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New Zealand
[ temporary import ]
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{{about|the country}}{{redirect|NZ}}{{pp-move|small=yes}}{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{short description|Country in Oceania}}{{Good article}}{{coord|42|S|174|E|scale:5000000_source:GNS|display=title}}{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2019}}{{Use New Zealand English|date=May 2012}}







factoids
| common_name = New Zealand| image_flag = Flag of New Zealand.svg| alt_flag = Blue field with the Union Flag in the top right corner, and four red stars with white borders to the right.| image_coat = Coat of Arms of New Zealand.svg| alt_coat = A quartered shield, flanked by two figures, topped with a crown.| image_map = NZL_orthographic NaturalEarth.svg| alt_map = A map of the hemisphere centred on New Zealand, using an orthographic projection.Ross Dependency>territorial claim in the Antarctic, and Tokelau| map_width = 250px| other_symbol = {{unbulleted list
| "God Defend New Zealand"{{lower|0.2em|(File:New Zealand national anthem, performed by the United States Navy Band.wav|center)}}
| "God Save The Queen"{{lower|0.2em|{{refn|1="God Save the Queen" is officially a national anthem but is generally used only on regal and viceregal occasions.WEB,weblink Protocol for using New Zealand's National Anthems, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 17 February 2008, |group=n}}{{lower|0.2em|(File:United States Navy Band - God Save the Queen.ogg|center)}}}}
}}
National anthems of New Zealand>Anthems:| capital = Wellington41S27type:city}}| largest_city = Aucklanditem_style=white-space:nowrap;New Zealand English>English{{refnde facto official language due to its widespread use.NEW ZEALAND GOVERNMENT DATE=21 DECEMBER 2007 PAGE=89 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150124193521/HTTP://MFAT.GOVT.NZ/DOWNLOADS/HUMANRIGHTS/5TH-ICCPR-REPORT.PDFACCESSDATE=18 NOVEMBER 2015, |group=n}}Māori language>Māori|NZ Sign Language}}item_style=white-space:nowrap;
| 74.0% European{{refn|1=Ethnicity figures add to more than 100% as people could choose more than one ethnic group. |name="ethnicity"|group=n}}
| 14.9% Māori
| 11.8% Asian
| 7.4% Pacific peoples
| 1.2% ME/LA/African
| 1.7% Other
}}
2013 New Zealand census>2013New Zealanders>New Zealander{{nowrapKiwi (people)>Kiwi (informal)}}Unitary state>Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchyMonarchy of New Zealand>Monarch| leader_name1 = Elizabeth IIGovernor-General}}| leader_name2 = Patsy ReddyPrime Minister of New Zealand>Prime Minister| leader_name3 = Jacinda ArdernNew Zealand Parliament>Parliament(House of Representatives)Independence of New Zealand>Stages of independence| sovereignty_note = from the United KingdomSewell Ministry, 1856>Responsible government| established_date1 = 7 May 1856Dominion of New Zealand>Dominion| established_date2 = 26 September 1907Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947>Statute of Westminster adopted| established_date3 = 25 November 1947| area_rank = 75th| area_km2 = 268,021| area_sq_mi = 103,483 1=The proportion of New Zealand's area (excluding estuaries) covered by rivers, lakes and ponds, based on figures from the New Zealand Land Cover Database,HTTP://WWW.MFE.GOVT.NZ/ISSUES/LAND/LAND-COVER-DBASE/INDEX.HTML >TITLE=THE NEW ZEALAND LAND COVER DATABASE PUBLISHER=MINISTRY FOR THE ENVIRONMENT (NEW ZEALAND) >DATE=1 JULY 2009 group=n}}poptoday}}}}HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOVT.NZ/TOOLS_AND_SERVICES/POPULATION_CLOCK.ASPX>TITLE=POPULATION CLOCKSTATISTICS NEW ZEALAND>ACCESSDATE=14 APRIL 2016, The population estimate shown is automatically calculated daily at 00:00 UTC and is based on data obtained from the population clock on the date shown in the citation.| population_estimate_year = {{currentmonth}} {{currentyear}}| population_estimate_rank = 120th| population_census = 4,242,048| population_census_year = 2013{{formatnum:{{NZ population datay}}1}}{{formatnum:{{NZ population datay}}1}} | population_density_rank = 203rdPUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 9 October 2018, | GDP_PPP_rank =| GDP_PPP_year = 2018| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $40,266| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank =| GDP_nominal = $206 billion| GDP_nominal_rank =| GDP_nominal_year = 2018| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $41,616| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank =| Gini_year = 2014| Gini_change = | Gini = 33.0 PUBLISHER=STATISTICS NEW ZEALAND, 14 June 2015, | Gini_rank = 22nd| HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increase| HDI = 0.917 PUBLISHER=HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME>PAGE=22, 14 September 2018, | HDI_rank = 16th| currency = New Zealand dollar ($)| currency_code = NZD| iso3166code = NZTime in New Zealand>NZST{{refnChatham Standard Time Zone>separate time zone, 45 minutes ahead of the rest of New Zealand.|group=n}}| utc_offset = +12Time in New Zealand>NZDT{{refnPUBLISHER=NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENTARY COUNSEL OFFICELANGUAGE=EN-NZgroup=n}}| utc_offset_DST = +13ddmmyyyyyyyymmdddate and time notation in Australia>Australian date and time notation. See THE GOVT.NZ STYLE GUIDE >URL=HTTPS://WWW.GOVT.NZ/ABOUT/ABOUT-THIS-WEBSITE/STYLE-AND-DESIGN/THE-GOVT-NZ-STYLE-GUIDE/ ACCESSDATE=7 MARCH 2019, 9 December 2016, Right- and left-hand traffic#New Zealand>left| calling_code = +64| cctld = .nz}}New Zealand ( {{IPA-mi|aɔˈtÉ›aɾɔa|}}) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui), and the South Island (Te Waipounamu)—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some {{convert|2000|km|-2}} east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly {{convert|1000|km|-2}} south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal, and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that later were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands. In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion; it gained full statutory independence in 1947 and the British monarch remained the head of state. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent; the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is mainly derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration. The official languages are English, Māori, and NZ Sign Language, with English being very dominant.A developed country, New Zealand ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, health, education, protection of civil liberties, and economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy. The service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, and agriculture; international tourism is a significant source of revenue. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister, currently Jacinda Ardern. Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general, currently Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes. The Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau (a dependent territory); the Cook Islands and Niue (self-governing states in free association with New Zealand); and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum.{{TOC limit|3}}

Etymology

{{See also|New Zealand place names}}(File:Detail of 1657 map Polus Antarcticus by Jan Janssonius, showing Nova Zeelandia.png|thumb|left|Detail from a 1657 map showing the western coastline of "Nova Zeelandia". (In this map, north is at the bottom.)|alt=Brown square paper with Dutch writing and a thick red, curved line)Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General" (Dutch parliament). He wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain",WEB,weblink JOURNAL or DESCRIPTION By me ‘’Abel Jansz Tasman’’, Of a Voyage from ‘’Batavia’’ for making Discoveries of the ‘’Unknown South Land’’ in the year 1642., 26 March 2018, Abel, Tasman, Project Gutenberg Australia, referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616.WEB, John, Wilson, European discovery of New Zealand – Tasman's achievement, (Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand), March 2009,weblink 24 January 2011, WEB,weblinktm/scholarly/tei-Stout44-t2-body-d1-d1.html, The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout:Volume 44. Chapter 1, Discovery and Settlement, John Bathgate, NZETC, He named the country Staaten Land, in honour of the States-General of Holland, in the belief that it was part of the great southern continent., 17 August 2018, In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland.WEB, http:www.teara.govt.nz/en/european-discovery-of-new-zealand/3, Tasman’s achievement, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, September 2007, 16 February 2008, Wilson, John, BOOK, Mackay, Duncan, 1986, The Search For The Southern Land, Fraser, B, The New Zealand Book Of Events, Auckland, Methuen Publishing, Reed Methuen, 52–54, British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand.WEB, Malcolm, McKinnon, Malcolm McKinnon, Place names – Naming the country and the main islands, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, November 2009,weblink 24 January 2011, Aotearoa (pronounced {{IPAc-en|ˌ|aʊ|t|ɛəˈr|oʊ|.|ə}}; often translated as "land of the long white cloud"){{sfn|King|2003|p=41}} is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa originally referring to just the North Island.{{sfn|Hay|Maclagan|Gordon|2008|p = 72}} Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui (the fish of Māui) for the North Island and Te Waipounamu (the waters of greenstone) or Te Waka o Aoraki (the canoe of Aoraki) for the South Island.{{sfn|Mein Smith|2005|p=6}} Early European maps labelled the islands North (North Island), Middle (South Island) and South (Stewart Island / Rakiura).BOOK, Thomas, Brunner, Thomas Brunner,weblink The Great Journey: an expedition to explore the interior of the Middle Island, New Zealand, 1846-8, Royal Geographical Society, 1851, In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, and names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Names of NZ’s two main islands formalised, 10 October 2013, Maurice, Williamson, New Zealand Government, 1 May 2017, For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used, or both can be used together.{{clear left}}

