aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{about|a branch of knowledge}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge}}{{Use mdy dates|date= July 2015}}{{Science}}File:CMB Timeline300 no WMAP.jpg|thumb|Right|260px|The UniverseUniverseScience (from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge"){{OEtymD|science|accessdate= September 20, 2014}} is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.BOOK, Wilson, E.O., 1999, The natural sciences, Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge, 49–71, Reprint, Vintage, New York, New York, 978-0-679-76867-8, "... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. It was a discovery that nature generally acts regularly enough to be described by laws and even by mathematics; and required invention to devise the techniques, abstractions, apparatus, and organization for exhibiting the regularities and securing their law-like descriptions."— p.vii BOOK, Heilbron, J.L. (editor-in-chief), J. L. Heilbron, 2003, Preface, The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science, vii–X, New York, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-511229-0, DICTIONARY, Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, science,weblink October 16, 2011, Merriam-Webster, Inc, 3 a: knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method b: such knowledge or such a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena., The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE."The historian ... requires a very broad definition of "science" â€“ one that ... will help us to understand the modern scientific enterprise. We need to be broad and inclusive, rather than narrow and exclusive ... and we should expect that the farther back we go [in time] the broader we will need to be."  p.3—BOOK, Lindberg, David C., 2007, Science before the Greeks, The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context, 1–27, Second, Chicago, Illinois, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-48205-7, BOOK, Grant, Edward, 2007, Ancient Egypt to Plato, A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century, 1–26, First, New York, New York, Cambridge University Press, 978-052-1-68957-1, Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to provide explanations of events in the physical world based on natural causes. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries (400 to 1000 CE) of the Middle AgesBOOK, Lindberg, David C., 2007, The revival of learning in the West, The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context, 193–224, Second, Chicago, Illinois, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-48205-7, but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age.BOOK, Lindberg, David C., 2007, Islamic science, The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context, 163–92, Second, Chicago, Illinois, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-48205-7, The recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived "natural philosophy",BOOK, Lindberg, David C., 2007, The recovery and assimilation of Greek and Islamic science, The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context, 225–53, 2nd, Chicago, Illinois, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-48205-7, which was later transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th centuryBOOK, Principe, Lawrence M., 2011, Introduction, Scientific Revolution: A Very Short Introduction, 1–3, First, New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 978-0-199-56741-6, as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions.BOOK, Lindberg, David C., 1990, Conceptions of the Scientific Revolution from Baker to Butterfield: A preliminary sketch, Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution, David C. Lindberg, Robert S. Westman, 1–26, First, Chicago, Illinois, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-34262-9, BOOK, Lindberg, David C., 2007, The legacy of ancient and medieval science, The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context, 357–368, 2nd, Chicago, Illinois, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-48205-7, BOOK,weblink The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Del Soldato, Eva, 2016, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, Zalta, Edward N., Fall 2016, BOOK, Grant, Edward, 2007, Transformation of medieval natural philosophy from the early period modern period to the end of the nineteenth century, A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century, 274–322, First, New York, New York, Cambridge University Press, 978-052-1-68957-1, The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape;BOOK, Cahan, David, From Natural Philosophy to the Sciences: Writing the History of Nineteenth-Century Science, 2003, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 978-0-226-08928-7, The Oxford English Dictionary dates the origin of the word "scientist" to 1834. along with the changing of "natural philosophy" to "natural science."BOOK, Harrison, Peter, Peter Harrison (historian), The Territories of Science and Religion, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2015, 164–165, 9780226184517, The changing character of those engaged in scientific endeavors was matched by a new nomenclature for their endeavors. The most conspicuous marker of this change was the replacement of "natural philosophy" by "natural science". In 1800 few had spoken of the "natural sciences" but by 1880, this expression had overtaken the traditional label "natural philosophy". The persistence of "natural philosophy" in the twentieth century is owing largely to historical references to a past practice (see figure 11). As should now be apparent, this was not simply the substitution of one term by another, but involved the jettisoning of a range of personal qualities relating to the conduct of philosophy and the living of the philosophical life., Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences (e.g., biology, chemistry, and physics), which study nature in the broadest sense; the social sciences (e.g., economics, psychology, and sociology), which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences (e.g., logic, mathematics, and theoretical computer science), which study abstract concepts. There is disagreement,BOOK, Bishop, Alan, 1991, Environmental activities and mathematical culture, Mathematical Enculturation: A Cultural Perspective on Mathematics Education,weblink 20–59, Norwell, Massachusetts, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 978-0-792-31270-3, BOOK, Philosophy of Science: Volume 1, From Problem to Theory, Bunge, Mario, 1998, Routledge, 978-0-765-80413-6, revised, 1, New York, New York, 3–50, The Scientific Approach, however, on whether the formal sciences actually constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence.BOOK, Fetzer, James H., 2013, Computer reliability and public policy: Limits of knowledge of computer-based systems, Computers and Cognition: Why Minds are not Machines, 271–308, 1st, Newcastle, United Kingdom, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 978-1-443-81946-6, Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences.JOURNAL, 10.3205/zma000916, 4027809, 24872859, 2014, Fischer, M.R., Thinking and acting scientifically: Indispensable basis of medical education, GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung, 31, 2, Doc24, Fabry, G, JOURNAL, Abraham, Reem Rachel, Clinically oriented physiology teaching: strategy for developing critical-thinking skills in undergraduate medical students, Advances in Physiology Education, 28, 3, 102–04, 10.1152/advan.00001.2004, 15319191, 2004, JOURNAL, Sinclair, Marius, On the Differences between the Engineering and Scientific Methods,weblink The International Journal of Engineering Education, WEB,weblink Engineering Technology :: Engineering Technology :: Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, IUPUI,, 2018-09-07, Science is based on research, which is commonly conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies. The practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, armaments, health care, and environmental protection.


Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations.JOURNAL, Grant, Edward, History of Science: When Did Modern Science Begin?, The American Scholar, 1 January 1997, 66, 1, 105–113, 41212592, Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, so it now defines what science is in the strictest sense of the term. JOURNAL, Pingree, David, David Pingree, Hellenophilia versus the History of Science, Isis, December 1992, 83, 4, 554–63, 234257, 10.1086/356288, 1992Isis...83..554P, Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge, rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge. In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other and share. For example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of complex calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, public works at national scale, such as those which harnessed the floodplain of the Yangtse with reservoirs,Sima Qian (司馬遷, d. 86 BCE) in his Records of the Grand Historian (太史公書) covering some 2500 years of Chinese history, records Sunshu Ao (孫叔敖, fl. c. 630–595 BCE – Zhou dynasty), the first known hydraulic engineer of China, cited in (Joseph Needham (1971) Science and Civilisation in China 4.3 p. 271) as having built a reservoir which has lasted to this day. dams, and dikes, and buildings such as the Pyramids. However, no consistent conscious distinction was made between knowledge of such things, which are true in every community, and other types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems. Metallurgy was known in prehistory, and the Vinča culture was the earliest known producer of bronze-like alloys. It is thought that early experimentation with heating and mixing of substances over time developed into alchemy.

Early cultures

File:Divinatory livers Louvre AO19837.jpg|thumb|upright=0.5|Clay models of animal livers dating between the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries BCE, found in the royal palace in Mari, SyriaMari, SyriaNeither the words nor the concepts "science" and "nature" were part of the conceptual landscape in the ancient near east.BOOK, Rochberg, Francesca, Shank, Michael, Numbers, Ronald, Harrison, Peter, Wrestling with Nature : From Omens to Science, 2011, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 978-0226317830, 9, Ch.1 Natural Knowledge in Ancient Mesopotamia, The ancient Mesopotamians used knowledge about the properties of various natural chemicals for manufacturing pottery, faience, glass, soap, metals, lime plaster, and waterproofing;BOOK, McIntosh, Jane R., Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspectives, 2005, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, California, Denver, Colorado, and Oxford, England, 978-1-57607-966-9, 273–76,weblink harv, they also studied animal physiology, anatomy, and behavior for divinatory purposes and made extensive records of the movements of astronomical objects for their study of astrology.JOURNAL, Scientific Astronomy in Antiquity, A. Aaboe, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 276, 1257, 2 May 1974, 21–42, harv, 10.1098/rsta.1974.0007, 1974RSPTA.276...21A, 74272, The Mesopotamians had intense interest in medicine and the earliest medical prescriptions appear in Sumerian during the Third Dynasty of Ur ({{circa}} 2112 BCE – {{circa}} 2004 BCE).JOURNAL, Medicine, Surgery, and Public Health in Ancient Mesopotamia, R D. Biggs, Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies, 19, 1, 2005, 7–18, Nonetheless, the Mesopotamians seem to have had little interest in gathering information about the natural world for the mere sake of gathering information and mainly only studied scientific subjects which had obvious practical applications or immediate relevance to their religious system.

