South Sudan

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South Sudan
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{{For|the former autonomous regions that existed within the same territory as the current nation|Southern Sudan Autonomous Region (1972–83)|Southern Sudan Autonomous Region (2005–11)}}{{Redirect|RoSS|other uses|Ross (disambiguation)}}{{short description|Country in Africa}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2018}}{{Coord|8|N|30|E|display=title}}

| image_map2 = South Sudan - Location Map (2012) - SSD - UNOCHA.svg| capital = Juba04N36type:city}}| largest_city = capitalEnglish language>EnglishHTTP://WWW.GOSS-ONLINE.ORG/MAGNOLIAPUBLIC/EN/HOME/MAINCOLUMNPARAGRAPHS/0/CONTENT_FILES/FILE/FINAL%20TCRSS.DOC >TITLE=THE TRANSITIONAL CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN, 2011 PUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF SOUTH SUDAN ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://SWAP.STANFORD.EDU/20110721121619/HTTP://WWW.GOSS-ONLINE.ORG/MAGNOLIAPUBLIC/EN/HOME/MAINCOLUMNPARAGRAPHS/0/CONTENT_FILES/FILE/FINAL%20TCRSS.DOC, 21 July 2011, Part One, 6(2). "English shall be the official working language in the Republic of South Sudan".Bari language >Dinka language >Luo language >Murle language >Nuer language >Zande language}} and around 60 other languages{{#tag:ref>The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, Part One, 6(1): "All indigenous languages of South Sudan are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted".HTTP://WWW.SUDANTRIBUNE.COM/IMG/PDF/THE_DRAFT_TRANSITIONAL_CONSTITUTION_OF_THE_ROSS2-2.PDF>TITLE=THE TRANSITIONAL CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN, 2011PUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF SOUTH SUDAN, |group=note}}| languages_type = Spoken languagesEthnologue: Ethnologue Languages of the World – South Sudan, Retrieved 9 September 2018.Juba ArabicUNICEF: The impact of language policy and practice on children’s learning: Evidence from Eastern and Southern Africa 2016 (PDF; 672 kB), Pages 1–3, Retrieved 9 September 2018HTTPS://WWW.ACADEMIA.EDU/35055738 LAST=MANFREDI DATE=2013 ACCESS-DATE=9 SEPTEMBER 2018, {{Dead linkbot=InternetArchiveBot A new state, an old language policy, and a pidgin-creolo: Juba Arabic in South Sudan, Forthcoming: Sociolinguistic Studies 2016 (PDF; 1141 kB), Pages 1–18, Retrieved 9 September 2018Manfredi Stefano; Tosco Mauro (2013), Language uses vs. language policy: South Sudan and Juba Arabic in the post-independence era (PDF; 301 kB), Pages 798–802, III Congresso Coordinamento Universitario per la Cooperazione allo Sviluppo, Sep 2013, Turin, Italy. JUNCO, Journal of Universities and International Development Cooperation, 2014, Imagining Cultures of Cooperation – Proceedings of the III CUCS Congress, Turin 19–21 September 2013, Retrieved 9 September 2018 >English language >Bari language >Dinka language >Luo language >Murle language >Nuer language >Zande language>various others}}Demographics of South Sudan>South Sudanese and NiloticFederal system>Federal Presidential system republic>constitutional republicS. SUDANESE GOVERNMENT AGREES TO FEDERAL SYSTEM WITH REBELS – SUDAN TRIBUNE: PLURAL NEWS AND VIEWS ON SUDAN>URL=HTTP://WWW.SUDANTRIBUNE.COM/SPIP.PHP?ARTICLE52556DATE=27 SEPTEMBER 2014LANGUAGE=EN, List of presidents of South Sudan>President| leader_name1 = Salva Kiir MayarditVice President of South Sudan>Vice President| leader_name2 = James Wani IggaFirst Vice President}}| leader_name3 = Taban Deng GaiNational Legislature (South Sudan)>National LegislatureCouncil of States (South Sudan)>Council of StatesNational Legislative Assembly (South Sudan)>National Legislative Assembly| sovereignty_type = Establishment| established_event1 = End of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan| established_date1 = 1 January 1956| established_event2 = Comprehensive Peace Agreement| established_date2 = 6 January 2005Government of Southern Sudan (2005–2011)>Autonomy| established_date3 = 9 July 2005History of South Sudan#Independence>Independence from Sudan| established_date4 = 9 July 2011United Nations United Nations Security Council Resolution 1999>admission| established_date5 = 13 July 2011| area_km2 = 619745| area_rank = 41st | area_sq_mi = 239285| percent_water = South Sudan}}{{UN_Population|ref}}8,260,490 {{smallerdisputed)}}HTTP://WWW.NEWS24.COM/WORLD/NEWS/DISCONTENT-OVER-SUDAN-CENSUS-20090521 DATE=21 MAY 2009 ACCESSDATE=14 JULY 2011, AFP, }}Year}}| population_census_year = 2008| population_census_rank = 94th| population_density_km2 = 13.33| population_density_sq_mi = 34.52| population_density_rank = 214th| GDP_PPP = $18.435 billion| GDP_PPP_year = 2018| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $1,420| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, World Economic Outlook Database, | GDP_nominal_year = 2018| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $246| Gini = 45.5 | Gini_year = 2009| Gini_change = PUBLISHER=WORLD BANK, 2 March 2011, | Gini_rank = | HDI = 0.388 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = decreaseYEAR=2018 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 187th| currency = South Sudanese pound| currency_code = SSP| time_zone = East Africa Time| utc_offset = +3PUBLISHER=COUNTRYREPORTS.ORG, 21 January 2019, Telephone numbers in South Sudan>+211NEW COUNTRY, NEW NUMBER: COUNTRY CODE 211 OFFICIALLY ASSIGNED TO SOUTH SUDAN >PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION URL=HTTP://WWW.ITU.INT/NET/PRESSOFFICE/PRESS_RELEASES/2011/25.ASPX, 20 July 2011, | iso3166code = SS.ssHTTP://WWW.IANA.ORG/DOMAINS/ROOT/DB/SS.HTML WORK=INTERNET ASSIGNED NUMBERS AUTHORITY ICANN >ACCESSDATE=1 SEPTEMBER 2011, a| footnote_a = Registered, but not yet operational.}}South Sudan ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Sudan.ogg|s|uː|ˈ|d|ɑː|n|,_|-|ˈ|d|æ|n}}),{{citation|last=Wells|first=John C.|year=2008|title=Longman Pronunciation Dictionary|edition=3rd|publisher=Longman|isbn=978-1-4058-8118-0}}{{citation|last=Roach|first=Peter|year=2011|title=Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary|edition=18th|place=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-15253-2}} officially known as the Republic of South Sudan,WEB,weblink South Sudan, 11 July 2011, The World Factbook, CIA, 14 July 2011, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.WEB,weblink The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency,, WEB, UN classification of world regions Eastern Africa: South Sudan publisher=UN, 25 September 2011, It gained independence from the Republic of the Sudan in 2011, making it the most recent sovereign state with widespread recognition. Its capital and largest city is Juba.South Sudan is bordered by Sudan to the north, Ethiopia to the east, Kenya to the southeast, Uganda to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest and the Central African Republic to the west. It includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal (), meaning "Mountain Sea". Sudan was occupied by Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty and was governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until Sudanese independence in 1956. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon broke out, ending in 2005 with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Later that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following 98.83% support for independence in a January 2011 referendum.WEB,weblink Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 1),, 10 July 2011, 2 May 2013, WEB,weblink Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 2),, 19 June 2011, 2 May 2013, It has suffered ethnic violence and endured a civil war since 2013.South Sudan has a population of 12 million, mostly of the Nilotic peoples, and it is demographically among the youngest nations in the world, with roughly half under 18 years old.WEB,weblink ‘Children’s crisis’ in South Sudan must be addressed, says top UN official calling for real accountability, 7 September 2018, The majority of inhabitants adhere to Christianity or various traditional faiths. The country is a member of the United Nations,NEWS,weblink South Sudan admitted to U.N. as 193rd member, Worsnip, Patrick, 14 July 2011, Reuters, 24 July 2011, WEB,weblink UN welcomes South Sudan as 193rd Member State, United Nations News Service, 14 July 2011, 14 July 2011, the African Union,WEB,weblink South Sudan Becomes African Union's 54th Member, Voice of America News, 28 July 2011, 28 July 2011, the East African Community"South Sudan admitted into EAC", Daily Nation, 2 March 2016, reprinted at, accessed 4 March 2016 the Intergovernmental Authority on Development.NEWS,weblink Ethiopia Agrees to Back Somalia Army Operations, IGAD Says, Bloomberg Businessweek, 25 November 2011, 25 November 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 29 July 2012, and is a party to the Geneva Conventions.WEB,weblink Freedom House Congratulates South Sudan for Signing the Geneva Conventions, 20 July 2012, Freedom House, 20 July 2012, As of 2018, South Sudan ranks third lowest in the latest UN World Happiness Report,WEB,weblink World Happiness Report 2018, World Happiness Report, 4 December 2018, second lowest on the Global Peace Index, and has the third highest score on the American Fund for Peace's Fragile States Index.WEB,weblink Fragile States Index, Fund for Peace, 4 December 2018,


