1% of 2,829,740) style="background:#fff;"Luxembourg}}| 524,853| 4,049 (1% of 404,907)| 8,098 (2% of 404,907)| 24,294 (6% of 404,907) style="background:#fff;"Russia}}PUBLISHER=GKS.RU ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2014, | 3,320| 3,320| 23,320 style="background:#efefef;"Western Sahara}}FORMAT= PDF YEAR = 2008 PUBLISHER = UN, | n.a.The Spanish 1970 census claims 16.648 Spanish speakers in Western Sahara (weblink) but probably most of them were people born in Spain who left after the Moroccan annexation|| 22,000 style="background:#fff;"Guam}}|||| 19,092Page 34 of the Demografía de la Lengua Española style="background:#fff;"United States Virgin Islands}} US Virgin Islands|PUBLISHER=CENSUS.GOV ACCESSDATE=14 JUNE 2013 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WWW.WEBCITATION.ORG/6M1KRMETR?URL=HTTP://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/2010CENSUS/ DF=, | 16,788| 16,788 style="background:#fff;"Latvia}}PUBLISHER=CSB.GOV.LV ACCESSDATE=14 JUNE 2013 ARCHIVE-DATE=28 JUNE 2013 DF=DMY-ALL, ||| 13,943 (1% of 1,447,866) style="background:#fff;"Turkey}}PUBLISHER=TURKSTAT ACCESSDATE=20 AUGUST 2012, | 1,134| 1,134| 13,4808,000 (Page 37 of the Demografía de la lengua española) + 4,346 Spanish Students (according to the Instituto Cervantes) style="background:#fff;"Cyprus}}|||| 2% of 660,400 style="background:#fff;"India}}PUBLISHER=CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2014, ||FORMAT=PDF ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2014, style="background:#fff;"Estonia}}|||| 9,457 (1% of 945,733) style="background:#fff;"Jamaica}}PUBLISHER=STATINJA.GOV.JM ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2014, | 8,000Languages of Jamaica,| 8,000| 8,000 style="background:#fff;"Namibia}}|| 3,870El español en Namibia, 2005. Instituto Cervantes.|| style="background:#fff;"Egypt}}|||FORMAT=PDF ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2014, style="background:#fff;"Malta}}|||| 3,354 (1% of 335,476) style="background:#efefef;"European Union}} (excluding Spain)PUBLISHER=EPP.EUROSTAT.EC.EUROPA.EU ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2014, | 2,397,000 (934,984 already counted)Demografía de la lengua española, page 37 (2,397,000 people speak Spanish as a native language in the E.U. excluded Spain, but It is already counted population who speak Spanish as a native language in France (477,564), Italy (255,459), U.K. (120,000) Sweden (77,912) and Luxemburg (4,049)).|| style="background:#efefef;"| TotalPUBLISHER=CENSUS.GOV ACCESSDATE=20 AUGUST 2012 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120819022202/HTTP://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/POPULATION/INTERNATIONAL/ DF=DMY-ALL, | {{formatnum:{{#expr: 115631930 + 41017620 + 49150870 + 43009382 + 42269777 + 30729866 + 27048397 + 17993930 + 14700000 + 10167000 + 460018 + 11559000 + 9300000 + 6519316 + 8804479 + 477564 + 6090000 + 5727876 + 470332 + 3877140 + 4804961 + 3263123 + 3303947 + 3330022 + 8691 + 324100 + 4735 + 210535 + 1705 + 553495 + 10635 + 61666 + 81797 + 111400 + 75850 + 173597 + 95000 + 108179 + 150782 + 10699 + 21187 + 5325 + 1377 + 6800 + 4100 + 33305 + 21645 + 12573 + 5209 + 22758 + 4049 + 3320 + 16788 + 1134 + 695 + 8000 + 3000 round 0}}}} ({{formatnum:{{#expr: 45802063300 / 7429000000 round 1}}}} %)426,515,910 speakers L1 in 2012 (ethnologue) of 7,097,500,000 people in the World in 2012 (weblink): 6%.|{{formatnum:{{#expr: 122866722 + 42926496 + 49600863 + 46138186 + 44227535 + 31446173 + 28945966 + 18147601 + 16357194 + 14640480 + 11489646 + 10775724 + 9880136 + 8922107 + 1910258 + 460018 + 6562194 + 6031460 + 1037248 + 4851256 + 4763903 + 3504439 + 3441940 + 3432492 + 8691 + 518480 + 438882 + 644091 + 222214 + 182467 + 323237 + 643800 + 133719 + 101472 + 111400 + 89395 + 324137 + 70098 + 175422 + 173597 + 45613 + 95000 + 150782 + 108179 + 35220 + 130750 + 125534 + 21187 + 1377 + 75402 + 4100 + 54906 + 35194 + 21645 + 5209 + 22758 + 8098 + 3320 + 19092 + 16788 + 1134 + 695 + 8000 + 3870 round 0}}}} ({{formatnum:{{#expr: 49367890600 / 7429000000 round 1}}}} % ){{formatnum:{{#expr: 122866722 + 58008778 + 49600863 + 46138186 + 44227535 + 31446173 + 28945966 + 18147601 + 16357194 + 14640480 + 11489646 + 10775724 + 9880136 + 8922107 + 6685901 + 6676018 + 6562194 + 6031460 + 5704863 + 4763903 + 4851256 + 3504439 + 3432492 + 3441940 + 3415000 + 3110880 + 3016763 + 2576365 + 1467910 + 912337 + 808091 + 736653 + 668599 + 467474 + 447175 + 446977 + 412515 + 341073 +324137 + 280393 + 223422 + 209250 + 205000 + 182450 + 175231 + 167514 + 167410 + 165202 + 140880 + 133200 + 130750 + 125534 + 103309 + 90124 + 87077 + 86742 + 83206 + 75402 + 73656 + 65886 + 54906 + 52791 + 47322 + 45500 + 35209 + 29441 + 28297 + 24294 + 23320 + 19092 + 16788 + 13943 + 13480 + 13208 + 10445 + 9457 + 8000 + 7344 + 6104 + 3969 + 3354 + 227 round 0}}}}HTTP://WWW.KRYSSTAL.COM/SPOKEN.HTML PUBLISHER=KRYSSTAL ACCESSDATE=16 JANUARY 2013, ({{formatnum:{{#expr: 54230988900 / 7429000000 round 1}}}} %)517,824,310 speakers L1 and L2 in 2012 (ethnologue) of 7,097,500,000 people in the World in 2012 (weblink): 7.3%.