History

File:Polynesian Migration.svg|right|thumb|upright=1.3|The Māori people are most likely descended from people who emigrated from Taiwan to Melanesia and then travelled east through to the alt=One set of arrows point from Taiwan to Melanesia to Fiji/Samoa and then to the Marquesas Islands. The population then spread, some going south to New Zealand and others going north to Hawai'i. A second set start in southern Asia and end in Melanesia.New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestationJOURNAL, McGlone, M., Wilmshurst, 10.1016/S1040-6182(98)00067-6, J. M., Dating initial Maori environmental impact in New Zealand, Quaternary International, 59, 5–16, 1999, 1999QuInt..59....5M, and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populationsJOURNAL, Murray-McIntosh, Rosalind P., Scrimshaw, Brian J., Hatfield, Peter J., Penny, David, Testing migration patterns and estimating founding population size in Polynesia by using human mtDNA sequences, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95, 15, 9047–52, 1998, 10.1073/pnas.95.15.9047, 1998PNAS...95.9047M, 21200, suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300,{{sfn|Mein Smith|2005|p=6}}JOURNAL, Wilmshurst, J. M., Anderson, A. J., Higham, T. F. G., Worthy, T. H., Dating the late prehistoric dispersal of Polynesians to New Zealand using the commensal Pacific rat, 10.1073/pnas.0801507105, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 22, 7676, 2008, 18523023, 2409139, 2008PNAS..105.7676W, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.JOURNAL, 10.1126/science.1166083, Moodley, Y., Linz, B., Yamaoka, Y., Windsor, H.M., Breurec, S., Wu, J.-Y., Maady, A., Bernhöft, S., Thiberge, J.-M., Phuanukoonnon, 9, S., Jobb, G., Siba, P., Graham, D.Y., Marshall, B.J., Achtman, M., The Peopling of the Pacific from a Bacterial Perspective, Science, 323, 5913, 527–530, 2009, 19164753, 2827536, 2009Sci...323..527M, Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi (tribes) and hapū (subtribes) who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other.BOOK, Ballara, Angela, Iwi: The Dynamics of Māori Tribal Organisation from C.1769 to C.1945, 1998, Victoria University Press, Wellington, 9780864733283, 1st, At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture.BOOK, Clark, Ross, 1994, Moriori and Māori: The Linguistic Evidence, Sutton, Douglas, The Origins of the First New Zealanders, Auckland, Auckland University Press, 123–135, WEB,weblink The impact of new arrivals, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, Davis, Denise, September 2007, 30 April 2010, The Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862, largely because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases also contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, and the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933.WEB, Denise, Davis, Māui, Solomon, 'Moriori – The impact of new arrivals', Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 23 March 2011, {{multiple image|align=left|direction=vertical|width= 170|image1=Thevenot - Hollandia Nova detecta 1644.pngAustralasia during the Golden Age of Dutch exploration ({{circa>1590sJoan Blaeu, {{circa>1644|lk=no}}.|alt1=Map depicts the western and northern coast of Australia (labelled "Nova Hollandia"), Tasmania ("Van Diemen's Land") and part of New Zealand's North Island (labelled "Nova Zeelandia").|image2=Cook chart of New Zealand.jpgFirst voyage of James Cook>first visit in 1769–70. The track of the Endeavour is also shown.|alt2=An engraving of a sketched coastline on white background}}The first Europeans known to have reached New Zealand were Dutch explorer Abel Tasman and his crew in 1642.{{sfn|Mein Smith|2005|p=23}} In a hostile encounter, four crew members were killed and at least one Māori was hit by canister shot.BOOK, 82, Two Worlds: First Meetings Between Maori and Europeans 1642–1772, Anne Salmond, Anne, Salmond, Penguin Books, Auckland, 0-670-83298-7, Europeans did not revisit New Zealand until 1769 when British explorer James Cook mapped almost the entire coastline.{{sfn|Mein Smith|2005|p=23}} Following Cook, New Zealand was visited by numerous European and North American whaling, sealing and trading ships. They traded European food, metal tools, weapons and other goods for timber, Māori food, artefacts and water.{{sfn|King|2003|p=122}} The introduction of the potato and the musket transformed Māori agriculture and warfare. Potatoes provided a reliable food surplus, which enabled longer and more sustained military campaigns.JOURNAL, Fitzpatrick, John, 2004, Food, warfare and the impact of Atlantic capitalism in Aotearo/New Zealand, Australasian Political Studies Association Conference: APSA 2004 Conference Papers,weblink yes,weblink 11 May 2011, The resulting intertribal Musket Wars encompassed over 600 battles between 1801 and 1840, killing 30,000–40,000 Māori.BOOK, Barry, Brailsford, Arrows of Plague, Wellington, 1972, 35, Hick Smith and Sons, 0-456-01060-2, From the early 19th century, Christian missionaries began to settle New Zealand, eventually converting most of the Māori population.BOOK, Brock, Peggy, Indigenous Peoples and Religious Change, Brill Academic Publishers, Broken Tongues and Foreign Hearts, Wagstrom, Thor, Boston, 2005, 978-90-04-13899-5, 71 and 73, The Māori population declined to around 40% of its pre-contact level during the 19th century; introduced diseases were the major factor.BOOK, May the people live: a history of Māori health development 1900–1920, Raeburn, Lange, Auckland University Press, 1999, 978-1-86940-214-3, 18, File:Treatyofwaitangi.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The Waitangi sheet from the alt=A torn sheet of paperIn 1788 Captain Arthur Phillip assumed the position of Governor of the new British colony of New South Wales which according to his commission included New Zealand.WEB,weblink A Nation sub-divided, Australian Heritage, Heritage Australia Publishing, 2011, 27 December 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150228231623weblink">weblink 28 February 2015, dmy-all, The British Government appointed James Busby as British Resident to New Zealand in 1832 following a petition from northern Māori. In 1835, following an announcement of impending French settlement by Charles de Thierry, the nebulous United Tribes of New Zealand sent a Declaration of Independence to King William IV of the United Kingdom asking for protection.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Busby, James, James, Rutherford,weblink 7 January 2011, April 2009, originally published in 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, Alexander Hare McLintock, Ongoing unrest, the proposed settlement of New Zealand by the New Zealand Company (which had already sent its first ship of surveyors to buy land from Māori) and the dubious legal standing of the Declaration of Independence prompted the Colonial Office to send Captain William Hobson to claim sovereignty for the United Kingdom and negotiate a treaty with the Māori.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Sir George Gipps,weblink 7 January 2011, April 2009, originally published in 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, The Treaty of Waitangi was first signed in the Bay of Islands on 6 February 1840.WEB, John, Wilson, Government and nation – The origins of nationhood, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 7 January 2011, In response to the New Zealand Company's attempts to establish an independent settlement in WellingtonENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Settlement from 1840 to 1852,weblink 7 January 2011, April 2009, originally published in 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, and French settlers purchasing land in Akaroa,ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bernard, Foster, Alexander, McLintock, Akaroa, French Settlement At,weblink 7 January 2011, April 2009, originally published in 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, Hobson declared British sovereignty over all of New Zealand on 21 May 1840, even though copies of the Treaty were still circulating throughout the country for Māori to sign.ENCYCLOPEDIA, K, Simpson, Alexander, McLintock, Hobson, William – Biography,weblink 7 January 2011, September 2010, Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, With the signing of the Treaty and declaration of sovereignty the number of immigrants, particularly from the United Kingdom, began to increase.WEB, Jock, Phillips, April 2010, British immigration and the New Zealand Company,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 7 January 2011, File:1863 Meeting of Settlers and Maoris at Hawke's Bay, New Zealand.jpg|thumb|upright=1.3|A meeting of European and Māori inhabitants of alt=Black and white engraving depicting a crowd of peopleNew Zealand, still part of the colony of New South Wales, became a separate Colony of New Zealand on 1 July 1841.WEB, Crown colony era – the Governor-General,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, March 2009, 7 January 2011, The colony gained a representative government in 1852 and the first Parliament met in 1854.WEB, John, Wilson, Government and nation – The constitution, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 2 February 2011, See pages 2 and 3. In 1856 the colony effectively became self-governing, gaining responsibility over all domestic matters other than native policy. (Control over native policy was granted in the mid-1860s.) Following concerns that the South Island might form a separate colony, premier Alfred Domett moved a resolution to transfer the capital from Auckland to a locality near Cook Strait.BOOK, Temple, Philip, 1980, Wellington Yesterday, 0-86868-012-5, John McIndoe, Philip Temple, Wellington was chosen for its central location, with Parliament officially sitting there for the first time in 1865.WEB, Parliament moves to Wellington,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 27 April 2017, January 2017, As immigrant numbers increased, conflicts over land led to the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s and 1870s, resulting in the loss and confiscation of much Māori land.WEB,weblink New Zealand's 19th-century wars – overview, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, April 2009, 7 January 2011, In 1891 the Liberal Party came to power as the first organised political party.WEB, John, Wilson, History – Liberal to Labour, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 27 April 2017, The Liberal Government, led by Richard Seddon for most of its period in office,{{DNZB|last=Hamer |first=David |id=2s11 |title= Seddon, Richard John |accessdate=27 April 2017}} passed many important social and economic measures. In 1893 New Zealand was the first nation in the world to grant all women the right to vote and in 1894 pioneered the adoption of compulsory arbitration between employers and unions.JOURNAL, 10.1111/1467-8543.00069, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 35, 4, 1997, 567–591, Strategy and Trade Union Effectiveness in a Neo-liberal Environment, Peter, Boxall, Peter, Haynes,weblink PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511134417weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, In 1907, at the request of the New Zealand Parliament, King Edward VII proclaimed New Zealand a Dominion within the British Empire,{{London Gazette |issue= 28058|date= 10 September 1907|page= 6149|title=Proclamation}} reflecting its self-governing status.WEB, Dominion status – Becoming a dominion,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 26 April 2017, September 2014, In 1947 the country adopted the Statute of Westminster, confirming that the British Parliament could no longer legislate for New Zealand without the consent of New Zealand.Early in the 20th century, New Zealand was involved in world affairs, fighting in the First and Second World WarsWEB,weblink War and Society, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 7 January 2011, and suffering through the Great Depression.WEB, Brian Easton (economist), Brian, Easton, Economic history – Interwar years and the great depression, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, April 2010,weblink 7 January 2011, The depression led to the election of the First Labour Government and the establishment of a comprehensive welfare state and a protectionist economy.WEB, Mark, Derby, Strikes and labour disputes – Wars, depression and first Labour government, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, May 2010,weblink 1 February 2011, New Zealand experienced increasing prosperity following the Second World WarWEB, Brian, Easton, Economic history – Great boom, 1935–1966, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, November 2010,weblink 1 February 2011, and Māori began to leave their traditional rural life and move to the cities in search of work.WEB, Basil, Keane, Te Māori i te ohanga – Māori in the economy – Urbanisation, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, November 2010,weblink 7 January 2011, A Māori protest movement developed, which criticised Eurocentrism and worked for greater recognition of Māori culture and of the Treaty of Waitangi.WEB, Te Ahukaramū, Royal, Māori – Urbanisation and renaissance, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009, 1 February 2011,weblink In 1975, a Waitangi Tribunal was set up to investigate alleged breaches of the Treaty, and it was enabled to investigate historic grievances in 1985. The government has negotiated settlements of these grievances with many iwi,BOOK, Healing the past, building a future: A Guide to Treaty of Waitangi Claims and Negotiations with the Crown,weblink Office of Treaty Settlements, 978-0-478-32436-5, 26 April 2017, PDF, March 2015, although Māori claims to the foreshore and seabed have proved controversial in the 2000s.REPORT, Report on the Crown's Foreshore and Seabed Policy,weblink Minister of Justice (New Zealand), Ministry of Justice, 26 April 2017, en-NZ, WEB, Barker, Fiona, Debate about the foreshore and seabed,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 26 April 2017, June 2012,

Government and politics

{{multiple image| align = right| direction =| width =| image1 = Queen Elizabeth II in March 2015.jpg| width1 = 149| alt1 = A smiling woman wearing a purple dress and matching hat| caption1 = Elizabeth II, Queen of New Zealand| link1 = Elizabeth II| image2 = Ardern Cropped.png| width2 = 157| alt2 = A smiling woman wearing a black dress| caption2 = Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minister of New Zealand| link2 = Jacinda Ardern}}New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy,WEB, New Zealand’s Constitution,weblink The Governor-General of New Zealand, 13 January 2010, although its constitution is not codified.NEWS, Factsheet – New Zealand – Political Forces, The Economist, The Economist Group, 15 February 2005,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060514204533weblink">weblink 14 May 2006, 4 August 2009, Elizabeth II is the Queen of New ZealandWEB, Royal Titles Act 1974, Section 1,weblink February 1974, New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office, 8 January 2011, and thus the head of state.JOURNAL, 1 January 1987, Constitution Act 1986, Section 2.1, New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office,weblink The Sovereign in right of New Zealand is the head of State of New Zealand, and shall be known by the royal style and titles proclaimed from time to time., 15 July 2018, The Queen is represented by the governor-general, whom she appoints on the advice of the prime minister.WEB, The Role of the Governor-General,weblink The Governor-General of New Zealand, 6 July 2017, The governor-general can exercise the Crown's prerogative powers, such as reviewing cases of injustice and making appointments of ministers, ambassadors and other key public officials,JOURNAL, Bruce, Harris, Replacement of the Royal Prerogative in New Zealand, 2009, 23, New Zealand Universities Law Review, 285–314,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110718005846weblink">weblink 18 July 2011, 28 August 2016, and in rare situations, the reserve powers (e.g. the power to dissolve parliament or refuse the royal assent of a bill into law).WEB, The Reserve Powers, The Governor-General of New Zealand,weblink 8 January 2011, The powers of the monarch and the governor-general are limited by constitutional constraints and they cannot normally be exercised without the advice of ministers.The New Zealand Parliament holds legislative power and consists of the Queen and the House of Representatives.WEB, Parliament Brief: What is Parliament?,weblink New Zealand Parliament, 30 November 2016, It also included an upper house, the Legislative Council, until this was abolished in 1950. The supremacy of parliament over the Crown and other government institutions was established in England by the Bill of Rights 1689 and has been ratified as law in New Zealand. The House of Representatives is democratically elected and a government is formed from the party or coalition with the majority of seats. If no majority is formed, a minority government can be formed if support from other parties during confidence and supply votes is assured. The governor-general appoints ministers under advice from the prime minister, who is by convention the parliamentary leader of the governing party or coalition.WEB, McLean, Gavin, Premiers and prime ministers,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, February 2015, 30 November 2016, en, Cabinet, formed by ministers and led by the prime minister, is the highest policy-making body in government and responsible for deciding significant government actions.WEB, John, Wilson, Government and nation – System of government, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, November 2010,weblink 9 January 2011, Members of Cabinet make major decisions collectively, and are therefore collectively responsible for the consequences of these decisions.WEB, Principles of Cabinet decision making, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Cabinet Manual, 2008,weblink 1 December 2016, A parliamentary general election must be called no later than three years after the previous election.WEB, The electoral cycle,weblink Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Cabinet Manual, 30 April 2017, 2008, Almost all general elections between {{NZ election link year|1853}} and {{NZ election link year|1993}} were held under the first-past-the-post voting system.WEB, First past the post – the road to MMP,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, September 2009, 9 January 2011, Since the {{NZ election link|1996}}, a form of proportional representation called mixed-member proportional (MMP) has been used. Under the MMP system, each person has two votes; one is for a candidate standing in the voter's electorate and the other is for a party. Since the {{NZ election link|2014}}, there have been 71 electorates (which include seven Māori electorates in which only Māori can optionally vote),WEB,weblink Reviewing electorate numbers and boundaries, Electoral Commission (New Zealand), Electoral Commission, 8 May 2005, 7 July 2018, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111109013802weblink">weblink 9 November 2011, and the remaining 49 of the 120 seats are assigned so that representation in parliament reflects the party vote, with the threshold that a party must win at least one electorate or 5% of the total party vote before it is eligible for a seat.WEB,weblink Sainte-Laguë allocation formula, Electoral Commission, 4 February 2013, 31 May 2014, File:Seddon Statue in Parliament Grounds.jpg|thumb|A statue of Richard Seddon, the "Beehive" (Executive Wing), and Parliament House (right), in Parliament Grounds, alt=A block of buildings fronted by a large statue.Elections since the 1930s have been dominated by two political parties, National and Labour. Between March 2005 and August 2006, New Zealand became the first country in the world in which all the highest offices in the land—head of state, governor-general, prime minister, speaker and chief justice—were occupied simultaneously by women.BOOK, Paxton, Pamela, Hughes, Melanie M., Women, Politics, and Power: A Global Perspective, 2015, CQ Press, 978-1-48-337701-8, 107,weblink 25 July 2017, en, The current prime minister is Jacinda Ardern, who has been in office since 26 October 2017.NEWS, Jacinda Ardern sworn in as new Prime Minister,weblink 26 October 2017, New Zealand Herald, 26 October 2017, en-NZ, She is the country's third female prime minister.NEWS, Female political leaders have been smashing glass ceilings for ages,weblink 19 July 2018, Stuff.co.nz, Fairfax NZ, 27 October 2017, en, New Zealand's judiciary, headed by the chief justice,WEB, Role of the Chief Justice,weblink Courts of New Zealand, 9 June 2018, includes the Supreme Court, Court of Appeal, the High Court, and subordinate courts.WEB, Structure of the court system,weblink Courts of New Zealand, 9 June 2018, Judges and judicial officers are appointed non-politically and under strict rules regarding tenure to help maintain judicial independence. This theoretically allows the judiciary to interpret the law based solely on the legislation enacted by Parliament without other influences on their decisions.WEB,weblink The Judiciary, Minister of Justice (New Zealand), Ministry of Justice, 9 January 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101124005516weblink">weblink 24 November 2010, New Zealand is identified as one of the world's most stable and well-governed states.WEB, The Fragile States Index 2016,weblink The Fund for Peace, 30 November 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170204213240weblink">weblink 4 February 2017, {{As of|2017|alt=As at 2017}}, the country was ranked fourth in the strength of its democratic institutions,WEB, Democracy Index 2017,weblink Economist Intelligence Unit, 9 December 2018, 5, 2018, and first in government transparency and lack of corruption.WEB, Corruption Perceptions Index 2017,weblink Transparency International, 9 December 2018, 21 February 2018, A 2017 Human Rights Report by the U.S. Department of State noted that the government generally respected the rights of individuals, but voiced concerns regarding the social status of the Māori population.WEB, New Zealand,weblink Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2017, United States Department of State, 9 December 2018, New Zealand ranks highly for civic participation in the political process, with 77% voter turnout during recent elections, compared to an {{abbr|OECD|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development}} average of 69%.WEB, New Zealand,weblink OECD Better Life Index, 30 November 2016, 2016, {{See also|International rankings of New Zealand}}