The Nilotic people of South Sudan—the Acholi, Anyuak, Bari, Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk, Kaligi (Arabic Feroghe), and others—first entered South Sudan sometime before the 10th century coinciding with the fall of medieval Nubia. During the period from the 15th to the 19th centuries, tribal migrations, largely from the area of Bahr el Ghazal, brought the Anyuak, Dinka, Nuer and Shilluk to their modern locations of both Bahr El Ghazal and Upper Nile Regions, while the Acholi and Bari settled in Equatoria. The Azande, Mundu, Avukaya and Baka, who entered South Sudan in the 16th century, established the region's largest state of Equatoria Region.The Dinka are the largest, Nuer the second largest, the Azande the third-largest and the Bari are the fourth-largest ethnic group in the country. They are found in the Maridi, Yambio, and Tombura districts in the tropical rainforest belt of Western Equatoria, the Adio of Azande client in Yei, Central Equatoria and Western Bahr el Ghazal. In the 18th century, the Avungara sib rose to power over the rest of Azande society and this domination continued into the 20th century.BOOK, Helen Chapin Metz, Sudan: A Country Study,weblink Area handbook series, 1991, GPO for the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 978-0-8444-0750-0, The Turkiyah, 1821–85, registration,weblink Geographical barriers, including the swamplands along the White Nile and the British preference for sending Christian missionaries to the southern regions, including its Closed District Ordinance of 1922 (see History of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan), helped to prevent the spread of Islam to the southerners, thus enabling them to retain their social and cultural heritage, as well as their political and religious institutions. The major reasons include the long history of British policy preference toward developing the Arab north and its ignoring the Black south. After Sudan's first independent elections in 1958, the continued ignoring of the south by Khartoum (lack of schools, roads, bridges) led to uprisings, revolt, and the longest civil war on the continent.Matthew LeRiche, Matthew Arnold. South Sudan: from revolution to independence. 2012. Columbia University Press. New York. {{ISBN|978-0-231-70414-4}}Richard Cockett Sudan: Darfur and the failure of an African state. 2010. Hobbs the Printers Ltd., Totten, Hampshire. {{ISBN|978-0-300-16273-8}} {{As of|2012}}, peoples include Acholi, Anyuak, Azande, Baka, Balanda Bviri, Bari, Boya, Didinga, Dinka, Jiye, Kaligi, Kuku, Lotuka, Mundari, Murie, Nilotic, Nuer, Shilluk, Toposa and Zande.Matthew LeRiche, Matthew Arnold. South Sudan: from revolution to independence. 2012. Ethnic Groups and Flashpoints. p. xv. Columbia University Press. New York. {{ISBN|978-0-231-70414-4}}Slavery had been an institution of Sudanese life throughout history.{{citation|url= |title=Sudanese Trade in Black Ivory: Opening Old Wounds (PDF)|publisher=UNESCO}} The slave trade in the south intensified in the 19th century, and continued after the British had suppressed slavery in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Annual Sudanese slave raids into non-Muslim territories resulted in the capture of countless thousands of southern Sudanese, and the destruction of the region's stability and economy.{{citation|url=|title=Sudan â€” The Turkiyah (1821–1885)|publisher= Library of Congress Country Studies}}File:John Garang.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Profile of John Garang|John Garang de Mabior led the Sudan People's Liberation ArmySudan People's Liberation ArmyThe Azande have had good relations with the neighbors, namely the Moru, Mundu, Pöjulu, Avukaya, Baka and the small groups in Bahr el Ghazal, due to the expansionist policy of their king Gbudwe, in the 18th century. In the 19th century, the Azande fought the French, the Belgians and the Mahdists to maintain their independence. Egypt, under the rule of Khedive Ismail Pasha, first attempted to control the region in the 1870s, establishing the province of Equatoria in the southern portion. Egypt's first governor was Samuel Baker, commissioned in 1869, followed by Charles George Gordon in 1874 and by Emin Pasha in 1878.BOOK, Levering Lewis, David, The Race to Fashoda, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, New York, 1995, The Mahdist Revolt of the 1880s destabilized the nascent province, and Equatoria ceased to exist as an Egyptian outpost in 1889. Important settlements in Equatoria included Lado, Gondokoro, Dufile and Wadelai. European colonial maneuverings in the region came to a head in 1898, when the Fashoda Incident occurred at present-day Kodok; Britain and France almost went to war over the region. In 1947, British hopes to join South Sudan with Uganda, as well as leaving Western Equatoria as part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, were dashed by the Rajaf Conference to unify North and South Sudan.{{citation needed|date=October 2017}}South Sudan has an estimated population of 8 million,WEB,weblink Sudan,, 21 December 2013, but, given the lack of a census in several decades, this estimate may be severely distorted. The economy is predominantly rural and relies chiefly on subsistence farming. Around 2005, the economy began a transition from this rural dominance, and urban areas within South Sudan have seen extensive development.The region has been negatively affected by two civil wars since Sudanese independence: from 1955 to 1972, the Sudanese government fought the Anyanya rebel army (Anya-Nya is a term in the Madi language which means "snake venom")Matthew LeRiche, Matthew Arnold. South Sudan: from revolution to independence. 2012. Columbia University Press. New York. p. 16 {{ISBN|978-0-231-70414-4}} during the First Sudanese Civil War, followed by the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) in the Second Sudanese Civil War for over 20 years. As a result, the country suffered serious neglect, a lack of infrastructural development, and major destruction and displacement. More than 2.5 million people have been killed and millions more have become refugees both within and outside the country.

Independence (2011)

(File:A South Sudanese girl at independence festivities (5926735716).jpg|thumb|upright|A South Sudanese girl at independence festivities)Between 9 and 15 January 2011, a referendum was held to determine whether South Sudan should become an independent country and separate from Sudan. 98.83% of the population voted for independence.NEWS, USA Today, Over 99 pct in Southern Sudan vote for secession,weblink 30 January 2011, 30 January 2011, Maggie, Fick, South Sudan formally became independent from Sudan on July 9, although certain disputes still remained, including the division of oil revenues, as 75% of all the former Sudan's oil reserves are in South Sudan.NEWS, BBC News, South Sudan profile,weblink 14 February 2014, 8 January 2014, The region of Abyei still remains disputed and a separate referendum will be held in Abyei on whether they want to join Sudan or South Sudan.NEWS, News, BBC, 99.57% of Southern Sudanese vote yes to independence,weblink 30 January 2011, 30 January 2011, BBC News, The South Kordofan conflict broke out in June 2011 between the Army of Sudan and the SPLA over the Nuba Mountains.On 9 July 2011, South Sudan became the 54th independent country in AfricaSouth Sudan becomes an independent nation, BBC News. and since 14 July 2011, South Sudan is the 193rd member of the United Nations.WEB,weblink UN welcomes South Sudan as 193rd Member State, 14 July 2011, UN News, On 27 July 2011, South Sudan became the 54th country to join the African Union.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink y, African Union Welcomes South Sudan as the 54th Member State of the Union, 12 August 2011, South Sudan was at war with at least seven armed groups in 9 of its 10 states, with tens of thousands displaced.NEWS, South Sudan army kills fighters in clashes,weblink Al Jazeera English, 24 April 2011, 26 April 2011, The fighters accuse the government of plotting to stay in power indefinitely, not fairly representing and supporting all tribal groups while neglecting development in rural areas.NEWS,weblink Civilians dead in South Sudan battle, Associated Press, 2 June 2011, Fick, Maggie, Straziuso, Jason, yes, Joseph Kony's Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) also operates in a wide area that includes South Sudan.NEWS, The LRA and Sudan,weblink Al Jazeera English, 5 January 2011, 3 January 2012, Inter-ethnic warfare that in some cases predates the war of independence is widespread. In December 2011, tribal clashes in Jonglei intensified between the Nuer White Army of the Lou Nuer and the Murle.NEWS, Thousands flee South Sudan tribal conflict,weblink Al Jazeera English, 3 January 2012, 3 January 2012, The White Army warned it would wipe out the Murle and would also fight South Sudanese and UN forces sent to the area around Pibor.NEWS, United Nations urges South Sudan to Help Avert Possible Attack,weblink Bloomberg Television, 27 December 2011, 3 January 2012, In March 2012, South Sudanese forces seized the Heglig oil fields in lands claimed by both Sudan and South Sudan in the province of South Kordofan after conflict with Sudanese forces in the South Sudanese state of Unity.NEWS,weblink Sudan and South Sudan in fierce oil border clashes, BBC News Africa, 27 March 2012, 27 March 2012, South Sudan withdrew on March 20, and the Sudanese Army entered Heglig two days later.

Civil war (2013–present)

{{See also|South Sudanese Civil War}}{{further|Ethnic violence in South Sudan}}File:Southern Sudan Civil War.svg|thumb|Military situation in South Sudan as of 1 April 2016{{legend|#ebc0b3|Under control of the Government of South Sudan}}{{legend|#cae7c4|Under control of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-in-Opposition}}{{legend|blue|Under control of the Government of SudanGovernment of SudanIn December 2013, a political power struggle broke out between President Kiir and his former deputy Riek Machar, as the president accused Machar and ten others of attempting a coup d'état.NEWS, Kulish, Nicholas,weblink New Estimate Sharply Raises Death Toll in South Sudan, The New York Times, 9 January 2014, 2 February 2014, Fighting broke out, igniting the South Sudanese Civil War. Ugandan troops were deployed to fight alongside South Sudanese government forces against the rebels.NEWSPAPER,weblink Yoweri Museveni: Uganda troops fighting South Sudan rebels, BBC News, 16 January 2014, The United Nations has peacekeepers in the country as part of the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). Numerous ceasefires were mediated by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) between the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and SPLM – in opposition and were subsequently broken. A peace agreement was signed in Ethiopia under threat of United Nations sanctions for both sides in August 2015.NEWSPAPER,weblink South Sudan country profile, BBC News, 6 August 2018, Machar returned to Juba in 2016 and was appointed vice president.NEWS,weblink South Sudan rebel chief Riek Machar sworn in as vice-president,, 30 April 2016, 26 April 2016, Following a second breakout of violence in Juba, Machar was replaced as vice-presidentWEB,weblink South Sudan opposition replaces missing leader Machar, 23 July 2016, aljazeera, and he fled the countryNEWS,weblink South Sudan conflict: Sacked VP Riek Machar goes into exile,, 19 August 2016, 18 August 2016, as the conflict erupted again. Rebel in-fighting has become a major part of the conflict.WEB,weblink The revenge of Salva Kiir, 2 January 2017, foreignpolicy, Rivalry among Dinka factions led by the President and Malong Awan have also led to fighting. In August 2018, another power sharing agreement came into effect.NEWS,weblink South Sudan's warring leaders agree to share power, again, 25 July 2018, 1 August 2018, Washington Post, About 400,000 people are estimated to have been killed in the war,NEWS, Nearly 400,000 'excess deaths' caused by South Sudan war,weblink ABC News, 26 September 2018, 7 October 2018,weblink 8 October 2018, yes, including notable atrocities such as the 2014 Bentiu massacre.NEWS,weblink Reuters, Study estimates 190,000 people killed in South Sudan's civil war, 26 September 2018, 26 September 2018, Although both men have supporters from across South Sudan's ethnic divides, subsequent fighting has been communal, with rebels targeting members of Kiir's Dinka ethnic group and government soldiers attacking Nuers.NEWSPAPER,weblink South Sudan 'coup leaders' face treason trial, BBC News, 29 January 2014, More than 4 million people have been displaced, with about 1.8 million of those internally displaced, and about 2.5 million having fled to neighboring countries, especially Uganda and Sudan.NEWS,weblink A new report estimates that more than 380,000 people have died in South Sudan’s civil war, Washington Post, 26 September 2018, 26 September 2018,



File:Salva Kiir Mayardit.jpg|thumb|upright|Salva Kiir Mayardit, the first President of South Sudan. His trademark hat, a Stetson, was a gift from United States President George W. BushGeorge W. Bush(File:South Sudan Independence.jpg|thumb|South Sudan's presidential guard on Independence Day, 2011)The now-defunct Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly ratified a transitional constitutionWEB,weblink The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011, 12 July 2011, Government of South Sudan, shortly before independence on July 9, 2011.NEWS,weblink South Sudan passes interim constitution amid concerns over presidential powers, July 8, 2011, Sudan Tribune, 24 July 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 11 July 2011, The constitution was signed by the President of South Sudan on Independence Day and thereby came into force. It is now the supreme law of the land, superseding the Interim Constitution of 2005.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 20 July 2011, The Interim Constitution of Southern Sudan of 2005, The constitution establishes a presidential system of government headed by a president who is head of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. It also establishes the National Legislature comprising two houses: a directly elected assembly, the National Legislative Assembly, and a second chamber of representatives of the states, the Council of States.Henneberg, Ingo (2013): Das politische System des Südsudan [The Political System of South Sudan]. In: Verfassung und Recht in Übersee – Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Vol. 2, 2013. p. 174-196. {{DOI|10.5771/0506-7286-2013-2-174}}. Graphic of the political system:weblinkJohn Garang, the founder of the SPLA/M, was the first president of the autonomous government until his death on July 30, 2005. Salva Kiir Mayardit, his deputy, was sworn in as First Vice President of Sudan and President of the Government of Southern Sudan on August 11, 2005. Riek Machar replaced him as Vice-President of the Government. Legislative power is vested in the government and the bicameral National Legislature. The constitution also provides for an independent judiciary, the highest organ being the Supreme Court.

National capital project

The capital of South Sudan is located at Juba, which is also the state capital of Central Equatoria and the county seat of the eponymous Juba County, and is the country's largest city. However, due to Juba's poor infrastructure and massive urban growth, as well as its lack of centrality within South Sudan, the South Sudanese Government adopted a resolution in February 2011 to study the creation of a new planned city to serve as the seat of government.NEWS,weblink Radio Netherlands, 6 February 2011, 24 July 2011, New capital city for South Sudan?, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 29 June 2012, NEWS,weblink Sudan Tribune, 6 February 2011, South Sudan to establish a new capital city and relocate from Juba after independence, 24 July 2011, yes,weblink 29 June 2011, It is planned that the capital city will be changed to the more centrally located Ramciel.NEWS, South Sudan profile,weblink BBC, 5 July 2011, 24 July 2011, This proposal is functionally similar to construction projects in Abuja, Nigeria; Brasília, Brazil; and Canberra, Australia; among other modern-era planned national capitals. It is unclear how the government will fund the project.In September 2011, a spokesman for the government said the country's political leaders had accepted a proposal to build a new capital at Ramciel,NEWS,weblink Sudan Tribune, 3 September 2011, 3 September 2011, South Sudan relocates its capital from Juba to Ramciel, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 29 September 2011, a place in Lakes state near the borders with Central Equatoria and Jonglei. Ramciel is considered to be the geographical center of the country,NEWS,weblink The Independent, 29 April 2011, The search for new nation's capital in South Sudan, Mashel, Amos, 24 July 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 13 March 2016, and the late pro-independence leader John Garang allegedly had plans to relocate the capital there before his death in 2005. The proposal was supported by the Lakes state government and at least one Ramciel tribal chief.NEWS,weblink Gurtong, 15 February 2011, 24 July 2011, Lakes Leaders Visit Prospective South Sudanese Capital, The design, planning, and construction of the city will likely take as many as five years, government ministers said, and the move of national institutions to the new capital will be implemented in stages.



File:SouthSudanStates.svg|thumb|upright=2.05|The former ten states of South Sudan grouped in the three historical provinces of the Sudan {{legend|#9BCD9B|Bahr el Ghazal}} {{legend|#7AC5CD|Equatoria}} {{legend|#EEE685|Greater Upper NileGreater Upper NilePrior to 2015, South Sudan was divided into 10 states, which also correspond to three historical regions: Bahr el Ghazal, Equatoria, and Greater Upper Nile:
Bahr el Ghazal


Greater Upper Nile


(File:South Sudan-32 States.png|thumb|upright=2.05|The 32 states of South Sudan, after the addition of 4 more states in 2017)In October 2015, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir issued a decree establishing 28 states in place of the 10 constitutionally established states.NEWS,weblink Kiir and Makuei want 28 states in South Sudan, Radio Tamazuj, 16 October 2015, yes,weblink 8 December 2015, dmy-all, The decree established the new states largely along ethnic lines. A number of opposition parties and civil society challenged the constitutionality of this decree and Kiir later resolved to take it to parliament for approval as a constitutional amendment.NEWS,weblink Kiir pressured into taking decree to parliament for approval, Radio Tamazuj, 16 October 2015, yes,weblink 4 March 2016, dmy-all, In November the South Sudanese parliament empowered President Kiir to create new states.NEWS,weblink South Sudan’s Kiir appoints governors of 28 new states, Sudan Tribune, 13 January 2016,
Bar el Ghazal
  1. Aweil
  2. Aweil East
  3. Eastern Lakes
  4. Gogrial
  5. Gok
  6. Lol
  7. Tonj
  8. Twic
  9. Wau
  10. Western Lakes

  1. Amadi
  2. Gbudwe
  3. Imatong
  4. Jubek (containing the national capital city of Juba)
  5. Maridi
  6. Kapoeta
  7. Tambura
  8. Terekeka
  9. Yei River

Greater Upper Nile
  1. Boma
  2. Central Upper Nile
  3. Akobo
  4. Northern Upper Nile
  5. Jonglei
  6. Latjoor
  7. Maiwut
  8. Northern Liech
  9. Ruweng
  10. Southern Liech
  11. Bieh
  12. Fashoda State
  13. Fangak State
On January 14, 2017 another four states have been created, Central Upper Nile, Northern Upper Nile, Tumbura and Maiwut leading to an overall number of 32.WEB, South Sudanese President creates four more states,weblink, Sudan Tribune, 5 September 2017, WEB, Jan2017 South Sudan,weblink International Crisis Group, International Crisis Group, 6 May 2017, The Abyei Area, a small region of Sudan bordering on the South Sudanese states of Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Warrap, and Unity, currently has a special administrative status in Sudan and is governed by an Abyei Area Administration. It was due to hold a referendum in 2011 on whether to join South Sudan or remain part of the Republic of Sudan, but in May the Sudanese military seized Abyei, and it is not clear if the referendum will be held.


A Defense paper was initiated in 2007 by then Minister for SPLA Affairs Dominic Dim Deng, and a draft was produced in 2008. It declared that Southern Sudan would eventually maintain land, air, and riverine forces.NEWS,weblink Juba parliament authorizes establishment of South Sudan air force, 25 June 2008, Sudan Tribune, 24 July 2011, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 12 February 2011, Creation of the South Sudan Air Force, 9 January 2011,, {{As of|2015}}, South Sudan has the third highest military spending as a percentage of GDP in the world, behind only Oman and Saudi Arabia.WEB,weblink The World Bank,


While former Information Minister Barnaba Marial Benjamin vowed that South Sudan will respect freedom of the press and allow journalists unrestricted access in the country, the chief editor of Juba newspaper The Citizen claimed that in the absence of a formal media law in the fledgling republic, he and his staff have faced abuse at the hands of security forces. This alleged fettering of media freedom was attributed in an Al Jazeera report to the difficulty SPLM has faced in reforming itself as a legitimate government after years of leading a rebellion against the Sudanese government. The Citizen is South Sudan's largest newspaper, but poor infrastructure and poverty have kept its staff relatively small and limited the efficiency of both its reporting and its circulation outside of Juba, with no dedicated news bureaus in outlying states and newspapers often taking several days to reach states like Northern Bahr el Ghazal.NEWS,weblink Al Jazeera English, 12 July 2011, 12 July 2011, South Sudan journalists facing intimidation, Gregg, Carlstrom,


On November 1, 2011, South Sudan's National Security Services (NSS) arrested the editor of a private Juba-based daily, Destiny, and suspended its activities indefinitely. This was in response to an opinion article by columnist Dengdit Ayok, entitled "Let Me Say So", which criticized the president for allowing his daughter to marry an Ethiopian national, and accused him of "staining his patriotism". An official letter accused the newspaper of breaking "the media code of conduct and professional ethics", and of publishing "illicit news" that was defamatory, inciting, and invading the privacy of personalities. The Committee to Protect Journalists had voiced concerns over media freedoms in South Sudan in September.NEWS,weblink Committee to Protect Journalists, 7 November 2011, 8 November 2011, South Sudan security detains two journalists, The NSS released the journalists without charge after having held them for 18 days.In 2015, Salva Kiir threatened to kill journalists who reported "against the country".NEWS,weblink South Sudan journalist Peter Moi shot dead,, 3 September 2015, 20 August 2015, Work conditions have become terrible for journalists, and many have left the country. Documentary filmmaker Ochan Hannington is one of them.WEB,weblink Risking my life, Ochan Hannington, D+C, development and cooperation, 21 December 2015, In August 2015, after journalist Peter Moi was killed in a targeted attack, being the seventh journalist killed during the year, South Sudanese journalists held a 24-hour news blackout.NEWS,weblink South Sudan media blackout after reporter shot dead,, 3 September 2015, 21 August 2015, In August 2017, a 26-year-old American journalist, Christopher Allen, was killed in Kaya, Yei River State, during fighting between government and opposition forces. Christopher Allen was a freelance journalist who had worked for several U.S. news outlets. He had been reportedly embedded with the opposition forces in South Sudan for a week before he was killed.NEWS,weblink US journalist killed in Yei River,, 19 September 2017, 27 August 2017, {{Dead link|date=May 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} The same month, President Salva Kiir said the millions of civilians fleeing South Sudan were being driven by social media propaganda manned by those conspiring against his government.NEWS,weblink South Sudan president downplays refugee crisis, blames social media,, 19 September 2017, 28 August 2017, {{Dead link|date=May 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Just a month prior in July 2017, access to major news websites and popular blogs including Sudan Tribune and Radio Tamujuz had been blocked by the government without formal notice.NEWS,weblink South Sudan blocks access to independent websites,, 19 September 2017, 21 July 2017,

Foreign relations

File:Secretary Kerry Meets With South Sudan President Kiir (3).jpg|thumb|U.S. Secretary of State John KerryJohn KerrySince independence, relations with Sudan have been changing. Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir first announced, in January 2011, that dual citizenship in the North and the South would be allowed,NEWS,weblink Southern Sudan votes on independence, Ross, Will, BBC, 9 January 2011, 2 April 2011, but upon the independence of South Sudan he retracted the offer. He has also suggested an EU-style confederation.NEWS,weblink South Sudan becomes an independent nation, BBC News, 9 July 2011, 9 July 2011, Essam Sharaf, Prime Minister of Egypt after the 2011 Egyptian revolution, made his first foreign visit to Khartoum and Juba in the lead-up to South Sudan's secession.WEB,weblink AlAhram Weekly â€“ Heading for headwaters,, 6 April 2011, 2 May 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 23 October 2012, Israel quickly recognized South Sudan as an independent country,NEWSPAPER, Lior, Ilan,weblink Netanyahu: Israel recognizes South Sudan as independent state, Haaretz, 10 July 2011, 2 May 2013, and is host to thousands of refugees from South Sudan,NEWS,weblink 120 South Sudanese leaving Israel under pressure, Fox News, 17 June 2012, who now face deportation to their native country.NEWS,weblink Israel launches African migrant deportation drive, Reuters, 17 June 2012, WEB,weblink IRIN Middle East | SOUTH SUDAN-ISRAEL: Returnees complain of harsh treatment in Israel | Israel | South Sudan | Early Warning | Economy | Governance | Human Rights | Migration,, 19 June 2012, 21 December 2013, According to American sources President Obama officially recognised the new state after Sudan (now North Sudan). Egypt, Sudan, Germany and Kenya were among the first to recognise the country's independence on 8 July 2011.NEWSPAPER,weblink Obama grants U.S. recognition of South Sudan, Reuters, Matt, Spetalnick, 9 July 2011, D.H. Johnson, The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars Several states that participated in the international negotiations concluded with a self-determination referendum were also quick to acknowledge the overwhelming result. The Rationalist process included Kenya, Uganda, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Eritrea, United Kingdom, and Norway.{{efn| See table in Foreign relations of South Sudan with footnotes for early recognition countries.}}South Sudan is a member state of the United Nations,NEWS,weblink BBC News, 14 July 2011, 14 July 2011, UN welcomes South Sudan as 193rd member, the African Union,NEWS,weblink 13 July 2011, 15 July 2011, The Peace and Security Council of the African Union (AU), at its 285th meeting held on 13 July 2011, was briefed by the Commissioner for Peace and Security on the accession to independence of the Republic of South Sudan, African Union, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 4 May 2012, and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.NEWS,weblink{62d78860-a792-475c-bff9-0722d5d61d3e},weblink" title="">weblink 3 April 2012,, COMESA Welcomes New Member, 31 October 2011, 13 November 2011, yes, South Sudan plans to join the Commonwealth of Nations,NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 12 July 2011, Gurtong News via Talk of Sudan, 8 July 2011, 9 July 2011, South Sudan Launches Bid to Join Commonwealth, the East African Community,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2011, East African Business Week, Welcome South Sudan to EAC!, 10 July 2011, 10 July 2011, NEWS,weblink Sudan Tribune, South Sudan avails new foreign policy, to open 54 embassies, 25 July 2011, 6 August 2011, yes,weblink 29 July 2011, the International Monetary Fund,NEWS,weblink International Monetary Fund, IMF Receives Membership Application from South Sudan, Seeks Contributions to Technical Assistance Trust Fund to Help New Country, 20 April 2011, 10 July 2011, and the World Bank.NEWS,weblink The Financial, 9 July 2011, 10 July 2011, World Bank Group Congratulates People of South Sudan on Independence, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 11 July 2011, Some international trade organizations categorize South Sudan as part of the Greater Horn of AfricaMaxwell, Daniel, and Ben Watkins. "Humanitarian information systems and emergencies in the Greater Horn of Africa: logical components and logical linkages." Disasters 27.1 (2003): 72–90.Full membership in the Arab League has been assured, should the country's government choose to seek it,NEWS,weblink Sudan Tribune, 12 June 2011, 8 July 2011, South Sudan "entitled to join Arab League", yes,weblink 29 June 2011, though it could also opt for observer status.NEWS,weblink Al-Ahram, 7 July 2011, 8 July 2011, Hoping for the best, Asmaa, El-Husseini, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 11 July 2011, It was admitted to UNESCO on 3 November 2011.WEB,weblink South Sudan is UNESCO's 194th member, Embassy of the Republic of South Sudan in Washington, DC, 3 November 2011, 1 December 2011, On 25 November 2011, it officially joined the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, a regional grouping of East African states.NEWS,weblink Reuters, 25 November 2011, 25 November 2011, East African bloc admits South Sudan as member, The United States supported the 2011 referendum on South Sudan's independence. The New York Times reported that "South Sudan is in many ways an American creation, carved out of war-torn Sudan in a referendum largely orchestrated by the United States, its fragile institutions nurtured with billions of dollars in American aid."NEWS,weblink The New York Times, 3 January 2014, U.S. Is Facing Hard Choices in South Sudan, The U.S. government's long-standing sanctions against Sudan were officially removed from applicability to newly independent South Sudan in December 2011, and senior RSS officials participated in a high-level international engagement conference in Washington, D.C., to help connect foreign investors with the RSS and South Sudanese private sector representatives.WEB,weblink South Sudan,, 21 December 2013, Given the interdependence between some sectors of the economy of the Republic of South Sudan and the Republic of Sudan, certain activities still require OFAC authorization. Absent a license, current Sudanese sanction regulations will continue to prohibit U.S. persons from dealing in property and interests that benefit Sudan or the Government of Sudan.WEB,weblink Doing Business in South Sudan | Embassy of the United States Juba, South Sudan,, 21 December 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2014, A 2011 Congressional Research Service report, "The Republic of South Sudan: Opportunities and Challenges for Africa’s Newest Country", identifies outstanding political and humanitarian issues as the country forges its future.WEB,weblink Republic of South Sudan: Opportunities and Challenges for Africa's Newest Country, Congressional Research Service, Dagne, Ted, 2011, In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including South Sudan, have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs in the Xinjiang region.NEWS, Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies?,weblink The Diplomat, 15 July 2019,

Human rights

Campaigns of atrocities against civilians have been attributed to the SPLA.NEWS, Sudan: Transcending tribe,weblink Al Jazeera English, 30 April 2011, In the SPLA/M's attempt to disarm rebellions among the Shilluk and Murle, they burned scores of villages, raped hundreds of women and girls and killed an untold number of civilians.NEWS, Sudan: Transcending tribe,weblink Al Jazeera English, 30 April 2011, Civilians alleging torture claim fingernails being torn out, burning plastic bags dripped on children to make their parents hand over weapons, and villagers burned alive in their huts if it was suspected that rebels had spent the night there. In May 2011, the SPLA allegedly set fire to over 7,000 homes in Unity State.NEWS, SPLA set fire to over 7,000 homes in Unity says Mayom county official,weblink Sudan Tribune, 24 May 2011, 9 July 2011, yes,weblink 29 June 2011, The UN reports many of these violations and the frustrated director of one Juba-based international aid agency calls them "human rights abuses off the Richter scale". In 2010, the CIA issued a warning that "over the next five years,...a new mass killing or genocide is most likely to occur in southern Sudan." The Nuer White Army has stated it wished to "wipe out the entire Murle tribe on the face of the earth as the only solution to guarantee long-term security of Nuer’s cattle" and activists, including Minority Rights Group International, warned of genocide in Jonglei.NEWS, Activists warn of "genocide" in S.Sudan's Jonglei conflict,weblink Sudan Tribune, 16 December 2011, 2 January 2012, yes,weblink 29 December 2011, At the beginning of 2017, genocide was imminent again.NEWS, "Slinding towards genocide",weblink D+C, development and cooperation, 13 January 2017, 27 February 2017, Peter Abdul Rahaman Sule, the leader of the key opposition group United Democratic Forum, has been under arrest since 3 November 2011 over allegations linking him to the formation of a new rebel group fighting against the government.NEWS, S. Sudan's opposition leader arrested over rebel links,weblink Sudan Tribune, 4 November 2011, 17 November 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 4 July 2012, NEWS, South Sudan arrests opposition leader turned rebel,weblink AlArabiya, 4 November 2011, 17 November 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 19 February 2012, yes, The child marriage rate in South Sudan is 52%.WEB,weblink Child Marriage Facts and Figures, Homosexual acts are illegal.WEB,weblink Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death, The Washington Post, 16 June 2016, Recruitment of child soldiers has also been cited as a serious problem in the country.NEWSPAPER,weblink Child soldiers still being recruited in South Sudan, BBC News, 27 October 2014, Burridge, Tom, In April 2014, Navi Pillay, then the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, stated that more than 9,000 child soldiers had been fighting in South Sudan's civil war.NEWSPAPER,weblink South Sudan sides 'recruit 9,000 children to fight', BBC News, 30 April 2014, The United Nations rights office has described the situation in the country as "one of the most horrendous human rights situations in the world". It accused the army and allied militias of allowing fighters to rape women as form of payment for fighting, as well as raid cattle in an agreement of "do what you can, take what you can."NEWS,weblink South Sudan lets fighters rape women as payment,, 24 May 2016, 11 March 2016, Amnesty International claimed the army suffocated to death in a shipping container more than 60 people accused of supporting the opposition.WEB,weblink South Sudan Soldiers Suffocated 60-Plus Men And Boys, Report Says, On 22 December 2017, at the conclusion of a 12-day visit to the region, the Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan said, "Four years following the start of the current conflict in South Sudan, gross human rights violations continue to be committed in a widespread way by all parties to the conflict, in which civilians are bearing the brunt.WEB,weblink OHCHR – UN human rights experts call for perpetrators of widespread human rights violations to be brought to justice in South Sudan,, The Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan was established by the Human Rights Council in March 2016


(File:South Sudan-CIA WFB Map.png|thumb|upright=1.6|This CIA map uses the provincial borders that existed at the time Sudan gained independence in 1956. In 1960, small sections were transferred to northerly provinces. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005 ending the second Sudanese civil war provided that the border between southern and northern Sudan would be restored to its 1956 state.)File:South Sudan sat.jpg|thumb|upright=1.6|A satellite imagesatellite imageSouth Sudan lies between latitudes 3° and 13°N, and longitudes 24° and 36°E. It is covered in tropical forest, swamps, and grassland. The White Nile passes through the country, passing by Juba.