Dialectal variation

(File:Variedades principales del español.png|thumb|upright=2.05|A world map attempting to identify the main dialects of Spanish.)There are important variations (phonological, grammatical, and lexical) in the spoken Spanish of the various regions of Spain and throughout the Spanish-speaking areas of the Americas.The variety with the most speakers is Mexican Spanish. It is spoken by more than twenty percent of the world's Spanish speakers (more than 112 million of the total of more than 500 million, according to the table above). One of its main features is the reduction or loss of unstressed vowels, mainly when they are in contact with the sound /s/.Eleanor Greet Cotton, John M. Sharp (1988) Spanish in the Americas, Volume 2, pp.154–155, URLLope Blanch, Juan M. (1972) En torno a las vocales caedizas del español mexicano, pp.53 a 73, Estudios sobre el español de México, editorial Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México URL.In Spain, northern dialects are popularly thought of as closer to the standard, although positive attitudes toward southern dialects have increased significantly in the last 50 years. Even so, the speech of Madrid, which has typically southern features such as yeísmo and s-aspiration, is the standard variety for use on radio and television.BOOK, Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2006, Random House Inc., BOOK, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2006, 4th, Houghton Mifflin Company, BOOK, Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, 1998, MICRA, Inc., ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Encarta World English Dictionary, 5 August 2008, 2007, Bloomsbury Publishing Plc., yes,weblink 31 October 2009, The educated Madrid variety has most influenced the written standard for Spanish.BOOK, Penny, Ralph, Variation and Change in Spanish, 2000, Cambridge University Press, 0-521-78045-4, 199, whatever might be claimed by other centres, such as Valladolid, it was educated varieties of Madrid Spanish that were mostly regularly reflected in the written standard.,