Classical antiquity

{{See also|Nature (philosophy)}}In classical antiquity, there is no real ancient analog of a modern scientist. Instead, well-educated, usually upper-class, and almost universally male individuals performed various investigations into nature whenever they could afford the time.BOOK, Lehoux, Daryn, Shank, Michael, Numbers, Ronald, Harrison, Peter, Wrestling with Nature : From Omens to Science, 2011, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 978-0226317830, 39, 2. Natural Knowledge in the Classical World, Before the invention or discovery of the concept of "nature" (ancient Greek phusis) by the Pre-Socratic philosophers, the same words tend to be used to describe the natural "way" in which a plant grows,See the quotation in Homer (8th century BCE) Odyssey 10.302–03 and the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god. For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, and also the first people to clearly distinguish "nature" and "convention.""Progress or Return" in An Introduction to Political Philosophy: Ten Essays by Leo Strauss (Expanded version of Political Philosophy: Six Essays by Leo Strauss, 1975.) Ed. Hilail Gilden. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1989.{{rp|209}} Natural philosophy, the precursor of natural science, was thereby distinguished as the knowledge of nature and things which are true for every community, and the name of the specialized pursuit of such knowledge was philosophy â€“ the realm of the first philosopher-physicists. They were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature (artifice or technology, Greek technÄ“) was seen by classical scientists as a more appropriate interest for artisans of lower social class.BOOK, History of Political Philosophy, Cropsey, 3rd, 209, Strauss,
The early Greek philosophers of the Milesian school, which was founded by Thales of Miletus and later continued by his successors Anaximander and Anaximenes, were the first to attempt to explain natural phenomena without relying on the supernatural.BOOK, O'Grady, Patricia F., Thales of Miletus: The Beginnings of Western Science and Philosophy, 2016, Routledge, New York City, New York and London, England, 978-0-7546-0533-1, 245,weblink harv, mdy-all, The Pythagoreans developed a complex number philosophyBOOK, Burkert, Walter, Walter Burkert, 1 June 1972, Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism,weblink Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-53918-1, harv, no,weblink January 29, 2018, mdy-all, {{rp|467–68}} and contributed significantly to the development of mathematical science.{{rp|465}} The theory of atoms was developed by the Greek philosopher Leucippus and his student Democritus.BOOK, Pullman, Bernard, The Atom in the History of Human Thought, 1998, 978-0-19-515040-7, 31–33,weblink harv,, BOOK, Cohen, Henri, Lefebvre, Claire, Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science, 2017, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 978-0-08-101107-2, 427, Second,weblink harv, The Greek doctor Hippocrates established the tradition of systematic medical scienceBOOK, Margotta, Roberto, 1968, The Story of Medicine,weblink vFZrAAAAMAAJ, New York City, New York, Golden Press, harv, BOOK, Touwaide, Alain, Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, 2005, Glick, Thomas F., Livesey, Steven, Wallis, Faith, Routledge, New York City, New York and London, England, 978-0-415-96930-7, 224,weblink harv, and is known as "The Father of Medicine".BOOK, Leff, Samuel, Leff, Vera, 1956, From Witchcraft to World Health,weblink London, England, Macmillan Publishers, Macmillan, harv, File:Aristotle Altemps Inv8575.jpg|thumb|upright=0.75|Aristotle, 384–322 BCE, one of the early figures in the development of the scientific methodscientific methodA turning point in the history of early philosophical science was Socrates' example of applying philosophy to the study of human matters, including human nature, the nature of political communities, and human knowledge itself. The Socratic method as documented by Plato's dialogues is a dialectic method of hypothesis elimination: better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions. This was a reaction to the Sophist emphasis on rhetoric. The Socratic method searches for general, commonly held truths that shape beliefs and scrutinizes them to determine their consistency with other beliefs.WEB,weblink Plato, Apology, 17, 2017-11-01, no,weblink" title="">weblink January 29, 2018, mdy-all, Socrates criticized the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative and lacking in self-criticism. Socrates was later, in the words of his Apology, accused of corrupting the youth of Athens because he did "not believe in the gods the state believes in, but in other new spiritual beings". Socrates refuted these claims,WEB,weblink Plato, Apology, 27, 2017-11-01, no,weblink" title="">weblink January 29, 2018, mdy-all, but was sentenced to death.WEB,weblink Plato, Apology, section 30, 1966, Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University, November 1, 2016, no,weblink" title="">weblink January 27, 2017, mdy-all, {{rp| 30e}}Aristotle later created a systematic programme of teleological philosophy: Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, according to what types of things they are. In his physics, the Sun goes around the Earth, and many things have it as part of their nature that they are for humans. Each thing has a formal cause, a final cause, and a role in a cosmic order with an unmoved mover. The Socratics also insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being (a study Aristotle divided into ethics and political philosophy). Aristotle maintained that man knows a thing scientifically "when he possesses a conviction arrived at in a certain way, and when the first principles on which that conviction rests are known to him with certainty".BOOK, Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, H. Rackham,weblink no,weblink" title="">weblink Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0054%3Abekker%20page%3D1139b, March 17, 2012, mdy-all, 1139bThe Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos (310–230 BCE) was the first to propose a heliocentric model of the universe, with the Sun at the center and all the planets orbiting it.BOOK, McClellan III, James E., Dorn, Harold, Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction, 2015, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 978-1-4214-1776-9, 99–100,weblink harv, Aristarchus's model was widely rejected because it was believed to violate the laws of physics. The inventor and mathematician Archimedes of Syracuse made major contributions to the beginnings of calculus and has sometimes been credited as its inventor,BOOK, Edwards, C.H. Jr., The Historical Development of the Calculus, 1979, Springer-Verlag, New York City, New York, 978-0-387-94313-8, 75, First,weblink harv, although his proto-calculus lacked several defining features. Pliny the Elder was a Roman writer and polymath, who wrote the seminal encyclopedia Natural History,BOOK, Lawson, Russell M., Science in the Ancient World: An Encyclopedia, 2004, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, California, 978-1-85109-539-1, 190–91,weblink harv, BOOK, Murphy, Trevor Morgan, Pliny the Elder's Natural History: The Empire in the Encyclopedia, 2004, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 9780199262885, 1,weblink harv, BOOK, Doode, Aude, Pliny's Encyclopedia: The Reception of the Natural History, 2010, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 9781139484534, 1,weblink harv, dealing with history, geography, medicine, astronomy, earth science, botany, and zoology.Other scientists or proto-scientists in Antiquity were Theophrastus, Euclid, Herophilos, Hipparchus, Ptolemy, and Galen.

Medieval science

File:Brain, G Reisch.png|thumb|De potentiis anime sensitive, Gregor Reisch (1504) Margarita philosophica. Medieval science postulated a ventricle of the brain as the location for our common sense,{{Citation | last = Smith | first = A. Mark | title = What is the History of Medieval Optics Really About? | journal = Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society | volume = 148 | issue = 2 | pages = 180–94 |date=June 2004 | jstor = 1558283 | pmid = 15338543}}{{rp|189}} where the forms from our sensory systemsensory system{{further|Byzantine science | Science in the medieval Islamic world | European science in the Middle Ages}}Because of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire due to the Migration Period an intellectual decline took place in the western part of Europe in the 400s. In contrast, the Byzantine Empire resisted the attacks from invaders, and preserved and improved upon the learning. John Philoponus, a Byzantine scholar in the 500s, questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics and to note its flaws.

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "science" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 5:22am EDT - Wed, Aug 21 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott