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Venezuela
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{{redirect|Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela|the period when it was known as the "Republic of Venezuela" from 1953 to 1999|Republic of Venezuela}}{{about|the country|other uses|Venezuela (disambiguation)}}{{pp-semi|small=yes}}{{short description|Republic in northern South America}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2019}}{{Coord|7|N|65|W|type:country_region:VE|display=title}}







factoids
| flag_type = State flag| flag = Flag of Venezuela| image_flag = File:Flag of Venezuela (state).svg| image_coat = File:Coat of arms of Venezuela.svgDios y Federación()Gloria al Bravo Pueblo()(File:United States Navy Band - Gloria al Bravo Pueblo.ogg|center)| image_map = Venezuela Orthographic Map.svg| map_caption = Land controlled by Venezuela shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled land shown in light green.| capital = Caracas10N55type:city}}| largest_city = CaracasVenezuelan Spanish>Spanish{{ref labelb|none}}| ethnic_groups = {{unbulleted list
| 51.6% Mestizo
| 43.6% European (White)
| 3.6% African (Black)
| 1.2% Amerindians and Others
}}| ethnic_groups_year = 2011
PAGE=29 ACCESSDATE=8 SEPTEMBER 2014, 71% Catholic17% Protestant8% Irreligious3% Other religion1% No answer}}| religion_year = 2012| religion_ref = Venezuelans>VenezuelanFederal state>Federal Presidential system Republic>constitutional republicPresident of Venezuela>PresidentNicolás Maduro(disputed){{refn>group="n"2017 Constituent National Assembly>National Constituent Assembly, the Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Venezuela), the National Electoral Council (Venezuela)>National Electoral Council and the National Bolivarian Armed Forces.}} Vice President of Venezuela>Vice PresidentDelcy Rodríguez (constitutional position 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis>disputed) National Assembly (Venezuela)>National AssemblyConstituent Assembly (disputed)| sovereignty_type = Independence| established_event1 = from Spain| established_date1 = 5 July 1811from Gran Colombia}}| established_date2 = 13 January 1830| established_event3 = Recognized| established_date3 = 29 March 1845United Nations Charter>Admitted to the United Nations| established_date4 = 15 November 1945Current constitution}}| established_date5 = 15 December 1999| area_km2 = 916,445| area_rank = 32nd | area_sq_mi = 353,841areanone}}Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)}} {{UN_PopulationInternational Monetary Fund>IMF)HTTPS://WWW.IMF.ORG/EXTERNAL/PUBS/FT/WEO/2019/01/WEODATA/WEOREPT.ASPX?PR.X=37&PR.Y=8&SY=2013&EY=2019&SCSM=1&SSD=1&SORT=COUNTRY&DS=.&BR=1&C=299&S=LP&GRP=0&A=>TITLE=REPORT FOR SELECTED COUNTRIES AND SUBJECTSACCESS-DATE=2019-05-25, Year}}| population_estimate_rank = 44th| population_density_km2 = 33.74| population_density_sq_mi = 87.42| population_density_rank = 181stPUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ACCESS-DATE=10 APRIL 2019, | GDP_PPP_year = 2019| GDP_PPP_rank = | GDP_PPP_per_capita = n/a| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = | GDP_nominal = {{decrease}} $76.458 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = 51st| GDP_nominal_per_capita = {{decrease}} $2,724| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 93rd| Gini = 44.8 | Gini_year = 2013| Gini_change = increaseWEBSITE=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME UNITED NATIONS >ACCESSDATE=21 SEPTEMBER 2015, | Gini_rank = | HDI = 0.761 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = decreaseYEAR=2018 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 78th| currency = {hide}unbulleted list
| Petro
| Bolívar Soberano
{edih}| currency_code = VES
Time in Venezuela>VET| utc_offset = −4| utc_offset_DST = | time_zone_DST = Common Era>CE)| drives_on = right| calling_code = +58| cctld = .venamenone}} The "Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela" has been the full official title since the adoption of the Constitution of 1999, when the state was renamed in honor of Simón Bolívar.languagesnone}} The Constitution also recognizes all indigenous languages spoken in the country.groupsnone}} Some important subgroups include those of Spanish Venezuelan, Italo-Venezuelans>Italian, Indigenous peoples in Venezuela, Afro-Venezuelan>African, Portuguese Venezuelan, Arab Venezuelan>Arab and German descent.areanone}} Area totals include only Venezuelan-administered territory.currencynone}} On 20 August 2018, a new bolivar was introduced, the Bolívar soberano (ISO 4217 code VES) worth 100,000 VEF.| recognized_regional_languages = {hide}collapsible list
|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
|title = 26 languages
|liststyle = border-top:1px solid #aaa;
| PiapocoBaniwaLoconoWayúuWaraoPemónPanareYek'uanaYukpaCaribAkawaioJapreríaMapoyoYawaranaHodïPuinaveJiviBaríUruakSapéPuméPiaroa YanomamöSanemáYanamYeral
{edih}
}}Venezuela ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Venezuela.ogg|ËŒ|v|É›|n|É™|ˈ|z|w|eɪ|l|É™}}; {{IPA-es|beneˈswela|am|Venezuela.ogg}}), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (),WEB,weblink Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, 19 March 2013, 15 December 1999, Ministry of Education (Venezuela), Ministry of Education,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131001032323weblink">weblink 1 October 2013, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. It has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2 (353,841 sq mi). The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. The Venezuelan government maintains a claim against Guyana to Guayana Esequiba, an area of 159,542 km2 (61,600 sq mi). For its maritime areas, Venezuela exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 (27,527 sq mi) of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 (8,581 sq mi) in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 (182,050 sq mi) of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, and 99,889 km2 (38,567 sq mi) of continental shelf. This marine area borders those of 13 states. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas. The country has extremely high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species.WEB,weblink World Conservation Monitoring Centre of the United Nations Environment Programme, September 2004, 8 January 2016, World Conservation Monitoring Centre of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP-WCMC), 2004. Species Data (unpublished, September 2004)., United Nations Environment programme, World Conservation Monitoring Centre of the United Nations Environment Programme, There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east.The sovereign state is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District (covering Caracas), and federal dependencies (covering Venezuela's offshore islands). Venezuela also claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, a {{convert|159500|km2|sqmi|0|adj=on}} tract dubbed Guayana Esequiba or the Zona en Reclamación (the "zone under dispute").WEB,weblink Geneva Agreement, 17 February 1966, United Nations, Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America;ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070421194631weblink">weblink 21 April 2007, South America, 13 March 2007, Encarta, WEB,weblink Annex tables, 13 March 2007, United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects: The 1999 Revision, the vast majority of Venezuelans live in the cities of the north, especially in the capital (Caracas) which is also the largest city in Venezuela.The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples. In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American territories to declare independence, which was not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia. It gained full independence as a country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional caudillos (military strongmen) until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, and the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993. A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution. The revolution began with a 1999 Constituent Assembly, where a new Constitution of Venezuela was written. This new constitution officially changed the name of the country to Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ().Oil was discovered in the early 20th century, and today, Venezuela has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil. Previously, the country was an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, but oil quickly came to dominate exports and government revenues. The 1980s oil glut led to an external debt crisis and a long-running economic crisis. Inflation peaked at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rose to 66% in 1995{{sfn|McCaughan|2005|p=32}} as (by 1998) per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak.{{sfn|Kelly|Palma|2006|p=207}} The recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave Venezuela oil funds not seen since the 1980s.{{sfn|Heritage|2002|pages=618–621}} The Venezuelan government under Hugo Chávez then established populist social welfare policies that initially boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, temporarilyJOURNAL, Smilde, David, 14 September 2017, Crime and Revolution in Venezuela, NACLA Report on the Americas, 49, 3, 303–308, 10.1080/10714839.2017.1373956, 1071-4839, Finally, it is important to realize that the reductions in poverty and inequality during the Chávez years were real, but somewhat superficial. While indicators of income and consumption showed clear progress, the harder-to-change characteristics of structural poverty and inequality, such as the quality of housing, neighborhoods, education, and employment, remained largely unchanged., reducing economic inequality and poverty in the early years of the regime.{{refn|{{sfn|Heritage|2002|pages=618–621}}Kevin Voigt (6 March 2013). Chavez leaves Venezuelan economy more equal, less stable. CNN. Retrieved 5 April 2014.Dan Beeton and Joe Sammut (6 December 2013). Venezuela Leads Region in Poverty Reduction in 2012, ECLAC Says. Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved 5 April 2014.Venezuela Overview. The World Bank. Last updated 17 November 2014:
  • "Economic growth and the redistribution of resources associated with these missions have led to an important decline in moderate poverty, from 50% in 1998 to about 30% in 2012. Likewise, inequality has decreased, reducing the Gini Index from 0.49 in 1998 to 0.39 in 2012, which is among the lowest in the region."}} In 2013, Hugo Chávez died, shortly after being elected to a fourth term, and was succeeded by Nicolás Maduro, elected by a narrow majority in a widely disputed election. Maduro continued the populist policies of Chávez, but with disastrous results.NEWS,weblink ko:화폐경제 무너졌는데…최저임금 인상에 목매는 베네수엘라, 남민우, 기, 2 May 2018, The Chosun Ilbo, 朝鮮日報, 22 May 2018, ko, Venezuela's fall is considered to be mainly caused by the populist policy, The nation's economy collapsed because of their excesses—including a uniquely extreme fossil fuel subsidyWEB,weblink Fuel subsidies have contributed to Venezuela's economic crisis, www.chinadialogue.net, —and are widely blamed for destabilizing the nation's economy. The destabilized economy led to a crisis in Venezuela, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression,NEWS,weblink Volver a ser pobre en Venezuela, Scharfenberg, Ewald, 1 February 2015, 3 February 2015, El Pais, shortages of basic goods{{plainlist|{{bullet}}NEWS, Gillespie, Patrick, Venezuela shuts border with Colombia as cash crisis escalates,weblink 17 January 2017, CNNMoney, 12 December 2016,
{{bullet}}NEWS, Gillespie, Patrick, Venezuela: the land of 500% inflation,weblink 17 January 2017, CNNMoney, 12 April 2016, {{bullet}}NEWS, Rosati, Andrew, Venezuela's Economy Was the Worst Performing of 2016, IMF Estimates,weblink 17 January 2017, Bloomberg.com, Bloomberg, 11 January 2017, }} and drastic increases in unemployment,NEWS,weblink Chamber of Commerce: 80% of Venezuelans are in poverty, 1 April 2016, 4 April 2016, El Universal (Caracas), El Universal,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160404181203weblink">weblink 4 April 2016, dead, poverty,NEWS,weblink Venezuela Issues New Bank Notes Because of Hyperinflation, Herrero, Ana Vanessa, 16 January 2017, The New York Times, 17 January 2017, Malkin, Elisabeth, disease, child mortality, malnutrition and crime. These factors have precipitated the Venezuelan migrant crisis where more than three million people have fled the country.NEWS, Number of refugees and migrants from Venezuela reaches 3 million,weblink 6 February 2019, UNHCR, 8 November 2018, By 2017, Venezuela was declared to be in default regarding debt payments by credit rating agencies.NEWS, Gillespie, Patrick, Venezuela just defaulted, moving deeper into crisis,weblink 15 November 2017, CNNMoney, 14 November 2017, NEWS, Venezuela in 'selective default',weblink 15 November 2017, BBC News, 14 November 2017, In 2018, the country's economic policies led to extreme hyperinflation, with estimates expecting an inflation rate of 1,370,000% by the end of the year and 10,000,000% in 2019.NEWS, Rosati, Andrew, Venezuela's 2018 Inflation to Hit 1.37 Million Percent, IMF Says,weblink 9 October 2018, Bloomberg, 9 October 2018, WEB,weblink IMF sees Venezuela inflation at 10 million percent in 2019, 9 October 2018, in.reuters.com, Venezuela is a charter member of the UN, OAS, UNASUR, ALBA, Mercosur, LAIA and OEI.

Etymology

According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, an expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda visited the Venezuelan coast. The stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, Italy, so he named the region Veneziola, or "Little Venice".{{sfn|Massabié|2008|p=153}} The Spanish version of Veneziola is Venezuela.{{sfn|Thomas|2005|p=189}}Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that the crew found indigenous people who called themselves the Veneciuela. Thus, the name "Venezuela" may have evolved from the native word.JOURNAL, 1958, Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos, Instituto de Cultura Hispánica (Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional), 386, Spanish, Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

History

Pre-Columbian history

{{multiple image
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| align = right
| width =
| footer =
| image1 = IdolosRoques.jpg
| caption1 = Cult image sculpted in ceramic, Los Roques Archipelago.
| image2 = Petroglifo, Parque Waraira Repano.jpg
| caption2 = Petroglyph in the Waraira Repano National Park.
}}
Evidence exists of human habitation in the area now known as Venezuela from about 15,000 years ago. Leaf-shaped tools from this period, together with chopping and (wikt:plano-convex|plano-convex) scraping implements, have been found exposed on the high riverine terraces of the Rio Pedregal in western Venezuela.{{sfn|Kipfer|2000|p=91}} Late Pleistocene hunting artifacts, including spear tips, have been found at a similar series of sites in northwestern Venezuela known as "El Jobo"; according to radiocarbon dating, these date from 13,000 to 7,000 BC.{{sfn|Kipfer|2000|p=172}}It is not known how many people lived in Venezuela before the Spanish conquest; it has been estimated at around one million.{{sfn|Wunder|2003|p=130}} In addition to indigenous peoples known today, the population included historical groups such as the Kalina (Caribs), Auaké, Caquetio, Mariche, and Timoto–Cuicas. The Timoto–Cuica culture was the most complex society in Pre-Columbian Venezuela, with pre-planned permanent villages, surrounded by irrigated, terraced fields. They also stored water in tanks.Mahoney 89 Their houses were made primarily of stone and wood with thatched roofs. They were peaceful, for the most part, and depended on growing crops. Regional crops included potatoes and ullucos."Venezuela". {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110904200841weblink |date=4 September 2011 }} Friends of the Pre-Columbian Art Museum. (retrieved 9 July 2011) They left behind works of art, particularly anthropomorphic ceramics, but no major monuments. They spun vegetable fibers to weave into textiles and mats for housing. They are credited with having invented the arepa, a staple in Venezuelan cuisine.BOOK, Miguel Tinker Salas, Gilbert G. Gonzalez, Raul A. Fernandez, Vivian Price, David Smith, Linda Trinh Võ, Labor Versus Empire: Race, Gender, Migration,weblink 2 August 2004, Routledge, 978-1-135-93528-3, 142, Culture, Power, and Oil: The Experience of Venezuelan Oil Camps and the Construction of Citizenship, {{multiple image| align = | image1 = Paisaje_Meride%C3%B1o_VI.jpg| width1 = 220| alt1 = Mérida State>Mérida state, Venezuela| image2 = Timote-Cuica languages.png| width2 = 112| alt2 = | caption2 = Timoto and Cuica toponyms.| footer = }}After the conquest, the population dropped markedly, mainly through the spread of new infectious diseases from Europe.{{sfn|Wunder|2003|p=130}} Two main north-south axes of pre-Columbian population were present, who cultivated maize in the west and manioc in the east.{{sfn|Wunder|2003|p=130}} Large parts of the llanos were cultivated through a combination of slash and burn and permanent settled agriculture.{{sfn|Wunder|2003|p=130}}

Colonization

File:Musterung-Welser-Armada.png|thumb|The German WelserWelserIn 1498, during his third voyage to the Americas, Christopher Columbus sailed near the Orinoco Delta and landed in the Gulf of Paria.{{sfn|Dickey|1892|p=103}} Amazed by the great offshore current of freshwater which deflected his course eastward, Columbus expressed in a letter to Isabella and Ferdinand that he must have reached Heaven on Earth (terrestrial paradise):}}File:Nuestra_Señora_de_Caracas.gif|thumb|Nuestra Señora de Caracas, 17661766Spain's colonization of mainland Venezuela started in 1522, establishing its first permanent South American settlement in the {{As of |2008 |alt=present-day}} city of Cumaná. In the 16th century, Venezuela was contracted as a concession by the King of Spain to the German Welser banking family (Klein-Venedig, 1528–1546). Native caciques (leaders) such as Guaicaipuro ({{circa|1530–1568}}) and Tamanaco (died 1573) attempted to resist Spanish incursions, but the newcomers ultimately subdued them; Tamanaco was put to death by order of Caracas' founder, Diego de Losada.WEB, Universidad Nueva Esparta,weblink Alcaldía del Hatillo: Historia, 10 March 2007, Spanish, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060428111205weblink">weblink 28 April 2006, In the 16th century, during the Spanish colonization, indigenous peoples such as many of the Mariches, themselves descendants of the Kalina, converted to Roman Catholicism. Some of the resisting tribes or leaders are commemorated in place names, including Caracas, Chacao and Los Teques. The early colonial settlements focused on the northern coast,{{sfn|Wunder|2003|p=130}} but in the mid-18th century, the Spanish pushed farther inland along the Orinoco River. Here, the Ye'kuana (then known as the Makiritare) organized serious resistance in 1775 and 1776.{{sfn|Gott|2005|p=203}}Spain's eastern Venezuelan settlements were incorporated into New Andalusia Province. Administered by the Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo from the early 16th century, most of Venezuela became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the early 18th century, and was then reorganized as an autonomous Captaincy General starting in 1777. The town of Caracas, founded in the central coastal region in 1567, was well-placed to become a key location, being near the coastal port of La Guaira whilst itself being located in a valley in a mountain range, providing defensive strength against pirates and a more fertile and healthy climate.{{sfn|Ewell|1984|p=4}}