Phonology

The four main phonological divisions are based respectively on (1) the phoneme {{IPA|/θ/}} ("theta"), (2) the debuccalization of syllable-final {{IPA|/s/}}, (3) the sound of the spelled {{angle bracket|s}}, (4) and the phoneme {{IPA|/ʎ/}} ("turned y"),The IPA symbol "turned y" (ʎ), with its "tail" leaning to the right, resembles, but is technically different from, the Greek letter lambda (λ), whose tail leans to the left.
  • The phoneme {{IPA|/θ/}} (spelled before or and spelled {{angle bracket|z}} elsewhere), a voiceless dental fricative as in English thing, is maintained by a majority of Spain's population, especially in the northern and central parts of the country. In other areas (some parts of southern Spain, the Canary Islands, and the Americas), {{IPA|/θ/}} doesn't exist and {{IPA|/s/}} occurs instead. The maintenance of phonemic contrast is called in Spanish, while the merger is generally called (in reference to the usual realization of the merged phoneme as {{IPA|[s]}}) or, occasionally, (referring to its interdental realization, {{IPA|[θ]}}, in some parts of southern Spain). In most of Hispanic America, the spelled {{angle bracket|c}} before {{angle bracket|e}} or {{angle bracket|i}}, and spelled {{angle bracket|z}} is always pronounced as a voiceless dental sibilant.
  • The debuccalization (pronunciation as {{IPA|[h]}}, or loss) of syllable-final {{IPA|/s/}} is associated with the southern half of Spain and lowland Americas: Central America (except central Costa Rica and Guatemala), the Caribbean, coastal areas of southern Mexico, and South America except Andean highlands. Debuccalization is frequently called "aspiration" in English, and in Spanish. When there is no debuccalization, the syllable-final {{IPA|/s/}} is pronounced as voiceless "apico-alveolar" sibilant or as a voiceless dental sibilant in the same fashion as in the next paragraph.
  • The sound that corresponds to the letter {{angle bracket|s}} is pronounced in northern and central Spain as a voiceless "apico-alveolar" sibilant {{IPA|[s̺]}} (also described acoustically as "grave" and articulatorily as "retracted"), with a weak "hushing" sound reminiscent of {{lcons|retroflex}} fricatives. In Andalusia, Canary Islands and most of Hispanic America (except in the Paisa region of Colombia) it is pronounced as a voiceless dental sibilant {{IPA|[s]}}, much like the most frequent pronunciation of the /s/ of English. Because /s/ is one of the most frequent phonemes in Spanish, the difference of pronunciation is one of the first to be noted by a Spanish-speaking person to differentiate Spaniards from Spanish-speakers of the Americas. {{Citation needed|date=June 2017}}
  • The phoneme {{IPA|/ÊŽ/}} spelled {{angle bracket|ll}}, palatal lateral consonant sometimes compared in sound to the sound of the {{angle bracket|lli}} of English million, tends to be maintained in less-urbanized areas of northern Spain and in highland areas of South America. Meanwhile, in the speech of most other Spanish-speakers, it is merged with {{IPA|/ʝ/}} ("curly-tail j"), a non-lateral, usually voiced, usually fricative, palatal consonant, sometimes compared to English {{IPA|/j/}} (yod) as in yacht and spelled {{angle bracket|y}} in Spanish. As with other forms of allophony across world languages, the small difference of the spelled {{angle bracket|ll}} and the spelled {{angle bracket|y}} is usually not perceived (the difference is not heard) by people who do not produce them as different phonemes. Such a phonemic merger is called in Spanish. In Rioplatense Spanish, the merged phoneme is generally pronounced as a postalveolar fricative, either voiced {{IPA|[Ê’]}} (as in English measure or the French {{angle bracket|j}}) in the central and western parts of the dialectal region (), or voiceless {{IPA|[ʃ]}} (as in the French {{angle bracket|ch}} or Portuguese {{angle bracket|x}}) in and around Buenos Aires and Montevideo ().Charles B. Chang, "Variation in palatal production in Buenos Aires Spanish". Selected Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics, ed. Maurice Westmoreland and Juan Antonio Thomas, 54–63. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project, 2008.

Morphology

The main morphological variations between dialects of Spanish involve differing uses of pronouns, especially those of the second person and, to a lesser extent, the object pronouns of the third person.