{{more citations needed section|date=August 2011}}South Sudan's protected area of Bandingilo National Park hosts the second-largest wildlife migration in the world. Surveys have revealed that Boma National Park, west of the Ethiopian border, as well as the Sudd wetland and Southern National Park near the border with Congo, provided habitat for large populations of hartebeest, kob, topi, buffalo, elephants, giraffes, and lions.South Sudan's forest reserves also provided habitat for bongo, giant forest hogs, red river hogs, forest elephants, chimpanzees, and forest monkeys. Surveys begun in 2005 by WCS in partnership with the semi-autonomous government of Southern Sudan revealed that significant, though diminished wildlife populations still exist, and that, astonishingly, the huge migration of 1.3 million antelopes in the southeast is substantially intact.Habitats in the country include grasslands, high-altitude plateaus and escarpments, wooded and grassy savannas, floodplains, and wetlands. Associated wildlife species include the endemic white-eared kob and Nile Lechwe, as well as elephants, giraffes, common eland, giant eland, oryx, lions, African wild dogs, cape buffalo, and topi (locally called tiang). Little is known about the white-eared kob and tiang, both types of antelope, whose magnificent migrations were legendary before the civil war. The Boma-Jonglei Landscape region encompasses Boma National Park, broad pasturelands and floodplains, Bandingilo National Park, and the Sudd, a vast area of swamp and seasonally flooded grasslands that includes the Zeraf Wildlife Reserve.Little is known of the fungi of South Sudan. A list of fungi in Sudan was prepared by S.A.J. Tarr and published by the then Commonwealth Mycological Institute (Kew, Surrey, UK) in 1955. The list, of 383 species in 175 genera, included all fungi observed within the then boundaries of the country. Many of those records relate to what is now South Sudan. Most of the species recorded were associated with diseases of crops. The true number of species of fungi in South Sudan is probably much higher.In 2006, President Kiir announced that his government would do everything possible to protect and propagate South Sudanese fauna and flora, and seek to reduce the effects of wildfires, waste dumping, and water pollution. The environment is threatened by the development of the economy and infrastructure.Several ecoregions extend across South Sudan: the East Sudanian savanna, Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic, Saharan flooded grasslands (Sudd), Sahelian Acacia savanna, East African montane forests, and the Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets.BOOK, Burgess, Neil, Jennifer, D'Amico Hales, Emma, Underwood, 2004, Terrestrial Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar: A Conservation Assessment, Island Press, Washington DC, 978-1-55963-364-2,


(File:Koppen-Geiger Map SSD present.svg|thumb|upright=1.35|South Sudan map of Köppen climate classification.)South Sudan has a climate similar to an Equatorial or tropical climate, characterized by a rainy season of high humidity and large amounts of rainfall followed by a drier season. The temperature on average is always high with July being the coolest month with an average temperatures falling between {{convert|68|and|86|F|C|order=flip}} and March being the warmest month with average temperatures ranging from {{convert|73|to|98|F|C|order=flip}}.WEB,weblink Average weather in Juba, Sudan,, The most rainfall is seen between May and October, but the rainy season can commence in April and extend until November. On average May is the wettest month. The season is "influenced by the annual shift of the Inter-Tropical Zone" and the shift to southerly and southwesterly winds leading to slightly lower temperatures, higher humidity, and more cloud coverage.WEB,weblink Weather: Juba,,


South Sudan has a population of approximately {{#expr:{{formatnum:{{UN_Population|South Sudan}}|R}}/1e6 round 0}} million{{UN_Population|ref}} (UN estimate, the exact figure is disputed) and a predominantly rural, subsistence economy. This region has been negatively affected by war for all but 10 of the years since 1956, resulting in serious neglect, lack of infrastructure development, and major destruction and displacement. More than 2 million people have died, and more than 4 million are internally displaced persons or became refugees as a result of the civil war and its impact.


(File:John Garang Mausoleum Square in Juba.JPG|thumb|left|John Garang Square in Juba){{Largest cities of South Sudan}}(File:Children in Yambio, Western Equatoria, South Sudan (28 05 2009).jpg|thumb|Children in Yambio, Western Equatoria, South Sudan)File:USAID-funded Southern Sudan Interactive Radio Instruction project.jpg|thumb|Rural school children participating in the USAIDUSAID

Ethnic groups

The major ethnic groups present in South Sudan are the Dinka at more than 1 million (approximately 15 percent combined), the Nuer (approximately ten percent), the Bari, and the Azande. The Shilluk constitute a historically influential state along the White Nile, and their language is fairly closely related to Dinka and Nuer. The traditional territories of the Shilluk and the Northeastern Dinka are adjacent.


Unlike the previous educational system of the regional Southern Sudan—which was modelled after the system used in the Republic of Sudan since 1990—the current educational system of the Republic of South Sudan follows the {{nowrap|8 + 4 + 4}} system (similar to Kenya). Primary education consists of eight years, followed by four years of secondary education, and then four years of university instruction.The primary language at all levels is English, as compared to the Republic of Sudan, where the language of instruction is Arabic. In 2007 South Sudan adopted English as the official language of communication. There is a severe shortage of English teachers and English-speaking teachers in the scientific and technical fields.


The official language of South Sudan is English.There are over 60 indigenous languages, most classified under the Nilo-Saharan Language family; collectively, they represent two of the first-order divisions of Nile Sudanic and Central Sudanic.

Constitution updates

The interim constitution of 2005 declared in Part 1, Chapter 1, No. 6 (1) that "[a]ll indigenous languages of Southern Sudan are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted". In Part 1, Chapter 1, No. 6 (2), it was stated: "English and Arabic shall be the official working languages at the level of the governments of Southern Sudan and the States as well as languages of instruction for higher education."The Interim Constitution of Southern Sudan, 2005 {{Webarchive|url= |date=3 March 2016 }} (PDF; 484 kB), Part One, Page. 3–4, No. 6 (1), (2), retrieved 6 May 2017The government of the new independent state later deleted Arabic as an official language and chose English as the sole official language.The new transitional constitution of the Republic of South Sudan of 2011 declares in Part 1, Chapter 1, No. 6 (1) that "[a]ll indigenous languages of South Sudan are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted". In Part 1, Chapter 1, No. 6 (2), it is defined that: "English shall be the official working language in the Republic of South Sudan, as well as the language of instruction at all levels of education."WEB,weblink The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011, 6 May 2017, Government of South Sudan, Part One, Page 3, No. 6 (1), (2), retrieved 6 May 2017On July 6, 2017, South Sudan choose to adopt Swahili as an additional official language due to seeking Tanzania's help to send Swahili teachers to the country as it introduces the language in school curriculum ahead of its adoption as an official language.WEB,weblink S. Sudan to adopt Swahili as official language, seeks Tanzania's help – Africanews, AfricaNews, 5 July 2017,

Some areas

In the border region between Western Bahr el Ghazal state and Sudan are an indeterminate number of people from West African countries who settled here on their way back from Mecca – who have assumed a traditionally nomadic life – that resides either seasonally or permanently. They primarily speak Chadian languages and their traditional territories are in the southern portions of the Sudanese regions of Northern Kurdufan and Darfur.In the capital, Juba, there are several thousand people who use non-classical Arabic, usually a pidgin called Juba Arabic, but South Sudan's ambassador to Kenya said on 2 August 2011 that Swahili will be introduced in South Sudan with the goal of supplanting Arabic as a lingua franca, in keeping with the country's intention of orientation toward the East African Community rather than Sudan and the Arab League.NEWS,weblink Xinhua, 2 August 2011, 16 September 2013, South Sudanese still in Kenya despite new state, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 11 April 2015, Nevertheless, South Sudan submitted an application to join the Arab League as a member state on 25 March 2014, which is still pending.Middle East Monitor: South Sudan and Chad apply to join the Arab League, 12 April 2014, retrieved 3 May 2017 In an interview with the newspaper Asharq Al-Awsat, the Foreign Minister of South Sudan Deng Alor Kuol said: South Sudan is the closest African country to the Arab world, and we speak a special kind of Arabic known as Juba Arabic.Asharq Al-Awsat: Foreign Minister of South Sudan: We Are Considering Joining the Arab League {{webarchive|url= |date=13 September 2017 }}, 7 June 2016, retrieved 3 May 2017 Sudan supports South Sudan's request to join the Arab League.Sudan Tribune: Khartoum supports South Sudan demand to join Arab League, 21 July 2016, retrieved 3 May 2017 Juba Arabic is a lingua franca in South Sudan.The impact of language policy and practice on children’s learning: Evidence from Eastern and Southern Africa 2016 (PDF; 672 kB), Page. 1, retrieved 20 May 2017