Independence and 19th century

File:Simón Bolívar 2.jpg|thumb|El Libertador, Simón BolívarSimón BolívarAfter a series of unsuccessful uprisings, Venezuela, under the leadership of Francisco de Miranda, a Venezuelan marshal who had fought in the American Revolution and the French Revolution, declared independence as the First Republic of Venezuela on 5 July 1811.WEB, Minster, Christopher,weblink April 19, 1810: Venezuela's Declaration of Independence, About, 30 June 2015, This began the Venezuelan War of Independence. A devastating earthquake that struck Caracas in 1812, together with the rebellion of the Venezuelan llaneros, helped bring down the republic.{{sfn|Chasteen|2001|p=103}} Simón Bolívar, new leader of the independentist forces, launched his Admirable Campaign in 1813 from New Granada, retaking most of the territory and being proclaimed as El Libertador ("The Liberator"). A second Venezuelan republic was proclaimed on 7 August 1813, but lasted only a few months before being crushed at the hands of royalist caudillo José Tomás Boves and his personal army of llaneros.WEB, Left, Sarah, Simon Bolivar,weblink The Guardian, 16 April 2002, 30 June 2015, The end of the French invasion of homeland Spain in 1814 allowed the preparation of a large expeditionary force to the American provinces under general Pablo Morillo, with the goal to regain the lost territory in Venezuela and New Granada. As the war reached a stalemate on 1817, Bolívar reestablished the Third Republic of Venezuela on the territory still controlled by the patriots, mainly in the Guayana and Los Llanos regions. This republic was short-lived as only two years later, during the Congress of Angostura of 1819, it was decreed the union of Venezuela with New Granada to form the Republic of Gran Colombia. The war continued for some years, until full victory and sovereignty was attained after Bolívar, aided by José Antonio Páez and Antonio José de Sucre, won the Battle of Carabobo on 24 June 1821.{{sfn|Gregory|1992|pages=89–90}} On 24 July 1823, José Prudencio Padilla and Rafael Urdaneta helped seal Venezuelan independence with their victory in the Battle of Lake Maracaibo.WEB,weblink Venezuela, CIA World Factbook, 30 June 2015, New Granada's congress gave Bolívar control of the Granadian army; leading it, he liberated several countries and founded Gran Colombia.{{sfn|Gregory|1992|pages=89–90}}File:19 de abril.jpg|thumb|Revolution of 19 April 1810, the beginning of Venezuela's independence, by alt=Sucre, who won many battles for Bolívar, went on to liberate Ecuador and later become the second president of Bolivia. Venezuela remained part of Gran Colombia until 1830, when a rebellion led by Páez allowed the proclamation of a newly independent Venezuela; Páez became the first president of the new State of Venezuela.WEB,weblink History of Venezuela, History World, 30 June 2015, Between one-quarter and one-third of Venezuela's population was lost during these two decades of warfare (including perhaps one-half of the white population),BOOK, McFarlane, Anthony, War and Independence In Spanish America, 2013, Routledge, 978-1136757723, 293,weblink which by 1830, was estimated at about 800,000."Venezuela – The Century of Caudillismo". Library of Congress Country Studies.The colors of the Venezuelan flag are yellow, blue, and red: the yellow stands for land wealth, the blue for the sea that separates Venezuela from Spain, and the red for the blood shed by the heroes of independence.NEWS, 200 años como símbolo de soberanía, Consulado General de Venezuela en Canarias,weblink 30 November 2010, Spanish, Slavery in Venezuela was abolished in 1854. Much of Venezuela's 19th-century history was characterized by political turmoil and dictatorial rule, including the Independence leader José Antonio Páez, who gained the presidency three times and served a total of 11 years between 1830 and 1863. This culminated in the Federal War (1859–1863), a civil war in which hundreds of thousands died in a country with a population of not much more than a million people. In the latter half of the century, Antonio Guzmán Blanco, another caudillo, served a total of 13 years between 1870 and 1887, with three other presidents interspersed.File:Martin Tovar y Tovar 02.jpg|thumb|The signing of Venezuela's independence, by Martín Tovar y TovarMartín Tovar y TovarIn 1895, a longstanding dispute with Great Britain about the territory of Guayana Esequiba, which Britain claimed as part of British Guiana and Venezuela saw as Venezuelan territory, erupted into the Venezuela Crisis of 1895. The dispute became a diplomatic crisis when Venezuela's lobbyist, William L. Scruggs, sought to argue that British behavior over the issue violated the United States' Monroe Doctrine of 1823, and used his influence in Washington, D.C., to pursue the matter. Then, U.S. president Grover Cleveland adopted a broad interpretation of the doctrine that did not just simply forbid new European colonies, but declared an American interest in any matter within the hemisphere.{{sfn|Zakaria|1999|pages=145–146}} Britain ultimately accepted arbitration, but in negotiations over its terms was able to persuade the U.S. on many of the details. A tribunal convened in Paris in 1898 to decide the issue and in 1899 awarded the bulk of the disputed territory to British Guiana.JOURNAL, Robert Arthur Humphreys, Humphreys, R. A., 1966, 10.2307/3678723, Anglo-American Rivalries and the Venezuela Crisis of 1895. Presidential Address to the Royal Historical Society, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 17, 131–164, 3678723, In 1899, Cipriano Castro, assisted by his friend Juan Vicente Gómez, seized power in Caracas, marching an army from his base in the Andean state of Táchira. Castro defaulted on Venezuela's considerable foreign debts and declined to pay compensation to foreigners caught up in Venezuela's civil wars. This led to the Venezuela Crisis of 1902–1903, in which Britain, Germany and Italy imposed a naval blockade of several months before international arbitration at the new Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague was agreed. In 1908, another dispute broke out with the Netherlands, which was resolved when Castro left for medical treatment in Germany and was promptly overthrown by Juan Vicente Gómez (1908–1935).

20th century

{{POV section|date=December 2018}} {{more citations needed section|date=July 2017}}(File:Flag of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg|thumb|Flag of Venezuela between 1954 and 2006.)The discovery of massive oil deposits in Lake Maracaibo during World War IJOURNAL,weblink Stauffer, Karl W., Croft, Gregory D., A modern look at the petroleum geology of the Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela, Oil & Gas Journal, 1995, 93, 23, proved to be pivotal for Venezuela and transformed the basis of its economy from a heavy dependence on agricultural exports. It prompted an economic boom that lasted into the 1980s; by 1935, Venezuela's per capita gross domestic product was Latin America's highest.{{sfn|Crow|1980|pages=616–617}} Gómez benefited handsomely from this, as corruption thrived, but at the same time, the new source of income helped him centralize the Venezuelan state and develop its authority.He remained the most powerful man in Venezuela until his death in 1935, although at times he ceded the presidency to others. The gomecista dictatorship (1935–1945) system largely continued under Eleazar López Contreras, but from 1941, under Isaías Medina Angarita, was relaxed. Angarita granted a range of reforms, including the legalization of all political parties. After World War II, immigration from Southern Europe (mainly from Spain, Italy, Portugal, and France) and poorer Latin American countries markedly diversified Venezuelan society.File:Rómulo Betancourt, 1961.jpg|thumb|Rómulo BetancourtRómulo BetancourtIn 1945, a civilian-military coup overthrew Medina Angarita and ushered in a three-year period of democratic rule (1945–1948) under the mass membership party Democratic Action, initially under Rómulo Betancourt, until Rómulo Gallegos won the 1947 Venezuelan presidential election (generally believed to be the first free and fair elections in Venezuela). Gallegos governed until overthrown by a military junta led by the triumvirate Luis Felipe Llovera Páez, Marcos Pérez Jiménez, and Gallegos' Defense Minister, Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, in the 1948 Venezuelan coup d'état.The most powerful man in the military junta (1948–1958) was Pérez Jiménez (though Chalbaud was its titular president) and was suspected of being behind the death in office of Chalbaud, who died in a bungled kidnapping in 1950. When the junta unexpectedly lost the election it held in 1952, it ignored the results and Pérez Jiménez was installed as president, where he remained until 1958. The expansion of the Venezuelan economy in this period was based on the indebtedness of the Venezuelan nation and that was one of the causes of the economic crisis in Venezuela in the 1960s,BOOK, Stambouli, Andrés, La política extraviada: Una historia de Medina a Chávez, 2009, Fundación para la Cultura Urbana, 97, in which important projects such as the Urban Center El Recreo de Marcel Brauer on Avenida Casanova in Sabana Grande district were paralyzed.JOURNAL,weblink El Centro Urbano El Recreo, Mujica, Viviana, 2014, Historia y Patrimonio UCV, During the years of Pérez Jiménez's administration, the State intervened in areas of the economy that were traditionally carried out by private companies. The Pérez Jiménez government was characterized by its state capitalism and not by liberal capitalism. It was an antecedent of the populist and paternalistic economic regime of the later democratic regimes.BOOK, Coronil Ímber, Fernando, El Estado Mágico,weblink 2013, Alfadil, The national private entrepreneurship increasingly had less space to grow and prosper. The State was the great capitalist in the Venezuela of Pérez Jiménez and was the largest national shareholder of major hotel chains such as Sheraton.JOURNAL,weblink El mercado de hoteles se mueve a pesar de la recesión, Ostos, Elizabeth, 2016, IESA Instituto de Estudios Superiores Administrativos, In the government of Pérez Jiménez, Venezuela's debt grew more than 25 times and went from 175 million to more than 4,500 million bolivares in just 5 years (approximately 15 billion dollars in 2018). The malaise over the debts of Venezuela reached the barracks and the national business. Pérez Jiménez responded that: "there is no debt, but commitments". The Finance Minister failed to convince Pérez Jiménez to order the cancellation of debts.BOOK, Stambouli, Andrés, La política extraviada, 2009, Fundación para la Cultura Urbana, 98, Pérez Jiménez, contestando las preguntas al respecto, habría dicho: "(...) no hay deuda sino compromisos". Esta afirmación impresionó mal a la asistencia y fue considerada como una respuesta poco afortunada., As of 14 January 1958, the Venezuelan business community decided to divorce itself completely from the regime, nine days before the collapse of the government. The military dictator Pérez Jiménez was forced out on 23 January 1958.WEB,weblink Venezuela, 23 July 2010, CIA, 1 July 2010, The World Factbook, In an effort to consolidate a young democracy, the three major political parties (Acción Democrática (AD), COPEI and Unión Republicana Democrática (URD), with the notable exception of the Communist Party of Venezuela) signed the Puntofijo Pact power-sharing agreement. The two first parties would dominate the political landscape for four decades.File:Mesa donde se firmó el Pacto de Punto Fijo.jpg|thumb|Table where the Puntofijo PactPuntofijo PactDuring the presidencies of Rómulo Ernesto Betancourt Bello (1959–1964, his second time) and Raúl Leoni Otero (1964–1969) in the 1960s, substantial guerilla movements occurred, including the Armed Forces of National Liberation and the Revolutionary Left Movement, which had split from AD in 1960. Most of these movements laid down their arms under Rafael Caldera's first presidency (1969–1974); Caldera had won the 1968 election for COPEI, being the first time a party other than Democratic Action took the presidency through a democratic election. The new democratic order had its antagonists. Betancourt suffered an attack planned by the Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo in 1960, and the leftists excluded from the Pact initiated an armed insurgency by organizing themselves in the Armed Forces of National Liberation, sponsored by the Communist Party and Fidel Castro. In 1962 they tried to destabilize the military corps, with failed revolts in Carúpano and Puerto Cabello. At the same time, Betancourt promoted an international doctrine in which he only recognized elected governments by popular vote.{{Request quotation|date=April 2018}}As a result of the debt that Marcos Pérez Jiménez had left, an economic adjustment program was necessary in Venezuela. The Economic Recovery Plan of 1960 was formulated by Tomás Enrique Carrillo Batalla. The construction industry was revitalized through the "rediscount" of the Central Bank of Venezuela. The Economic Recovery Plan fulfilled its objectives and in 1964, Venezuela was able to return to an anchored exchange rate, with free purchase and sale of foreign currency. This system lasted until the Venezuelan Black Friday of 1983, although the model was already running out at the end of the seventies.JOURNAL,weblink La política cambiaria en Venezuela, Palma, Pedro, 2013, Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias Económicas, The consolidation of the democratic system and the dissipation of fears of political radicalization of the country contributed to normalize the demand for foreign currency, stabilizing the parallel exchange rate.For much of the period between 1950 and 1973, the Venezuelan economy was characterized by its stability and sustained strength, factors that contributed decisively to being able to maintain a fixed exchange rate without major inconveniences. In the period of Carlos Andrés Pérez (1974–1979, his first time as president), as a result of the Arab-Israeli war (the Yom Kippur war), the average price of a barrel of oil went from 3.71 to 10.53 dollars and continued to rise to exceed 29 dollars in 1981. The income of the public sector went from 18,960 million bolivars in 1973 to 45.564 million in 1974. The economic bonanza also had the characteristics of an economic bubble, but Venezuelans remember the "Ta barato, dame dos".JOURNAL,weblink El Ministerio de Obras Públicas en la Construcción de la Infraestructura para el Desarrollo (1874–1976), Cilento Sarli, Alfredo, 2015, Boletín Academia Nacional de la Ingeniería y el Hábitat, BOOK, Stambouli, Andrés, La política extraviada: Una historia de Medina a Chávez, 2009, Fundación para la Cultura Urbana, The increased inflow of funds to savings and loan entities and mortgage banks allowed an increase in the mortgage loan portfolio, which also tripled. In general, Venezuela was a prosperous country in the governments of Rómulo Betancourt (1945 â€“ {{circa|1948}}; 1959–1964), Rafael Caldera (1969–1974; 1994 â€“ {{circa|1999}}) and Carlos Andrés Pérez (1974–1979; 1989 â€“ {{circa|1993}}){{citation needed|date=August 2018}}. In 1975 the iron industry was nationalized and the following year the oil industry, creating Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA). Both Caldera and Pérez partially broke with the Betancourt Doctrine.File:Sabana Grande. Caracas. Año 1954.png|thumb|Sabana Grande district, CaracasCaracasThe election in 1973 of Carlos Andrés Pérez coincided with an oil crisis, in which Venezuela's income exploded as oil prices soared; oil industries were nationalized in 1976. This led to massive increases in public spending, but also increases in external debts, which continued into the 1980s when the collapse of oil prices during the 1980s crippled the Venezuelan economy. As the government started to devalue the currency in February 1983 to face its financial obligations, Venezuelans' real standards of living fell dramatically. A number of failed economic policies and increasing corruption in government led to rising poverty and crime, worsening social indicators, and increased political instability.JOURNAL, Schuyler, George W., The Policy Studies Organization, Health and Neoliberalism: Venezuela and Cuba, 2001, 10, During the presidency of Luis Herrera Campins (1979–1984), important infrastructure works were completed, such as the Parque Central Complex (which became the largest housing complex and the tallest towers in Latin America), Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex (the largest cultural center in South America at that time), the Brígido Iriarte Stadium and the United Nations Park. Most of these works had been previously planned. Until the mid-eighties, the Venezuelan economy showed a very positive behavior, characterized by the absence of internal or external imbalances, high economic growth, largely due to the sustained and very high gross fixed investment of those years, 10 under unemployment and great price stability. This translated into sustained increases in the average real wage and an improvement in the condition of life.File:Carlos Andrés Pérez.jpg|thumb|President Carlos Andrés Pérez was impeached on corruption charges in 1993.]]In 1983 the bolivar was devalued on Black Friday{{which|date=August 2018}}{{when|date=August 2018}}{{citation needed|date=August 2018}}, unleashing a strong economic crisis, which hit investments in the most important financial centers of the Venezuelan capital, such as Sabana Grande. In the government of Jaime Lusinchi (1984–1989), an attempt was made to solve the problem. Unfortunately, the measures failed. After a long period of accelerated economic expansion that lasts for six decades (value of the stock of homes by families), an extreme higher value is reached towards 1982. From this historical value begins then a systematic fall that mounts to 26 hundred up to 2006, and that configures a genuine unique experience in contemporary economic life.JOURNAL,weblink La Economía Venezolana Entre Siglos, Baptista, Asdrúbal, 2006, Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias Económicas, However, the economic deactivation of the country had begun to show its first signs in 1978.JOURNAL,weblink Venezuela 1984–1999: 15 años de historia (La Comisión Presidencial para la Reforma del Estado (COPRE) como mecanismo de innovación política), Conde, Edith Mabel Cuñarro, 2004, Cuestiones Políticas, 20, 33, 2018-04-08, es, 0798-1406, In the 1980s, the Presidential Commission for State Reform (COPRE) emerged as a mechanism of political innovation. Venezuela was preparing for the decentralization of its political system and the diversification of its economy, reducing the large size of the State. The COPRE operated as an innovation mechanism, also by incorporating issues into the political agenda that were generally excluded from public deliberation by the main actors of the Venezuelan democratic system. The most discussed topics were incorporated into the public agenda: decentralization, political participation, municipalization, judicial oder reforms and the role of the State in a new economic strategy. Unfortunately, the social reality of the country made the changes difficult to apply.Economic crises in the 1980s and 1990s led to a political crisis in which hundreds died in the Caracazo riots of 1989 during the presidency of Carlos Andres Pérez (1989–1993, his second time), two attempted coups d'état in 1992 (February and November) by Hugo Chávez,NEWS, Profile: Hugo Chavez,weblink 5 June 2007, BBC News, 5 December 2002, and the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez (re-elected in 1988) for corruption in 1993 and the interin presidency of Ramón José Velásquez (1993–1994). Coup leader Hugo Chávez was pardoned in March 1994 by president Rafael Caldera (1994–1999, his second time), with a clean slate and his political rights reinstated. This let him later get the presidency continuously from 1999 until his death in 2013, winning the elections of 1998, 2000, 2006 and 2012 and the presidential referendum of 2004, with the only exception in 2002 of Pedro Carmona Estanga as a two-day de facto government and Diosdado Cabello Rondón as a few-hours interim president.