Foreign relations and military

File:E 003261 E Maoris in North Africa July 1941.jpg|thumb|Māori Battalion alt=A squad of men kneel in the desert sand while performing a war danceEarly colonial New Zealand allowed the British Government to determine external trade and be responsible for foreign policy.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, External Relations,weblink 7 January 2011, April 2009, originally published in 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, The 1923 and 1926 Imperial Conferences decided that New Zealand should be allowed to negotiate its own political treaties and the first commercial treaty was ratified in 1928 with Japan. On 3 September 1939 New Zealand allied itself with Britain and declared war on Germany with Prime Minister Michael Joseph Savage proclaiming, "Where she goes, we go; where she stands, we stand."WEB, Michael Joseph Savage,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, July 2010, 29 January 2011, In 1951 the United Kingdom became increasingly focused on its European interests,WEB,weblink Globalisation, Sovereignty, and the Transformation of New Zealand Foreign Policy, PDF, Robert, Patman, 12 March 2007, Working Paper 21/05, Centre for Strategic Studies, Victoria University of Wellington, 8, 2005, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070925192858weblink">weblink 25 September 2007, while New Zealand joined Australia and the United States in the ANZUS security treaty.WEB,weblink Department Of External Affairs: Security Treaty between Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America, September 1951, Government of Australia, Australian Government, 11 January 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110629153135weblink">weblink 29 June 2011, The influence of the United States on New Zealand weakened following protests over the Vietnam War,WEB, The Vietnam War,weblink New Zealand History, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, June 2008, 11 January 2011, the refusal of the United States to admonish France after the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior,WEB, Sinking the Rainbow Warrior – nuclear-free New Zealand,weblink New Zealand History, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, August 2008, 11 January 2011, disagreements over environmental and agricultural trade issues and New Zealand's nuclear-free policy.WEB, Nuclear-free legislation – nuclear-free New Zealand,weblink New Zealand History, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, August 2008, 11 January 2011, BOOK, Lange, David, David Lange, Nuclear Free: The New Zealand Way, Penguin Books, 1990, New Zealand, 0-14-014519-2, Despite the United States' suspension of ANZUS obligations the treaty remained in effect between New Zealand and Australia, whose foreign policy has followed a similar historical trend.WEB, Australia in brief,weblink Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Australia), Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 11 January 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101222174922weblink">weblink 22 December 2010, Close political contact is maintained between the two countries, with free trade agreements and travel arrangements that allow citizens to visit, live and work in both countries without restrictions.WEB, New Zealand country brief,weblink Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 11 January 2011, {{As of|2013|alt=In 2013}} there were about 650,000 New Zealand citizens living in Australia, which is equivalent to 15% of the resident population of New Zealand.NEWS, John, Collett,weblink Kiwis face hurdles in pursuit of lost funds, 4 September 2013, 4 October 2013, File:ANZAC Day service at the National War Memorial - Flickr - NZ Defence Force (20).jpg|thumb|alt=A soldier in a green army uniform faces forwardsNew Zealand has a strong presence among the Pacific Island countries. A large proportion of New Zealand's aid goes to these countries and many Pacific people migrate to New Zealand for employment.WEB, Geoff, Bertram, South Pacific economic relations – Aid, remittances and tourism, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, April 2010,weblink 11 January 2011, Permanent migration is regulated under the 1970 Samoan Quota Scheme and the 2002 Pacific Access Category, which allow up to 1,100 Samoan nationals and up to 750 other Pacific Islanders respectively to become permanent New Zealand residents each year. A seasonal workers scheme for temporary migration was introduced in 2007 and in 2009 about 8,000 Pacific Islanders were employed under it.WEB,weblink Making migration work: Lessons from New Zealand, Stephen, Howes, November 2010, 23 March 2011, Development Policy Centre, New Zealand is involved in the Pacific Islands Forum, the Pacific Community, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Regional Forum (including the East Asia Summit). New Zealand is a member of the United Nations,WEB, Member States of the United Nations, United Nations,weblink 11 January 2011, the Commonwealth of NationsWEB, New Zealand,weblink The Commonwealth, 1 December 2016, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD),WEB, Members and partners, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development,weblink 11 January 2011, and participates in the Five Power Defence Arrangements.WEB, The future of the Five Power Defence Arrangements,weblink The Strategist, 1 December 2016, 8 November 2012, New Zealand's armed forces—the Defence Force—comprise the New Zealand Army, the Royal New Zealand Air Force and the Royal New Zealand Navy.WEB,weblink About Us: Role and Responsibilities, New Zealand Defence Force, 11 January 2011, New Zealand's national defence needs are modest, since a direct attack is unlikely.BOOK, New Zealand In World Affairs, Volume IV: 1990–2005, Roderic, Alley, Victoria University Press, 2007, 132, New Zealand Defence and Security Policy,1990–2005, Ayson, Robert, 978-0-86473-548-5, Wellington, However, its military has had a global presence. The country fought in both world wars, with notable campaigns in Gallipoli, Crete,WEB, The Battle for Crete,weblink New Zealand History, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, May 2010, 9 January 2011, El AlameinWEB, El Alamein – The North African Campaign,weblink New Zealand History, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, May 2009, 9 January 2011, and Cassino.WEB,weblink World War Two: The Battle of Monte Cassino, Richard, Holmes, Richard Holmes (military historian), September 2010, 9 January 2011, The Gallipoli campaign played an important part in fostering New Zealand's national identityNEWS, Gallipoli stirred new sense of national identity says Clark, April 2005, New Zealand Herald,weblink 9 January 2011, BOOK, Battlefield tourism: history, place and interpretation, Bruce, Prideaux, Chris, Ryan, 18, 2007, Elsevier Science, 978-0-08-045362-0, and strengthened the ANZAC tradition it shares with Australia.WEB, The Spirit of ANZAC, Arthur, Burke,weblink ANZAC Day Commemoration Committee, 11 January 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101226110037weblink">weblink 26 December 2010, In addition to Vietnam and the two world wars, New Zealand fought in the Second Boer War,WEB, South African War 1899–1902,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, February 2009, 11 January 2011, the Korean War,WEB, New Zealand in the Korean War,weblink New Zealand History, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 1 December 2016, the Malayan Emergency,WEB, NZ and the Malayan Emergency,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, August 2010, 11 January 2011, the Gulf War and the Afghanistan War. It has contributed forces to several regional and global peacekeeping missions, such as those in Cyprus, Somalia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Sinai, Angola, Cambodia, the Iran–Iraq border, Bougainville, East Timor, and the Solomon Islands.WEB,weblink New Zealand Defence Force Overseas Operations, New Zealand Defence Force, 17 February 2008, January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080125104529weblink">weblink 25 January 2008,

Local government and external territories

File:NZL orthographic NaturalEarth labelled en.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.8|alt=Map with the North, South, Stewart/Rakiura, Tokelau, Cook, Niue, Kermadec, Chatham, Bounty, Antipodes, Snare, Auckland and Campbell Islands highlighted. New Zealand's segment of Antarctica (the Ross Dependency) is also highlighted.|Locations of the countries and territories within the Realm of New ZealandRealm of New ZealandThe early European settlers divided New Zealand into provinces, which had a degree of autonomy.WEB,weblink New Zealand's Nine Provinces (1853–76), Friends of the Hocken Collections, University of Otago, March 2000, 13 January 2011, Because of financial pressures and the desire to consolidate railways, education, land sales and other policies, government was centralised and the provinces were abolished in 1876.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Provincial Divergencies,weblink 7 January 2011, April 2009, originally published in 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, The provinces are remembered in regional public holidaysWEB, Swarbrick, Nancy, Public holidays,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 25 June 2017, en, September 2016, and sporting rivalries.WEB, Overview – regional rugby,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, September 2010, 13 January 2011, Since 1876, various councils have administered local areas under legislation determined by the central government.JOURNAL, Sustaining Regions, 6, 1, 2007, Alternatives to Amalgamation in Australian Local Government: Lessons from the New Zealand Experience, Dollery, Brian, Keogh, Ciaran, Crase, Lin,weblinkDollery%20sustaining%20regions%20article.pdf, 50–69, yes, https:web.archive.org/web/20070829001212weblinkDollery%20sustaining%20regions%20article.pdf, 29 August 2007, In 1989, the government reorganised local government into the current two-tier structure of regional councils and territorial authorities.BOOK, Merger mania: the assault on local government, Andrew, Sancton, 2000, McGill-Queen's University Press, 84, 0-7735-2163-1, The 249 municipalities that existed in 1975 have now been consolidated into 67 territorial authorities and 11 regional councils.WEB, http:www.stats.govt.nz/~/media/Statistics/Methods%20and%20Services/Tables/Subnational%20population%20estimates/subpopest2001-10.ashx,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110610051916weblink">weblink 10 June 2011, Subnational population estimates at 30 June 2010 (boundaries at 1 November 2010), 26 October 2010, Statistics New Zealand, 2 April 2011, The regional councils' role is to regulate "the natural environment with particular emphasis on resource management", while territorial authorities are responsible for sewage, water, local roads, building consents and other local matters.{{sfn|Smelt|2009|p=33}}WEB, Glossary,weblink Department of Internal Affairs, 28 August 2016, Five of the territorial councils are unitary authorities and also act as regional councils. The territorial authorities consist of 13 city councils, 53 district councils, and the Chatham Islands Council. While officially the Chatham Islands Council is not a unitary authority, it undertakes many functions of a regional council.WEB, Chatham Islands Council Act 1995 No 41,weblink 29 July 1995, New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office, 8 August 2017, en-NZ, The Realm of New Zealand, one of 16 Commonwealth realms,BOOK, Gimpel, Diane, Monarchies, 2011, ABDO Publishing Company, 978-1-617-14792-0, 22,weblink 18 November 2016, is the entire area over which the Queen of New Zealand is sovereign, and comprises New Zealand, Tokelau, the Ross Dependency, the Cook Islands and Niue. The Cook Islands and Niue are self-governing states in free association with New Zealand.WEB,weblink System of Government, Government of Niue, 13 January 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101113024046weblink">weblink 13 November 2010, WEB, Government of the Cook Islands, Government – Structure, Personnel,weblink 13 January 2010, The New Zealand Parliament cannot pass legislation for these countries, but with their consent can act on behalf of them in foreign affairs and defence. Tokelau is classified as a non-self-governing territory, but is administered by a council of three elders (one from each Tokelauan atoll).WEB, Tokelau Government,weblink Government of Tokelau., 16 November 2016, The Ross Dependency is New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica, where it operates the Scott Base research facility.WEB, Scott Base,weblink Antarctica New Zealand, 13 January 2010, New Zealand nationality law treats all parts of the realm equally, so most people born in New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau and the Ross Dependency are New Zealand citizens.WEB, Citizenship Act 1977 No 61,weblink Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office, 26 May 2017, en-NZ, 1 December 1977, {{Refn|A person born on or after 1 January 2006 acquires New Zealand citizenship at birth only if at least one parent is a New Zealand citizen or permanent resident. People born on or before 31 December 2005 acquired citizenship at birth (jus soli).WEB,weblink Check if you’re a New Zealand citizen, Department of Internal Affairs, 20 January 2015, |group=n}}{{Administrative divisions of New Zealand}}

