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Dental consonant

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Dental consonant
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factoids
{{Place of articulation}}A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as {{IPA|/t/}}, {{IPA|/d/}}, {{IPA|/n/}}, and {{IPA|/l/}} in some languages. Dentals are usually distinguished from sounds in which contact is made with the tongue and the gum ridge, as in English (see alveolar consonant) because of the acoustic similarity of the sounds and the fact that in the Roman alphabet, they are generally written using the same symbols (like t, d, n).In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the diacritic for dental consonant is {{unichar|032A|COMBINING BRIDGE BELOW|ulink=Phonetic symbols in Unicode|cwith=◌}}.

Cross-linguistically

For many languages, such as Albanian, Irish and Russian, velarization is generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants. Thus, velarized consonants, such as Albanian {{IPA|/ɫ/}}, tend to be dental or denti-alveolar, and non-velarized consonants tend to be retracted to an alveolar position.{{Harvcoltxt|Recasens|Espinosa|2005|p=4}}Sanskrit, Hindi and all other Indic languages have an entire set of dental stops that occur phonemically as voiced and voiceless and with or without aspiration. The nasal {{IPA|/n/}} also exists but is quite alveolar and apical in articulation.{{citation needed|date=January 2008}} To native speakers, the English alveolar {{IPA|/t/}} and {{IPA|/d/}} sound more like the corresponding retroflex consonants of their languages than like dentals.{{citation needed|date=January 2008}}Spanish {{IPA|/t/}} and {{IPA|/d/}} are denti-alveolar,{{Harvcoltxt|Martínez-Celdrán|Fernández-Planas|Carrera-Sabaté|2003|p=257}} while {{IPA|/l/}} and {{IPA|/n/}} are prototypically alveolar but assimilate to the place of articulation of a following consonant. Likewise, Italian {{IPA|/t/}}, {{IPA|/d/}}, {{IPA|/t͡s/}}, {{IPA|/d͡z/}} are denti-alveolar ({{IPA|[t̪]}}, {{IPA|[d̪]}}, {{IPA|[t̪͡s̪]}}, and {{IPA|[d̪͡z̪]}} respectively) and {{IPA|/l/}} and {{IPA|/n/}} become denti-alveolar before a following dental consonant.{{Harvcoltxt|Rogers|d'Arcangeli|2004|p=117}} {{Harvcoltxt|Real Academia Española|2011}}Although denti-alveolar consonants are often described as dental, it is the point of contact farthest to the back that is most relevant, defines the maximum acoustic space of resonance and gives a characteristic sound to a consonant.Ladefoged and Maddieson (1996), {{page missing|date=August 2018}}. In French, the contact that is farthest back is alveolar or sometimes slightly pre-alveolar.

Occurrence

Dental/denti-alveolar consonants as transcribed by the International Phonetic Alphabet include:{|class=wikitable!rowspan="2"| IPA!rowspan="2"| Description!colspan="4"| Example
!Language!Orthography!IPA!Meaning
!
missing image!
- IPA-dental nasal.png -
alt=n̪
|dental nasal
Russian language>Russian|банк[ban̪k]}}|'bank'
!
missing image!
- IPA-voiceless dental plosive.png -
alt=t̪
|voiceless dental stop
Finnish language>Finnish|tutti[t̪ut̪t̪i]}}|'pacifier'
!
missing image!
- IPA-voiced dental plosive.png -
alt=d̪
|voiced dental stop
Arabic language>Arabic|دين[d̪iːn]}}|'religion'
!{{IPA|s̪}}|voiceless dental sibilant fricative
Polish language>Polish|kosa[kɔs̪a]}}|'scythe'
!{{IPA|z̪}}|voiced dental sibilant fricative
Polish language>Polish|koza[kɔz̪a]}}|'goat'
!
missing image!
- Xsampa-T2.png -
alt=θ
voiceless dental fricative>voiceless dental nonsibilant fricative(also often called "interdental")English language>English|thing[θɪŋ]}}|
!
missing image!
- Xsampa-D2.png -
alt=ð
voiced dental fricative>voiced dental nonsibilant fricative(also often called "interdental")English language>English|this[ðɪs]}}|
!
missing image!
- IPA-voiced dental approximant.png -
alt=ð̞
|dental approximant
Spanish language>Spanish|codo[koð̞o]}}|'elbow'
!
missing image!
- IPA-dental lateral approximant.png -
alt=l̪
|dental lateral approximant
Spanish language>Spanish|alto[al̪t̪o]}}|'tall'
!
missing image!
- IPA-dental trill.png -
alt=r̪
|dental trill
Hungarian language>Hungarian|ró[r̪oː]}}|'to carve'
!
missing image!
- IPA-dental ejective.png -
alt=t̪ʼ
|dental ejective
date=December 2018}}|||
!
missing image!
- IPA-voiced dental implosive.png -
alt=ɗ̪
|voiced dental implosive
date=December 2018}}|||
!
missing image!
- Xsampa-barslash.png -
alt=Ç€
|dental click
Xhosa language>Xhosa|ukúcola[ukʼúkǀola]}}|'to grind fine'

See also

References

{{reflist}}

Sources

  • {{SOWL}}
  • {{citation|last = Martínez-Celdrán|first= Eugenio|last2 = Fernández-Planas|first2= Ana Ma.|last3 = Carrera-Sabaté|first3 = Josefina|year= 2003|title=Castilian Spanish|journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association|volume=33|issue=2|pages=255–259|doi = 10.1017/S0025100303001373|url=https://www.academia.edu/11365507/Castilian_Spanish
}}
  • {{citation| last = Recasens| first = Daniel| last2 =Espinosa| first2 = Aina| year= 2005| title= Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects| journal= Journal of the International Phonetic Association|volume= 35| issue= 1|pages=1–25| doi = 10.1017/S0025100305001878
}}
  • {{citation|last = Rogers|first= Derek|last2 = d'Arcangeli|first2 = Luciana|year= 2004|title=Italian|journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association|volume=34|issue=1|pages=117–121|doi = 10.1017/S0025100304001628
}} {edih}{{IPA navigation}}

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