Bolivarian government: 1999–present

The Bolivarian Revolution refers to a left-wing populism social movement and political process in Venezuela led by Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez, who founded the Fifth Republic Movement in 1997 and the United Socialist Party of Venezuela in 2007. The "Bolivarian Revolution" is named after Simón Bolívar, an early 19th-century Venezuelan and Latin American revolutionary leader, prominent in the Spanish American wars of independence in achieving the independence of most of northern South America from Spanish rule. According to Chávez and other supporters, the "Bolivarian Revolution" seeks to build a mass movement to implement Bolivarianism—popular democracy, economic independence, equitable distribution of revenues, and an end to political corruption—in Venezuela. They interpret Bolívar's ideas from a populist perspective, using socialist rhetoric.

Hugo Chávez: 1999–2013

File:Chavez Kirch Lula141597.jpg|thumb|Chávez with fellow South American presidents Néstor Kirchner of Argentina and Lula da Silva of Brazil]]A collapse in confidence in the existing parties led to Chávez being elected president in 1998 and the subsequent launch of a "Bolivarian Revolution", beginning with a 1999 Constituent Assembly to write a new Constitution of Venezuela. Chávez also initiated Bolivarian missions, programs aimed at helping the poor.WEB,weblink Hugo Chávez and the Future of Venezuela, In April 2002, Chávez was briefly ousted from power in the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt following popular demonstrations by his opponents,The coup installed chamber of commerce leader Pedro Carmona.NEWS,weblink Profile: Pedro Carmona, 27 May 2002, BBC, 6 February 2009, but he returned to power after two days as a result of demonstrations by poor Chávez supporters in Caracas and actions by the military.{{sfn|Cannon|2004|p=295}}{{sfn|López Maya|2005|p=16}}Chávez also remained in power after an all-out national strike that lasted from December 2002 to February 2003, including a strike/lockout in the state oil company PDVSA.WEB,weblink Minister: 2002–2003 strike cost PDVSA US$12.8bn – BNamericas, 27 July 2005, The strike produced severe economic dislocation, with the country's GDP falling 27% during the first four months of 2003, and costing the oil industry $13.3 billion.Jones, Bart (2008), Hugo! The Hugo Chávez Story From Mud Hut to Perpetual Revolution, London: The Bodley Head, p386 Capital flight before and during the strike led to the reimposition of currency controls (which had been abolished in 1989), managed by the CADIVI agency. In the subsequent decade, the government was forced into several currency devaluations."Venezuela devalues currency against US dollar". Aljazeera.com (9 February 2013). Retrieved on 20 April 2013.Cardenas, Jose R. (26 February 2013) "CARDENAS: Hugo Chavez's legacy of economic chaos". Washingtontimes.com. Retrieved on 20 April 2013."The bill for years of mismanagement is coming due". Ft.com (12 February 2013). Retrieved on 20 April 2013."Venezuela The homecoming". Economist.com (23 February 2013). Retrieved on 20 April 2013.Farzad, Roben. (15 February 2013) "Venezuela's Double-Edged Devaluation". Businessweek.com. Retrieved on 20 April 2013. These devaluations have done little to improve the situation of the Venezuelan people who rely on imported products or locally produced products that depend on imported inputs while dollar-denominated oil sales account for the vast majority of Venezuela's exports.Mander, Benedict. (10 February 2013) "Venezuelan devaluation sparks panic". Ft.com. Retrieved on 20 April 2013. According to Sebastian Boyd writing at Bloomberg News, the profits of the oil industry have been lost to "social engineering" and corruption, instead of investments needed to maintain oil production.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141009111954weblink">weblink 9 October 2014, How Venezuela Got No Dollars From $65 Billion Bond Sales, Boyd, Sebastian, 7 October 2014, www.bloomberg.com, Bloomberg L.P., 8 October 2014, live, Chávez survived several further political tests, including an August 2004 recall referendum. He was elected for another term in December 2006 and re-elected for a third term in October 2012. However, he was never sworn in for his third period, due to medical complications. Chávez died on 5 March 2013 after a nearly two-year fight with cancer.Neuman, William (5 March 2013) "Chávez Dies, Leaving Sharp Divisions in Venezuela". New York Times. The presidential election that took place on Sunday, 14 April 2013, was the first since Chávez took office in 1999 in which his name did not appear on the ballot.Venezuelan Politics and Human Rights. Venezuelablog.tumblr.com. Retrieved on 20 April 2013.

Nicolás Maduro: 2013–present

{{further|Crisis in Venezuela}}File:48ª Cúpula do Mercosul e Estados Associados - Dilma Rousseff and Nicolás Maduro.jpg|thumb|Nicolás Maduro with Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff at the 48th MercosurMercosurPoverty and inflation began to increase into the 2010s.Charlie Devereux & Raymond Colitt. 7 March 2013. WEB,weblink Venezuelans' Quality of Life Improved in UN Index Under Chavez, Bloomberg L.P., 7 March 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141107050220weblink">weblink 7 November 2014, unfit, Nicolás Maduro was elected in 2013 after the death of Chavez. Chavez picked Maduro as his successor and appointed him vice president in 2013. Maduro was elected president in a shortened election in 2013 following Chavez's death.WEB,weblink FACTBOX – Chavez's chosen successor Nicolas Maduro, Andrew Cawthorne and Mario, Naranjo, WEB,weblink Nicolás Maduro narrowly wins Venezuelan presidential election, Virginia Lopez Jonathan, Watts, 15 April 2013, www.theguardian.com, Nicolás Maduro has been the president of Venezuela since 14 April 2013, after winning the second presidential election after Chávez's death, with 50.61% of the votes against the opposition's candidate Henrique Capriles Radonski who had 49.12% of the votes. The Democratic Unity Roundtable contested his election as fraud and as a violation of the constitution. An audit of 56% of the vote showed no discrepancies,NEWS,weblink Venezuela audit confirms Nicolas Maduro electoral victory, BBC News, 12 June 2013, 18 June 2013, and the Supreme Court of Venezuela ruled that under Venezuela's Constitution, Nicolás Maduro is the legitimate president and was invested as such by the Venezuelan National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional).NEWS, Venezuelan opposition challenges Nicolás Maduro's legitimacy,weblink London, The Guardian, Rory, Carroll, Virginia, Lopez, 9 March 2013, TSJ sobre Art.233: Nicolás Maduro es presidente encargado con todas las atribuciones {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160101201851weblink |date=1 January 2016 }}. vtv.gob.ve (8 March 2013).Asamblea Nacional tomó Juramento a Nicolás Maduro como Presidente Encargado (+Video) {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141030070322weblink |date=30 October 2014 }}. vtv.gob.ve (9 March 2013) Opposition leaders and some international media consider the government of Maduro to be a dictatorship.WEB,weblink Venezuela's crumbling façade of democracy, José Miguel Vivanco, Human Rights Watch, This ruling is the end of Maduro administration's façade of democracy., 31 March 2017, NEWS,weblink It's official: Venezuela is a full-blown dictatorship, Francisco Toro, Washington Post, 21 October 2016, NEWS,weblink Venezuela's Descent Into Dictatorship, The New York Times, 31 March 2017, Beginning in February 2014, hundreds of thousands of Venezuelans have protested over high levels of criminal violence, corruption, hyperinflation, and chronic scarcity of basic goods due to policies of the federal government.NEWS, Lopez, Linette, Why The United States Has Done Nothing About Venezuela,weblink 12 April 2014, Business Insider, 11 April 2014, NEWS, Protesters in Venezuela Press Government,weblink 12 April 2014, The Wall Street Journal, 23 February 2014, Ezequiel, Minaya, Kejal, Vyas, NEWS, Venezuelans protest en masse in rival rallies,weblink 12 April 2014, Borneo Post, 24 February 2014, NEWS, Venezuela's Maduro says 2013 annual inflation was 56.2 pct,weblink 19 January 2014, Reuters, 30 December 2013, NEWS, Venezuela Inflation Hits 16-Year High as Shortages Rise,weblink 16 February 2014, Bloomberg, 7 November 2013, Anatoly, Kurmanaev, Demonstrations and riots have left over 40 fatalities in the unrest between both Chavistas and opposition protesters,NEWS,weblink Venezuela's Lopez says ready for arrest at Tuesday march, Wallis, Daniel, Chinea, Eyanir, 16 February 2014, reuters.com, Thomson Reuters, 16 February 2014, and has led to the arrest of opposition leaders including Leopoldo LópezWEB, Venezuela HRF Declares Leopoldo Lopez a Prisoner of Conscience and Calls for his Immediate Release, Human Rights Foundation,weblink and Antonio Ledezma.NEWS, Sabin, Lamiat, Mayor Antonio Ledezma arrested and dragged out of office 'like a dog' by police in Venezuela,weblink 20 February 2015, The Independent, 20 February 2015, London, WEB, Sebin detuvo al alcalde Metropolitano Antonio Ledezma,weblink El Universal, 19 February 2015, WEB, Sebin se lleva detenido al alcalde Antonio Ledezma,weblink La Patilla, 19 February 2015, WEB, Detuvieron al alcalde Antonio Ledezma,weblink El Nacional, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150220045923weblink">weblink 20 February 2015, Human rights groups have strongly condemned the arrest of Leopoldo López.WEB, Venezuela: Human rights groups reject condemnation of jailed Leopoldo Lopez as 'baseless',weblink International Business Times UK, 17 November 2015, In the 2015 Venezuelan parliamentary election, the opposition gained a majority.WEB,weblink Venezuela Seen Handing Congress to Opposition in Sunday Vote, Rosati, Andrew, Soto, Noris, 6 December 2015, Bloomberg L.P., 22 August 2016, Venezuela devalued its currency in February 2013 due to the rising shortages in the country,NEWS, Minaya, Ezequiel,weblink Venezuela Devalues Its Currency – WSJ.com, Online.wsj.com, 9 February 2013, 30 December 2013, {{paywall}} which included those of milk, flour, and other necessities. This led to an increase in malnutrition, especially among children.NEWS, Lopez, Virginia,weblink Venezuela food shortages: 'No one can explain why a rich country has no food', theguardian.com, 26 September 2013, 30 December 2013, NEWS, Let them eat Chavismo The UN honours Venezuela for curbing hunger—which is actually getting worse,weblink 22 July 2015, The Economist, 20 June 2015, Venezuela's economy had become strongly dependent on the exportation of oil with Crude accounting for 86% of exports,WEB,weblink Venezuela, 5 February 2019, Massachusetts Institute of Technology: The Observatory of Economic Complexity, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5 February 2019, and a high price per barrel to support social programs. Beginning in 2014 the price of oil plummeted from over $100/bbl to $40/bbl a year and a half later, this placed great pressure on the Venezuelan economy, which was no longer able to afford vast social programs. To counter the decrease in oil prices, the Venezuelan Government began taking more money from PDVSA, the state oil company, to meet budgets resulting in a lack of reinvestment in fields and employees. This has seen Venezuela's oil production decrease from its height of nearly 3mmbbl/d to around 1mmbbl/d.NEWS, Once a Cash Cow, Venezuela's Oil Company Now Verges on Collapse,weblink 5 February 2019, The New York Times, Semple, Kirk, Krauss, Clifford, 27 December 2017, Punto Fijo, Venezuela, NEWS,weblink Workers Flee and Thieves Loot Venezuela's Reeling Oil Giant, Neuman, William, 14 June 2018, The New York Times, 15 June 2018, Krauss, Clifford, WEB,weblink Under military rule, Venezuela oil workers quit in a stampede, Buitrago, Deisy, 17 April 2018, Reuters, 2 July 2018, WEB,weblink Maduro Wrecked Venezuela's Oil Industry, Yergin, Daniel, 4 February 2019, The Wall Street Journal, 5 February 2019, In 2014, Venezuela entered an economic recession.NEWS,weblink Pons, Corina, Cawthorne, Andrew, Recession-hit Venezuela vows New Year reforms, foes scoff, 24 March 2017, Reuters, 30 December 2014, In 2015, Venezuela had the world's highest inflation rate with the rate surpassing 100%, becoming the highest in the country's history.NEWS, Cristóbal Nagel, Juan, Looking Into the Black Box of Venezuela's Economy,weblink 14 July 2015, Foreign Policy, 13 July 2015, In 2017, Donald Trump's administration imposed more economic sanctions against Venezuela's state-owned oil company PDVSA and Venezuelan officials.NEWS, With executive order, Trump imposes new round of Venezuela sanctions,weblink USA Today, 25 August 2017, NEWS, Dollars Are Out, Euros Are In as U.S. Sanctions Sting Venezuela,weblink Bloomberg, 16 October 2018, NEWS, U.S. sanctions Venezuela officials, Trump slams Maduro,weblink Reuters, 25 September 2018, Lesley, Wroughton, Brian, Ellsworth, Economic problems, as well as crime and corruption, were some of the main causes of the 2014–present Venezuelan protests.NEWS, Venezuela's economic nightmare takes an ugly turn,weblink 28 May 2014, CNN Money, 14 March 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140528060618weblink">weblink 28 May 2014, NEWS, Garreau, Simone, Venezuelan Oil Dynamics: Why The Protests Matter,weblink 28 May 2014, Forbes, 12 May 2014, Since 2015 nearly 2 million people have fled Venezuela.NEWS, Venezuela crisis: Former UN rapporteur says US sanctions are killing citizens,weblink The Independent, 26 January 2019, In January 2016, President Maduro decreed an "economic emergency" revealing the extent of the crisis and expanding his powers.WEB,weblink Venezuela decrees 'economic emergency,' reveals depth of crisis, Cawthorne, Andrew, Ulmer, Alexandra, 15 January 2016, 16 October 2018, In July 2016, Colombian border crossings were temporarily opened to allow Venezuelans to purchase food and basic household and health items in Colombia.NEWS, Thousands Of Venezuelans Cross Into Colombia In Search Of Food And Medicine,weblink 29 July 2016, The Huffington Post, 17 July 2016, In September 2016, a study published in the Spanish-language Diario Las AméricasNEWS, Hambre en Venezuela: El 15,7% de los venezolanos se ha alimentado de residuos,weblink 9 September 2016, Diario Las Américas, 9 September 2016, indicated that 15% of Venezuelans are eating "food waste discarded by commercial establishments".Close to 200 riots had occurred in Venezuelan prisons by October 2016, according to Una Ventana a la Libertad, an advocacy group for better prison conditions. The father of an inmate at Táchira Detention Center in Caracas alleged that his son was cannibalized by other inmates during a month-long riot, a claim corroborated by an anonymous police source but denied by the Minister of Correctional Affairs.NEWS, Man claims son was eaten by fellow inmates during riot in Venezuelan prison,weblink 15 October 2016, Fox News, 14 October 2016, File:The TSJ chamber at Maduro 2019 inauguration.jpg|thumb|Maduro was inaugurated for a contested and controversial second term on 10 January 2019.]]In 2017, Venezuela experienced a constitutional crisis in the country. In March 2017, opposition leaders branded President Nicolas Maduro a dictator after the Maduro-aligned Supreme Tribunal, which had been overturning most National Assembly decisions since the opposition took control of the body, took over the functions of the assembly, pushing a lengthy political standoff to new heights.NEWS, Venezuela's Maduro decried as 'dictator' after Congress annulled,weblink 26 April 2017, Reuters, 31 March 2017, However, the Supreme Court quickly backed down and reversed its decision on 1 April 2017. A month later, President Maduro announced the 2017 Venezuelan Constituent Assembly election and on 30 August 2017, the 2017 Constituent National Assembly was elected into office and quickly stripped the National Assembly of its powers.In December 2017, President Maduro declared that leading opposition parties will be barred from taking part in next year's presidential vote after they boycotted mayoral polls.WEB,weblink Venezuela's Nicolas Maduro bans opposition parties from election, Agence, France-Presse, 11 December 2017, www.telegraph.co.uk, Maduro won the 2018 election with 67.8% of the vote. The result was challenged by countries including Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Brazil, Canada, Germany, France and the United States who deemed it fraudulent and moved to recognize Juan Guaidó as president.WEB,weblink Colombia desconocerá resultado de elecciones en Venezuela, dice Santos - LaPatilla.com, 25 January 2018, NEWS, Charner, Flora, Newton, Paula, Gallón, Natalie, 21 May 2018, Opponents slam Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro's election victory as a sham,weblink CNN, 13 November 2018, An alliance of 14 Latin American nations and Canada, known as the Lima Group, released a statement Monday calling the vote illegitimate... The alliance includes Argentina, Mexico, Canada, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Panama, Paraguay, St. Lucia, Guyana, Peru, Honduras, Guatemala and Costa Rica., NEWS, Jones, Sam, Wintour, Patrick, EU countries recognise Juan Guaidó as interim Venezuelan leader,weblink 4 February 2019, The Guardian, 4 February 2019, NEWS, Rapalo, Manuel, Mexico stays neutral in Venezuela political crisis,weblink 4 February 2019, The Guardian, 26 January 2019, Other countries including Cuba, China, Russia, Turkey, and Iran have continued to recognize Maduro as president,NEWS, Roth, Andrew, Kuo, Lily, Agren, David, Augustin, Ed, Walker, Peter, Russia and key allies vow to stand by Maduro in Venezuela crisis,weblink 25 January 2019, The Guardian, 24 January 2019, NEWS, Russia, Turkey, China denounce US interference in Venezuela,weblink 25 January 2019, Al Jazeera, 25 January 2019, although China facing financial pressure over its position has reportedly begun hedging its position by decreasing loans given, cancelling joint ventures, and signaling willingness to work with all parties.NEWS, Lau, Stuart, Self-declared leader of Venezuela Juan Guaido extends olive branch to China, wants 'productive and mutually beneficial relationship',weblink 5 February 2019, The South China Morning Post, 2 February 2019, NEWS, Page, Jeremy, China Counts the Costs of Its Big Bet on Venezuela,weblink 6 February 2019, The Wall Street Journal, subscription, 1 February 2019, NEWS, Meyer, Henry, Arkhipov, Ilya, Russia Starts to Worry Maduro's Grip Is Slipping in Venezuela,weblink 6 February 2019, The Moscow Times, 6 February 2019, NEWS, Gedan, Benjamin, China's Venezuela Policy Is Losing Popularity – in China,weblink 8 February 2019, The America's Quarterly, 27 November 2018, NEWS, Lo, Kinling, From oil to infrastructure, why China has plenty to lose from political turmoil in Venezuela,weblink A Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokeswoman denied the reports, describing them as "false information".NEWS, Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying's Regular Press Conference on February 13, 2019,weblink 14 February 2019, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China, 13 February 2019, On your second question, I believe the reports you cited were made by the Wall Street Journal. I want to point out that some media has been churning out false information lately. I wonder why it has been acting like this. We hope that it could make media coverage in an objective and unbiased way. As for the Venezuelan issue, China believes that a political solution should be sought out through dialogue and consultation., In January 2019 the Permanent Council of the Organization of American States (OAS) approved a resolution "to not recognize the legitimacy of Nicolas Maduro's new term as of the 10th of January of 2019."WEB,weblink OAS – Organization of American States: Democracy for peace, security, and development, OAS, 10 January 2019, www.oas.org, en,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190124053630weblink">weblink 24 January 2019, live, 2019-01-24, In August 2019, United States President Donald Trump signed an executive order to impose a total economic embargo against Venezuela.WEB,weblink Trump announces total economic embargo against Venezuela, Paul LeBlanc, CNN, CNN,