Environment

Geography

{{Hatnote|(File:commons-logo.svg|12px|link=|alt=) See also: (commons:Atlas of New Zealand|Atlas of New Zealand) at Wikimedia Commons}}File:New Zealand 23 October 2002.jpg|right|thumbnail|upright|The snow-capped Southern Alps dominate the South Island, while the North Island's alt=Islands of New Zealand as seen from satelliteNew Zealand is located near the centre of the water hemisphere and is made up of two main islands and a number of smaller islands. The two main islands (the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu) are separated by Cook Strait, {{convert|22|km|mi}} wide at its narrowest point.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, The Sea Floor,weblink 13 January 2011, April 2009, originally published in 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, Besides the North and South Islands, the five largest inhabited islands are Stewart Island (across the Foveaux Strait), Chatham Island, Great Barrier Island (in the Hauraki Gulf),WEB,weblink Hauraki Gulf islands, Auckland City Council, 13 January 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101225020855weblink">weblink 25 December 2010, d'Urville Island (in the Marlborough Sounds)WEB, Hindmarsh, 2006,weblink Discovering D'Urville, Heritage New Zealand, 13 January 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511071150weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, and Waiheke Island (about {{convert|22|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} from central Auckland).WEB,weblink Distance tables, Auckland Coastguard, 2 March 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110123074649weblink">weblink 23 January 2011, {{multiple image|align=left|direction=vertical|width= 220|image1=Mt Cook, NZ.jpg|caption1=Aoraki / Mount Cook is the highest point of New Zealand, at 3,754 metres|alt1=A large mountain with a lake in the foreground|image2=New Zealand moutain ranges.jpg|caption2=The Southern Alps stretch for 500 kilometres down the South Island|alt2=Snow-capped mountain range}}New Zealand is long and narrow (over {{convert|1600|km|mi}} along its north-north-east axis with a maximum width of {{convert|400|km|mi}}),BOOK, Heinemann New Zealand atlas, Heinemann (publisher), Heinemann Publishers, D. W., McKenzie, 1987, 0-7900-0187-X, with about {{convert|15000|km|mi|-2|abbr=on}} of coastline and a total land area of {{convert|268000|km2|-2}}.WEB,weblink Geography, Statistics New Zealand, 21 December 2009, 1999, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100522061011weblink">weblink 22 May 2010, Because of its far-flung outlying islands and long coastline, the country has extensive marine resources. Its exclusive economic zone is one of the largest in the world, covering more than 15 times its land area.BOOK, Offshore Options: Managing Environmental Effects in New Zealand's Exclusive Economic Zone, Ministry for the Environment (New Zealand), Ministry for the Environment, 2005, Wellington,weblink 0-478-25916-6, PDF, 23 June 2017, The South Island is the largest landmass of New Zealand and is the 12th largest island in the world. It is divided along its length by the Southern Alps.BOOK, The rise and fall of the Southern Alps, Glen, Coates, Canterbury University Press, 2002, 15, 0-908812-93-0, There are 18 peaks over {{convert|3000|m|ft}}, the highest of which is Aoraki / Mount Cook at {{convert|3754|m|ft}}.{{sfn|Garden|2005|p=52}} Fiordland's steep mountains and deep fiords record the extensive ice age glaciation of this southwestern corner of the South Island.WEB, David, Grant, Southland places – Fiordland’s coast, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 14 January 2011, The North Island is the 14th largest island in the world and is less mountainous but is marked by volcanism.WEB, Central North Island volcanoes, Department of Conservation, 14 January 2011,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101229222806weblink">weblink 29 December 2010, yes, The highly active Taupo Volcanic Zone has formed a large volcanic plateau, punctuated by the North Island's highest mountain, Mount Ruapehu ({{convert|2797|m}}). The plateau also hosts the country's largest lake, Lake Taupo,WEB,weblink Carl, Walrond, Natural environment – Geography and geology, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009, 14 January 2010, nestled in the caldera of one of the world's most active supervolcanoes.WEB,weblink Taupo, GNS Science, 2 April 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110324025353weblink">weblink 24 March 2011, The country owes its varied topography, and perhaps even its emergence above the waves, to the dynamic boundary it straddles between the Pacific and Indo-Australian Plates.WEB, Keith, Lewis, Scott, Nodder, Lionel, Carter, Sea floor geology – Active plate boundaries, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 4 February 2011, New Zealand is part of Zealandia, a microcontinent nearly half the size of Australia that gradually submerged after breaking away from the Gondwanan supercontinent.JOURNAL, Wallis, G. P., Trewick, S. A., 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04294.x, New Zealand phylogeography: evolution on a small continent, Molecular Ecology, 18, 17, 3548–3580, 2009, 19674312, About 25 million years ago, a shift in plate tectonic movements began to contort and crumple the region. This is now most evident in the Southern Alps, formed by compression of the crust beside the Alpine Fault. Elsewhere the plate boundary involves the subduction of one plate under the other, producing the Puysegur Trench to the south, the Hikurangi Trench east of the North Island, and the Kermadec and Tonga TrenchesJOURNAL, 10.1023/A:1026514914220, Marine Geophysical Researches, 21, 5, 489–512, 2000, Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series, Dawn, Wright, Sherman, Bloomer, Christopher, MacLeod, Brian, Taylor, Andrew, Goodliffe, 2000MarGR..21..489W, further north.New Zealand is part of a region known as Australasia, together with Australia.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Australasia, New Zealand Oxford Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 2005, 9780195584516, 10.1093/acref/9780195584516.001.0001, It also forms the southwestern extremity of the geographic and ethnographic region called Polynesia.BOOK, Hobbs, Joseph J., Fundamentals of World Regional Geography, 2016, Cengage Learning, 9781305854956, 367,weblink en, The term Oceania is often used to denote the wider region encompassing the Australian continent, New Zealand and various islands in the Pacific Ocean that are not included in the seven-continent model.BOOK, Hillstrom, Kevin, Hillstrom, Laurie Collier, Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica: A Continental Overview of Environmental Issues, 2003, ABC-CLIO, 9781576076941, 3, 25, …defined here as the continent nation of Australia, New Zealand, and twenty-two other island countries and territories sprinkled over more than 40 million square kilometres of the South Pacific., File:NZ Landscape.jpg|Rural scene near QueenstownFile:Emerald Lakes, New Zealand.jpg|The Emerald Lakes, Mt TongariroFile:Lake Gunn.jpg|Lake GunnFile:Pencarrow Head, Wellington, New Zealand from Santa Regina, 24 Feb. 2007.jpg|Pencarrow Head, Wellington

Climate

New Zealand's climate is predominantly temperate maritime (Köppen: Cfb), with mean annual temperatures ranging from {{convert|10|°C|0|abbr=on}} in the south to {{convert|16|°C|0|abbr=on}} in the north.WEB, Brett, Mullan, Andrew, Tait, Craig, Thompson, Climate – New Zealand’s climate, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 15 January 2011, Historical maxima and minima are {{convert|42.4|°C|2|abbr=on}} in Rangiora, Canterbury and {{convert|-25.6|°C|2|abbr=on}} in Ranfurly, Otago.WEB,weblink Summary of New Zealand climate extremes, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, 2004, 30 April 2010, Conditions vary sharply across regions from extremely wet on the West Coast of the South Island to almost semi-arid in Central Otago and the Mackenzie Basin of inland Canterbury and subtropical in Northland.WEB, Carl, Walrond, Natural environment – Climate, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 15 January 2011, Of the seven largest cities, Christchurch is the driest, receiving on average only {{convert|640|mm|in}} of rain per year and Wellington the wettest, receiving almost twice that amount.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110503221956weblink">weblink 3 May 2011, Mean monthly rainfall, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, XLS, 4 February 2011, Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch all receive a yearly average of more than 2,000 hours of sunshine. The southern and southwestern parts of the South Island have a cooler and cloudier climate, with around 1,400–1,600 hours; the northern and northeastern parts of the South Island are the sunniest areas of the country and receive about 2,400–2,500 hours.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081015102420weblink">weblink 15 October 2008, Mean monthly sunshine hours, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, XLS, 4 February 2011, The general snow season is early June until early October, though cold snaps can occur outside this season.WEB, New Zealand climate and weather,weblink Tourism New Zealand, 13 November 2016, Snowfall is common in the eastern and southern parts of the South Island and mountain areas across the country.File:Autumn in New Zealand.jpg|Autumn in WellingtonFile:New Zealand snow.jpg|Central Plateau in winterFile:A Walk Along the Avon.jpg|Spring in Hagley Park, ChristchurchFile:Scorching Bay.jpg|Scorching Bay beach in summerThe table below lists climate normals for the warmest and coldest months in New Zealand's six largest cities. North Island cities are generally warmest in February. South Island cities are warmest in January.{| class="wikitable collapsible sortable" style="margin:auto; width:25%; "!Location!Jan/Feb (°C)!Jan/Feb (°F)!July (°C)!July (°F)Auckland >| 58/45Wellington >| 52/42Christchurch >| 51/33Hamilton, New Zealand>Hamilton 24/13 75/56 14/4 57/39Tauranga >| 58/42Dunedin >| 50/37