Voseo

{{Refimprove section|date=October 2012}}File:Voseo-extension-real.PNG|thumb|upright=1.15|An examination of the dominance and stress of the voseo dialect in Hispanic America. Data generated as illustrated by the Association of Spanish Language AcademiesAssociation of Spanish Language AcademiesVirtually all dialects of Spanish make the distinction between a formal and a familiar register in the second-person singular and thus have two different pronouns meaning "you": in the formal and either or in the familiar (and each of these three pronouns has its associated verb forms), with the choice of or varying from one dialect to another. The use of (and/or its verb forms) is called . In a few dialects, all three pronouns are used, with , , and denoting respectively formality, familiarity, and intimacy.WEB,weblink Real Academia Española, es, Buscon.rae.es, 21 April 2010, In , is the subject form (, "you say") and the form for the object of a preposition (, "I am going with you"), while the direct and indirect object forms, and the possessives, are the same as those associated with : ("You know your friends respect you").The verb forms of general voseo are the same as those used with except in the present tense (indicative and imperative) verbs. The forms for generally can be derived from those of (the traditional second-person familiar plural) by deleting the glide {{IPA|[i̯]}}, or {{IPA|/d/}}, where it appears in the ending: > ; > , () > (), () > () .{| cellpadding="5" class="wikitable"Rioplatense Spanish>River Plate Spanish)! colspan="5" style="text-align:center;"|Indicative! colspan="2" style="text-align:center;"|Subjunctive! rowspan="2" style="text-align:center;"|Imperative! Present! Simple past! Imperfect past! Future! Conditional! Present! PastThe forms in bold coincide with standard tú-conjugation.In Chilean on the other hand, almost all verb forms are distinct from their standard -forms.{| cellpadding="5" class="wikitable"|+ Chilean voseo! colspan="5" style="text-align:center;"|Indicative! colspan="2" style="text-align:center;"|Subjunctive! rowspan="2" style="text-align:center;"|Imperative! Present! Simple past! Imperfect past! Future! Conditional! Present! PastThe forms in bold coincide with standard tú-conjugation.The use of the pronoun with the verb forms of () is called "pronominal ". Conversely, the use of the verb forms of with the pronoun ( or ) is called "verbal ". In Chile, for example, verbal voseo is much more common than the actual use of the pronoun vos, which is usually reserved for highly informal situations.And in Central American , one can see even further distinction.{| cellpadding="5" class="wikitable"|+ Central American voseo! colspan="5" style="text-align:center;"|Indicative! colspan="2" style="text-align:center;"|Subjunctive! rowspan="2" style="text-align:center;"|Imperative! Present! Simple past! Imperfect past! Future! Conditional! Present! PastThe forms in bold coincide with standard tú-conjugation.

Distribution in Spanish-speaking regions of the Americas

Although is not used in Spain, it occurs in many Spanish-speaking regions of the Americas as the primary spoken form of the second-person singular familiar pronoun, with wide differences in social consideration. Generally, it can be said that there are zones of exclusive use of (the use of ) in the following areas: almost all of Mexico, the West Indies, Panama, most of Colombia, Peru, Venezuela and coastal Ecuador.
as a cultured form alternates with as a popular or rural form in Bolivia, in the north and south of Peru, in Andean Ecuador, in small zones of the Venezuelan Andes (and most notably in the Venezuelan state of Zulia), and in a large part of Colombia. Some researchers maintain that can be heard in some parts of eastern Cuba, and others assert that it is absent from the island.Katia Salamanca de Abreu, review of Humberto López Morales, Estudios sobre el español de Cuba (New York: Editorial Las Américas, 1970), in Thesaurus, 28 (1973), 138–146.


exists as the second-person usage with an intermediate degree of formality alongside the more familiar in Chile, in the Venezuelan state of Zulia, on the Caribbean coast of Colombia, in the Azuero Peninsula in Panama, in the Mexican state of Chiapas, and in parts of Guatemala.
Areas of generalized include Argentina, Nicaragua, eastern Bolivia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Uruguay and the Colombian departments of Antioquia, Caldas, Risaralda, Quindio and Valle del Cauca.

Ustedes

functions as formal and informal second person plural in over 90% of the Spanish-speaking world, including all of Hispanic America, the Canary Islands, and some regions of Andalusia. In Seville, Huelva, Cadiz, and other parts of western Andalusia, the familiar form is constructed as , using the traditional second-person plural form of the verb. Most of Spain maintains the formal/familiar distinction with and respectively.

Usted

is the usual second-person singular pronoun in a formal context, but it is used jointly with the third-person singular voice of the verb. It is used to convey respect toward someone who is a generation older or is of higher authority ("you, sir"/"you, ma'am"). It is also used in a familiar context by many speakers in Colombia and Costa Rica and in parts of Ecuador and Panama, to the exclusion of or . This usage is sometimes called in Spanish.
In Central America, especially in Honduras, is often used as a formal pronoun to convey respect between the members of a romantic couple. is also used that way between parents and children in the Andean regions of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela.

Third-person object pronouns

Most speakers use (and the prefers) the pronouns and for direct objects (masculine and feminine respectively, regardless of animacy, meaning "him", "her", or "it"), and for indirect objects (regardless of gender or animacy, meaning "to him", "to her", or "to it"). The usage is sometimes called "etymological", as these direct and indirect object pronouns are a continuation, respectively, of the accusative and dative pronouns of Latin, the ancestor language of Spanish.Deviations from this norm (more common in Spain than in the Americas) are called "", "", or "", according to which respective pronoun, , , or , has expanded beyond the etymological usage ( as a direct object, or or as an indirect object).

Vocabulary

Some words can be significantly different in different Hispanophone countries. Most Spanish speakers can recognize other Spanish forms even in places where they are not commonly used, but Spaniards generally do not recognize specifically American usages. For example, Spanish , and (respectively, 'butter', 'avocado', 'apricot') correspond to (word used for lard in Peninsular Spanish), , and , respectively, in Argentina, Chile (except ), Paraguay, Peru (except and ), and Uruguay.

Relation to other languages

{{further|Comparison of Portuguese and Spanish}}(File:Llengües d'Espanya.svg|thumb|Linguistic map of Spain with Spanish shown in light green.)Spanish is closely related to the other West Iberian Romance languages, including Asturian, Aragonese, Galician, Ladino, Leonese, Mirandese and Portuguese.It is generally acknowledged that Portuguese and Spanish speakers can communicate in written form, with varying degrees of mutual intelligibility.{{Harvcoltxt|Jensen|1989}}{{Harvcoltxt|Penny|2000|p=14}}{{Harvcoltxt|Dalby|1998|p=501}}{{Harvcoltxt|Ginsburgh|Weber|2011|p=90}}Mutual intelligibility of the written Spanish and Portuguese languages is remarkably high, and the difficulties of the spoken forms are based more on phonology than on grammatical and lexical dissimilarities. Ethnologue gives estimates of the lexical similarity between related languages in terms of precise percentages. For Spanish and Portuguese, that figure is 89%. Italian, on the other hand its phonology similar to Spanish, but has a lower lexical similarity of 82%. Mutual intelligibility between Spanish and French or between Spanish and Romanian is lower still, given lexical similarity ratings of 75% and 71% respectively.WEB,weblink Spanish, Ethnologue, WEB,weblink Similar languages to Spanish, EZGlot, And comprehension of Spanish by French speakers who have not studied the language is much lower, at an estimated 45%. In general, thanks to the common features of the writing systems of the Romance languages, interlingual comprehension of the written word is greater than that of oral communication.The following table compares the forms of some common words in several Romance languages:{| class="wikitable"! Latin! Spanish! Galician! Portuguese! Astur-Leonese! Aragonese! Catalan! French! Italian! Romanian! EnglishClassical Latin) }} (Ecclesiastical)1. Also in early modern Portuguese (e.g. The Lusiads), and in Galician.2. Alternatively in French.3. Also in Southern Italian dialects and languages.4. Medieval Catalan (e.g. Llibre dels fets).5. Depending on the written norm used (see Reintegrationism).6. From Basque esku, "hand" + erdi, "half, incomplete". Notice that this negative meaning also applies for Latin sinistra(m) ("dark, unfortunate").7. Romanian caÈ™ (from Latin {{smallcaps|cāsevs}}) means a type of cheese. The universal term for cheese in Romanian is brânză (from unknown etymology).Often considered to be a substratum word. Other theories suggest, on the basis of what is used to make cheese, a derivation from Latin brandeum (originally meaning a linen covering, later a thin cloth for relic storage) through an intermediate root *brandea. For the development of the meaning, cf. Spanish manteca, Portuguese manteiga, probably from Latin mantica ('sack'), Italian formaggio and French fromage from formaticus. Romanian Explanatory Dictionary

Judaeo-Spanish

{{Further|Judaeo-Spanish}}File:Rashiscript.PNG|thumb|The Rashi scriptRashi script(File:Delacroix letter.png|thumb|upright=0.85|An original letter in Haketia, written in 1832.)Judaeo-Spanish, also known as Ladino,WEB, Alfassa, Shelomo, Ladinokomunita,weblink December 1999, Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic Studies and Culture, 4 February 2010, is a variety of Spanish which preserves many features of medieval Spanish and Portuguese and is spoken by descendants of the Sephardi Jews who were expelled from Spain in the 15th century. Conversely, in Portugal the vast majority of the Portuguese Jews converted and became 'New Christians'. Therefore, its relationship to Spanish is comparable with that of the Yiddish language to German. Ladino speakers today are almost exclusively Sephardi Jews, with family roots in Turkey, Greece, or the Balkans, and living mostly in Israel, Turkey, and the United States, with a few communities in Hispanic America. Judaeo-Spanish lacks the Native American vocabulary which was acquired by standard Spanish during the Spanish colonial period, and it retains many archaic features which have since been lost in standard Spanish. It contains, however, other vocabulary which is not found in standard Spanish, including vocabulary from Hebrew, French, Greek and Turkish, and other languages spoken where the Sephardim settled.Judaeo-Spanish is in serious danger of extinction because many native speakers today are elderly as well as elderly olim (immigrants to Israel) who have not transmitted the language to their children or grandchildren. However, it is experiencing a minor revival among Sephardi communities, especially in music. In the case of the Latin American communities, the danger of extinction is also due to the risk of assimilation by modern Castilian.A related dialect is Haketia, the Judaeo-Spanish of northern Morocco. This too tended to assimilate with modern Spanish, during the Spanish occupation of the region.

Writing system

{{Spanish language}}Spanish is written in the Latin script, with the addition of the character {{angle bracket|ñ}} (, representing the phoneme {{IPA|/ɲ/}}, a letter distinct from {{angle bracket|n}}, although typographically composed of an {{angle bracket|n}} with a tilde). Formerly the digraphs {{angle bracket|ch}} (, representing the phoneme {{IPA|/t͡ʃ/}}) and {{angle bracket|ll}} (, representing the phoneme {{IPA|/ʎ/}}), were also considered single letters. However, the digraph {{angle bracket|rr}} (, 'strong r', , 'double r', or simply ), which also represents a distinct phoneme {{IPA|/r/}}, was not similarly regarded as a single letter. Since 1994 {{angle bracket|ch}} and {{angle bracket|ll}} have been treated as letter pairs for collation purposes, though they remained a part of the alphabet until 2010. Words with {{angle bracket|ch}} are now alphabetically sorted between those with {{angle bracket|cg}} and {{angle bracket|ci}}, instead of following {{angle bracket|cz}} as they used to. The situation is similar for {{angle bracket|ll}}.Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas, 1st ed.Real Academia Española, Explanation {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070906105503weblink |date=6 September 2007 }} at Spanish Pronto {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070914002335weblink |date=14 September 2007 }} {{es icon}}, {{en icon}}Thus, the Spanish alphabet has the following 27 letters:
Since 2010, none of the digraphs () is considered a letter by the Spanish Royal Academy.Exclusión de ch y ll del abecedario, RAEThe letters and are used only in words and names coming from foreign languages (, etc.).With the exclusion of a very small number of regional terms such as (see Toponymy of Mexico), pronunciation can be entirely determined from spelling. Under the orthographic conventions, a typical Spanish word is stressed on the syllable before the last if it ends with a vowel (not including {{angle bracket|y}}) or with a vowel followed by {{angle bracket|n}} or an {{angle bracket|s}}; it is stressed on the last syllable otherwise. Exceptions to this rule are indicated by placing an acute accent on the stressed vowel.The acute accent is used, in addition, to distinguish between certain homophones, especially when one of them is a stressed word and the other one is a clitic: compare ('the', masculine singular definite article) with ('he' or 'it'), or ('you', object pronoun) with ('tea'), (preposition 'of') versus ('give' [formal imperative/third-person present subjunctive]), and (reflexive pronoun) versus ('I know' or imperative 'be').The interrogative pronouns (, , , , etc.) also receive accents in direct or indirect questions, and some demonstratives (, , , etc.) can be accented when used as pronouns. Accent marks used to be omitted on capital letters (a widespread practice in the days of typewriters and the early days of computers when only lowercase vowels were available with accents), although the advises against this and the orthographic conventions taught at schools enforce the use of the accent.When is written between and a front vowel or , it indicates a "hard g" pronunciation. A diaeresis indicates that it is not silent as it normally would be (e.g., , 'stork', is pronounced {{IPA|[θiˈɣweɲa]}}; if it were written *, it would be pronounced *{{IPA|[θiˈɣeɲa]}}).Interrogative and exclamatory clauses are introduced with inverted question and exclamation marks ( and , respectively).

Organizations

File:Academia de la Lengua.jpg|thumb|The Royal Spanish Academy Headquarters in Madrid, SpainSpain

Royal Spanish Academy

(File:Coat of Arms of the Royal Spanish Academy.svg|left|thumb|upright=0.27|Arms of the Royal Spanish Academy)The (Royal Spanish Academy), founded in 1713,WEB,weblink Scholarly Societies Project, Lib.uwaterloo.ca, 6 November 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100923234545weblink">weblink 23 September 2010, together with the 21 other national ones (see Association of Spanish Language Academies), exercises a standardizing influence through its publication of dictionaries and widely respected grammar and style guides.BOOK, Batchelor, Ronald Ernest, Using Spanish: a guide to contemporary usage, 1992, Cambridge University Press, 0-521-26987-3, 318,weblink Because of influence and for other sociohistorical reasons, a standardized form of the language (Standard Spanish) is widely acknowledged for use in literature, academic contexts and the media.

Association of Spanish Language Academies

(File:Países con academia de la lengua española.png|thumb|Countries members of the ASALE.WEB,weblink Association of Spanish Language Academies, Spanish, Asale, 5 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100923155313weblink">weblink 23 September 2010, )The Association of Spanish Language Academies (, or ) is the entity which regulates the Spanish language. It was created in Mexico in 1951 and represents the union of all the separate academies in the Spanish-speaking world. It comprises the academies of 23 countries, ordered by date of Academy foundation: Spain (1713),WEB, Spain,weblink Real Academia Española, RAE, 6 November 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100929155935weblink">weblink 29 September 2010, Colombia (1871),WEB,weblink Academia Colombiana de la Lengua, Spanish, Colombia, 5 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080219034313weblink">weblink 19 February 2008, Ecuador (1874),WEB,weblink Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua, Spanish, Ecuador, 5 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110527091026weblink">weblink 27 May 2011, Mexico (1875),WEB,weblink Academia Mexicana de la Lengua, Mexico, 22 September 2010, 6 November 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100915092057weblink">weblink 15 September 2010, El Salvador (1876),WEB,weblink Academia Salvadoreña de la Lengua, El Salvador, 5 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110904125413weblink">weblink 4 September 2011, Venezuela (1883),WEB,weblink Academia Venezolana de la Lengua, Spanish, Venezuela, 5 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110527090728weblink">weblink 27 May 2011, Chile (1885),WEB,weblink Academia Chilena de la Lengua, Chile, 6 November 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100905085434weblink">weblink 5 September 2010, Peru (1887),WEB,weblink Academia Peruana de la Lengua, Peru, 6 November 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101012010318weblink">weblink 12 October 2010, dmy-all, Guatemala (1887),WEB,weblink Academia Guatemalteca de la Lengua, Spanish, Guatemala, 5 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080804011930weblink">weblink 4 August 2008, Costa Rica (1923),WEB,weblink Academia Costarricense de la Lengua, Costa Rica, 6 November 2010, Philippines (1924),WEB,weblink Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española, Spanish, Philippines, 5 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110527090616weblink">weblink 27 May 2011, Panama (1926),WEB,weblink Academia Panameña de la Lengua, Panama, 6 November 2010, Cuba (1926),WEB,weblink Academia Cubana de la Lengua, Cuba, 6 November 2010, Paraguay (1927),WEB,weblink Academia Paraguaya de la Lengua Española, Paraguay, 5 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110728150336weblink">weblink 28 July 2011, dmy-all, Dominican Republic (1927),WEB,weblink Academia Dominicana de la Lengua, República Dominicana, 5 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101222161225weblink">weblink 22 December 2010, Bolivia (1927),WEB,weblink Academia Boliviana de la Lengua, Bolivia, 5 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101129201058weblink">weblink 29 November 2010, Nicaragua (1928),WEB,weblink Academia Nicaragüense de la Lengua, Spanish, Nicaragua, 5 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110527090719weblink">weblink 27 May 2011, Argentina (1931),WEB,weblink Academia Argentina de Letras, Argentina, 25 March 2010, 5 February 2011, Uruguay (1943),WEB,weblink Academia Nacional de Letras del Uruguay, Uruguay, 5 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110319235222weblink">weblink 19 March 2011, Honduras (1949),WEB,weblink Academia Hondureña de la Lengua, Spanish, Honduras, 5 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110527085850weblink">weblink 27 May 2011, Puerto Rico (1955),WEB,weblink Academia Puertorriqueña de la Lengua Española, Puerto Rico, 5 February 2011, United States (1973)WEB,weblink Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española, United States, 5 February 2011, and Equatorial Guinea (2016).WEB,weblink Academia Ecuatoguineana de la Lengua Española, Equatorial Guinea, 5 February 2016, {{clear left}}

Cervantes Institute

File:Banco Español del Río de la Plata (Madrid) 05.jpg|thumb|upright|Cervantes Institute headquarters, MadridMadridThe (Cervantes Institute) is a worldwide nonprofit organization created by the Spanish government in 1991. This organization has branched out in over 20 different countries, with 75 centers devoted to the Spanish and Hispanic American cultures and Spanish language. The ultimate goals of the Institute are to promote universally the education, the study, and the use of Spanish as a second language, to support methods and activities that help the process of Spanish-language education, and to contribute to the advancement of the Spanish and Hispanic American cultures in non-Spanish-speaking countries. The Institute's 2015 report "El español, una lengua viva" (Spanish, a living language) estimated that there were 559 million Spanish speakers worldwide. Its latest annual report "El español en el mundo 2018" (Spanish in the world 2018) counts 577 million Spanish speakers worldwide. Among the sources cited in the report is the U.S. Census Bureau, which estimates that the U.S. will have 138 million Spanish speakers by 2050, making it the biggest Spanish-speaking nation on earth, with Spanish the mother tongue of almost a third of its citizens.Stephen Burgen, US now has more Spanish speakers than Spain – only Mexico has more, US News, 29 June 2015.