Geography

(File:Venezuela Topography.png|290px|thumb|Topographic map of Venezuela)Venezuela is located in the north of South America; geologically, its mainland rests on the South American Plate. It has a total area of {{convert|916445|km2|abbr=on}} and a land area of {{convert|882050|km2|abbr=on}}, making Venezuela the 33rd largest country in the world. The territory it controls lies between latitudes 0° and 13°N and longitudes 59° and 74°W.Shaped roughly like a triangle, the country has a {{convert|2800|km|abbr=on|adj=on}} coastline in the north, which includes numerous islands in the Caribbean and the northeast borders the northern Atlantic Ocean. Most observers describe Venezuela in terms of four fairly well defined topographical regions: the Maracaibo lowlands in the northwest, the northern mountains extending in a broad east-west arc from the Colombian border along the northern Caribbean coast, the wide plains in central Venezuela, and the Guiana Highlands in the southeast.The northern mountains are the extreme northeastern extensions of South America's Andes mountain range. Pico Bolívar, the nation's highest point at {{convert|4979|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}, lies in this region. To the south, the dissected Guiana Highlands contain the northern fringes of the Amazon Basin and Angel Falls, the world's highest waterfall, as well as tepuis, large table-like mountains. The country's center is characterized by the llanos, which are extensive plains that stretch from the Colombian border in the far west to the Orinoco River delta in the east. The Orinoco, with its rich alluvial soils, binds the largest and most important river system of the country; it originates in one of the largest watersheds in Latin America. The Caroní and the Apure are other major rivers.Venezuela borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south. Caribbean islands such as Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, Curaçao, Aruba, and the Leeward Antilles lie near the Venezuelan coast. Venezuela has territorial disputes with Guyana, formerly United Kingdom, largely concerning the Essequibo area and with Colombia concerning the Gulf of Venezuela. In 1895, after years of diplomatic attempts to solve the border dispute, the dispute over the Essequibo River border flared up. It was submitted to a "neutral" commission (composed of British, American, and Russian representatives and without a direct Venezuelan representative), which in 1899 decided mostly against Venezuela's claim.WEB,weblink Venezuela Boundary Dispute, 1895–1899, www.globalsecurity.org, Venezuela's most significant natural resources are petroleum and natural gas, iron ore, gold, and other minerals. It also has large areas of arable land and water.File:Kukenan Roraima GS.jpg|thumb|upright=3.2|center|{{center|View of the tepuis, Kukenan and Roraima, in the Gran Sabana. (Canaima National Park]]. Tepuis are among the attractions of the park, these mountains are among the oldest exposed formations on the planet.{{citation|url=http://www.parkswatch.org/parkprofiles/pdf/cenp_eng.pdf|author=Parks Watch|title=Venezuela Canaima National Park|date=December 2004}}}})

Climate

(File:Venezuela Köppen.png|thumb|Venezuela map of Köppen climate classification)(File:ClimateZones_Venezuela.png|thumb|Venezuelan climatic types, according to their thermal floors)Venezuela is entirely located in the tropics over the Equator to around 12° N. Its climate varies from humid low-elevation plains, where average annual temperatures range as high as {{convert|35|°C|°F|1}}, to glaciers and highlands (the páramos) with an average yearly temperature of {{convert|8|°C|°F|1}}. Annual rainfall varies from {{convert|430|mm|in|1|abbr=on}} in the semiarid portions of the northwest to over {{convert|1000|mm|in|1|abbr=on}} in the Orinoco Delta of the far east and the Amazonian Jungle in the south. The precipitation level is lower in the period from August through April. These periods are referred to as hot-humid and cold-dry seasons. Another characteristic of the climate is this variation throughout the country by the existence of a mountain range called "Cordillera de la Costa" which crosses the country from east to west. The majority of the population lives in these mountains.WEB,weblink Country Profile: Venezuela, 2005, Library of Congress (Federal Research Division), 10 March 2007, The country falls into four horizontal temperature zones based primarily on elevation, having tropical, dry, temperate with dry winters, and polar (alpine tundra) climates, amongst others.{{sfn|Warhol|2006|p=65}}WEB, 2009,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060303153257weblink">weblink 3 March 2006, Gobierno en Línea: Geografía, Clima, gobiernoenlinea.ve, 27 January 2009, WEB,weblink The Alpine Biome, 19 December 2009, marietta.edu, In the tropical zone—below {{convert|800|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}—temperatures are hot, with yearly averages ranging between {{convert|26|and|28|°C|°F|1}}. The temperate zone ranges between {{convert|800|and|2000|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} with averages from {{convert|12|to|25|°C|°F|1}}; many of Venezuela's cities, including the capital, lie in this region. Colder conditions with temperatures from {{convert|9|to|11|°C|°F|1}} are found in the cool zone between {{convert|2000|and|3000|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}, especially in the Venezuelan Andes, where pastureland and permanent snowfield with yearly averages below {{convert|8|°C}} cover land above {{convert|3000|m|ft|0|sp=us}} in the páramos.The highest temperature recorded was {{convert|42|°C}} in Machiques,WEB, Extreme High Temperature in Venezuela,weblink wunderground, 16 October 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140920031041weblink">weblink 20 September 2014, and the lowest temperature recorded was {{convert|-11|°C}}, it has been reported from an uninhabited high altitude at Páramo de Piedras Blancas (Mérida state),WEB, Extreme Low Temp in Venezuela,weblink Wunderground, 16 October 2012, NOTE: Pass the cursor over the subrayed record to see the source of this. "This location is probably uninhabited, but is close to the town of San Isidro de Apartaderos. {{convert, -11, °C, °F, on, has been reported from an uninhabited high altitude at Páramo de Piedras Blancas, Mérida state."|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130706064537weblink|archivedate=6 July 2013}} even though no official reports exist, lower temperatures in the mountains of the Sierra Nevada de Mérida are known.

Biodiversity

File:Mapa de regiones naturales (Venezuela).png|thumb|Map of Natural regions of VenezuelaNatural regions of VenezuelaFile:Indio Wahari - Autana.jpg|thumb|The Amazon of Venezuela and in the background the Autana Tepui]]File:Angel falls in Venezuela 001.JPG|thumb|Ángel Falls, the world's highest uninterrupted waterfall, in Canaima National ParkCanaima National ParkVenezuela lies within the Neotropic ecozone; large portions of the country were originally covered by moist broadleaf forests. One of 17 megadiverse countries,NEWS, South America Banks on Regional Strategy to Safeguard Quarter of Earth's Biodiversity,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20031004032107weblink">weblink 4 October 2003, Conservation International, 16 September 2003, Venezuela's habitats range from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon Basin rainforest in the south, via extensive llanos plains and Caribbean coast in the center and the Orinoco River Delta in the east. They include xeric scrublands in the extreme northwest and coastal mangrove forests in the northeast. Its cloud forests and lowland rainforests are particularly rich.{{sfn|Dydynski|Beech|2004|p=42}}Animals of Venezuela are diverse and include manatees, three-toed sloth, two-toed sloth, Amazon river dolphins, and Orinoco crocodiles, which have been reported to reach up to {{convert|6.6|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} in length. Venezuela hosts a total of 1,417 bird species, 48 of which are endemic.WEB, Lepage, Denis,weblink Checklist of birds of Venezuela, Bird Checklists of the World, Avibase, 4 May 2007, Important birds include ibises, ospreys, kingfishers,{{sfn|Dydynski|Beech|2004|p=42}} and the yellow-orange Venezuelan troupial, the national bird. Notable mammals include the giant anteater, jaguar, and the capybara, the world's largest rodent. More than half of Venezuelan avian and mammalian species are found in the Amazonian forests south of the Orinoco.JOURNAL, Bevilacqua, M, Cardenas, L, Flores, AL, 2002, State of Venezuela's forests: A case study of the Guayana Region, World Resources Institute,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090215051848weblink">weblink 15 February 2009, 10 March 2007, etal, dead, For the fungi, an account was provided by R.W.G. DennisDennis, R.W.G. "Fungus Flora of Venezuela and Adjacent Countries". Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1970 which has been digitized and the records made available on-line as part of the Cybertruffle Robigalia database.WEB,weblink Cybertruffle's Robigalia – Observations of fungi and their associated organisms, cybertruffle.org.uk, 9 July 2011, That database includes nearly 3,900 species of fungi recorded from Venezuela, but is far from complete, and the true total number of fungal species already known from Venezuela is likely higher, given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7% of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered.{{sfn|"Georgia Country Study Guide Volume 1 Strategic Information and Developments"|2013|p=36}}Among plants of Venezuela, over 25,000 species of orchids are found in the country's cloud forest and lowland rainforest ecosystems.{{sfn|Dydynski|Beech|2004|p=42}} These include the flor de mayo orchid (Cattleya mossiae), the national flower. Venezuela's national tree is the araguaney, whose characteristic lushness after the rainy season led novelist Rómulo Gallegos to name it "[l]a primavera de oro de los araguaneyes" (the golden spring of the araguaneyes). The tops of the tepuis are also home to several carnivorous plants including the marsh pitcher plant, Heliamphora, and the insectivorous bromeliad, Brocchinia reducta.Venezuela is among the top 20 countries in terms of endemism.WEB, Venezuela: Overview, Global Forest Watch,weblink 10 March 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061208045046weblink">weblink 8 December 2006, Among its animals, 23% of reptilian and 50% of amphibian species are endemic. Although the available information is still very small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to Venezuela: 1334 species of fungi have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the country.WEB,weblink Fungi of Venezuela – potential endemics, cybertruffle.org.uk, 9 July 2011, Some 38% of the over 21,000 plant species known from Venezuela are unique to the country.

Environment

{{See also|Environmental issues in Venezuela}}File:Pôr do sol no Monte Roraima.jpg|Tepui shrublands is an ecosystem that is considered almost endemic to Venezuela and currently classified Least Concern (LC) according to the weblink 10 September 2018, ">thumbVenezuela is one of the 10 most biodiverse countries on the planet, yet it is one of the leaders of deforestation due to economic and political factors. Each year, roughly 287,600 hectares of forest are permanently destroyed and other areas are degraded by mining, oil extraction, and logging. Between 1990 and 2005, Venezuela officially lost 8.3% of its forest cover, which is about 4.3 million ha. In response, federal protections for critical habitat were implemented; for example, 20% to 33% of forested land is protected. The country's biosphere reserve is part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.WEB, Peck, D, 2000, The Annotated Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance: Venezuela, The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Ramsar Convention Secretariat,weblink 10 March 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070211110943weblink">weblink 11 February 2007, In 2003, 70% of the nation's land was under conservation management in over 200 protected areas, including 43 national parks.WEB, Biodiversity and Protected Areas—Venezuela, World Resources Institute, EarthTrends Country Profiles,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070703053321weblink">weblink 3 July 2007, 2003, 10 March 2007, Venezuela's 43 national parks include Canaima National Park, Morrocoy National Park, and Mochima National Park. In the far south is a reserve for the country's Yanomami tribes. Covering {{convert|32,000|sqmi|km2|0|abbr=off}}, the area is off-limits to farmers, miners, and all non-Yanomami settlers.Venezuela was one of the few countries that didn't enter an INDC at COP21.Carbon Markets Are Making a Slow, But Steady, Comeback. Bloomberg (8 December 2015). Retrieved on 15 June 2016.INDC – Submissions. .unfccc.int. Retrieved on 15 June 2016. Many terrestrial ecosystems are considered endangered, specially the dry forest in the northern regions of the country and the coral reefs in the Caribbean coast.JOURNAL, Keith, DA, Rodríguez, J.P., Rodríguez-Clark, K.M., Aapala, K., Alonso, A. first6=M.first7=S. first8=A. first9=E.G. first10=J.S. first11=M.J. first12=R.first13=T.M. first14=M.A.first15=P.first16=F.A. first17=F. first18=D.first19=P.G. first20=R.J.first21=M.first22=R.T.first23=R.E. first24=R. first25=M.A.first26=J.first27=E.first28=M.A.first29=P.first30=B. first31=U. first32=M.D.first33=S.journal=PLOS ONEvolume=8page=e62111pmid=23667454url=https://iucnrle.org/resources/key-documents/WEBSITE=UCN RED LIST OF ECOSYSTEMS ACCESSDATE=22 SEPTEMBER 2018, RODRíGUEZ>FIRST1=J. P.FIRST2=J. M.FIRST3=K. M.FIRST4=I.FIRST5=C. A.FIRST6=F.FIRST7=S.JOURNAL=ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATIONISSUE=4PAGES=311DOI=10.1017/S0376892908005237,

Government and politics

File:PalacioLegislativo2 fixed.jpg|thumb|National Assembly of Venezuela building ]]Following the fall of Marcos Pérez Jiménez in 1958, Venezuelan politics were dominated by the Third Way Christian democratic COPEI and the center-left social democratic Democratic Action (AD) parties; this two-party system was formalized by the puntofijismo arrangement. Economic crises in the 1980s and 1990s led to a political crisis which resulted in hundreds dead in the Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, and impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for corruption in 1993. A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of Hugo Chávez, who had led the first of the 1992 coup attempts, and the launch of a "Bolivarian Revolution", beginning with a 1999 Constituent Assembly to write a new Constitution of Venezuela.The opposition's attempts to unseat Chávez included the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt, the Venezuelan general strike of 2002–2003, and the Venezuelan recall referendum, 2004, all of which failed. Chávez was re-elected in December 2006 but suffered a significant defeat in 2007 with the narrow rejection of the 2007 Venezuelan constitutional referendum, which had offered two packages of constitutional reforms aimed at deepening the Bolivarian Revolution.Two major blocs of political parties are in Venezuela: the incumbent leftist bloc United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV), its major allies Fatherland for All (PPT) and the Communist Party of Venezuela (PCV), and the opposition bloc grouped into the electoral coalition Mesa de la Unidad Democrática. This includes A New Era (UNT) together with allied parties Project Venezuela, Justice First, Movement for Socialism (MAS) and others. Hugo Chávez, the central figure of the Venezuelan political landscape since his election to the presidency in 1998 as a political outsider, died in office in early 2013, and was succeeded by Nicolás Maduro (initially as interim president, before narrowly winning the 2013 Venezuelan presidential election).The Venezuelan president is elected by a vote, with direct and universal suffrage, and is both head of state and head of government. The term of office is six years, and (as of 15 February 2009) a president may be re-elected an unlimited number of times. The president appoints the vice president and decides the size and composition of the cabinet and makes appointments to it with the involvement of the legislature. The president can ask the legislature to reconsider portions of laws he finds objectionable, but a simple parliamentary majority can override these objections.The president may ask the National Assembly to pass an enabling act granting the ability to rule by decree in specified policy areas; this requires a two-thirds majority in the Assembly. Since 1959, six Venezuelan presidents have been granted such powers.The unicameral Venezuelan parliament is the Asamblea Nacional ("National Assembly"). The number of members is variable – each state and the Capital district elect three representatives plus the result of dividing the state population by 1.1% of the total population of the country.WEB, Ley Orgánica de Procesos Electorales,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100929053531weblink">weblink 29 September 2010, Consejo Nacional Electoral, 4 April 2011, es, Three seats are reserved for representatives of Venezuela's indigenous peoples. For the 2011–2016 period the number of seats is 165.WEB, Dos mil 719 candidatos se disputarán los curules de la Asamblea Nacional,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510075036weblink">weblink 10 May 2011, Venezolana de Televisión, 4 April 2011, 10 June 2010, es, All deputies serve five-year terms.The voting age in Venezuela is 18 and older. Voting is not compulsory.NEWS, The Guardian, Compulsory voting around the world, 4 July 2005,weblink 10 March 2007, London, Elliot, Frankal, The legal system of Venezuela belongs to the Continental Law tradition. The highest judicial body is the Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia, whose magistrates are elected by parliament for a single two-year term. The National Electoral Council (Consejo Nacional Electoral, or CNE) is in charge of electoral processes; it is formed by five main directors elected by the National Assembly. Supreme Court president Luisa Estela Morales said in December 2009 that Venezuela had moved away from "a rigid division of powers" toward a system characterized by "intense coordination" between the branches of government. Morales clarified that each power must be independent adding that "one thing is separation of powers and another one is division".WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100325094828weblink">weblink 25 March 2010, Luisa Estela Morales afirma que la división de poderes debilita al Estado, 5 December 2009, El Informador, 16 January 2010, es,