Biodiversity

File:TeTuatahianui.jpg|thumb|upright|The endemic flightless alt=Kiwi amongst sticksNew Zealand's geographic isolation for 80 million yearsJOURNAL, Cooper, R., Millener, P., 10.1016/0169-5347(93)90004-9, The New Zealand biota: Historical background and new research, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 8, 12, 429, 1993, and island biogeography has influenced evolution of the country's species of animals, fungi and plants. Physical isolation has caused biological isolation, resulting in a dynamic evolutionary ecology with examples of very distinctive plants and animals as well as populations of widespread species.Trewick SA, Morgan-Richards M. 2014. New Zealand Wild Life. Penguin, New Zealand. {{ISBN|9780143568896}}BOOK, Lindsey, Terence, Morris, Rod, Collins Field Guide to New Zealand Wildlife, HarperCollins (New Zealand) Limited, 2000, 14, 978-1-86950-300-0, About 82% of New Zealand's indigenous vascular plants are endemic, covering 1,944 species across 65 genera.WEB, May 2010,weblink Frequently asked questions about New Zealand plants, New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, 15 January 2011, BOOK, New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, 2006, New Zealand indigenous vascular plant checklist, 0-473-11306-6, De Lange, Peter James, Sawyer, John William David, Rolfe, Jeremy, yes, The number of fungi recorded from New Zealand, including lichen-forming species, is not known, nor is the proportion of those fungi which are endemic, but one estimate suggests there are about 2,300 species of lichen-forming fungi in New Zealand and 40% of these are endemic.WEB, Maggy, Wassilieff, Lichens – Lichens in New Zealand, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 16 January 2011, The two main types of forest are those dominated by broadleaf trees with emergent podocarps, or by southern beech in cooler climates.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Mixed Broadleaf Podocarp and Kauri Forest,weblink 15 January 2011, April 2010, originally published in 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, The remaining vegetation types consist of grasslands, the majority of which are tussock.WEB, Alan, Mark, Grasslands – Tussock grasslands, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 17 January 2010, Before the arrival of humans, an estimated 80% of the land was covered in forest, with only high alpine, wet, infertile and volcanic areas without trees.WEB, Commentary on Forest Policy in the Asia-Pacific Region (A Review for Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand and Western Samoa), 1997, Forestry Department,weblink 4 February 2011, Massive deforestation occurred after humans arrived, with around half the forest cover lost to fire after Polynesian settlement.JOURNAL, McGlone, M.S., 1989,weblink The Polynesian settlement of New Zealand in relation to environmental and biotic changes, New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 12(S), 115–129, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140717220413weblink">weblink 17 July 2014, Much of the remaining forest fell after European settlement, being logged or cleared to make room for pastoral farming, leaving forest occupying only 23% of the land.Taylor, R. and Smith, I. (1997). The state of New Zealand’s environment 1997. Ministry for the Environment, Wellington.File:Giant Haasts eagle attacking New Zealand moa.jpg|thumb|left|The giant Haast's eagle died out when humans hunted its main prey, the alt=An artist's rendition of a Haast's eagle attacking two moaThe forests were dominated by birds, and the lack of mammalian predators led to some like the kiwi, kakapo, weka and takahē evolving flightlessness.WEB,weblink New Zealand ecology: Flightless birds, TerraNature, 17 January 2011, The arrival of humans, associated changes to habitat, and the introduction of rats, ferrets and other mammals led to the extinction of many bird species, including large birds like the moa and Haast's eagle.WEB, Richard, Holdaway, Extinctions – New Zealand extinctions since human arrival, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 4 February 2011, NEWS, January 2005, Huge eagles 'dominated NZ skies', Alex, Kirby, BBC News,weblink 4 February 2011, Other indigenous animals are represented by reptiles (tuatara, skinks and geckos), frogs,WEB,weblink Department of Conservation, Reptiles and frogs, 25 June 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150129135945weblink">weblink 29 January 2015, yes, spiders,WEB, Pollard, Simon, Spiders and other arachnids,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 25 June 2017, en, September 2007, insects (weta)WEB, Wētā,weblink Department of Conservation, 25 June 2017, and snails.WEB, Paddy, Ryan, Snails and slugs – Flax snails, giant snails and veined slugs, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 4 February 2011, Some, such as the tuatara, are so unique that they have been called living fossils.JOURNAL, Herrera-Flores, Jorge A., Stubbs, Thomas L., Benton, Michael J., Ruta, Marcello, Macroevolutionary patterns in Rhynchocephalia: is the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) a living fossil?, Palaeontology, May 2017, 60, 3, 319–328, 10.1111/pala.12284, Three species of bats (one since extinct) were the only sign of native land mammals in New Zealand until the 2006 discovery of bones from a unique, mouse-sized land mammal at least 16 million years old.WEB,weblink Tiny Bones Rewrite Textbooks, first New Zealand land mammal fossil, University of New South Wales, 31 May 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070531085218weblink">weblink 31 May 2007, JOURNAL, Worthy, Trevor H., Tennyson, Alan J. D., Archer, Michael, Musser, Anne M., Hand, Suzanne J., Jones, Craig, Douglas, Barry J., McNamara, James A., Beck, Robin M. D., Miocene mammal reveals a Mesozoic ghost lineage on insular New Zealand, southwest Pacific, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 51, 19419–23, 2006, 10.1073/pnas.0605684103, 2006PNAS..10319419W, 17159151, 1697831, Marine mammals however are abundant, with almost half the world's cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) and large numbers of fur seals reported in New Zealand waters.WEB,weblink Department of Conservation, Marine Mammals, 17 January 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110308103617weblink">weblink 8 March 2011, yes, Many seabirds breed in New Zealand, a third of them unique to the country.WEB,weblink Sea and shore birds, Department of Conservation, 7 March 2011, More penguin species are found in New Zealand than in any other country.WEB,weblink Penguins, Department of Conservation, 7 March 2011, Since human arrival, almost half of the country's vertebrate species have become extinct, including at least fifty-one birds, three frogs, three lizards, one freshwater fish, and one bat. Others are endangered or have had their range severely reduced. However, New Zealand conservationists have pioneered several methods to help threatened wildlife recover, including island sanctuaries, pest control, wildlife translocation, fostering, and ecological restoration of islands and other selected areas.BOOK, Handbook of ecological restoration: Principles of Restoration, Reptiles and Amphibians, Carl, Jones, 362, Martin, Perrow, Davy, Anthony, Cambridge University Press, 2002, 0-521-79128-6, 2, JOURNAL, Towns, D., Ballantine, W., 10.1016/0169-5347(93)90009-E, Conservation and restoration of New Zealand Island ecosystems, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 8, 12, 452, 1993, JOURNAL, Island restoration: Exploring the past, anticipating the future, Mark, Rauzon, Marine Ornithology, 35, 97–107, 2008,weblink BOOK, Diamond, Jared, 1990, New Zealand as an archipelago: An international perspective, 3–8, D, Towns, C, Daugherty, I, Atkinson,weblink Conservation Sciences Publication No. 2. Department of Conservation, Wellington, {{Clear}}

Economy

{{See also|List of companies of New Zealand}}File:Auckland Waterfrt.jpg|thumb|Waterfront along alt=Boats docked in blue-green water. Plate glass skyscrapers rising up in the background.New Zealand has an advanced market economy,BOOK, World Economic Outlook,weblink International Monetary Fund, 21 June 2018, 63, April 2018, 978-1-48434-971-7, ranked 16th in the {{As of|2018|alt=2018}} Human Development Index and third in the {{As of|2018|alt=2018}} Index of Economic Freedom.WEB, Rankings on Economic Freedom,weblink The Heritage Foundation, 30 November 2016, 2016, It is a high-income economy with a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of US$36,254. The currency is the New Zealand dollar, informally known as the "Kiwi dollar"; it also circulates in the Cook Islands (see Cook Islands dollar), Niue, Tokelau, and the Pitcairn Islands.WEB,weblink Currencies of the territories listed in the BS exchange rate lists, Bank of Slovenia, 22 January 2011, Historically, extractive industries have contributed strongly to New Zealand's economy, focussing at different times on sealing, whaling, flax, gold, kauri gum, and native timber.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Historical evolution and trade patterns, Alexander, McLintock, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, 10 February 2011, November 2009, originally published in 1966, The first shipment of refrigerated meat on the Dunedin in 1882 led to the establishment of meat and dairy exports to Britain, a trade which provided the basis for strong economic growth in New Zealand.WEB, Hugh, Stringleman, Robert, Peden,weblink Sheep farming – Growth of the frozen meat trade, 1882–2001, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, October 2009, 6 May 2010, High demand for agricultural products from the United Kingdom and the United States helped New Zealanders achieve higher living standards than both Australia and Western Europe in the 1950s and 1960s.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Some Indicators of Comparative Living Standards, John, Baker,weblink 30 April 2010, February 2010, 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, PDF Table In 1973, New Zealand's export market was reduced when the United Kingdom joined the European Economic CommunityWEB, John, Wilson, History – The later 20th century, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 2 February 2011, and other compounding factors, such as the 1973 oil and 1979 energy crises, led to a severe economic depression.WEB, Chris, John, Yeabsley, Overseas trade policy – Difficult times – the 1970s and early 1980s, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, April 2010,weblink 22 January 2011, Nixon, Living standards in New Zealand fell behind those of Australia and Western Europe, and by 1982 New Zealand had the lowest per-capita income of all the developed nations surveyed by the World Bank.JOURNAL, Evans, N., Up From Down Under: After a Century of Socialism, Australia and New Zealand are Cutting Back Government and Freeing Their Economies, National Review, 46, 16, 47–51, In the mid-1980s New Zealand deregulated its agricultural sector by phasing out subsidies over a three-year period.BOOK, Trade, Food Security, and Human Rights: The Rules for International Trade in Agricultural Products and the Evolving World Food Crisis, 2016, Routledge, 9781317008521, 125, NEWS, Wayne Arnold, Surviving Without Subsidies,weblink ... ever since a liberal but free-market government swept to power in 1984 and essentially canceled handouts to farmers ... They went cold turkey and in the process it was very rough on their farming economy, The New York Times, 2 August 2007, 11 August 2015, Since 1984, successive governments engaged in major macroeconomic restructuring (known first as Rogernomics and then Ruthanasia), rapidly transforming New Zealand from a protected and highly regulated economy to a liberalised free-trade economy.WEB, Brian, Easton, Economic history – Government and market liberalisation, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, November 2010,weblink 1 February 2011, BOOK, Taking New Zealand Seriously: The Economics of Decency, Tim, Hazledine, HarperCollins Publishers, PDF,weblink 1-86950-283-3, 1998, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510082643weblink">weblink 10 May 2011, File:MilfordSound.jpg|thumb|left|weblink NZ tops Travellers' Choice Awards, Stuff Travel, May 2008, 30 April 2010, ">alt=Blue water against a backdrop of snow-capped mountainsUnemployment peaked above 10% in 1991 and 1992,WEB,weblink Unemployment: the Social Report 2016 – Te pūrongo oranga tangata, Ministry of Social Development, 18 August 2017, following the 1987 share market crash, but eventually fell to a record low (since 1986) of 3.7% in 2007 (ranking third from twenty-seven comparable OECD nations). However, the global financial crisis that followed had a major impact on New Zealand, with the GDP shrinking for five consecutive quarters, the longest recession in over thirty years,NEWS,weblink New Zealand Takes a Pause in Cutting Rates, 10 June 2009, The New York Times, 30 April 2010, NEWS,weblink New Zealand's slump longest ever, 26 June 2009, BBC News, 30 April 2010, and unemployment rising back to 7% in late 2009.WEB, Household Labour Force Survey: December 2010 quarter – Media Release,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110429174323weblink">weblink 29 April 2011, Geoff, Bascand, February 2011, Statistics New Zealand, 4 February 2011, Unemployment rates for different age groups follow similar trends, but are consistently higher among youth. In the December 2014 quarter, the general unemployment rate was around 5.8%, while the unemployment rate for youth aged 15 to 21 was 15.6%. New Zealand has experienced a series of "brain drains" since the 1970sJOURNAL, 10.1016/j.respol.2004.01.006, Davenport, Sally, Panic and panacea: brain drain and science and technology human capital policy, Research Policy, 33, 2004, 4, 617–630, that still continue today.NEWS, New Zealand brain-drain worst in world, Sean, O'Hare, September 2010, The Daily Telegraph, United Kingdom,weblink Nearly one quarter of highly skilled workers live overseas, mostly in Australia and Britain, which is the largest proportion from any developed nation.NEWS, Quarter of NZ's brightest are gone, Simon, Collins, March 2005, New Zealand Herald,weblink In recent decades, however, a "brain gain" has brought in educated professionals from Europe and less developed countries.JOURNAL, The labour market performance of European immigrants in New Zealand in the 1980s and 1990s, The International Migration Review, 2000, Winkelmann, Rainer, 33, 33–58, 10.2307/2676011, 2676011, 1, The Center for Migration Studies of New York, Journal subscription required{{sfn|Bain|2006|p=44}} Today New Zealand's economy benefits from a high level of innovation.WEB,weblink GII 2016 Report, Global Innovation Index, en-uk, 21 June 2018,

Trade

New Zealand is heavily dependent on international trade,WEB, Tim, Groser, March 2009, Speech to ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement Seminars,weblink New Zealand Government, 30 January 2011, particularly in agricultural products.WEB,weblink Improving Access to Markets:Agriculture, New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 22 January 2011, Exports account for 24% of its output, making New Zealand vulnerable to international commodity prices and global economic slowdowns. Food products made up 55% of the value of all the country's exports in 2014; wood was the second largest earner (7%).WEB,weblink Standard International Trade Classification R4 – Exports (Annual-Jun), Statistics New Zealand, April 2015, 3 April 2015, New Zealand's main trading partners, {{as of|June 2018|alt=as at June 2018}}, are China (NZ$27.8b), Australia ($26.2b), the European Union ($22.9b), the United States ($17.6b), and Japan ($8.4b).WEB, Goods and services trade by country: Year ended June 2018 – corrected,weblink Statistics New Zealand, 17 February 2019, On 7 April 2008, New Zealand and China signed the New Zealand–China Free Trade Agreement, the first such agreement China has signed with a developed country.NEWS, China and New Zealand sign free trade deal, April 2008,weblink The New York Times, The service sector is the largest sector in the economy, followed by manufacturing and construction and then farming and raw material extraction.WEB,weblink CIA – The World Factbook, Cia.gov, 4 May 2013, Tourism plays a significant role in the economy, contributing $12.9 billion (or 5.6%) to New Zealand's total GDP and supporting 7.5% of the total workforce in 2016.WEB, Key Tourism Statistics,weblink Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, 26 April 2017, 26 April 2017, International visitor arrivals are expected to increase at a rate of 5.4% annually up to 2022.(File:Fauna de Nueva Zelanda07.JPG|thumb|right|Wool has historically been one of New Zealand's major exports.|alt=A Romney ewe with her two lambs)Wool was New Zealand's major agricultural export during the late 19th century. Even as late as the 1960s it made up over a third of all export revenues, but since then its price has steadily dropped relative to other commoditiesWEB, Brian, Easton, Economy – Agricultural production, March 2009, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand,weblink 22 January 2011, and wool is no longer profitable for many farmers.WEB, Hugh, Stringleman, Robert, Peden, Sheep farming – Changes from the 20th century, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 22 January 2011, In contrast dairy farming increased, with the number of dairy cows doubling between 1990 and 2007,WEB, Hugh, Stringleman, Frank, Scrimgeour, Dairying and dairy products – Dairying in the 2000s, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, November 2009,weblink 22 January 2011, to become New Zealand's largest export earner.WEB, Hugh, Stringleman, Frank, Scrimgeour, Dairying and dairy products – Dairy exports, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 4 February 2011, In the year to June 2018, dairy products accounted for 17.7% ($14.1 billion) of total exports, and the country's largest company, Fonterra, controls almost one-third of the international dairy trade.WEB, Hugh, Stringleman, Frank, Scrimgeour, Dairying and dairy products – Manufacturing and marketing in the 2000s, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 22 January 2011, Other exports in 2017-18 were meat (8.8%), wood and wood products (6.2%), fruit (3.6%), machinery (2.2%) and wine (2.1%). New Zealand's wine industry has followed a similar trend to dairy, the number of vineyards doubling over the same period,WEB, Bronwyn, Dalley, Wine – The wine boom, 1980s and beyond, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 22 January 2011, overtaking wool exports for the first time in 2007.NEWS, Wine in New Zealand, The Economist, 27 March 2008,weblink 29 April 2017, WEB,weblink Agricultural and forestry exports from New Zealand: Primary sector export values for the year ending June 2010, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, 14 January 2011, 8 April 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510042204weblink">weblink 10 May 2011,