2008 census

(File:South Sudan 034.jpg|thumb|upright|Woman in South Sudan)(File:Village in South Sudan.jpg|thumb|A village in South Sudan)The "Fifth Population and Housing Census of Sudan", for Sudan as a whole, was conducted in April 2008. The census counted the Southern Sudan population at 8.26 million;NEWS,weblink S. Sudan Census Bureau Releases Official Results Amidst Ongoing Census Controversy, !enough The project to end genocide and crimes against humanity, 8 June 2009, Maggie, Fick, However, Southern Sudanese officials rejected the census results of Southern Sudan because "the central bureau of statistics in Khartoum refused to share the national Sudan raw census data with the southern Sudan centre for census, statistics and evaluation."NEWS,weblink South Sudan parliament throws out census results, SudanTribune, 8 July 2009, In addition, President Kiir "suspected figures were being deflated in some regions and inflated in others, and that made the final tally 'unacceptable'."NEWS,weblink South Sudanese officials decry 'unfortunate' announcement of census results, The New Sudan Vision, 10 May 2009, Marvis, Birungi, He claimed that the Southern Sudanese population actually constituted one-third of that of Sudan, though the census showed it to be only 22%.Many southern Sudanese were also said to have been uncounted "due to bad weather, poor communication and transport networks, and some areas were unreachable, while many southern Sudanese remained in exile in neighbouring countries, leading to 'unacceptable results', according [to] southern Sudanese authorities." The chief American technical adviser for the census in the south said that the census-takers probably reached only 89% of the population.NEWS,weblink Ethnic Divisions Complicate Sudan's Census, NPR, Gwen, Thompkins, 15 April 2009,

2009 census

In 2009, Sudan initiated a Southern Sudanese census ahead of the 2011 independence referendum, which would also include the South Sudanese diaspora; however, this initiative was criticised for leaving out countries with a high share of the South Sudanese diaspora, rather counting countries where the diaspora share was low.NEWS,weblink South Sudan says Northern Sudan's census dishonest, Radio Nederland Wereldomroep, 6 November 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 24 July 2011,


File:Romic.jpg|thumb|Sunday Mass in the Roman Catholic Diocese of RumbekRoman Catholic Diocese of RumbekReligions followed by the South Sudanese include traditional indigenous religions, Christianity and Islam.NEWS, South Sudan's Muslims welcome secession,weblink The Daily Star, 9 January 2011, NEWS, South Sudan profile,weblink BBC News, 8 July 2011, 9 July 2011, The last census to mention the religion of southerners dates back to 1956 where a majority were classified as following traditional beliefs or were Christian while 18% were Muslim.WEB,weblink South Sudan's Muslims welcome secession, Agence France-Presse, 15 August 2011, 8 January 2011, ScholarlyBOOK, Kaufmann, E.P., Rethinking ethnicity: majority groups and dominant minorities, Routledge, 2004, 45, 978-0-203-56339-7, BOOK, Minahan, J., Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z, Greenwood Press, 2002, 1786, 978-0-313-32384-3, JOURNAL, Arnold, G, Book Review: Douglas H. Johnson, The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars, African Journal of Political Science, 8, 2003, 147, 1, and some U.S. Department of State sources state that a majority of southern Sudanese maintain traditional indigenous (sometimes referred to as animist) beliefs with those following Christianity in a minority. However, according to the U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report of 2012 the majority of the population adhere to Christianity, while reliable statistics on animist and Muslim belief are not available.WEB,weblink International Religious Freedom Report 2012 – South Sudan, United States Department of State, U.S. Department of State, 9 July 2013, The Federal Research Division of the US Library of Congress states that "in the early 1990s possibly no more than 10% of southern Sudan's population was Christian".WEB,weblink Sudan: A Country Study; Ethnicity, Regionalism and Ethnicity, Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, In the early 1990s, official records of Sudan claimed that the population of what was then included as South Sudan, 25% of people followed traditional religions and 5% were Christians.BOOK, Geographica. The Complete Illustrated Atlas of the world, 1999, 336, However, some news reports claim a Christian majority.NEWS,weblink More than 100 dead in south Sudan attack-officials, SABC News, 21 September 2009, 5 April 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 28 June 2011, dmy-all, WEB, Hurd, Emma,weblink Southern Sudan Votes To Split From North,, 8 February 2011, 21 December 2013, According to the World Christian Encyclopedia, the Catholic Church is the largest single Christian body in Sudan since 1995, with 2.7 million Catholics mainly concentrated in South Sudan.BOOK, World Christian Encyclopedia, David Barrett, George Kurian, Todd Johnson, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2001, 699–700, The US Episcopal Church claims the existence of large numbers of Anglican adherents from the Episcopal Church of the Sudan with 2 million members in 2005.WEB,weblink How many Anglicans are there in the Anglican Church in North America?, PDF, 2 May 2013, The Presbyterian Church in Sudan is the third largest denomination in Southern Sudan. It has about one million members in 500 congregations in 2012.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 20 May 2012, Presbyterian Church of the Sudan, 20 May 2012, 21 December 2013, A December 18, 2012 report on religion and public life by the Pew Research Center states that in 2010, 60.5% of South Sudan's population was Christian, 32.9% were followers of traditional African religion and 6.2% were Muslim.WEB,weblink Global Religious Landscape Table â€” Percent of Population â€” Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life,, 18 December 2012, 21 December 2013, Some publishers described the conflicts prior to partition as a Muslim-Christian war, but others reject this notion, claiming Muslim and Christian sides sometimes overlapped.BOOK, Pat, Mr, Christians Under Siege, 2009, 105, Speaking at Saint Theresa Cathedral in Juba, South Sudanese President Kiir, a Roman Catholic, said that South Sudan would be a nation that respects freedom of religion.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 12 July 2011, South Sudan To Respect Freedom Of Religion Says GOSS President, Sudan Radio Service,, 21 February 2011, 9 July 2011, Amongst Christians, most are Catholic and Anglican, though other denominations are also active, and animist beliefs are often blended with Christian beliefs.WEB,weblink Sudan : Country Studies â€” Federal Research Division, Library of Congress,, 22 March 2011, 21 December 2013,


The South Sudanese diaspora consists of citizens of South Sudan residing abroad. The number of South Sudanese outside South Sudan has sharply increased since the beginning of the struggle for independence from the North Sudan. Almost one and a half million South Sudanese have left the country as refugees, either permanently or as temporary workforce, leading to the establishment of the South Sudanese diaspora population.The largest communities of the South Sudanese diaspora are located in North America, Western Europe, and Oceania are in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and small communities exist in France, Italy, Germany, Sweden, and New Zealand.


File:South Sudan 012.jpg|thumb|Scarified tribeswoman, South Sudan, 2011]]Due to the many years of the civil war, South Sudan's culture is heavily influenced by its neighbours. Many South Sudanese fled to Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda where they interacted with the nationals and learned their languages and culture. For most of those who remained in the country, or went north to Sudan and Egypt, they largely assimilated Arab culture.Most South Sudanese value knowing one's tribal origin, its traditional culture and dialect even while in exile and diaspora. Although the common languages spoken are Juba Arabic and English, Swahili is being introduced to the population to improve the country's relations with its East African neighbours.


Many music artists from South Sudan use English, Swahili, Arabi Juba, their dialect or a mix of all. Popular artists like Barbz, Yaba Angelosi sing Afro-beat, R&B, and Zouk; Dynamq is popular for his reggae releases; and Emmanuel Kembe who sings folk, reggae and Afro-beat. Emmanuel Jal is one South Sudanese music artist who has broken through on an international levelWEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 27 October 2009, Emmanuel Jal: National Geographic World Music, 21 December 2013, with his unique form of Hip Hop and a positive message in his lyrics.NEWS, Stevenson, Jane,weblink Emmanuel Jal uses music as therapy | Music | Entertainment, Toronto Sun, 8 August 2012, 21 December 2013, Jal, a former child soldier turned musician, received good airplay and album reviews in the UKWEB,weblink Music â€” Review of Emmanuel Jal â€” Warchild, BBC, 1 January 1970, 21 December 2013, and has also been sought out for the lecture circuit with major talks at popular talkfests like TED.WEB, TEDGlobal 2009,weblink Emmanuel Jal: The music of a war child | Video on,, 21 December 2013,

Games and sports

File:Luol Deng Wizards.jpg|right|thumb|South Sudanese-born basketball player Luol DengLuol DengMany traditional and modern games and sports are popular in South Sudan, particularly wrestling and mock battles. The traditional sports were mainly played after the harvest seasons to celebrate the harvests and finish the farming seasons. During the matches, they smeared themselves with ochre â€“ perhaps to enhance the grip or heighten their perception. The matches attracted large numbers of spectators who sang, played drums and danced in support of their favourite wrestlers. Though these were perceived as competition, they were primarily for entertainment.BOOK, Sudan in Pictures, DiPiazza, Francesca, 2006, 21st-century Books, 978-0-8225-2678-0, 54,weblink Association football is also becoming popular in South Sudan, and there are many initiatives by the Government of South Sudan and other partners to promote the sport and improve the level of play. One of these initiatives is South Sudan Youth Sports Association (SSYSA). SSYSA is already holding football clinics in Konyokonyo and Muniki areas of Juba in which young boys are coached. In recognition of these efforts with youth football, the country recently hosted the CECAFA youth football competitions. Barely a month earlier, it had also hosted the larger East African Schools Sports tournaments.{{Citation needed|date=May 2012}}The South Sudan national association football team joined the Confederation of African Football in February 2012 and became a full FIFA member in May 2012.NEWS,weblink South Sudan joins Fifa 10 months after independence, BBC News, 25 May 2012, 27 May 2012, The team played its first match against Tusker FC of the Kenyan Premier League on 10 July 2011 in Juba as part of independence celebrations, scoring early but losing 1–3 to the more experienced team.NEWS,weblink SKNVibes, 10 July 2011, 10 July 2011, S. Sudan team kicks off to a good start, then collapses, Famous South Sudanese footballers are James Moga, Richard Justin, Athir Thomas, Goma Genaro Awad, Khamis Leyano, Khamis Martin and Roy Gulwak.The South Sudanese can boast links to top basketball players. Luol Deng is a National Basketball Association star in the United States, where he plays for the Minnesota Timberwolves; at the international level, he represents Great Britain. Other leading international basketball players from South Sudan include Manute Bol, Kueth Duany, Deng Gai, Ater Majok, and Thon Maker. The South Sudan national basketball team played its first match against the Uganda national basketball team on 10 July 2011 in Juba.NEWS,weblink World's Newest Nation Set to Step Into Sporting Arena, The Jakarta Globe, 6 July 2011, 21 December 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2012, One athlete from South Sudan, Guor Marial, competed in the 2012 Summer Olympics. Due to South Sudan not as yet possessing an official Olympics organization, and Marial not yet possessing American citizenship, he, along with three athletes from the former Netherlands Antilles, competed under the banner of Independent Olympic Athletes.On August 2 at the 128th IOC Session, South Sudan was granted full recognition of its National Olympic Committee. South Sudan competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics with three athletes in track and field. No medals were won during this Olympics.WEB,weblink South Sudan, Rio 2016, 18 December 2016,


{{See also|List of companies based in South Sudan}}File:Loka west teak.jpg|thumb|right|Loka Teaks is the largest teak date=October 2012}}The economy of South Sudan is one of the world's most underdeveloped with South Sudan having little existing infrastructure and the highest maternal mortality and female illiteracy rates in the world {{As of|2011|lc=y}}.NEWS, South Sudanese celebrate the birth of their nation, Nima, Elbagir, Faith, Karimi,weblink CNN, 9 July 2011, 9 July 2011, South Sudan exports timber to the international market. The region also contains many natural resources such as petroleum, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, diamonds, hardwoods, limestone and hydropower.WEB,weblink Natural resources, CIA World Factbook, 2 February 2012,weblink 29 January 2012, yes, dmy-all, The country's economy, as in many other developing countries, is heavily dependent on agriculture.Other than natural resources-based companies, other such organisations include Southern Sudan Beverages Limited, a subsidiary of SABMiller.