Suspension of constitutional rights

File:Venezuela protests against the Nicolas Maduro government, Altamira Square 6.JPG|thumb|Protests in Altamira (2014)]]The 2015 parliamentary elections were held on 6 December 2015 to elect the 164 deputies and three indigenous representatives of the National Assembly. In 2014, a series of protest and demonstrations began in Venezuela, attributed{{by whom|date=May 2019}} to inflation, violence and shortages in Venezuela. The government has accused the protest of being motivated by fascists, opposition leaders, capitalism and foreign influence,NEWS, Milne, Seumas, Venezuela protests are sign that US wants our oil, says Nicolás Maduro,weblink The Guardian, 9 April 2015, despite being largely peaceful.NEWS, Protestas aumentan 278% en primer semestre 2014,weblink 9 April 2015, La Patilla, 17 July 2014, Spanish, President Maduro acknowledged PSUV defeat, but attributed the opposition's victory to an intensification of an economic war. Despite this, Maduro said "I will stop by hook or by crook the opposition coming to power, whatever the costs, in any way".WEB, Nicolás Maduro: 'Impediré por las buenas o por las malas que la oposición llegue al poder',weblink La Prensa, La Prensa, 14 May 2016, Spanish, In the following months, Maduro fulfilled his promise of preventing the democratically and constitutionally elected National Assembly from legislating. The first steps taken by PSUV and government were the substitution of the entire Supreme Court a day after the Parliamentary ElectionsWEB, La designación de magistrados del TSJ por la AN. ¿Fraude Constitucional?,weblink ProDavinci, 14 May 2016, contrary to the Constitution of Venezuela, acclaimed as a fraud by the majority of the Venezuelan and international press.WEB, Designaciones de magistrados son un fraude a la Constitución,weblink La razón, Spanish, WEB, Designación de magistrados obvió fase de impugnación,weblink El Nacional, Spanish, WEB, Por qué importan tanto los magistrados que designó el chavismo en Venezuela,weblink BBC, Spanish, WEB, Designación de magistrados del TSJ en Vzla es un "flagrante fraude" a la Constitución,weblink NTN24, 14 May 2016, Spanish, The Financial Times described the function of the Supreme Court in Venezuela as "rubber stamping executive whims and vetoing legislation".WEB,weblink Venezuela's broken system, Lansberg-Rodriguez, Daniel, 2017-04-24, The Financial Times, 11, en-GB, 2017-04-24, The PSUV government used this violation to suspend several elected opponents,WEB, El Supremo suspende la proclamación de tres diputados opositores y uno chavista,weblink elmundo.es, Unidad Editorial, Spanish, ignoring again the Constitution of Venezuela. Maduro said that "the Amnesty law (approved by the Parliament) will not be executed" and asked the Supreme Court to declare it unconstitutional before the law was known.WEB, Maduro pide al TSJ declarar "inconstitucional" la Ley de Amnistía,weblink El Estímulo, Spanish, On 16 January 2016, Maduro approved an unconstitutional economic emergency decree,WEB, Decreto de emergencia económica no puede pasar del 12 de mayo,weblink El Nacional, 14 May 2016, Spanish, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160610160317weblink">weblink 10 June 2016, relegating to his own figure the legislative and executive powers, while also holding judiciary power through the fraudulent designation of judges the day after the election on 6 December 2015. From these events, Maduro effectively controls all three branches of government. On 14 May 2016, constitutional guarantees were in fact suspended when Maduro decreed the extension of the economic emergency decree for another 60 days and declared a State of Emergency,WEB, Nicolás Maduro decreta un nuevo Estado de Excepción y de Emergencia Económica en Venezuela,weblink BBC, 14 May 2016, Spanish, which is a clear violation of the Constitution of VenezuelaWEB, Prorroga del Decreto Emergencia Económica es inconstitucional,weblink El Nuevo País, 14 May 2016, Spanish, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160605124340weblink">weblink 5 June 2016, in the Article 338th: "The approval of the extension of States of emergency corresponds to the National Assembly." Thus, constitutional rights in Venezuela are considered suspended in fact by many publicationsWEB, La ruptura democrática de Venezuela,weblink RunRunes, 15 May 2016, Spanish, WEB, La dictadura venezolana invitó al podemita que irá a la cárcel por pegar a un socialista,weblink OK Diario, 15 May 2016, Spanish, WEB, La dictadura venezolana reafirma su naturaleza,weblink Eju.tv, 15 May 2016, Spanish, and public figures.WEB, Expresidentes denuncian ruptura del orden constitucional y democrático en Venezuela,weblink Venezuela al día, 15 May 2016, Spanish, WEB, Almagro insiste en aplicar Carta Democrática contra Venezuela,weblink TeleSur, Spanish, WEB, Opositores denuncian "ruptura del orden constitucional" en Venezuela,weblink El País, 15 May 2016, Spanish, WEB, Venezuela es una dictadura que no representa la división de poderes,weblink El Salvador, 15 May 2016, Spanish, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160530153407weblink">weblink 30 May 2016, On 14 May 2016, the Organization of American States was considering the application of the Inter-American Democratic CharterWEB, Jefe de la OEA estudia invocar Carta Democrática por Venezuela,weblink La Prensa, 15 May 2016, Spanish, sanctions for non-compliance to its own constitution.In March 2017, the Venezuelan Supreme Court took over law making powers from the National AssemblyNEWS,weblink Venezuela 'coup': Alarm grows as court takes power, 2017-03-31, BBC News, 2017-03-31, en-GB, but reversed its decision the following day.NEWS,weblink Venezuela: Supreme court backtracks on powers bid, 2017-04-01, BBC News, 2017-04-01, en-GB,

Foreign relations

File:Guayana_Esequiba_(zona_completa).png|thumb|The Guayana Esequiba claim area is a territory administered by GuyanaGuyanaThroughout most of the 20th century, Venezuela maintained friendly relations with most Latin American and Western nations. Relations between Venezuela and the United States government worsened in 2002, after the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt during which the U.S. government recognized the short-lived interim presidency of Pedro Carmona. In 2015, Venezuela was declared a national security threat by U.S. president Barack Obama.NEWS,weblink U.S. declares Venezuela a national security threat, sanctions top officials, Reuters, 26 April 2015, 9 March 2015, WEB,weblink Latin American Herald Tribune – US Announces New Executive Order Sanctions on Venezuela – Declares "National Emergency", 26 April 2015, WEB,weblink Amid deteriorating relations, Washington turns screws on Venezuela, miamiherald, 26 April 2015, Correspondingly, ties to various Latin American and Middle Eastern countries not allied to the U.S. have strengthened. For example, Palestinian foreign minister Riyad al-Maliki declared in 2015 that Venezuela was his country's "most important ally".WEB, Investing Today In An Equitable Future,weblink morningstaronline.co.uk, 28 May 2015, 29 May 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150529114639weblink">weblink 29 May 2015, dead, dmy-all, File:XIV cumbre del ALBA-TCP.jpg|thumb|President Maduro among other Latin American leaders participating in a 2017 ALBAALBAVenezuela seeks alternative hemispheric integration via such proposals as the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas trade proposal and the newly launched pan-Latin American television network teleSUR. Venezuela is one of five nations in the world—along with Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, and Syria—to have recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Venezuela was a proponent of OAS's decision to adopt its Anti-Corruption ConventionBOOK, Political Risk Yearbook: South America,weblink 1999, Frost & Sullivan, 34, Venezuela worked closely with its neighbors following the 1997 Summit of the Americas in many areas—particularly energy integration—and championed the OAS decision to adopt an Anti-Corruption Convention., and is actively working in the Mercosur trade bloc to push increased trade and energy integration. Globally, it seeks a "multi-polar" world based on strengthened ties among undeveloped countries.On 26 April 2017, Venezuela announced its intention to withdraw from the OAS.NEWS,weblink Venezuela to withdraw from OAS as deadly protests continue, 2017-04-27, BBC News, 2017-04-27, en-GB, Venezuelan Foreign Minister Delcy Rodríguez said that President Nicolás Maduro plans to publicly renounce Venezuela's membership on 27 April 2017. It will take two years for the country to formally leave. During this period, the country does not plan on participating in the OAS.WEB,weblink Venezuela says it will quit Organization of American States, Washington Post, 2017-04-27, Venezuela is involved in a long-standing disagreement about the control of the Guayana Esequiba area.

Military

{{See also|National Bolivarian Armed Forces of Venezuela}}File:Venezuelan Air Force Sukhoi SU-30MK2 AADPR-2.jpg|thumb|A Sukhoi SU-30MKV of the Venezuelan Air Force]]The Bolivarian National Armed Forces of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Fuerza Armada Nacional Bolivariana, FANB) are the overall unified military forces of Venezuela. It includes over 320,150 men and women, under Article 328 of the Constitution, in 5 components of Ground, Sea and Air. The components of the Bolivarian National Armed Forces are: the Venezuelan Army, the Venezuelan Navy, the Venezuelan Air Force, the Venezuelan National Guard, and the Venezuelan National Militia.{{As of|2008}}, a further 600,000 soldiers were incorporated into a new branch, known as the Armed Reserve. The president of Venezuela is the commander-in-chief of the national armed forces. The main roles of the armed forces are to defend the sovereign national territory of Venezuela, airspace, and islands, fight against drug trafficking, to search and rescue and, in the case of a natural disaster, civil protection. All male citizens of Venezuela have a constitutional duty to register for the military service at the age of 18, which is the age of majority in Venezuela.

Law and crime

{{Multiple image|direction=vertical|width=350|align=right|image1=1998 to 2013 Venezuela Murder Rate.png|image2=Number of kidnappings in Venezuela 1989 to present (Presidents).png|caption1=Murder rate (murder per 100,000 citizens) from 1998 to 2015.Sources: OVV,WEB, Observatorio Venezolano de Violencia,weblink Observatorio Venezolano de Violencia, 16 December 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141216122638weblink">weblink 16 December 2014, NEWS, Rueda, Manuel, How Did Venezuela Become So Violent?n,weblink 16 December 2014, Fusion TV, 8 January 2014, PROVEA,WEB, GLOBAL STUDY ON HOMICIDE 2011,weblink UNODC, 16 December 2014, WEB, GLOBAL STUDY ON HOMICIDE 2014,weblink UNODC, 16 December 2014, UNNEWS, Global homicide rates drop, but nearly 500,000 murdered in 2012,weblink 16 December 2014, Agence France-Presse, 10 December 2014, * UN line between 2007 and 2012 is simulated missing data.|caption2=Number of kidnappings in Venezuela 1989–2011Source: CICPCWEB,weblink SeguridadPúblicayPrivada VenezuelayBolivia, Oas.org, 30 March 2015, WEB,weblink Venezuela: Gravísima Crisis de Seguridad Pública by Lexys Rendon, ISSUU.com, 30 March 2015, WEB,weblink Según el Cicpc el 2011 cerró con 1.150 secuestros en todo el país – Sucesos, Eluniversal.com, 4 January 2012, 2015-03-30,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120108102223weblink">weblink 8 January 2012, live, * Express kidnappings may not be included in data}}In Venezuela, a person is murdered every 21 minutes.NEWS, Castillo, Mariano, Beauty queen's killers nabbed, Venezuela says,weblink 10 January 2014, CNN, 9 January 2014, Violent crimes have been so prevalent in Venezuela that the government no longer produces the crime data.NEWS, Gallegos, Raul, Miss Venezuela's Murder Is the Price of Politics,weblink 10 January 2014, Bloomberg L.P., 10 January 2014, In 2013, the homicide rate was approximately 79 per 100,000, one of the world's highest, having quadrupled in the past 15 years with over 200,000 people murdered.WEB, Rueda, Manuel, How Did Venezuela Become So Violent?,weblink Fusion, 10 January 2014, By 2015, it had risen to 90 per 100,000.NEWS,weblink Venezuela's decline fuelled by plunging oil prices, Davies, Wyre, 20 February 2016, 20 February 2016, BBC News, Latin America, The country's body count of the previous decade mimics that of the Iraq War and in some instances had more civilian deaths even though the country is at peacetime.NEWS, Romero, Simon, Venezuela, More Deadly Than Iraq, Wonders Why,weblink 10 January 2014, New York Times, 22 August 2010, The capital Caracas has one of the greatest homicide rates of any large city in the world, with 122 homicides per 100,000 residents.WEB, Venezuela Country Specific Information,weblink United States Department of State, 10 January 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140111012601weblink">weblink 11 January 2014, In 2008, polls indicated that crime was the number one concern of voters.NEWS,weblink Crime threatens Chavez vote in Venezuela slums | Reuters, Uk.reuters.com, 14 November 2008, 25 April 2010, Attempts at fighting crime such as Operation Liberation of the People were implemented to crack down on gang-controlled areasNEWS,weblink Fox News, 14 Killed in Caracas anti-crime operation, 13 July 2015, but, of reported criminal acts, less than 2% are prosecuted.WEB,weblink Venezuela, A Failing State, Finnegan, William, 2016-11-14, The New Yorker, 2017-01-07, In 2017, the Financial Times noted that some of the arms procured by the government over the previous two decades had been diverted to paramilitary civilian groups and criminal syndicates.Venezuela is especially dangerous toward foreign travelers and investors who are visiting. The United States Department of State and the Government of Canada have warned foreign visitors that they may be subjected to robbery, kidnapping for a ransom or sale to terrorist organizationsWEB,weblink Venezuela, United States Department of State, 30 June 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150703175448weblink">weblink 3 July 2015, and murder, and that their own diplomatic travelers are required to travel in armored vehicles.WEB, Venezuela Travel Warning,weblink United States Department of State, 9 February 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140130073159weblink">weblink 30 January 2014, WEB, Venezuela,weblink Government of Canada, 9 February 2014, The United Kingdom's Foreign and Commonwealth Office has advised against all travel to Venezuela.NEWS, FCO travel advice mapped: the world according to Britain's diplomats,weblink The Guardian, Visitors have been murdered during robberies and criminals do not discriminate among their victims. Former Miss Venezuela 2004 winner Mónica Spear and her ex-husband were murdered and their 5-year-old daughter was shot while vacationing in Venezuela, and an elderly German tourist was murdered only a few weeks later.NEWS, Venezuelan Soap Star Monica Spear Slain with Ex-Husband,weblink 8 January 2014, NBC News, 7 February 2014, NEWS, German tourist, 76, shot dead on Venezuelan island,weblink 9 February 2014, Reuters, 7 February 2014, Andrew, Cawthorne, There are approximately 33 prisons holding about 50,000 inmates.NEWS,weblink 20 killed in Venezuelan prison violence, CNN.com, 25 November 2012, They include; El Rodeo outside of Caracas, Yare Prison in the northern state of Miranda, and several others. Venezuela's prison system is heavily overcrowded; its facilities have capacity for only 14,000 prisoners.NEWS, Silverstein, Amy, Venezuela prison riot kills 20,weblink 21 August 2012, Global Post, 20 August 2012,

Corruption

Corruption in Venezuela is high by world standards and was so for much of the 20th century. The discovery of oil had worsened political corruption,McBeth 2002, p. 17. "From 1917, greater awareness of the country's oil potential had the pernicious effect of increasing the corruption and intrigue amongst Gomez's family and entourage, the consequences of which would be felt up to 1935." and by the late 1970s, Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonso's description of oil as "the Devil's excrement" had become a common expression in Venezuela.Coronil 1988, p. 353. "The perception of petroleum as the cause of Venezuela's corruption had become widespread during this period." Venezuela has been ranked one of the most corrupt countries on the Corruption Perceptions Index since the survey started in 1995. The 2010 ranking placed Venezuela at number 164, out of 178 ranked countries in government transparency.The truth of Pdval {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130514111928weblink |date=14 May 2013 }}, El Universal, 21 January 2011. By 2016, the rank had increased to 166 out of 178.WEB,weblink Transparency International – Venezuela, Transparency International, e.V., www.transparency.org, Similarly, the World Justice Project ranked Venezuela 99th out of 99 countries surveyed in its 2014 Rule of Law Index.WEB,weblink WJP Rule of Law Index™ 2014, 26 April 2015, This corruption is shown with Venezuela's significant involvement in drug trafficking, with Colombian cocaine and other drugs transiting Venezuela towards the United States and Europe. Venezuela ranks fourth in the world for cocaine seizures, behind Colombia, the United States, and Panama.United Nations, World Drug Report 2010 Statistical Annex: Drug seizures In 2006, the government's agency for combating the Illegal drug trade in Venezuela, ONA, was incorporated into the office of the vice-president of the country. However, many major government and military officials have been known for their involvement with drug trafficking; especially with the October 2013 incident of men from the Venezuelan National Guard placing 1.3 tons of cocaine on a Paris flight knowing they will not face charges.NEWS, Venezuela: Where The Mafia And The Military Come Together,weblink 9 February 2014, Fox News, 7 February 2014,

States and regions of Venezuela

{{Political subdivisions of Venezuela}}Venezuela is divided into 23 states (estados), a capital district (distrito capital) corresponding to the city of Caracas, and the Federal Dependencies (Dependencias Federales, a special territory). Venezuela is further subdivided into 335 municipalities (municipios); these are subdivided into over one thousand parishes (parroquias). The states are grouped into nine administrative regions (regiones administrativas), which were established in 1969 by presidential decree.The country can be further divided into ten geographical areas, some corresponding to climatic and biogeographical regions. In the north are the Venezuelan Andes and the Coro region, a mountainous tract in the northwest, holds several sierras and valleys. East of it are lowlands abutting Lake Maracaibo and the Gulf of Venezuela.The Central Range runs parallel to the coast and includes the hills surrounding Caracas; the Eastern Range, separated from the Central Range by the Gulf of Cariaco, covers all of Sucre and northern Monagas. The Insular Region includes all of Venezuela's island possessions: Nueva Esparta and the various Federal Dependencies. The Orinoco Delta, which forms a triangle covering Delta Amacuro, projects northeast into the Atlantic Ocean.

Largest cities

{{Largest cities of Venezuela}}

Largest metropolitan areas

Economy

(File:Venezuela Export Treemap.png|thumb|Graphical depiction of Venezuela's product exports in 28 color-coded categories)The Central Bank of Venezuela is responsible for developing monetary policy for the Venezuelan bolívar which is used as currency. The president of the Central Bank of Venezuela serves as the country's representative in the International Monetary Fund. The U.S.-based conservative think tank The Heritage Foundation, cited in The Wall Street Journal, claims Venezuela has the weakest property rights in the world, scoring only 5.0 on a scale of 100; expropriation without compensation is not uncommon. Venezuela has a mixed economy dominated by the petroleum sector,The Economy Of Venezuela. World Atlas. which accounts for roughly a third of GDP, around 80% of exports, and more than half of government revenues. Per capita GDP for 2016 was estimated to be US$15,100, ranking 109th in the world. Venezuela has the least expensive petrol in the world because the consumer price of petrol is heavily subsidized.{{Image frame|align=right|width=350|caption=Annual variation of real GDP according to the Central Bank of Venezuela (2016 preliminary)WEB,weblink Resultados del Índice Nacional de Precios Al Consumidor, Producto Interno Bruto y Balanza de Pagos Cuarto Trimestre De 2015, 18 February 2016, es, BCV, 19 March 2017, WEB,weblink UPDATE 1-Venezuela 2016 inflation hits 800 pct, GDP contracts nearly 19 pct, Corina Pons, 20 January 2017, 14 May 2017, REUTERS, |content={{Graph:Chart|width=300|height=230|xAxisTitle=|yAxisTitle=|type=rect|x=2008 , 2009 , 2010 , 2011 , 2012 , 2013 , 2014 , 2015, 2016 |y=5.3,-3.2,-1.5,4.2,5.6,1.3,-3.9,-5.7,-18.6|showValues=offset:3,fontcolor:black}}}}As of 2011, more than 60% of Venezuela's international reserves was in gold, eight times more than the average for the region. Most of Venezuela's gold held abroad was located in London. On 25 November 2011, the first of US$11 billion of repatriated gold bullion arrived in Caracas; Chávez called the repatriation of gold a "sovereign" step that will help protect the country's foreign reserves from the turmoil in the U.S. and Europe.WEB,weblink Venezuela: Gold Returns to the Country, The Euphoria in the Streets, 26 November 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131021010511weblink">weblink 21 October 2013, However government policies quickly spent down this returned gold and in 2013 the government was forced to add the dollar reserves of state owned companies to those of the national bank to reassure the international bond market.NEWS,weblink Venezuela Ogles Chavez's Hidden Billions as Reserves Sink, Pons, Corina, Corina, Nathan, 9 August 2013, www.bloomberg.com, BLOOMBERG L.P., 19 October 2013, Manufacturing contributed 17% of GDP in 2006. Venezuela manufactures and exports heavy industry products such as steel, aluminium and cement, with production concentrated around Ciudad Guayana, near the Guri Dam, one of the largest in the world and the provider of about three-quarters of Venezuela's electricity. Other notable manufacturing includes electronics and automobiles, as well as beverages, and foodstuffs. Agriculture in Venezuela accounts for approximately 3% of GDP, 10% of the labor force, and at least a quarter of Venezuela's land area. The country is not self-sufficient in most areas of agriculture. In 2012, total food consumption was over 26 million metric tonnes, a 94.8% increase from 2003.Pearson, Tamara (9 January 2013). Venezuelan Government Meets with Private Industries to Combat Food Shortages. Venezuelanalysis.com.Since the discovery of oil in the early 20th century, Venezuela has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil, and it is a founding member of OPEC. Previously an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports and government revenues. The 1980s oil glut led to an external debt crisis and a long-running economic crisis, which saw inflation peak at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rise to 66% in 1995{{sfn|McCaughan|2005|p=32}} as (by 1998) per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak.{{sfn|Kelly|Palma|2006|p=207}} The 1990s also saw Venezuela experience a major banking crisis in 1994.File:Centro Empresarial Sabana Grande y Mc Donald's Vicente Quintero.jpg|thumb|Business Center Sabana Grande (2018), headquarters of PetrocaribePetrocaribeThe recovery of oil prices after 2001 boosted the Venezuelan economy and facilitated social spending. With social programs such as the Bolivarian Missions, Venezuela initially made progress in social development in the 2000s, particularly in areas such as health, education, and poverty. Many of the social policies pursued by Chávez and his administration were jump-started by the Millennium Development Goals, eight goals that Venezuela and 188 other nations agreed to in September 2000."The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011". {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130309160853weblink |date=9 March 2013 }} United Nations. 2011. Web. 2 April 2012. The sustainability of the Bolivarian Missions has been questioned due to the Bolivarian state's overspending on public works and because the Chávez government did not save funds for future economic hardships like other OPEC nations; with economic issues and poverty rising as a result of their policies in the 2010s.NEWS, Gallagher, J. J., Venezuela: Does an increase in poverty signal threat to government?,weblink 29 March 2015, The Christian Science Monitor, 25 March 2015, NEWS, Corrales, Javier, Don't Blame It On the Oil,weblink 10 May 2015, Foreign Policy, 7 May 2015, In 2003 the government of Hugo Chávez implemented currency controls after capital flight led to a devaluation of the currency. This led to the development of a parallel market of dollars in the subsequent years. The fallout of the 2008 global financial crisis saw a renewed economic downturn. Despite controversial data shared by the Venezuelan government showing that the country had halved malnutrition following one of the UN's Millennium Development Goals,WEB, UN Congratulates Venezuela on Hunger,weblink ABC News, 18 June 2013, 18 July 2015, shortages of staple goods began to occur in Venezuela and malnutrition began to increase. In early 2013, Venezuela devalued its currency due to growing shortages in the country.WEB, Venezuelan Government Meets with Private Industries to Combat Food Shortages {{!, venezuelanalysis.com|url =weblink|website = venezuelanalysis.com|accessdate =6 May 2015}}NEWS, Cawthorne, Andrew,weblink Venezuela seizes warehouses packed with medical goods, food, Reuters, 24 October 2014, 30 June 2015, NEWS, Venezuela Slashes Currency Value,weblink 14 December 2013, Wall Street Journal, 9 February 2013, Ezequiel, Minaya, Kejal, Vyas, The shortages included, and still include, necessities such as toilet paper, milk, and flour.NEWS, Lopez, Virginia, Venezuela food shortages: 'No one can explain why a rich country has no food',weblink 14 December 2013, The Guardian, 26 September 2013, Fears rose so high due to the toilet paper shortage that the government occupied a toilet paper factory, and continued further plans to nationalize other industrial aspects like food distribution.WEB, Venezuela to nationalize food distribution,weblink 6 May 2015, NEWS, Facing shortages, Venezuela takes over toilet paper factory,weblink 14 December 2013, CNN, 21 September 2013, Venezuela's bond ratings have also decreased multiple times in 2013 due to decisions by the president Nicolás Maduro. One of his decisions was to force stores and their warehouses to sell all of their products, which led to even more shortages in the future.NEWS, UPDATE 2-S&P cuts Venezuela debt rating to B-minus,weblink 14 December 2013, Reuters, 14 December 2013, Daniel, Bases, In 2016, consumer prices in Venezuela increased 800% and the economy declined by 18.6%, entering an economic depression.WEB, enezuela 2016 inflation hits 800 percent, GDP shrinks 19 percent,weblink 7 May 2017, WEB, Rosati, Andrew, Venezuela's Awful Economy Got Even Worse in 2016,weblink Bloomberg News, 10 January 2019, 11 January 2017, Venezuela's outlook was deemed negative by most bond-rating services in 2017.NEWS,weblink Venezuela's Bondholder Meeting Is a Bust as S&P Declares Default, Bartenstein, Ben, 2017-11-14, Bloomberg L.P., 2017-11-15, etal, WEB, Rating: Venezuela Credit Rating,weblink 14 December 2013, For 2018 an inflation rate of 1,000,000 percent was projected, putting Venezuela in a similar situation to that in Germany in 1923 or Zimbabwe in the late 2000s.NEWS, IMF projects Venezuela inflation will hit 1,000,000 percent in 2018,weblink 2018-07-24, Reuters, 2018-07-24,

Tourism

File:De la Soledad a la Inmensidad....jpg|thumb|Islands of the Venezuelan Caribbean SeaCaribbean SeaTourism has been developed considerably in recent decades, particularly because of its favorable geographical position, the variety of landscapes, the richness of plant and wildlife, the artistic expressions and the privileged tropical climate of the country, which affords each region (especially the beaches) throughout the year.Margarita Island is one of the top tourist destinations for enjoyment and relaxation. It is an island with a modern infrastructure, bordered by beautiful beaches suitable for extreme sports, and features castles, fortresses and churches of great cultural value.

Shortages

(File:Escasez en Venezuela, Central Madeirense 8.JPG|thumb|Empty shelves in a store in Venezuela due to shortages)Shortages in Venezuela have been prevalent following the enactment of price controls and other policies during the economic policy of the Hugo Chávez government.NEWS,weblink 18 February 2013, Venezuela's currency: The not-so-strong bolívar, The Economist, 11 February 2013, NEWS, Venezuela's black market rate for US dollars just jumped by almost 40%,weblink 27 March 2014, Quartz, 26 March 2014, Under the economic policy of the Nicolás Maduro government, greater shortages occurred due to the Venezuelan government's policy of withholding United States dollars from importers with price controls.NEWS, Dulaney, Chelsey, Vyas, Kejal, S&P Downgrades Venezuela on Worsening Economy Rising Inflation, Economic Pressures Prompt Rating Cut,weblink 18 September 2014, The Wall Street Journal, 16 September 2014, Shortages occur in regulated products, such as milk, various types of meat, coffee, rice, oil, flour, butter, and other goods including basic necessities like toilet paper, personal hygiene products, and even medicine.WEB, La escasez también frena tratamientos contra cáncer, Spanish, Venezuela,weblink 25 August 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140826135417weblink">weblink 26 August 2014, NEWS, Venezuela sufre escasez de prótesis mamarias, Spanish, El Nuevo Herald,weblink 25 August 2014, dead,weblink" title="archive.today/20140825225030weblink">weblink 25 August 2014, As a result of the shortages, Venezuelans must search for food, wait in lines for hours and sometimes settle without having certain products.NEWS, Why are Venezuelans posting pictures of empty shelves?,weblink 10 January 2015, BBC, 8 January 2015, NEWS, Cawthorne, Andrew, In shortages-hit Venezuela, lining up becomes a profession,weblink 17 June 2015, Reuters, 21 January 2015, Maduro's government has blamed the shortages on "bourgeois criminals" hoarding goods.WEB,weblink Venezuela seizes warehouses packed with medical goods, food, 24 October 2016, Reuters, A drought, combined with a lack of planning and maintenance, has caused a hydroelectricity shortage. To deal with lack of power supply, in April 2016 the Maduro government announced rolling blackoutsVenezuela Announces Daily 4-Hour Power Cuts Amid Drought : The Two-Way. NPR (22 April 2016). Retrieved on 15 June 2016. and reduced the government workweek to only Monday and Tuesday.Venezuela Cuts Public Employees' Workweek To 2 Days To Save Energy : The Two-Way. NPR (27 April 2016). Retrieved on 15 June 2016. A multi-university study found that, in 2016 alone, about 75% of Venezuelans lost weight due to hunger, with the average losing about 8.6 kg (19 lbs) due to the lack of food.NEWS, Pestano, Andrew V., Venezuela: 75% of population lost 19 pounds amid crisis,weblink 21 February 2017, UPI, 19 February 2017, en, By late-2016 and into 2017, Venezuelans had to search for food on a daily basis, occasionally resorting to eating wild fruit or garbage, wait in lines for hours and sometimes settle without having certain products.NEWS, Why are Venezuelans posting pictures of empty shelves?,weblink 10 January 2015, BBC, 8 January 2015, NEWS, MacDonald, Elizabeth, Exclusive: Harrowing Video Shows Starving Venezuelans Eating Garbage, Looting,weblink 12 July 2016, Fox Business, 26 May 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160707182016weblink">weblink 7 July 2016, dead, NEWS, Sanchez, Fabiola, As hunger mounts, Venezuelans turn to trash for food,weblink 12 July 2016, Associated Press, 8 June 2016, NEWS, Mangoes fill the gaps in Venezuela's food crisis,weblink 12 July 2016, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 7 June 2016, By early 2017, priests began telling Venezuelans to label their garbage so needy individuals could feed on their refuse.NEWS, Gramer, Robbie, Dire Measures to Combat Hunger in Venezuela,weblink 4 March 2017, Foreign Policy, 3 March 2017, In March 2017, Venezuela, with the largest oil reserves in the world, began having shortages of gasoline in some regions with reports that fuel imports had begun.NEWS, Suarez, Roberth, FOTOS: Escasez de gasolina se agudiza en Barquisimeto,weblink 23 March 2017, El Impulso (Venezuela), El Impulso, 22 March 2017, es-es,

Petroleum and other resources

File:Refinería de Amuay VE.jpg|thumb|Paraguaná Refinery Complex in FalcónFalcónFile:Oil Reserves Updated.png|thumb|A map of world oil reservesoil reserves{{See also|History of the Venezuelan oil industry|Energy policy of Venezuela}}Venezuela has the largest oil reserves, and the eighth largest natural gas reserves in the world.WEB,weblink Venezuela Energy Profile, 2010-12-15, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101215105626weblink">weblink 15 December 2010, , Energy Information Administration. Last Update: 30 June 2010. Compared to the preceding year another 40.4% in crude oil reserves were proven in 2010, allowing Venezuela to surpass Saudi Arabia as the country with the largest reserves of this type.Venezuela oil reserves topped Saudis in 2010:OPEC. Market Watch. 18 July 2011 The country's main petroleum deposits are located around and beneath Lake Maracaibo, the Gulf of Venezuela (both in Zulia), and in the Orinoco River basin (eastern Venezuela), where the country's largest reserve is located. Besides the largest conventional oil reserves and the second-largest natural gas reserves in the Western Hemisphere,NEWS, BBC,weblink Venezuela: Energy overview, 16 February 2006, 10 July 2007, Venezuela has non-conventional oil deposits (extra-heavy crude oil, bitumen and tar sands) approximately equal to the world's reserves of conventional oil.WEB, World Energy Council,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070402100135weblink">weblink 2 April 2007, Bauquis, Pierre-René, What the future for extra heavy oil and bitumen: the Orinoco case, 16 February 2006, 10 July 2007, The electricity sector in Venezuela is one of the few to rely primarily on hydropower, and includes the Guri Dam, one of the largest in the world.In the first half of the 20th century, U.S. oil companies were heavily involved in Venezuela, initially interested only in purchasing concessions.{{sfn|Yergin|1991|pages=233–236, 432}} In 1943 a new government introduced a 50/50 split in profits between the government and the oil industry. In 1960, with a newly installed democratic government, Hydrocarbons Minister Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonso led the creation of OPEC, the consortium of oil-producing countries aiming to support the price of oil.{{sfn|Yergin|1991|pages=510–513}}In 1973, Venezuela voted to nationalize its oil industry outright, effective 1 January 1976, with Petróleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) taking over and presiding over a number of holding companies; in subsequent years, Venezuela built a vast refining and marketing system in the U.S. and Europe.{{sfn|Yergin|1991|p=767}} In the 1990s PDVSA became more independent from the government and presided over an apertura (opening) in which it invited in foreign investment. Under Hugo Chávez a 2001 law placed limits on foreign investment.The state oil company PDVSA played a key role in the December 2002 – February 2003 national strike which sought President Chávez' resignation. Managers and skilled highly paid technicians of PDVSA shut down the plants and left their posts, and by some reports sabotaged equipment, and petroleum production and refining by PDVSA almost ceased. Activities eventually were slowly restarted by returning and substitute oil workers. As a result of the strike, around 40% of the company's workforce (around 18,000 workers) were dismissed for "dereliction of duty" during the strike.{{sfn|McCaughan|2005|p=128}}JOURNAL,weblink Venezuela 2001–2004: actores y estrategias, López Maya, Margarita, Cuadernos del Cendes, 2004, 21, 56, 109–132, 1012-2508,

Transport

File:Vista_Estacion_de_metro_plaza_venezuela.jpg|thumb|Caracas MetroCaracas MetroVenezuela is connected to the world primarily via air (Venezuela's airports include the Simón Bolívar International Airport in Maiquetía, near Caracas and La Chinita International Airport near Maracaibo) and sea (with major sea ports at La Guaira, Maracaibo and Puerto Cabello). In the south and east the Amazon rainforest region has limited cross-border transport; in the west, there is a mountainous border of over {{convert|2213|km}} shared with Colombia. The Orinoco River is navigable by oceangoing vessels up to {{convert|400|km}} inland, and connects the major industrial city of Ciudad Guayana to the Atlantic Ocean.Venezuela has a limited national railway system, which has no active rail connections to other countries. The government of Hugo Chávez tried to invest in expanding it, but Venezuela's rail project is on hold due to Venezuela not being able to pay the $7.5 billion{{clarify|date=April 2017}} and owing China Railway nearly $500 million.NEWS, Han Shih, Toh, China Railway Group's project in Venezuela hits snag,weblink 14 December 2013, South China Morning Post, 11 April 2013, Several major cities have metro systems; the Caracas Metro has been operating since 1983. The Maracaibo Metro and Valencia Metro were opened more recently.Venezuela has a road network of nearly {{convert|100000|km}} in length, placing the country around 45th in the world;Country Comparison :: Roadways. The World Factbook. cia.gov around a third of roads are paved.