Infrastructure

File:Air New Zealand, Boeing 787-9 ZK-NZE 'All Blacks' NRT (27091961041).jpg|thumb|left|A Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner of alt=A mid-size jet airliner in flight. The plane livery is all-black and features a New Zealand silver fern mark.In 2015, renewable energy, primarily geothermal and hydroelectric power, generated 40.1% of New Zealand's gross energy supply.REPORT,weblink Energy in New Zealand 2016, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, September 2016, 2324-5913, PDF, 47, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170503234030weblink">weblink 3 May 2017, Geothermal power alone accounted for 22% of New Zealand's energy in 2015.The provision of water supply and sanitation is generally of good quality. Regional authorities provide water abstraction, treatment and distribution infrastructure to most developed areas.WEB, Appendix 1: Technical information about drinking water supply in the eight local authorities,weblink Office of the Auditor-General, 2 September 2016, WEB, Water supply,weblink Greater Wellington Regional Council, 2 September 2016, New Zealand's transport network comprises {{convert|94000|km|mi|-1}} of roads, including {{convert|199|km|mi|0}} of motorways,WEB, State highway frequently asked questions,weblink NZ Transport Agency, 28 April 2017, and {{convert|4128|km|mi|0}} of railway lines. Most major cities and towns are linked by bus services, although the private car is the predominant mode of transport.WEB, Adrian, Humphris, Public transport – Passenger trends, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, April 2010,weblink 22 January 2011, The railways were privatised in 1993, but were re-nationalised by the government in stages between 2004 and 2008. The state-owned enterprise KiwiRail now operates the railways, with the exception of commuter services in Auckland and Wellington which are operated by TransdevWEB, Neill, Atkinson, Railways – Rail transformed, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, November 2010,weblink 22 January 2011, and Metlink,WEB,weblink About Metlink, 27 December 2016, respectively. Railways run the length of the country, although most lines now carry freight rather than passengers.WEB, Neill, Atkinson, Railways – Freight transport, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, April 2010,weblink 22 January 2011, Most international visitors arrive via airWEB,weblink PDF, International Visitors, June 2009, Ministry of Economic Development (New Zealand), Ministry of Economic Development, 30 January 2011, and New Zealand has six international airports, but {{as of|2011|02|alt=currently}} only the Auckland and Christchurch airports connect directly with countries other than Australia or Fiji.WEB,weblink Ministry of Economic Development, Infrastructure Stocktake: Infrastructure Audit, 10. Airports, December 2005, 30 January 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100522203825weblink">weblink 22 May 2010, The New Zealand Post Office had a monopoly over telecommunications until 1987 when Telecom New Zealand was formed, initially as a state-owned enterprise and then privatised in 1990.WEB, Wilson, A. C., Telecommunications - Telecom,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 11 August 2017, March 2010, Chorus, which was split from Telecom (now Spark) in 2011,WEB, Telecom separation,weblink Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, 11 August 2017, en, 14 September 2015, still owns the majority of the telecommunications infrastructure, but competition from other providers has increased. A large-scale rollout of gigabit-capable fibre to the premises, branded as Ultra-Fast Broadband, began in 2009 with a target of being available to 87% of the population by 2022.WEB,weblink Broadband and mobile programmes - Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment, www.mbie.govt.nz, {{As of|2017}}, the United Nations International Telecommunication Union ranks New Zealand 13th in the development of information and communications infrastructure.WEB, 2017 Global ICT Development Index,weblink International Telecommunication Union (ITU), 18 September 2018, en, 2018,

Demography

File:New Zealandpop.svg|thumb|left|upright=1.25|alt=Stationary population pyramid broken down into 21 age ranges.The 2013 New Zealand census enumerated a resident population of 4,242,048, an increase of 5.3% over the 2006 figure.WEB, 2013 Census usually resident population counts,weblink Statistics New Zealand, 20 September 2018, 14 October 2013, {{refn|The population is increasing at a rate of 1.4–2.0% per year and is projected to rise to 5.01–5.51 million in 2025.PRESS RELEASE, National population projections: 2016(base)–2068,weblink Statistics New Zealand, 20 October 2018, en-NZ, 18 October 2016, |group=n}} As of {{currentmonth}} {{currentyear}}, the total population has risen to an estimated {{formatnum:{{data New Zealand|poptoday}}}}.New Zealand is a predominantly urban country, with {{Decimals|{{formatnum:{{NZ population data|Main urban areas|y}}|R}}/{{formatnum:{{NZ population data|New Zealand|y}}|R}}*100|1}}% of the population living in the seventeen main urban areas (i.e. population 30,000 or greater) and {{Decimals|({{formatnum:{{NZ population data|Auckland|y}}|R}}+{{formatnum:{{NZ population data|Wellington|y}}|R}}+{{formatnum:{{NZ population data|Christchurch|y}}|R}}+{{formatnum:{{NZ population data|Hamilton|y}}|R}})/{{formatnum:{{NZ population data|New Zealand|y}}|R}}*100|1}}% living in the four largest cities of Auckland, Christchurch, Wellington, and Hamilton.WEB,weblink Subnational population estimates at 30 June 2009, 30 April 2010, Statistics New Zealand, 30 June 2007, New Zealand cities generally rank highly on international livability measures. For instance, in 2016 Auckland was ranked the world's third most liveable city and Wellington the twelfth by the Mercer Quality of Living Survey.WEB, Quality of Living Ranking 2016,weblink Mercer, 28 April 2017, London, 23 February 2016, Life expectancy for New Zealanders in 2012 was 84 years for females, and 80.2 years for males.WEB,weblink NZ life expectancy among world's best, 6 July 2014, Stuff.co.nz, Fairfax NZ, Life expectancy at birth is forecast to increase from 80 years to 85 years in 2050 and infant mortality is expected to decline.JOURNAL,weblink World Population Prospects, 2008 revision, PDF, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, 2009, 29 August 2009, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New Zealand's fertility rate of 2.1 is relatively high for a developed country, and natural births account for a significant proportion of population growth. Consequently, the country has a young population compared to most industrialised nations, with 20% of New Zealanders being 14 years old or younger. By 2050 the median age is projected to rise from 36 years to 43 years and the percentage of people 60 years of age and older to rise from 18% to 29%. In 2008, the leading cause of premature death was cancer, at 29.8%, followed by ischaemic heart disease, 19.7%, and then cerebrovascular disease, 9.2%.WEB, New Zealand mortality statistics: 1950 to 2010,weblink Ministry of Health of New Zealand, 16 November 2016, 2 March 2011, {{As of|2016}}, total expenditure on health care (including private sector spending) is 9.2% of GDP.WEB, Health expenditure and financing,weblink stats.oecd.org, OECD, 8 December 2017, 2016, {{Largest cities in New Zealand}}

Ethnicity and immigration

File:Queen Street Midtown Auckland.jpg|thumb|Pedestrians on Queen StreetQueen StreetIn the 2013 census, 74.0% of New Zealand residents identified ethnically as European, and 14.9% as Māori. Other major ethnic groups include Asian (11.8%) and Pacific peoples (7.4%), two-thirds of whom live in the Auckland Region.WEB,weblink 2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity – Ethnic groups in New Zealand, Statistics New Zealand, 29 August 2014, {{refn|name="ethnicity"|group=n}}The population has become more diverse in recent decades: in 1961, the census reported that the population of New Zealand was 92% European and 7% Māori, with Asian and Pacific minorities sharing the remaining 1%.WEB, Pool, Ian, Population change - Key population trends,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 18 August 2017, May 2011,weblink 18 August 2017, yes, While the demonym for a New Zealand citizen is New Zealander, the informal "Kiwi" is commonly used both internationallyJOURNAL, Dalby, Simon, Simon Dalby, The 'Kiwi disease': geopolitical discourse in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the South Pacific, Political Geography (journal), Political Geography, 12, 5, 437–456, 10.1016/0962-6298(93)90012-V, September 1993, harv, and by locals.JOURNAL, New Zealand Population Review, 30, 1&2, 5–22, 2004, Seeking an Ethnic Identity: Is "New Zealander" a Valid Ethnic Category?, Paul, Callister,weblink The Māori loanword Pākehā has been used to refer to New Zealanders of European descent, although others reject this appellation.{{sfn|Bain|2006|p=31}}WEB, Draft Report of a Review of the Official Ethnicity Statistical Standard: Proposals to Address the 'New Zealander' Response Issue, April 2009, PDF,weblink Statistics New Zealand, 18 January 2011, The word Pākehā today is increasingly used to refer to all non-Polynesian New Zealanders.WEB,weblink 'Pakeha', Its Origin and Meaning, Ranford, Jodie, Originally the Pakeha were the early European settlers, however, today ‘Pakeha’ is used to describe any peoples of non-Maori or non-Polynesian heritage. Pakeha is not an ethnicity but rather a way to differentiate between the historical origins of our settlers, the Polynesians and the Europeans, the Maori and the other, 20 February 2008, Māori News, The Māori were the first people to reach New Zealand, followed by the early European settlers. Following colonisation, immigrants were predominantly from Britain, Ireland and Australia because of restrictive policies similar to the White Australia policy.BOOK, Trends in international migration: continuous reporting system on migration, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2000, 276–278, Socidad Peruana de Medicina Intensiva (SOPEMI), There was also significant Dutch, Dalmatian,WEB,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, Dalmatians, 21 September 2007, 30 April 2010, Walrond, Carl, German, and Italian immigration, together with indirect European immigration through Australia, North America, South America and South Africa.WEB, Peoples,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 2 June 2017, 2005, WEB, Phillips, Jock, History of immigration,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 2 June 2017, en, 11 August 2015, Net migration increased after the Second World War; in the 1970s and 1980s policies were relaxed and immigration from Asia was promoted.JOURNAL, Brawley, Sean, 'No White Policy in NZ': Fact and Fiction in New Zealand's Asian Immigration Record, 1946-1978, New Zealand Journal of History, 1993, 27, 1, 33–36,weblink 2 June 2017, In 2009–10, an annual target of 45,000–50,000 permanent residence approvals was set by the New Zealand Immigration Service—more than one new migrant for every 100 New Zealand residents.WEB, International Migration Outlook – New Zealand 2009/10,weblink 2010, 16 April 2011, 1179-5085, 2, New Zealand Department of Labour, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511071208weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, Just over 25% of New Zealand's population was born overseas, with the majority (52%) living in the Auckland Region. The United Kingdom remains the largest source of New Zealand's overseas population, with a quarter of all overseas-born New Zealanders born there; other major sources of New Zealand's overseas-born population are China, India, Australia, South Africa, Fiji and Samoa.WEB,weblink 2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity – Birthplace and people born overseas, Statistics New Zealand, 29 August 2014, The number of fee-paying international students increased sharply in the late 1990s, with more than 20,000 studying in public tertiary institutions in 2002.JOURNAL, International Education Journal, 5, 4, 2004, International Students in New Zealand: Needs and Responses, Andrew, Butcher, Terry, McGrath,weblink