The oilfields in the south have been significant to the economy since the latter part of the 20th century. South Sudan has the third-largest oil reserves in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, after South Sudan became an independent nation in July 2011, southern and northern negotiators were not immediately able to reach an agreement on how to split the revenue from these southern oilfields.NEWS,weblink After Years of Struggle, South Sudan Becomes a New Nation, New York Times, 9 July 2011, Jeffrey, Gettleman, (File:Sudan Map Oelgas.png|thumb|upright=1.15|Oil and gas concessions in Sudan – 2004)It is estimated that South Sudan has around 4 times the oil deposits of Sudan. The oil revenues, according to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), were split equally for the duration of the agreement period. Since South Sudan relies on pipelines, refineries, and Port Sudan's facilities in Red Sea state in Sudan, the agreement stated that the government of Sudan in Khartoum would receive a 50% share of all oil revenues.WEB, Rebecca Hamilton,weblink Southern Sudanese Independence: High Hopes, Huge Obstacles, Pulitzer Center, 28 November 2010, 21 December 2013, NEWS,weblink Business Insider, Oil-Rich South Sudan Has Hours To Choose Between North Sudan, China And The U.S, Vincent, Trivett, 8 July 2011, 9 July 2011, This arrangement was maintained during the second period of autonomy from 2005 to 2011.In the run up to independence, northern negotiators reportedly pressed for a deal maintaining the 50–50 split of oil revenues, while the South Sudanese were holding out for more favorable terms. Oil revenues constitute more than 98% of the government of South Sudan's budget according to the southern government's Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning and this has amounted to more than $8 billion in revenue since the signing of the peace agreement.After independence, South Sudan objected to Sudan charging US$34 per barrel to transport oil through the pipeline to the oil terminal at Port Sudan. With production of around 30,000 barrels per day, this was costing over a million dollars per day. In January 2012, South Sudan suspended oil production, causing a dramatic reduction in revenue and food costs to rise by 120%.NEWS,weblink Happy Birthday South Sudan?, The Independent, Ros Wynne-Jones, 7 July 2012, 9 July 2012, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) is a major investor in South Sudan's oil sector."China to evacuate South Sudan oil workers to capital". Reuters. 20 December 2013. South Sudan's economy is under pressure to diversify away from oil as oil reserves will likely halve by 2020 if no new finds are made, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF).NEWS,weblink S.Sudan seeks food and farmland investments, Reuters, 23 December 2011, 15 January 2012,


In terms of South Sudan's external debt, Sudan and South Sudan maintain a shared debt of approximately US$38 billion, all of which has accumulated throughout the past five decades.WEB, Badawi, Ahmad, 3 October 2011,weblink A Greek Tragedy is Sudan's Woe: Sudan Must be Relieved of Foreign Debt Quickly, African Arguments, Though a small portion of this debt is owed to such international institutions as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (approximately US$5.3 billion according to a 2009 report provided by the Bank of Sudan), the bulk of its debt load is actually owed to numerous foreign actors that have provided the nation with financial loans, including the Paris Club (over US$11 billion) and also non-Paris Club bilateral creditors (over US$13 billion).WEB, Leo, Benjamin, 2009,weblink Sudan Debt Dynamics: Status Quo, Southern Secession, Debt Division, and Oil â€“ a Financial Framework for the Future, Center for Global Development, The Paris Club refers to an informal group of financial officials from 19 of the world's most influential economies, including such member nations as the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France and Canada, while non-Paris Club bilateral creditors refers to any entity that does not enjoy permanent/associated status as a Paris Club member.WEB, 2012,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 28 June 2009, Permanent Members, Paris Club, Private bilateral creditors (i.e. private commercial banks and private credit suppliers) account for the majority of the remainder (approximately US$6 billion of the total debt).WEB, Ahmed, Medani, 2008,weblink External Debts, Growth and Peace in the Sudan, CHR. Michelsen Institute,

East African Community

The presidents of Kenya and Rwanda invited the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan to apply for membership upon the independence of South Sudan in 2011,NEWS,weblink IGIHE, South Sudan: Big trading potential for EAC, 8 July 2011, 9 July 2011, NEWS,weblink allAfrica, 8 July 2011, 9 July 2011, South Sudan: Rwanda Hopeful of South's Strategic Link to North Africa, Magnus, Mazimpaka, and South Sudan was reportedly an applicant country as of mid-July 2011.NEWS,weblink East African Business Week, Welcome South Sudan to EAC!, 10 July 2011, 10 July 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2011, Analysts suggested that South Sudan's early efforts to integrate infrastructure, including rail links and oil pipelines,NEWS, South Sudan to link to Kenya oil pipeline,weblink 19 October 2011, Reuters, 6 July 2011, with systems in Kenya and Uganda indicated intention on the part of Juba to pivot away from dependence on Sudan and toward the EAC. Reuters considered South Sudan the likeliest candidate for EAC expansion in the short term,NEWS, DAWN,weblink South Sudan needs African neighbours to survive, 8 July 2011, 9 July 2011, and an article in Tanzanian daily The Citizen that reported East African Legislative Assembly Speaker Abdirahin Haithar Abdi said South Sudan was "free to join the EAC" asserted that analysts believe the country will soon become a full member of the regional body.NEWS,weblink The Citizen, 12 July 2011, 12 July 2011, South Sudan ‘free to join the EAC’, On 17 September 2011, the Daily Nation quoted a South Sudanese MP as saying that while his government was eager to join the EAC, it would likely delay its membership over concerns that its economy was not sufficiently developed to compete with EAC member states and could become a "dumping ground" for Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ugandan exports.NEWS,weblink Daily Nation, Machel, Amos, South Sudan delays membership in regional bloc, 17 September 2011, 18 September 2011, This was contradicted by President Salva Kiir, who announced South Sudan had officially embarked on the application process one month later.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink y, South Sudan readies for EAC membership, 21 October 2011, The application was initially deferred by the EAC in December 2012,NEWS,weblink Uganda says South Sudan likely to join EAC in 2014, Xinhua News Agency, 9 September 2013, 17 October 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 14 November 2013, however incidents with Ugandan boda-boda operators in South Sudan have created political tension and may delay the process.NEWS,weblink Ugandan MPs oppose South Sudan joining East African community, The Africa Report, 7 October 2013, 17 October 2013, In December 2012, Tanzania officially agreed to South Sudan's bid to join the EAC, clearing the way for the world's newest state to become the regional bloc's sixth member.NEWS,weblink Tanzania warms up to South Sudan membership, The EastAfrican, 8 December 2012, 21 November 2013, In May 2013 The EAC set aside $82,000 for the admission of South Sudan into the bloc even though admission may not happen until 2016. The process, to start after the EAC Council of Ministers meeting in August 2013, was projected to take at least four years. At the 14th Ordinary Summit held in Nairobi in 2012, EAC heads of state approved the verification report that was presented by the Council of Ministers, then directed it to start the negotiation process with South Sudan.NEWS,weblink EAC prepares to admit South Sudan, The EastAfrican, 11 May 2013, 21 November 2013, A team was formed to assess South Sudan's bid; however, in April 2014, the nation requested a delay in the admissions process, presumably due to South Sudanese Civil War.WEB,weblink East Africa: EAC to Decide On South Sudan Admission by April 2014,, 9 May 2015, WEB, South Sudan defers EAC admission,weblink The Observer, Observer Media Ltd., 11 May 2014, South Sudan's Minister of Foreign Affairs, Barnaba Marial Benjamin, claimed publicly in October 2015 that, following evaluations and meetings of a special technical committee in May, June, August, September and October, the committee has recommended that South Sudan be allowed to join the East African Community. Those recommendations, however, had not been officially released to the public. It was reported that South Sudan could be admitted as early as November 2015 when the heads of East African States had their summit meeting.WEB,weblink "East Africa: South Sudan's Push to Join EAC Gains Momentum", 7 November 2015, 14 November 2015, South Sudan was eventually approved for membership in East African Community in March 2016,WEB,weblink South Sudan joins East African regional bloc, Daily Nation, and formally acceded with the signature of the treaty in April 2016.WEB,weblink COMMUNIQUÉ: SIGNING CEREMONY OF THE TREATY OF ACCESSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN INTO THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY, 15 April 2016, 15 April 2016, East African Community, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 24 April 2016,

South Sudan and the Commonwealth of Nations

South Sudan has applied to join the Commonwealth of Nations,WEB,weblink South Sudan Launches Bid to Join Commonwealth,, 8 July 2011, 23 July 2017, considering that South Sudan was part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, and has 2 Commonwealth republics, Kenya and Uganda as neighbouring countries.


File:Train Sudan towards Wau.jpg|thumb|A train travelling towards Wau ]]File:SPAF Mi17 helicopters at Juba Airport January 2011.jpg|thumb|Two Mil Mi-17 helicopters at Juba AirportJuba Airport


South Sudan has {{convert|248|km|abbr=on}} of single-track {{RailGauge|3ft6in|lk=on}} gauge railway line from the Sudanese border to Wau terminus. There are proposed extensions from Wau to Juba. There are also plans to link Juba with the Kenyan and Ugandan railway networks.


The busiest and most developed airport in South Sudan is Juba Airport, which has regular international connections to Asmara, Entebbe, Nairobi, Cairo, Addis Ababa, and Khartoum. Juba Airport was also the home base of Feeder Airlines Company and Southern Star Airlines.WEB,weblink South Sudan gets new airline,, 6 September 2011, 2 May 2013, Other international airports include Malakal, with international flights to Addis Ababa and Khartoum; Wau, with weekly service to Khartoum; and Rumbek, also with weekly flights to Khartoum. Southern Sudan Airlines also serves Nimule and Akobo, which have unpaved runways. Several smaller airports exist throughout South Sudan, the majority consisting of little more than dirt runways.On 4 April 2012, plans were unveiled to launch a South Sudanese national airline, primarily for domestic service at first but eventually expanding to international service.WEB,weblink South Sudan set to have own national air carrier,, 1 May 2013, 2 May 2013,

Humanitarian situation

{{See also|Health in South Sudan|Child marriage in South Sudan}}South Sudan is acknowledged to have some of the worst health indicators in the world.WEB,weblink Southern Sudan has unique combination of worst diseases in the world â€” Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan, Sudan Tribune, 21 December 2013, JOURNAL, Moszynski, P., Conference plans rebuilding of Southern Sudan's health services, 10.1136/bmj.331.7510.179, BMJ, 331, 7510, 179, 2005, 1179754, JOURNAL, South Sudan Household Survey, December 2007,weblink South Sudan Medical Journal, The under-five infant mortality rate is 135.3 per 1,000, whilst maternal mortality is the highest in the world at 2,053.9 per 100,000 live births. In 2004, there were only three surgeons serving southern Sudan, with three proper hospitals, and in some areas there was just one doctor for every 500,000 people.The epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the South Sudan is poorly documented but the prevalence is believed around 3.1%.WEB, Hakim, James, August 2009,weblink HIV/AIDS: an update on Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment, South Sudan Medical Journal, According to a 2013 study, South Sudan "probably has the highest malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa".JOURNAL,weblink Malaria control in South Sudan, 2006–2013: strategies, progress and challenges, Malaria Journal, 12, 374, 10.1186/1475-2875-12-374, 24160336, 3816306, 2013, Pasquale, Harriet, Jarvese, Martina, Julla, Ahmed, Doggale, Constantino, Sebit, Bakhit, Lual, Mark Y., Baba, Samson P., Chanda, Emmanuel, South Sudan is one of the few countries where dracunculiasis still occurs.JOURNAL, 22647809, 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60088-1, 5, 7, Dracunculiasis eradication—finishing the job before surprises arise., Jul 2012, Asian Pac J Trop Med, 505–10, Visser, BJ, JOURNAL, 23843492, 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0090, 89, 1, Dracunculiasis eradication: and now, South Sudan., Jul 2013, Am J Trop Med Hyg, 5–10, 3748487, Hopkins, DR, Ruiz-Tiben, E, Weiss, A, Withers, PC, Eberhard, ML, Roy, SL, WEB,weblink WHO â€” Dracunculiasis (Guinea-worm disease), World Health Organization, At the time of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005, humanitarian needs in Southern Sudan were massive. However, humanitarian organizations under the leadership of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) managed to ensure sufficient funding to bring relief to the local populations. Along with recovery and development aid, humanitarian projects were included in the 2007 Work Plan of the United Nations and partners. More than 90% of the population of South Sudan live on less than $1 a day, despite the GDP per capita of the entirety of Sudan being $1200 ($3.29/day).NEWS,weblink Support freedom for Southern Sudan and fight for workers' unity against imperialism, Ambler, Sean, 10 January 2011, League for the Fifth International, 24 July 2011, In 2007, the United Nations OCHA (under the leadership of Éliane Duthoit) decreased its involvement in Southern Sudan, as humanitarian needs gradually diminished, slowly but markedly turning over control to the recovery and development activities of NGOs and community-based organisations.NEWS,weblink SUDAN: Peace bolsters food security in the south, 18 April 2007, IRIN, 24 July 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 28 August 2010, Famine reportedly led to deaths in Northern Bahr el Ghazal and Warrap states in mid-2011, though the state governments of both denied hunger there was severe enough to cause fatalities.NEWS,weblink Sudan Tribune, South Sudan's N. Bahr el Ghazal denies reports that hunger caused death, 17 August 2011, 18 August 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 21 September 2011, In Pibor County located in the Jonglei State, in December 2011 and January 2012, cattle raids led to border clashes that eventually resulted in widespread ethnic violence, with thousands of deaths and tens of thousands of South Sudanese being displaced, and hundreds of Médecins Sans Frontières staff went missing. The government declared the area a disaster zone and took control from local authorities.NEWS, Meldrum, Andrew, South Sudan News: Ethnic clashes must be solved in the long term,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 5 February 2012, 6 January 2012, GlobalPost, 6 January 2012, South Sudan has a very high rate of child marriage.According to the WHO: "The 10 countries with the highest rates of child marriage are: Niger, 75%; Chad and Central African Republic, 68%; Bangladesh, 66%; Guinea, 63%; Mozambique, 56%; Mali, 55%; Burkina Faso and South Sudan, 52%; and Malawi, 50%. "weblink Violence against women is common in the country, and South Sudan's laws and policies have been criticized as inadequate in offering protection.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 24 August 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 26 August 2014, Inter-Agency Standing Committee (2014). weblink" title="">Humanitarian Crisis in South Sudan Gender Alert 2: May 2014. United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women)

Water crisis

{{Further|Water supply in South Sudan}}{{See also|Sudanese nomadic conflicts}}The water supply in South Sudan is faced with numerous challenges. It is estimated that between 50% and 60% of the population of South Sudan has access to an improved water source, such as a hand pump, a protected well or â€“ for a small minority â€“ piped water supply. Although the White Nile runs through the country, water is scarce during the dry season in areas that are not located on the river.About half the population does not have access to an improved water source, defined as a protected well, standpipe or a handpump within 1 km. The few existing piped water supply systems are often not well maintained and the water they provide is often not safe to drink. Displaced people returning home put a huge strain on infrastructure, and the government institutions in charge of the sector are weak. Substantial external funding from numerous government agencies and non-governmental organizations is available to improve water supply.Numerous non-governmental organizations support water supply in Southern Sudan, such as Water is Basic, Water for South Sudan, the Obakki FoundationWEB,weblink Obakki Foundation,, 2 May 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 29 March 2013, and Bridgton-Lake Region Rotary ClubWEB,weblink Rotary Club of Bridgton Lake-Region,, 2 May 2013, from North America.


(File:The scale of the problem Jamam refugee camp from the air (6972523516).jpg|thumb|Jamam refugee camp)As of February 2014, South Sudan was host to over 230,000 refugees, with the vast majority, over 209,000, having arrived recently from Sudan, because of the War in Darfur. Other African countries that contribute the most refugees to South Sudan are the Central African Republic, Ethiopia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.WEB,weblink South Sudan Emergency Situation-Regional Update, UNHCR, 2 February 2014, As a result of the war that erupted in December 2013, more than 2.3 million people – one in every five people in South Sudan – have been forced to flee their homes, including 1.66 million internally displaced people (with 53.4 per cent estimated to be children) and nearly 644,900 refugees in neighbouring countries. Some 185,000 internally displaced people (IDPs) have sought refuge in UN Protection of Civilians (PoC) sites, while around 90 per cent of IDPs are on the run or sheltering outside PoC sites.WEB, 2016 South Sudan Humanitarian Needs Overview, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs,weblink 5 January 2016, Consequently, UNHCR is stepping up its response through an inter-agency collaborative approach under the leadership of the Humanitarian Coordinator, and working with the International Organization for Migration (IOM). In early February 2013, UNHCR started distributing relief items outside the UN base in Malakal, South Sudan, which was expected to reach 10,000 people.

2017 famine

{{Further|2017 South Sudan famine}}On 20 February 2017 South Sudan and the United Nations declared a famine in parts of former Unity State, with the warning that it could spread rapidly without further action. Over 100,000 people were affected. The UN World Food Programme said that 40% of the population of South Sudan, 4.9 million people, need food urgently.WEB,weblink Famine Hits Parts Of South Sudan, 20 February 2017, World Food Programme, NEWSPAPER,weblink South Sudan declares famine in Unity State, BBC News, 20 February 2017, U.N. officials said that President Salva Kiir Mayardit was blocking food deliveries to some areas.WEB,weblink Famine declared in part of South Sudan by government and UN, 20 February 2017, WHIO, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 21 February 2017, Furthermore, UNICEF warned that more than 1 million children in South Sudan were subjected to malnutrition.NEWS,weblink Famine declared in South Sudan, CNN, Farai Sevenzo and Bryony Jones, CNN, 7 March 2017, An outbreak of fall armyworm further threatened sorghum and maize production by July 2017.WEB,weblink FAO trains village facilitators to fight Fall Armyworm in South Sudan | FAO in South Sudan | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,

Notable people

See also




Further reading

  • {{loc}} â€“ Sudan
  • Walter C. Soderlund, E. Donald Briggs, The Independence of South Sudan: The Role of Mass Media in the Responsibility to Prevent, Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2014. pp. $38.99 (paper), {{ISBN|978-1-77112-117-0}}
  • Mohamed Omer Beshir: The Southern Sudan. Background to Conflict. C. Hurst & Co., London 1968.
  • BOOK, Biel, Melha Rout, South Sudan after the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, 2007, Netzbandt Verlag, Jena, 978-3-937884-01-1,
  • BOOK, Daly, M. W., Rolandsen, Øystein H., A History of South Sudan: From Slavery to Independence, 2016, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 978-0-521-11631-2, 921821890,
  • BOOK, Tvedt, Terje, South Sudan. An Annotated Bibliography. (2 vols), 2004, IB Tauris, London/New York, 978-1-86064-987-5, 2nd,
  • NEWS,weblink Profile: Southern Sudan leader Salva Kiir, 5 January 2011, BBC Online, 24 July 2011,
  • JOURNAL, June 2009, No One to Intervene: Gaps in Civilian Protection in Southern Sudan, Human Rights Watch, New York,weblink yes,weblink" title="">weblink 1 October 2011,

External links

{{Commons category}}{{Wikivoyage}} {{South Sudan topics}}{{Countries of Africa}}{{Authority control}}

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