Demographics

{{Historical populations|source = United Nations|percentages = pagrCO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971–2008 IEA (pdf {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120106205757weblink |date=6 January 2012 }}) pp. 83–85Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision. Esa.un.org (6 December 2012). Retrieved on 20 April 2013.50940007562000106810001503600019685000243480002840000031028337}}{{Further|List of metropolitan areas in Venezuela}}(File:Venezuela population density 2011.png|thumb|Population density of Venezuela in 2011. Yellow tones denote urban areas.)Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America; the vast majority of Venezuelans live in the cities of the north, especially in the capital Caracas, which is also the largest city. About 93% of the population lives in urban areas in northern Venezuela; 73% live less than {{convert|100|km|mi|0}} from the coastline.WEB, World Resources Institute, EarthTrends Country Profiles, 2003, Coastal and Marine Ecosystems—Venezuela,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070318000929weblink">weblink 18 March 2007, 10 March 2007, Though almost half of Venezuela's land area lies south of the Orinoco, only 5% of Venezuelans live there. The largest and most important city south of the Orinoco is Ciudad Guayana, which is the sixth most populous conurbation.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110929230946weblink">weblink 29 September 2011, Cuadro Magnitud y Estructura Demográfica, Ine.gob.ve, 25 April 2010, Other major cities include Barquisimeto, Valencia, Maracay, Maracaibo, Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz, Mérida and San Cristóbal.According to a 2014 study by sociologists of the Central University of Venezuela, over 1.5 million Venezuelans, or about 4% to 6% of the country's population, have left Venezuela since 1999 following the Bolivarian Revolution.NEWS, Maria Delgado, Antonio, Venezuela agobiada por la fuga masiva de cerebros,weblink 28 August 2014, El Nuevo Herald, 28 August 2014, NEWS, El 90% de los venezolanos que se van tienen formación universitaria,weblink 28 August 2014, El Impulso, 23 August 2014,

Ethnic groups

{{bar box|title=Racial and Ethnic Composition (2011 Census)|title bar=#ddd|left1=Race/Ethnicity|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Mestizo|violet|51.6}}{{bar percent|White|blue|43.6}}{{bar percent|Black|Brown|2.9}}{{bar percent|Afro-descendant|Black|0.7}}{{bar percent|Other races|red|1.2}}|caption=}}The people of Venezuela come from a variety of ancestries. It is estimated that the majority of the population is of mestizo, or mixed, ethnic ancestry.Nevertheless, in the 2011 census, which Venezuelans were asked to identify themselves according to their customs and ancestry, the term mestizo was excluded from the answers. The majority claimed to be mestizo or white—51.6% and 43.6%, respectively. Practically half of the population claimed to be (:wikt:moreno|moreno), a term used throughout Ibero-America that in this case means "dark-skinned" or "brown-skinned", as opposed to having a lighter skin (this term connotes skin color or tone, rather than facial features or descent).File:Iglesia San Martin de Tours II.jpg|thumb|In the Colonia Tovar German-style town in Aragua state is the largest colony of German VenezuelansGerman VenezuelansEthnic minorities in Venezuela consist of groups that descend mainly from African or indigenous peoples; 2.8% identified themselves as "black" and 0.7% as afrodescendiente (Afro-descendant), 2.6% claimed to belong to indigenous peoples, and 1.2% answered "other races".Among indigenous people, 58% were Wayúu, 7% Warao, 5% Kariña, 4% Pemón, 3% Piaroa, 3% Jivi, 3% Añu, 3% Cumanágoto, 2% Yukpa, 2% Chaima and 1% Yanomami; the remaining 9% consisted of other indigenous nations.NEWS, Benítez, Deivis, Poblaciones Indígenas en aumento según censo poblacional 2011,weblink 10 October 2012, PRENSA MINPPPI, Spanish, Los resultados arrojados por el censo poblacional realizado por el Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas en el 2011 demuestra que las poblaciones indígenas ha aumentado progresivamente con respecto al censo del año 2001. Según los datos estadísticos publicados por el INE, el total de población que se declaró indígena por sexo, arrojó un resultado de 50,46% hombre y 49,54% mujeres representando 365.920 hombres y 359.208 mujeres para un total de 725.148 personas que se declararon indígenas de Venezuela. Así mismo, se tomó el porcentaje de población por entidad donde el estado Zulia es la entidad con más indígenas con un 61%, seguido del estado Amazonas con 10%, Bolívar con un 8%, Delta Amacuro con 6%, Anzoátegui 5%, Sucre 3%, Apure y Monagas 2% mientras que en otras entidades existe un 3% de población indígena. Entre tanto, los pueblos indígenas con mayor población se encuentran los Wayuu 58%, Warao 7%, Kariña 5%, Pemón 4%, Piaroa, Jivi, Añu, Cumanágoto 3%, Yukpa, Chaima 2%, el pueblo Yanomami 1% y otros pueblos con un 9%., dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116234901weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, According to an autosomal DNA genetic study conducted in 2008 by the University of Brasília (UNB), the composition of Venezuela's population is 60.60% of European contribution, 23% of indigenous contribution, and 16.30% of African contribution.WEB, Godinho, Neide Maria de Oliveira, O impacto das migrações na constituição genética de populações latino-americanas,weblink Universidade de Brasília, 1 August 2012, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110706162307weblink">weblink 6 July 2011, During the colonial period and until after the Second World War, many of the European immigrants to Venezuela came from the Canary Islands,WEB,weblink The Spanish of the Canary Islands, personal.psu.edu, which had a significant cultural impact on the cuisine and customs of Venezuela.WEB, Erichsen, Gerald,weblink Facts About Venezuela for Spanish Students, About, 30 June 2015, WEB,weblink Gran Canaria Culture, GranCanariaInfo, 30 June 2015, WEB,weblink History, Sazon Latino Restaurant, 30 June 2015, These influences on Venezuela have led to the nation being called the 8th island of the Canaries.NEWS, Calder, Simon,weblink Secret Canaries: Explore these warm volcanic islands all year round, The Independent, 31 October 2014, 30 June 2015, London, NEWS, Ross, Ben, Calder, Simon,weblink Tale of Two Travellers: The two sides of the Canaries, The Independent, 5 December 2009, 30 June 2015, London, With the start of oil exploitation in the early 20th century, companies from the United States began establishing operations in Venezuela, bringing with them U.S. citizens. Later, during and after the war, new waves of immigrants from other parts of Europe, the Middle East, and China began; many were encouraged by government-established immigration programs and lenient immigration policies.NEWS, Romero, Simon,weblink In Venezuela, a New Wave of Foreigners, The New York Times, 7 November 2010, 30 June 2015, During the 20th century, Venezuela, along with the rest of Latin America, received millions of immigrants from Europe.WEB, Levinson, David,weblink Europeans in South America, Every Culture, 1994, 30 June 2015, WEB, Padilla, Beatriz, Peixoto, Joāo,weblink Latin American Immigration to Southern Europe, Migration Policy, 28 June 2007, 30 June 2015, This was especially true post-World War II, as a consequence of war-ridden Europe.NEWS, Brooke, James,weblink Latin America Offers 'New World' to East Europe Emigrants, The New York Times, 17 February 1992, 30 June 2015, During the 1970s, while experiencing an oil-export boom, Venezuela received millions of immigrants from Ecuador, Colombia, and the Dominican Republic. Due to the belief that this immigration influx depressed wages, some Venezuelans opposed European immigration. The Venezuelan government, however, were actively recruiting immigrants from Eastern Europe to fill a need for engineers. Millions of Colombians, as well as Middle Eastern and Haitian populations would continue immigrating to Venezuela into the early 21st century.According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Venezuela hosted a population of refugee and asylum seekers from Colombia numbering 252,200 in 2007, and 10,600 new asylum seekers entered Venezuela in 2007.NEWS, World Refugee Survey 2008, U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, 19 June 2008,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090429171446weblink">weblink 29 April 2009, Between 500,000 and one million illegal immigrants are estimated to be living in the country.Venezuela – Population. U.S. Library of Congress.The total indigenous population of the country is estimated at about 500 thousand people (2.8% of the total), distributed among 40 indigenous peoples.> Censos de población y vivienda. INE (23 February 2012). Retrieved on 16 April 2012. There are three uncontacted tribes living in Venezuela. The Constitution recognizes the multi-ethnic, pluri-cultural, and multilingual character of the country and includes a chapter devoted to indigenous peoples' rights, which opened up spaces for their political inclusion at national and local level in 1999.Most indigenous peoples are concentrated in eight states along Venezuela's borders with Brazil, Guyana, and Colombia, and the majority groups are the Wayuu (west), the Warao (east), the Yanomami (south), and the Pemon (southeast).{{Multiple image
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Languages

Although most residents are monolingual Spanish speakers, many languages are spoken in Venezuela. In addition to Spanish, the Constitution recognizes more than thirty indigenous languages, including Wayuu, Warao, Pemón, and many others for the official use of the indigenous peoples, mostly with few speakers – less than 1% of the total population. Wayuu is the most spoken indigenous language with 170,000 speakers.WEB, Venezuela,weblink Ethnologue, 23 January 2017, Immigrants, in addition to Spanish, speak their own languages. Chinese (400,000), Portuguese (254,000), and Italian (200,000)JOURNAL, Bernasconi, Giulia, L'ITALIANO IN VENEZUELA, Italiano LinguaDue, 3, 2012, 2, 20, 10.13130/2037-3597/1921,weblink 22 January 2017, Italian, L'italiano come lingua acquisita o riacquisita è largamente diffuso in Venezuela: recenti studi stimano circa 200.000 studenti di italiano nel Paese, are the most spoken languages in Venezuela after the official language of Spanish. Arabic is spoken by Lebanese and Syrian colonies on Isla de Margarita, Maracaibo, Punto Fijo, Puerto la Cruz, El Tigre, Maracay, and Caracas. Portuguese is spoken not only by the Portuguese community in Santa Elena de Uairén but also by much of the population due to its proximity to Brazil.NEWS,weblink What Languages Are Spoken in Venezuela?, WorldAtlas, 2018-06-17, en, The German community speaks their native language, while the people of Colonia Tovar speak mostly an Alemannic dialect of German called alemán coloniero.English is the most widely used foreign language in demand and is spoken by many professionals, academics, and members of the upper and middle classes as a result of the oil exploration done by foreign companies, in addition to its acceptance as a lingua franca. Culturally, English is common in southern towns like El Callao, and the native English-speaking influence is evident in folk and calypso songs from the region. English was brought to Venezuela by Trinidadian and other British West Indies immigrants.BOOK,weblink Venezuela – Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture, Maddicks, Russell, 2012-10-01, Kuperard, 9781857336610, en, A variety of Antillean Creole is spoken by a small community in El Callao and Paria.JOURNAL,weblink Patuá in Paria: The Status of French-lexicon Creole in Venezuela (pre-published version), Jo-Anne S, Ferreira, Italian language teaching is guaranteed by the presence of a consistent number of private Venezuelan schools and institutions, where Italian language courses and Italian literature are active. Other languages spoken by large communities in the country are Basque and Galician, among others.

Religion

{{Pie chart|thumb = rightLANGUAGE=SPANISHURL=HTTP://WWW.GUMILLA.ORG/BIBLIOTECA/BASES/BIBLO/TEXTO/SIC2012745_211-222.PDFPUBLISHER=EL CENTRO GUMILLA, June 2012, Roman Catholicism>Catholic|value1 = 71|color1 = BlueProtestantism>Protestant|value2 = 17|color2 = DodgerBlue|label3 = Agnostic/Atheist|value3 = 7|color3 = LightGray|label4 = Other religion|value4 = 3|color4 = yellow|label5 = No answer|value5 = 1|color5 = white}}According to a 2011 poll (GIS XXI), 88% of the population is Christian, primarily Roman Catholic (71%), and the remaining 17% Protestant, primarily Evangelicals (in Latin America Protestants are usually called "evangelicos"). 8% of Venezuelans are irreligious (atheist 2% and agnostic and 6% indifferent). Almost 3% of the population follow another religion (1% of these people practice Santería).There are small but influential Muslim, Buddhist, and Jewish communities. The Muslim community of more than 100,000 is concentrated among persons of Lebanese and Syrian descent living in Nueva Esparta State, Punto Fijo and the Caracas area. Buddhism in Venezuela is practiced by over 52,000 people. The Buddhist community is made up mainly of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean people. There are Buddhist centers in Caracas, Maracay, Mérida, Puerto Ordáz, San Felipe, and Valencia.The Jewish community has shrunk in recent years due to rising antisemitism in Venezuela,JOURNAL, Thor Halvorssen Mendoza,weblink Hurricane Hugo, The Weekly Standard, 8 August 2005, 10, 44, 20 November 2010, Thor Halvorssen Mendoza, Annual Report 2004: Venezuela. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061023195546weblink |date=2006-10-23 }} Stephen Roth Institute. Accessed 11 August 2006.Berrios, Jerry. S. Fla. Venezuelans: Chavez incites anti-Semitism. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080306053937weblink |date=2008-03-06 }} Miami Herald, 10 August 2006.Report: Anti-Semitism on Rise in Venezuela; Chavez Government 'Fosters Hate' Toward Jews and Israel. Press release, Anti-Defamation League, 6 November 2006. Accessed 3 April 2008.The Chavez Regime: Fostering Anti-Semitism and Supporting Radical Islam. Anti-Defamation League, 6 November 2006. Accessed 3 April 2008. with the population declining from 22,000 in 1999NEWS, Rueda, Jorge, Jewish leaders condemn police raid on community center in Venezuela,weblink 8 April 2015, U-T San Diego, 4 December 2007, to less than 7,000 in 2015.NEWS, ADL Denounces Anti-Semitic Graffiti Sprayed on Synagogue in Venezuela,weblink 4 January 2015, Algemeiner Journal, 2 January 2015,

Culture

File:Joropo foto.jpg|thumb|The joropo, as depicted in a 1912 drawing by Eloy PalaciosEloy PalaciosThe culture of Venezuela is a melting pot made up of three main groups: The Indigenous Venezuelans, the Africans, and the Spanish. The first two cultures were in turn differentiated according to their tribes. Acculturation and assimilation, typical of a cultural syncretism, led to the Venezuelan culture of the present day, which is similar in many ways to the culture of the rest of Latin America, but still has its own unique characteristics.The indigenous and African influence is limited to a few words, food names, and place names. However, the Africans also brought in many musical influences, especially introduction of the drum. The Spanish influence predominantes due to the colonization process and the socioeconomic structure it created, and in particular came from the regions of Andalusia and Extremadura (the places of origin of most of the settlers in the Caribbean during the colonial era). Spanish influences can be seen in the country's architecture, music, religion, and language.Spanish influences can also be seen in the bullfights that take place in Venezuela, and in certain gastronomical features. Venezuela was also enriched by immigration streams of Indian and European origin in the 19th century, especially from France. Most recently, immigration from the United States, Spain, Italy, and Portugal has further enriched the already complex cultural mosaic (especially in large oil-producing cities).

Art

File:Antonio Herrera Toro Autoretrato 1880.JPG|thumbVenezuelan art was initially dominated by religious motifs. However, in the late 19th century, artists began emphasizing historical and heroic representations of the country's struggle for independence.{{sfn|Ng|2004|p=31}}{{sfn|Aponte|2008|p=45}} This move was led by Martín Tovar y Tovar.{{sfn|Aponte|2008|p=45}}{{sfn|Tarver|Frederick|2006|p=10}} Modernism took over in the 20th century.{{sfn|Tarver|Frederick|2006|p=10}} Notable Venezuelan artists include Arturo Michelena, Cristóbal Rojas, Armando Reverón, Manuel Cabré; the kinetic artists Jesús Soto, Gego and Carlos Cruz-Diez;{{sfn|Tarver|Frederick|2006|p=10}} and contemporary artists such as Marisol and Yucef Merhi.{{sfn|Fichner-Ratus|2012|p=519}}WEB, Silvera, Yohana,weblink Poesía en objetos, TalCualDigital, 10 June 2010, 24 July 2015, Spanish,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150724162507weblink">weblink 24 July 2015, dead,

Literature

Venezuelan literature originated soon after the Spanish conquest of the mostly pre-literate indigenous societies.WEB,weblink Information, Latin Trails, 1 July 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150702042820weblink">weblink 2 July 2015, It was originally dominated by Spanish influences. Following the rise of political literature during the Venezuelan War of Independence, Venezuelan Romanticism, notably expounded by Juan Vicente González, emerged as the first important genre in the region. Although mainly focused on narrative writing, Venezuelan literature was advanced by poets such as Andrés Eloy Blanco and Fermín Toro.Major writers and novelists include Rómulo Gallegos, Teresa de la Parra, Arturo Uslar Pietri, Adriano González León, Miguel Otero Silva, and Mariano Picón Salas. The great poet and humanist Andrés Bello was also an educator and intellectual (He was also a childhood tutor and mentor of Simón Bolívar). Others, such as Laureano Vallenilla Lanz and José Gil Fortoul, contributed to Venezuelan Positivism.

Music

File:2952-Danzas_Guanaguanare_de_Venezuela_no_Festival_folclorico_da_Coruña._(8200095256).jpg|thumb|The Guanaguanare dance, a popular dance in Portuguesa State ]]The indigenous musical styles of Venezuela are exemplified by groups like Un Sólo Pueblo and Serenata Guayanesa. The national musical instrument is the cuatro. Traditional musical styles and songs mainly emerged in and around the llanos region, including, "Alma llanera" (by Pedro Elías Gutiérrez and Rafael Bolívar Coronado), "Florentino y el diablo" (by Alberto Arvelo Torrealba), "Concierto en la llanura" by Juan Vicente Torrealba, and "Caballo viejo" (by Simón Díaz).The Zulian gaita is also a very popular genre, generally performed during Christmas. The national dance is the joropo.{{sfn|Cortés|2013|p=2134}} Venezuela has always been a melting pot of cultures and this can be seen in the richness and variety of its musical styles and dances: calipso, bambuco, fulía, cantos de pilado de maíz, cantos de lavanderas, sebucán, and maremare.WEB,weblink Key Facts Venezuela, Turpial Travel & Adventure, 13 July 2015, Teresa Carreño was a world-famous 19th century piano virtuoso. Recently, great classical music performances have come out of Venezuela. The Simón Bolívar Youth Orchestra, under the leadership of its principal conductor Gustavo Dudamel and José Antonio Abreu, has hosted a number of excellent concerts in many European concert halls, most notably at the 2007 London Proms, and has received several honors. The orchestra is the pinnacle of El Sistema, a publicly financed, voluntary music education program now being emulated in other countries.In the early 21st century, a movement known as "Movida Acústica Urbana" featured musicians trying to save some national traditions, creating their own original songs but using traditional instruments.NEWS,weblink Rock and MAU sonará bajo las nubes de Calder, El Universal, 8 December 2014, 13 July 2015, Spanish, NEWS, Fernández B., María Gabriela,weblink El jazz es el lenguaje universal de la música popular, El Universal, 14 March 2015, 13 July 2015, Some groups following this movement are Tambor Urbano,BOOK, Olsen, Dale, Sheehy, Daniel, The Garland Handbook of Latin American Music, 2007, Routledge, 9781135900083, 32, Los Sinverguenzas, C4Trío, and Orozco Jam.BOOK, Christie, Jan Fairley; edited by Simon Frith, Stan Rijven, Ian, Living politics, making music : the writings of Jan Fairley, 2014, 9781472412669, 113, Afro-Venezuelan musical traditions are most intimately related to the festivals of the "black folk saints" San Juan and St. Benedict the Moor. Specific songs are related to the different stages of their festivals and processions, when the saints start their yearly "paseo" – stroll – through the community to dance with their people.