Language

(File:TeReoMaori2013.png|thumb|alt=Map of New Zealand showing the percentage of people in each census area unit who speak Māori. Areas of the North Island exhibit the highest Māori proficiency.|Speakers of Māori according to the 2013 census{{citation|title=2013 Census QuickStats|date=2013|publisher=Statistics New Zealand|isbn=978-0-478-40864-5}}{{legend|#fef0d9|Less than 5%}}{{legend|#fdd8a4|More than 5%}}{{legend|#fcb779|More than 10%}}{{legend|#fc8d59|More than 20%}}{{legend|#eb603f|More than 30%}}{{legend|#d33121|More than 40%}}{{legend|#a50c0c|More than 50%}})English is the predominant language in New Zealand, spoken by 96.1% of the population.WEB, 2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity – Languages spoken,weblink Statistics New Zealand, 8 September 2016, New Zealand English is similar to Australian English and many speakers from the Northern Hemisphere are unable to tell the accents apart.{{sfn|Hay|Maclagan|Gordon|2008|p=14}} The most prominent differences between the New Zealand English dialect and other English dialects are the shifts in the short front vowels: the short-"i" sound (as in "kit") has centralised towards the schwa sound (the "a" in "comma" and "about"); the short-"e" sound (as in "dress") has moved towards the short-"i" sound; and the short-"a" sound (as in "trap") has moved to the short-"e" sound.* {{citation|last=Bauer|first=Laurie|last2=Warren|first2=Paul|last3=Bardsley|first3=Dianne|last4=Kennedy|first4=Marianna|last5=Major|first5=George|title=New Zealand English|journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association|year=2007|volume=37|issue=1|pages=97–102|url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282778721_ILLUSTRATIONS_OF_THE_IPA_New_Zealand_English|doi=10.1017/S0025100306002830}}After the Second World War, Māori were discouraged from speaking their own language (te reo Māori) in schools and workplaces and it existed as a community language only in a few remote areas. It has recently undergone a process of revitalisation,NEWS, British influence ebbs as New Zealand takes to talking Māori,weblink Nick, Squires, May 2005, The Daily Telegraph, 3 May 2017, being declared one of New Zealand's official languages in 1987,WEB, Waitangi Tribunal claim – Māori Language Week,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, July 2010, 19 January 2011, and is spoken by 3.7% of the population.{{refn|In 2015, 55% of Māori adults (aged 15 years and over) reported knowledge of te reo Māori. Of these speakers, 64% use Māori at home and 50,000 can speak the language "very well" or "well".WEB, Ngā puna kōrero: Where Māori speak te reo – infographic,weblink Statistics New Zealand, 8 September 2016, |group=n}} There are now Māori language immersion schools and two television channels that broadcast predominantly in Māori.NEWS,weblink John, Drinnan, 'Maori' will remain in the name Maori Television, New Zealand Herald, According to 2015 figures supplied by Maori TV, its two channels broadcast an average of 72 per cent Maori language content - 59 per cent on the main channel and 99 per cent on te reo., 8 July 2016, 28 August 2016, Many places have both their Māori and English names officially recognised.WEB, Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998,weblink New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office., 10 March 2019, 20 May 2014, 1 October 1998, As recorded in the 2013 census, Samoan is the most widely spoken non-official language (2.2%),{{refn|1=Of the 86,403 people that replied they spoke Samoan, 51,336 lived in the Auckland Region.|group=n}} followed by Hindi (1.7%), "Northern Chinese" (including Mandarin, 1.3%) and French (1.2%). 20,235 people (0.5%) reported the ability to use New Zealand Sign Language. It was declared one of New Zealand's official languages in 2006.New Zealand Sign Language Act 2006 No 18 (as at 30 June 2008), Public Act. New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office. Retrieved 29 November 2011.

Religion

{{See also|Irreligion in New Zealand}}File:Ratana Church Raetihi.jpg|thumb|upright|left|A Rātana church on a hill near alt=Simple white building with two red domed towersChristianity is the predominant religion in New Zealand, although its society is among the most secular in the world.BOOK,weblink Zuckerman, Phil, Phil Zuckerman, Martin, Michael, The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, 2006, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-84270-9, 47–66, 8 August 2017, WEB, Walrond, Carl, Atheism and secularism – Who is secular?,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 8 August 2017, May 2012, In the 2013 census, 55.0% of the population identified with one or more religions, including 49.0% identifying as Christians. Another 41.9% indicated that they had no religion.{{refn|1=Religion percentages may not add to 100% as people could claim multiple religions or object to answering the question.|group=n}}WEB,weblink 2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity – Religious affiliation, Statistics New Zealand, 15 April 2014, 25 July 2015, The main Christian denominations are, by number of adherents, Roman Catholicism (12.6%), Anglicanism (11.8%), Presbyterianism (8.5%) and "Christian not further defined" (i.e. people identifying as Christian but not stating the denomination, 5.5%). The Māori-based Ringatū and Rātana religions (1.4%) are also Christian in origin.WEB,weblink 2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity – tables, Statistics New Zealand, 15 April 2014, 14 April 2018, Excel downloadWEB, Kaa, Hirini, Māori and Christian denominations,weblink 20 April 2017, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, May 2011, Immigration and demographic change in recent decades has contributed to the growth of minority religions,WEB, Morris, Paul, Diverse religions, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, May 2011,weblink 20 April 2017, such as Hinduism (2.1%), Buddhism (1.5%), Islam (1.2%) and Sikhism (0.5%). The Auckland Region exhibited the greatest religious diversity.

Education

Primary and secondary schooling is compulsory for children aged 6 to 16, with the majority attending from the age of 5.WEB, Education Statistics of New Zealand: 2009, Education Counts, Olivia, Dench, July 2010,weblink 19 January 2011, There are 13 school years and attending state (public) schools is free to New Zealand citizens and permanent residents from a person's 5th birthday to the end of the calendar year following their 19th birthday.WEB,weblink Education Act 1989 No 80, Section 3, New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office, 1989, 5 January 2013, New Zealand has an adult literacy rate of 99%, and over half of the population aged 15 to 29 hold a tertiary qualification. There are five types of government-owned tertiary institutions: universities, colleges of education, polytechnics, specialist colleges, and wānanga,WEB,weblink Education Act 1989 No 80 (as at 01 February 2011), Public Act. Part 14: Establishment and disestablishment of tertiary institutions, Section 62: Establishment of institutions, New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office, Education Act 1989 No 80, 1 February 2011, 15 August 2011, in addition to private training establishments.WEB,weblink Studying in New Zealand: Tertiary education, New Zealand Qualifications Authority, 15 August 2011, In the adult population 14.2% have a bachelor's degree or higher, 30.4% have some form of secondary qualification as their highest qualification and 22.4% have no formal qualification.WEB,weblink xls, Educational attainment of the population, Education Counts, 21 February 2008, 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081015143050weblink">weblink 15 October 2008, The OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment ranks New Zealand's education system as the seventh best in the world, with students performing exceptionally well in reading, mathematics and science.WEB, What Students Know and Can Do: Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics and Science 2010.,weblink OECD. Retrieved 21 July 2012.{{-}}

Culture

{{Tall image|KupeWheke.jpg|150|350|alt=Tall wooden carving showing Kupe above two tentacled sea creatures|Late 20th-century house-post depicting the navigator Kupe fighting two sea creatures|right}}Early Māori adapted the tropically based east Polynesian culture in line with the challenges associated with a larger and more diverse environment, eventually developing their own distinctive culture. Social organisation was largely communal with families (whānau), subtribes (hapū) and tribes (iwi) ruled by a chief (rangatira), whose position was subject to the community's approval.{{sfn|Kennedy|2007|p=398}} The British and Irish immigrants brought aspects of their own culture to New Zealand and also influenced Māori culture,WEB, Terry, Hearn, English – Importance and influence, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 21 January 2011, WEB, Conclusions – British and Irish immigration,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, March 2007, 21 January 2011, particularly with the introduction of Christianity.WEB, John, Stenhouse, Religion and society – Māori religion, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, November 2010,weblink 21 January 2011, However, Māori still regard their allegiance to tribal groups as a vital part of their identity, and Māori kinship roles resemble those of other Polynesian peoples.WEB, Māori Social Structures, Ministry of Justice,weblink March 2001, 21 January 2011, More recently American, Australian, Asian and other European cultures have exerted influence on New Zealand. Non-Māori Polynesian cultures are also apparent, with Pasifika, the world's largest Polynesian festival, now an annual event in Auckland.NEWS, Thousands turn out for Pasifika Festival,weblink 18 August 2017, Radio New Zealand, 25 March 2017, en-nz, File:Men at their camp site displaying a catch of rabbits and fish, 1909 (4836053716).jpg|thumb|left|alt=Three men at their camp site displaying a catch of rabbits and fish. A marginal note reads "New Zealand Life".|European settlersEuropean settlersThe largely rural life in early New Zealand led to the image of New Zealanders being rugged, industrious problem solvers.{{sfn|Kennedy|2007|p=400}} Modesty was expected and enforced through the "tall poppy syndrome", where high achievers received harsh criticism.{{sfn|Kennedy|2007|p=399}} At the time New Zealand was not known as an intellectual country.WEB, Jock, Phillips, The New Zealanders – Post-war New Zealanders, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 21 January 2011, From the early 20th century until the late 1960s, Māori culture was suppressed by the attempted assimilation of Māori into British New Zealanders.WEB, Jock, Phillips, The New Zealanders – Bicultural New Zealand, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 21 January 2011, In the 1960s, as tertiary education became more available and cities expandedWEB, Jock, Phillips, The New Zealanders – Ordinary blokes and extraordinary sheilas, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 21 January 2011, urban culture began to dominate.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Jock, Phillips, Rural mythologies – The cult of the pioneer, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 21 January 2011, However, rural imagery and themes are common in New Zealand's art, literature and media.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Fiona, Barker, New Zealand identity – Culture and arts, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, June 2012,weblink 7 December 2016, New Zealand's national symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and Māori sources. The silver fern is an emblem appearing on army insignia and sporting team uniforms.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Wilson, John, Nation and government – Nationhood and identity,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 3 December 2016, September 2016, Certain items of popular culture thought to be unique to New Zealand are called "Kiwiana".

Art

As part of the resurgence of Māori culture, the traditional crafts of carving and weaving are now more widely practised and Māori artists are increasing in number and influence.WEB, Nancy, Swarbrick, Creative life – Visual arts and crafts, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, June 2010,weblink 4 February 2011, Most Māori carvings feature human figures, generally with three fingers and either a natural-looking, detailed head or a grotesque head.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Elements of Carving,weblink 15 February 2011, April 2009, originally published in 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, Surface patterns consisting of spirals, ridges, notches and fish scales decorate most carvings.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Surface Patterns,weblink 15 February 2011, April 2009, originally published in 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, The pre-eminent Māori architecture consisted of carved meeting houses (wharenui) decorated with symbolic carvings and illustrations. These buildings were originally designed to be constantly rebuilt, changing and adapting to different whims or needs.JOURNAL, McKay, Bill, 2004, Māori architecture: transforming western notions of architecture, Fabrications, 14, 1&2, 1–12,weblink 10.1080/10331867.2004.10525189, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110513145228weblink">weblink 13 May 2011, Māori decorated the white wood of buildings, canoes and cenotaphs using red (a mixture of red ochre and shark fat) and black (made from soot) paint and painted pictures of birds, reptiles and other designs on cave walls.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Painted Designs,weblink 15 February 2011, April 2009, originally published in 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, Māori tattoos (moko) consisting of coloured soot mixed with gum were cut into the flesh with a bone chisel.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Tattooing,weblink 15 February 2011, April 2009, originally published in 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, Since European arrival paintings and photographs have been dominated by landscapes, originally not as works of art but as factual portrayals of New Zealand.WEB, Beginnings – history of NZ painting,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, December 2010, 17 February 2011, Portraits of Māori were also common, with early painters often portraying them as "noble savages", exotic beauties or friendly natives. The country's isolation delayed the influence of European artistic trends allowing local artists to develop their own distinctive style of regionalism.WEB, A new New Zealand art – history of NZ painting,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, November 2010, 16 February 2011, During the 1960s and 1970s many artists combined traditional Māori and Western techniques, creating unique art forms.WEB, Contemporary Maori art,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, November 2010, 16 February 2011, New Zealand art and craft has gradually achieved an international audience, with exhibitions in the Venice Biennale in 2001 and the "Paradise Now" exhibition in New York in 2004.WEB, Paradise Lost: Contemporary Pacific Art At The Asia Society, Julie, Rauer,weblink Asia Society and Museum, 17 February 2011, File:Hinepare.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Portrait of Hinepare of Ngāti Kahungunu by Gottfried Lindauer, showing chin moko, pounamu alt=Refer to captionMāori cloaks are made of fine flax fibre and patterned with black, red and white triangles, diamonds and other geometric shapes.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Textile Designs,weblink 15 February 2011, April 2009, originally published in 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, Greenstone was fashioned into earrings and necklaces, with the most well-known design being the hei-tiki, a distorted human figure sitting cross-legged with its head tilted to the side.WEB, Basil, Keane, Pounamu – jade or greenstone – Implements and adornment, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 17 February 2011, Europeans brought English fashion etiquette to New Zealand, and until the 1950s most people dressed up for social occasions.WEB, John, Wilson, Society – Food, drink and dress, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 17 February 2011, Standards have since relaxed and New Zealand fashion has received a reputation for being casual, practical and lacklustre.WEB, Nancy, Swarbrick, Creative life – Design and fashion, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, June 2010,weblink 22 January 2011, However, the local fashion industry has grown significantly since 2000, doubling exports and increasing from a handful to about 50 established labels, with some labels gaining international recognition.NEWS, Fashion in New Zealand – New Zealand's fashion industry, The Economist, 28 February 2008,weblink 6 August 2009,