Official use by international organizations

Spanish is one of the official languages of the United Nations, the European Union, the World Trade Organization, the Organization of American States, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the African Union, the Union of South American Nations, the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat, the Latin Union, the Caricom, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and numerous other international organizations.{{clear right}}

See also

{{col-start-fixed|width=calc(100% - 256px)}}{{col-break}}

Spanish words and phrases


Spanish-speaking world
{{col-break}}
Influences on the Spanish language


Dialects and languages influenced by Spanish
{{col-break}}
Spanish dialects and varieties
{{col-end}}

References

{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}

Bibliography

  • JOURNAL, Abercrombie, David, 1967, Elements of General Phonetics, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, harv,
  • BOOK, Butt, John, Benjamin, Carmen, A New Reference Grammar of Modern Spanishpublisher=Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-1-4441-3769-9, 5th, harv,
  • BOOK, Cressey, William Whitney, 1978, Spanish Phonology and Morphology: A Generative View, Georgetown University Press, 0-87840-045-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Dalby, Andrew, 1998, Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages, Columbia University Press, 0-231-11568-7,weblink harv,
  • JOURNAL, Eddington, David, 2000, Spanish Stress Assignment within the Analogical Modeling of Language, Language, 76, 1, 92–109,weblink 10.2307/417394, 417394, harv,
  • BOOK, Ginsburgh, Victor, Weber, Shlomo, 2011, How Many Languages Do We Need?: The Economics of Linguistic Diversity, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-13689-9,weblink harv,
  • JOURNAL, Harris, James, 1967, Sound Change in Spanish and the Theory of Markedness, Language, 45, 3, 538–52, 10.2307/411438, Language, harv, 411438,
  • BOOK, Hualde, José Ignacio, 2014, Los sonidos del español, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-16823-6,weblink harv,
  • JOURNAL, Jensen, John B., 1989, On the Mutual Intelligibility of Spanish and Portuguese, Hispania, 72, 4, 848–852, 343562, harv, 10.2307/343562,
  • JOURNAL, Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio, Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma., Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina, 2003, Castilian Spanish, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33, 2, 255–59, 10.1017/S0025100303001373, harv,
  • {{Citation|last=Ladefoged|first=Peter|last2=Johnson|first2=Keith|authorlink=Peter Ladefoged|year=2010|title=A Course in Phonetics|edition=6th|publisher=Wadsworth Publishing|place=Boston, Massachusetts|isbn=978-1-4282-3126-9|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=FjLc1XtqJUUC
}}
  • {{Citation|last = Moreno Fernández|first= Francisco|last2 = Otero|first2= Jaime|authorlink = Francisco Moreno Fernández|year= 2008|title=Atlas de la lengua española en el mundo|place=Barcelona|publisher=Ariel}}
  • BOOK, Penny, Ralph, 1991, A History of the Spanish Language, Cambridge University Press, 0-521-39784-7,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Penny, Ralph, 2000, Variation and Change in Spanish, Cambridge University Press, 0-521-78045-4,weblink harv,
  • {{Citation | url =weblink | publisher = UN | title = Population by age, both sexes, annual; estimate for 2012 | format = XLS | ref = {{harvid | UN | 2011}}}}
  • {{citation|last=Rubino|first=Carl|chapter=Zamboangueño Chavacano and the Potentive Mode.|year=2008|title=Roots of Creole Structures: Weighing the Contribution of Substrates and Superstrates|editor-last=Michaelis|editor-first=Susanne|publisher=Benjamins|place=Amsterdam|pages=279–299|url =weblink|isbn=90-272-5255-6
}}
  • {{Citation|last = Zamora Vicente|first= Alonso|year= 1967|title=Dialectología española|place=Madrid|publisher=Gredos}}

Further reading

  • WEB,weblink Hats Off: The Rise of Spanish, The Economist, 1 June 2013,
  • WEB,weblink Does Spanish Have Fewer Words Than English?, Erichsen, Gerald, 20 May 2017, ThoughtCo, Dotdash,
  • NEWS,weblink What is the future of Spanish in the United States?, Pew Research Center, 2018-11-27, en-US,

External links

{{InterWiki|code=es}}{{WikisourceWiki|code=es}}
  • Spanish language at BBC Online
  • {{DMOZ|Science/Social_Sciences/Linguistics/Languages/Natural/Indo-European/Italic/Romance/Spanish/}}
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