Sport

{{See also|Baseball in Venezuela|Football in Venezuela}}File:Venezuela national baseball team on November 7, 2015.jpg|thumb|Venezuela national baseball teamVenezuela national baseball teamThe origins of baseball in Venezuela are unclear, although it is known that the sport was being played in the country by the late 19th century.{{sfn|Nichols|Morse|2010|p=306}} In the early 20th century, North American immigrants who came to Venezuela to work in the nation's oil industry helped to popularize the sport in Venezuela.{{sfn|Wardrope|2003|p=37}} During the 1930s, baseball's popularity continued to rise in the country, leading to the foundation of the Venezuelan Professional Baseball League (LVBP) in 1945, and the sport would soon become the nation's most popular.{{sfn|Jozsa Jr.|2013|p=12}}{{sfn|Gibson|2006|p=18}}The immense popularity of baseball in the country makes Venezuela a rarity among its South American neighbors—association football is the dominant sport in the continent.{{sfn|Wardrope|2003|p=37}}{{sfn|Gibson|2006|p=18}}{{sfn|Nichols|Morse|2010|p=307}} However, football, as well as basketball, are among the more popular sports played in Venezuela.{{sfn|Aalgaard|2004|p=54}} Venezuela hosted the 2012 Basketball World Olympic Qualifying Tournament and the 2013 FIBA Basketball Americas Championship, which took place in the Poliedro de Caracas.File:Venezuela-guinea cropped.jpg|thumb|Venezuela national football teamVenezuela national football teamAlthough not as popular in Venezuela as the rest of South America, football, spearheaded by the Venezuela national football team is gaining popularity as well. The sport is also noted for having an increased focus during the World Cup.{{sfn|Aalgaard|2004|p=54}} According to the CONMEBOL alphabetical rotation policy established in 2011, Venezuela is scheduled to host the Copa América every 40 years.WEB,weblink Copa America: a new cycle begins and the revolving calendar remains, CONMEBOL, 21 December 2007, 30 June 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081205191359weblink">weblink 5 December 2008, Venezuela is also home to former Formula 1 driver, Pastor Maldonado.WEB, Strickland, Jamie,weblink Pastor Maldonado: Does 'Crashtor' deserve his bad reputation?, BBC, 12 April 2015, 6 July 2015, At the 2012 Spanish Grand Prix, he claimed his first pole and victory, and became the first and only Venezuelan to have done so in Formula 1 history. Maldonado has increased the reception of Formula 1 in Venezuela, helping to popularize the sport in the country.WEB, Montiel, Santiago,weblink Formula 1 needs more attention in the United States, Spartan Newsroon, 6 July 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150706181313weblink">weblink 6 July 2015, In the 2012 Summer Olympics, Venezuelan Rubén Limardo won a gold medal in fencing.WEB,weblink Fencer Ruben Limardo returns to hero's welcome in Venezuela, NBC Olympics, 7 August 2012, 30 June 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120807221821weblink">weblink 7 August 2012,

Cuisine

The Venezuelan cuisine, one of the most varied in the region, reflects the climatic contrasts and cultures that coexist in Venezuela. Among Venezuela's dishes are the hallaca, pabellón criollo, arepas, empanadas, pisca andina, tarkarí de chivo, jalea de mango, patacones, and fried camiguanas.

Architecture

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Carlos Raúl Villanueva was the most important Venezuelan architect of the modern era; he designed the Central University of Venezuela, (a World Heritage Site) and its Aula Magna. Other notable architectural works include the Capitolio, the Baralt Theatre, the Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex, and the General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge.

Education

File:Biblioteca de la Universidad Central de Venezuela.jpg|thumb|Central University of VenezuelaCentral University of Venezuela(File:Illiteracy in Venezuela.svg|thumb|Illiteracy rate in Venezuela based on data from UNESCOWEB,weblink Compendium of statistics on illiteracy, 1988, UNESCO, 10 June 2017, WEB,weblink UIS.Stat, UNESCO INSTITUTE FOR STATISTICS, 10 June 2017, and the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) of VenezuelaJOURNAL, Daniel, Ortega, Rodríguez, Francisco, October 2008, Freed from Illiteracy? A Closer Look at Venezuela's Misión Robinson Literacy Campaign, en, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 57, 1, 1–30, 10.1086/590461, )The literacy rate of the adult population was already at 91.1% by 1998.Venezuela. Umsl.edu. Retrieved on 20 April 2013. In 2008, 95.2% of the adult population was literate.WEB,weblink Human Development Report 2009 – Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Hdrstats.undp.org,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100218153602weblink">weblink 18 February 2010, dead, 25 April 2010, The net primary school enrollment rate was at 91% and the net secondary school enrollment rate was at 63% in 2005. Venezuela has a number of universities, of which the most prestigious are the Central University of Venezuela (UCV) founded in Caracas in 1721, the University of Zulia (LUZ) founded in 1891, the University of the Andes (ULA) founded in Mérida State in 1810, the Simón Bolívar University (USB) founded in Miranda State in 1967, and the University of the East (UDO) founded in Sucre State in 1958.Currently, many Venezuelan graduates seek a future abroad because of the country's troubled economy and heavy crime rate. In a study titled "Venezolana Community Abroad: A New Method of Exile" by Thomas Páez, Mercedes Vivas, and Juan Rafael Pulido of the Central University of Venezuela, over 1.35 million Venezuelan college graduates have left the country since the beginning of the Bolivarian Revolution. It is believed that nearly 12% of Venezuelans live abroad, with Ireland becoming a popular destination for students.NEWS, Goodman, Joshua, Venezuela's Best and Brightest Camp on Sidewalks,weblink 9 February 2014, ABC News, 31 January 2014, According to Claudio Bifano, president of the Venezuelan Academy of Physical, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences, more than half of all medical graduates had left Venezuela in 2013.JOURNAL, Capacity building: Architects of South American science,weblink Nature, 12 June 2014, 510, 7504, 212, 10.1038/510209a, 9 July 2014, By 2018, over half of all Venezuelan children had dropped out of school, with 58% of students quitting nationwide while areas near bordering countries saw more than 80% of their students leave.NEWS,weblink Deserción escolar se ubica en 58% en todo el país, 2018-07-17, La Patilla, 2018-07-18, es-ES, WEB,weblink Deserción escolar alcanza el 58% en todo el país, Contexto Diario, es-ES, 2018-07-18, Nationwide, about 93% of schools do not meet the minimum requirements to operate and 77% do not have utilities such as food, water or electricity.

Health

{{Image frame|width=340|caption=Cases of malaria in Venezuela according to the Ministry of Popular Power for HealthWEB,weblink Boletín Epidemiológico: Semana Epidemiológica, 2007–2016, es, 14 May 2017, Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Salud, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161126222856weblink">weblink 26 November 2016, |content={{Graph:Chart|width=270|height=200|type=line|x=2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016|y=31719, 35828, 45155, 45824, 51264, 76966, 89365, 136402, 240613}}}}{{Image frame|width=340|caption=Deaths of children under one year in Venezuela according to the Ministry of Popular Power for Health|content={{Graph:Chart|width=275|height=150|type=line|x=2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016|y=4747, 5085, 5175, 5945, 5878, 7009, 8273, 7904, 8812, 11466}}}}Venezuela has a national universal health care system. The current government has created a program to expand access to health care known as Misión Barrio Adentro,WEB, Venezuela Information Office, 2007, Health Care for All: Venezuela's Health Missions at Work,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080614053914weblink">weblink 14 June 2008, 18 January 2008, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090512013213weblink">weblink 12 May 2009, Barrio adentro a look at the origins of a social mission, Castro, Arachu, David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, Harvard University, 2008, 29 January 2009, although its efficiency and work conditions have been criticized.NEWS, Cabildo Metropolitano evaluará funcionamiento de Barrio Adentro,weblink 7 May 2014, El Universal, 6 May 2014, WEB,weblink Siete médicos cubanos demandan a Cuba y Venezuela por "esclavitud moderna", 26 April 2015, NEWS, Vinogradoff, Ludmila, 16 November 2014,weblink 16 November 2014, ABC (Spanish), 13 November 2014, It has been reported that many Misión Barrio Adentro clinics have been closed, and (as of December 2014) it is estimated that 80% of Barrio Adentro establishments in Venezuela are abandoned.Matheus, Ricardo. Abandonados 70% de módulos de BA {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070927004706weblink |date=27 September 2007 }} Diario 2001 (29 July 2007).NEWS, El 80% de los módulos de Barrio Adentro del país está cerrado,weblink 8 December 2014, La Patilla, 8 December 2014, Infant mortality in Venezuela was 19 deaths per 1,000 births for 2014 which was lower than the South American average (To compare: The U.S. figure was 6 deaths per 1,000 births in 2013 and the Canadian figure was 4.5 deaths per 1,000 live births).WEB, The World Factbook,weblink Central Intelligence Agency, 9 February 2014, Child malnutrition (defined as stunting or wasting in children under the age of five) was 17%. Delta Amacuro and Amazonas had the nation's highest rates.WEB,weblink Venezuela, 2006-09-21, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070318223523weblink">weblink 18 March 2007, . FAO.org. According to the United Nations, 32% of Venezuelans lacked adequate sanitation, primarily those living in rural areas.Venezuela. Unicef.org. Diseases ranging from diphtheria, plague, malaria, typhoid fever, yellow fever, cholera, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis D were present in the country.Venezuela Guardian. 25 October 2006. Retrieved 20 September 2006. Obesity was prevalent in approximately 30% of the adult population in Venezuela.Venezuela had a total of 150 sewage treatment plants; however, 13% of the population lacked access to drinking water, but this number had been dropping.{{sfn|Chávez Frías|2004}}During the economic crisis observed under President Maduro's presidency, medical professionals were forced to perform outdated treatments on patients.NEWS, Dreier, Hannah, Mastectomies on the rise in Venezuela amid economic crisis,weblink 24 March 2015, Associated Press, 24 March 2015,

See also

{{Wikipedia books|Venezuela}} {{Clear}}

Notes

{{Reflist|group=n}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

Articles
  • JOURNAL, {{SfnRef, Cannon, 2004, |last=Cannon|first=Barry|title=Venezuela, April 2002: Coup or Popular Rebellion? The Myth of a United Venezuela|date=21 June 2004|journal=Bulletin of Latin American Research|volume=23|issue=3|pages=285–302|doi=10.1111/j.0261-3050.2004.00109.x}}
Books
  • BOOK, Aalgaard, Wendy, Venezuela in Pictures, 2004, Lerner Pub Group, 978-0-8225-1172-4,weblink
  • BOOK, Aponte, Pedro Rafael, The Invention of the National in Venezuelan Art Music, 1920–1960, 2008, University of Pittsburgh, 978-1-109-05320-3,weblink 2 July 2015,
  • BOOK, Chasteen, John Charles, Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America, 2001, Norton, 978-0-393-05048-6,weblink
  • BOOK, Chávez Frías, Hugo Rafael, Hugo Chávez, Cumpliendo las metas del milenio, 2004, CDBpublicaciones, 978-980-6456-12-9,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511182837weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, Spanish,
  • BOOK, Coronil, Fernando, Fernando Coronil, The magical state: nature, money, and modernity in Venezuela, 1988, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-11602-0,weblink
  • BOOK, Cortés, Carlos E., Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia, 2013, SAGE Publications, 978-1-4522-1683-6,weblink 30 June 2015,
  • BOOK, Crow, JA, Epic of Latin America, 1980, University of California Press, 978-0-520-04107-3,
  • BOOK, Dickey, John Marcus, Christopher Columbus and his monument Columbia : being a concordance of choice tributes to the great Genoese, his grand discovery, and his greatness of mind and purpose, 1892, Rand, McNally & Co., 978-1-4460-2044-9,weblink 1 July 2015,
  • BOOK, Dydynski, Krzysztof, Beech, Charlotte, Venezuela, 2004, Lonely Planet Publications, 978-1-74104-197-2,
  • BOOK, Ewell, Judith, Venezuela: A Century of Change, 1984, C. Hurst & Co, 978-0-905838-36-6,
  • BOOK, Fichner-Ratus, Lois, Understanding Art, 2012, 10th, Cengage Learning, 978-1-111-83695-5,weblink
  • BOOK, Georgia Country Study Guide Volume 1 Strategic Information and Developments, 2013, Int'l Business Publications, USA, 978-1-4387-7443-5,weblink
  • BOOK, Gibson, Karen Bush, Venezuela: A Question and Answer Book, 2006, 978-0-7368-6413-8,weblink
  • BOOK, Gott, Richard, Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian Revolution, 2005, Verso, 978-1-84467-533-3,weblink
  • BOOK, Gregory, Desmond, Brute New World: The Rediscovery of Latin America in the Early 19th Century, 1992, British American Press, 978-1-85043-567-9,weblink 30 June 2015,
  • BOOK, Heritage, Andrew, Financial Times World Desk Reference, December 2002, Dorling Kindersley, 978-0-7894-8805-3,
  • BOOK, Josza Jr., Frank P., Baseball beyond Borders: From Distant Lands to the Major Leagues, 2013, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-9245-3,weblink
  • BOOK, Kelly, Janet, Palma, Perdo A., McCoy, Jennifer L., Myers, David J., The Unraveling of Representative Democracy in Venezuela, 2006, Johns Hopkins University Press, Chapter 10: The Syndrome of Economic Decline and the Quest for Change, 978-0-8018-8428-3,weblink
  • BOOK, Kipfer, Barbara Ann, Encyclopedic Dictionary of YUPArchaeology, 2000, Springer, 978-0-306-46158-3,
  • BOOK, López Maya, Margarita, Goumbri, Olivia Burlingame, The Venezuela Reader: The Building of a People's Democracy, 2005, Epica Task Force, Washington, D.C., Venezuela 2002–2003: Polarisation, Confrontation, and Violence, 978-0-918346-35-3,
  • BOOK, Massabié, Germán, Venezuela: A Petro-State Using Renewable Energies, 2008, Springer, 978-3-531-15994-2,
  • BOOK, McBeth, B. S., Juan Vicente Gómez and the Oil Companies in Venezuela, 1908–1935, 2002, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-89218-6,weblink
  • BOOK, McCaughan, Michael, The Battle of Venezuela, 2005, Seven Stories Press, 978-1-60980-116-8,weblink
  • BOOK, Ng, Yumi, Welcome to Venezuela, 2004, Gareth Stevens Publishing, 978-0-8368-3123-8,weblink 2 July 2015,
  • BOOK, Nichols, Elizabeth Gackstetter, Morse, Kimberley J., Venezuela, 2010, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-59884-569-3,weblink
  • BOOK, Salas, Miguel Tinker, Venezuela: What Everyone Needs to KnowRG, 2015, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-978328-1,weblink
  • BOOK, Stoan, Stephen K., Pablo Morillo and Venezuela, 1815–1820, 1974, Ohio State University Press, 978-0-8142-0219-7,weblink
  • BOOK, Tarver, H. Michael, Frederick, Julia C., The History of Venezuela, 2006, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-1-4039-6260-7,weblink 2 July 2015,
  • BOOK, Thomas, Hugh, Rivers of Gold: The Rise of the Spanish Empire, from Columbus to Magellan, 2005, Random House, 978-0-375-50204-0,weblink
  • BOOK, Wardrope, William, Venezuela, 2003, Gareth Stevens Publishing, 978-0-8368-2369-1,weblink
  • BOOK, Warhol, Tom, Tundra, 2006, Marshall Cavendish, 978-0-7614-2193-1,weblink
  • BOOK, Wunder, Sven, Oil wealth and the fate of the forest: a comparative study of eight tropical countries, 2003, Routledge, 978-0-203-98667-7,weblink
  • BOOK, Yergin, Daniel, Daniel Yergin, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power, 1991, Simon and Schuster, 978-1-4391-1012-6, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power,
  • BOOK, Zakaria, Fareed, Fareed Zakaria, From Wealth to Power, 1999, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-01035-9,
  • BOOK, Zamora, Margarita, Reading Columbus, 1993, University of California Press, 978-0-520-08297-7,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511090548weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, 23 April 2010,
Talks and interviews
  • WEB, Lander, Edgardo, Edgardo Lander, The Modern History of Venezuela (9 parts),weblink April 2014,

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Venezuela}} {{Venezuela topics}}{{Administrative divisions of Venezuela}}{{World Heritage Sites in Venezuela}}{{Navboxes|list ={{Countries of South America}}{{Andean Community of Nations}}{{Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA)}}{{Arab League}}{{Mercosur}}{{G15 nations}}{{Organization of American States}}{{Union of South American Nations topics}}}}{{Authority control}}

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