Literature

Māori quickly adopted writing as a means of sharing ideas, and many of their oral stories and poems were converted to the written form.WEB, Nancy, Swarbrick, Creative life – Writing and publishing, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, June 2010,weblink 22 January 2011, Most early English literature was obtained from Britain and it was not until the 1950s when local publishing outlets increased that New Zealand literature started to become widely known.WEB, The making of New Zealand literature,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, November 2010, 22 January 2011, Although still largely influenced by global trends (modernism) and events (the Great Depression), writers in the 1930s began to develop stories increasingly focused on their experiences in New Zealand. During this period literature changed from a journalistic activity to a more academic pursuit.WEB, New directions in the 1930s – New Zealand literature,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, August 2008, 12 February 2011, Participation in the world wars gave some New Zealand writers a new perspective on New Zealand culture and with the post-war expansion of universities local literature flourished.WEB, The war and beyond – New Zealand literature,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, November 2007, 12 February 2011, Dunedin is a UNESCO City of Literature.WEB, 28 cities join the UNESCO Creative Cities Network,weblink UNESCO, December 2014, 7 March 2015,

Media and entertainment

New Zealand music has been influenced by blues, jazz, country, rock and roll and hip hop, with many of these genres given a unique New Zealand interpretation.WEB, Nancy, Swarbrick, Creative life – Music, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, June 2010,weblink 21 January 2011, Māori developed traditional chants and songs from their ancient Southeast Asian origins, and after centuries of isolation created a unique "monotonous" and "(wikt:doleful|doleful)" sound.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Maori Music,weblink 15 February 2011, April 2009, originally published in 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, Flutes and trumpets were used as musical instrumentsENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Musical Instruments,weblink 16 February 2011, April 2009, 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, or as signalling devices during war or special occasions.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Instruments Used for Non-musical Purposes,weblink 16 February 2011, April 2009, 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, Early settlers brought over their ethnic music, with brass bands and choral music being popular, and musicians began touring New Zealand in the 1860s.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Music: General History,weblink 15 February 2011, April 2009, 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Music: Brass Bands,weblink 14 April 2011, April 2009, 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, Pipe bands became widespread during the early 20th century.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alexander, McLintock, Music: Pipe Bands,weblink 14 April 2011, April 2009, 1966, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, The New Zealand recording industry began to develop from 1940 onwards and many New Zealand musicians have obtained success in Britain and the United States. Some artists release Māori language songs and the Māori tradition-based art of kapa haka (song and dance) has made a resurgence.WEB, Nancy, Swarbrick, Creative life – Performing arts, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, June 2010,weblink 21 January 2011, The New Zealand Music Awards are held annually by Recorded Music NZ; the awards were first held in 1965 by Reckitt & Colman as the Loxene Golden Disc awards.WEB,weblink History – celebrating our music since 1965, Recording Industry Association of New Zealand, 2008, 23 January 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110914072406weblink">weblink 14 September 2011, Recorded Music NZ also publishes the country's official weekly record charts.WEB,weblink About RIANZ – Introduction, Recording Industry Association of New Zealand, 23 January 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111221160800weblink">weblink 21 December 2011, File:Hobbit holes reflected in water.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Hills with inset, round doors. Reflected in water.|The Hobbiton Movie Set, located near (Matamata]], was used for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy.NEWS, Downes, Siobhan, World famous in New Zealand: Hobbiton Movie Set,weblink 6 July 2017, Stuff Travel, 1 January 2017, )Public radio was introduced in New Zealand in 1922.WEB, Brian, Pauling, Radio – The early years, 1921 to 1932,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 6 July 2017, October 2014, A state-owned television service began in 1960.WEB, New Zealand's first official TV broadcast,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, December 2016, 6 July 2017, Deregulation in the 1980s saw a sudden increase in the numbers of radio and television stations.WEB, Nancy, Swarbrick, Creative life – Film and broadcasting, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, June 2010,weblink 21 January 2011, New Zealand television primarily broadcasts American and British programming, along with a large number of Australian and local shows.WEB, Horrocks, Roger, A History of Television in New Zealand,weblink NZ On Screen, 13 September 2017, en, The number of New Zealand films significantly increased during the 1970s. In 1978 the New Zealand Film Commission started assisting local film-makers and many films attained a world audience, some receiving international acknowledgement. The highest-grossing New Zealand films are Hunt for the Wilderpeople, Boy, The World's Fastest Indian, Once Were Warriors and Whale Rider.WEB,weblink Top 10 Highest Grossing New Zealand Movies Ever, May 2016, Flicks.co.nz, 11 August 2017, The country's diverse scenery and compact size, plus government incentives,NEWS, New Zealand Bends and ‘Hobbit’ Stays, Michael, Cieply, Jeremy, Rose,weblink October 2010, The New York Times, 11 August 2017, have encouraged some producers to shoot big-budget productions in New Zealand, including Avatar, The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, The Chronicles of Narnia, King Kong and The Last Samurai.WEB, Production Guide: Locations, Film New Zealand,weblink 21 January 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101107112931weblink">weblink 7 November 2010, The New Zealand media industry is dominated by a small number of companies, most of which are foreign-owned, although the state retains ownership of some television and radio stations.REPORT, Myllylahti, Merja, JMAD New Zealand Media Ownership Report 2016,weblink 4–29, Auckland University of Technology, 11 August 2017, December 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170521074651weblink">weblink 21 May 2017, Since 1994, Freedom House has consistently ranked New Zealand's press freedom in the top twenty, with the 19th freest media {{As of|2015|alt=in 2015}}.WEB, Scores and Status Data 1980-2015,weblink Freedom of the Press 2015, Freedom House, 23 November 2016,

Sports

File:Haka 2006.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Rugby team wearing all black, facing the camera, knees bent, and facing toward a team wearing white|A haka performed by the national rugby union team before a game. The haka is a challenge with vigorous movements and stamping of the feet.]]Most of the major sporting codes played in New Zealand have British origins.WEB, Terry, Hearn, English – Popular culture, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, March 2009,weblink 22 January 2012, Rugby union is considered the national sportWEB,weblink Sport, Fitness and Leisure, 2000, New Zealand Official Yearbook, Statistics New Zealand, 21 July 2008, Traditionally New Zealanders have excelled in rugby union, which is regarded as the national sport, and track and field athletics., yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110607011003weblink">weblink 7 June 2011, and attracts the most spectators.WEB, Jock, Phillips, Sports and leisure – Organised sports, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, February 2011,weblink 23 March 2011, Golf, netball, tennis and cricket have the highest rates of adult participation, while netball, rugby union and football (soccer) are particularly popular among young people. Around 54% of New Zealand adolescents participate in sports for their school.NEWS, More and more students wear school sports colours,weblink New Zealand Secondary School Sports Council, 30 March 2015, Victorious rugby tours to Australia and the United Kingdom in the late 1880s and the early 1900s played an early role in instilling a national identity.BOOK, Sport, Power And Society In New Zealand: Historical And Contemporary Perspectives,weblink ASSH Studies In Sports History, January 1999, John, Nauright, Rugby and the Forging of National Identity, Scott, Crawford, Horseracing was also a popular spectator sport and became part of the "Rugby, Racing and Beer" culture during the 1960s.WEB, Rugby, racing and beer,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, August 2010, 22 January 2011, Māori participation in European sports was particularly evident in rugby and the country's team performs a haka, a traditional Māori challenge, before international matches.WEB, Mark, Derby, Māori–Pākehā relations – Sports and race, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, December 2010,weblink 4 February 2011, New Zealand is known for its extreme sports, adventure tourism{{sfn|Bain|2006|p=69}} and strong mountaineering tradition, as seen in the success of notable New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary.THESIS, Langton, Graham, A history of mountain climbing in New Zealand to 1953.,weblink Christchurch, University of Canterbury, 1996, 12 August 2017, en, 28, NEWS, World mourns Sir Edmund Hillary, 11 January 2008, The Age, Melbourne,weblink Other outdoor pursuits such as cycling, fishing, swimming, running, tramping, canoeing, hunting, snowsports, surfing and sailing are also popular.WEB,weblink Sport and Recreation Participation Levels, Sport New Zealand, Sport and Recreation New Zealand, 27 November 2016, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150115065459weblink">weblink 15 January 2015, yes, The Polynesian sport of waka ama racing has experienced a resurgence of interest in New Zealand since the 1980s.WEB, Barclay-Kerr, Hoturoa, Waka ama – outrigger canoeing,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 12 August 2017, September 2013, New Zealand has competitive international teams in rugby union, rugby league, netball, cricket, softball, and sailing. New Zealand participated at the Summer Olympics in 1908 and 1912 as a joint team with Australia, before first participating on its own in 1920.WEB, NZ's first Olympic century,weblink Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 27 April 2017, August 2016, The country has ranked highly on a medals-to-population ratio at recent Games.WEB,weblink London 2012 Olympic Games: Medal strike rate – Final count (revised), Statistics New Zealand, 14 August 2012, 4 December 2013, WEB, Rio 2016 Olympic Games: Medals per capita,weblink Statistics New Zealand, 27 April 2017, 30 August 2016, The "All Blacks", the national rugby union team, are the most successful in the history of international rugbyNEWS,weblink The All Blacks guide to being successful (off the field), The Daily Telegraph, London, Kerr, James, 14 November 2013, 4 December 2013, and the reigning World Cup champions.WEB, Fordyce, Tom,weblink 2011 Rugby World Cup final: New Zealand 8-7 France, BBC Sport, 23 October 2011, 4 December 2013,

Cuisine

File:Hangi_ingredients.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Raw meat and vegetables|Ingredients to be prepared for a hāngihāngiThe national cuisine has been described as Pacific Rim, incorporating the native Māori cuisine and diverse culinary traditions introduced by settlers and immigrants from Europe, Polynesia and Asia.WEB, New Zealand Cuisine, New Zealand Tourism Guide, January 2016,weblink 4 January 2016, New Zealand yields produce from land and sea—most crops and livestock, such as maize, potatoes and pigs, were gradually introduced by the early European settlers.WEB, Petrie, Hazel, Kai Pākehā – introduced foods,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 27 June 2017, November 2008, Distinctive ingredients or dishes include lamb, salmon, kōura (crayfish),WEB, Whaanga, Mere, Mātaitai – shellfish gathering,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, June 2006, 27 June 2017, dredge oysters, whitebait, pāua (abalone), mussels, scallops, pipis and tuatua (both are types of New Zealand shellfish),WEB, Story: Shellfish,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 29 August 2016, kūmara (sweet potato), kiwifruit, tamarillo and pavlova (considered a national dish).WEB, Burton, David, Cooking – Cooking methods,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, September 2013, 11 December 2016, en, A hāngi is a traditional Māori method of cooking food using heated rocks buried in a pit oven. After European colonisation, Māori began cooking with pots and ovens and the hāngi was used less frequently, although it is still used for formal occasions such as tangihanga.WEB, Māori foods – kai Māori,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, Royal, Charles, Kaka-Scott, Jenny, September 2013, 1 September 2016, {{clear}}

See also

Footnotes

{{Reflist|group=n|30em}}

Citations

{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}

References

  • BOOK, Alley, Roderic, New Zealand in World Affairs IV 1990–2005,weblink 2008, New Zealand, Victoria University Press, 978-0-864-73548-5,
  • BOOK, Carolyn, Bain, Lonely Planet, New Zealand, 2006, 1-74104-535-5, harv,
  • BOOK, harv, Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific: An Environmental History, Donald, Garden, 2005, ABC-CLIO/Greenwood, Nature and Human Societies, Stoll, Mark, 978-1-57607-868-6,
  • BOOK, Dialects of English: New Zealand English, Jennifer, Hay, Margaret, Maclagan, Elizabeth, Gordon, 978-0-7486-2529-1, Edinburgh University Press, 2008, harv,
  • BOOK, 2007, Culture and Leadership Across the World: The GLOBE Book of In-Depth Studies of 25 Societies, Jagdeep, Chhokar, Felix, Brodbeck, Robert, House, 978-0-8058-5997-3, Psychology Press, United States, Leadership and Culture in New Zealand, Jeffrey, Kennedy, harv,
  • BOOK, King, Michael, Michael King, The Penguin History of New Zealand, Penguin Books, 2003, New Zealand, 978-0-14-301867-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Mein Smith, Philippa, A Concise History of New Zealand, Cambridge University Press, 2005, Australia, 0-521-54228-6, harv,
  • BOOK, New Zealand, Roselynn, Smelt, Yong, Jui Lin, Marshall Cavendish, 2009, 2nd, New York, Cultures of the World, 978-0-7614-3415-3, harv,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Bateman New Zealand Encyclopedia, 2005, 1-86953-601-0, 6th, Bateman, David,
  • BOOK, Sinclair, Keith, A History of New Zealand, 2000, 978-0-14-029875-8, Keith Sinclair, revised by Dalziel, Raewyn,
  • Statistics New Zealand. New Zealand Official Yearbook (annual). {{ISBN|1-86953-776-9}} (2010).

External links

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