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Estonia
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{{about|the European country, Estonia}}{{redirect|Eesti|the language|Estonian language}}{{pp-move|small=yes}}{{short description|Republic in Baltic Region of Northern Europe}}{{EngvarB|date=September 2017}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2018}}







factoids
| image_flag = Flag of Estonia.svg| image_coat = Coat of arms of Estonia.svg| national_anthem = {{unbulleted list
|"Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm"
|()
|(File:US Navy band - National anthem of Estonia.ogg|center|alt=sound file of Estonian National anthem)
}}| image_map = EU-Estonia.svglocation_color=dark green region_color=grey European Union >subregion_color=green|legend=EU-Estonia.svg}}| capital = Tallinna59N45type:city}}| largest_city = capital| languages_type = Official languageEstonian language>Estonianitem_style=white-space:nowrap; Estonians >24.8% Russians Ukrainians >0.9% Belarusians Finns >3.4% Others}}WEBSITE=STAT.EE, | demonym = EstonianUnitary state>Unitary parliamentary republicPresident of Estonia>President| leader_name1 = Kersti KaljulaidPrime Minister of Estonia>Prime Minister| leader_name2 = Jüri Ratas| legislature = RiigikoguHistory of Estonia>IndependenceAutonomy declared}}| established_date1 = 12 April 1917Independence declared}}24 February 1918}}Independence recognised}}| established_date3 = 2 February 1920Soviet and German occupations}}| established_date4 = 1940–1991Independence restored}}| established_date5 = 20 August 1991Joined the European Union}}| established_date6 = 1 May 2004ACCESSDATE=19 JULY 2017, | area_rank = 129thd| area_sq_mi = 17,462| percent_water = 4.45%TITLE=MORE BIRTHS AND SMALLER EMIGRATION INCREASED THE POPULATION FIGURE URL=HTTPS://WWW.STAT.EE/NEWS-RELEASE-2019-053, 2019, YEAR=2011 ACCESSDATE=26 JANUARY 2016, | population_estimate_year = 2019| population_estimate_rank = 153rd| population_census_year = 2011| population_density_km2 = 28| population_density_sq_mi = 75 | population_density_rank = 149thURL= HTTPS://WWW.IMF.ORG/EXTERNAL/PUBS/FT/WEO/2019/01/WEODATA/WEOREPT.ASPX?PR.X=87&PR.Y=16&SY=2019&EY=2024&SCSM=1&SSD=1&SORT=COUNTRY&DS=.&BR=1&C=122%2C941%2C124%2C946%2C423%2C137%2C939%2C181%2C172%2C138%2C132%2C182%2C134%2C936%2C174%2C961%2C178%2C184%2C136&S=NGDPDPC%2CPPPPC%2CLP&GRP=0&A=, 2019, | GDP_PPP_year = 2019| GDP_PPP_rank = | GDP_PPP_per_capita = $35,852| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 43rd| GDP_nominal = $31.179 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = | GDP_nominal_per_capita = $23,523| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 37th| Gini = 30.6 | Gini_year = 2018| Gini_change = decrease PUBLISHER=EUROSTAT ACCESSDATE=10 SEPTEMBER 2019, | Gini_rank = | HDI = 0.871 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increase PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME URL=HTTP://HDR.UNDP.ORG/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/HDR_2015_STATISTICAL_ANNEX.PDF, 14 December 2015, | HDI_rank = 30thEuro (Euro sign>€)| currency_code = EUREastern European Time>EET| utc_offset = +2| utc_offset_DST = +3Eastern European Summer Time>EEST| drives_on = rightTelephone numbers in Estonia>+372| cctld = .eeeSupreme Court of Estonia>Supreme Court and one ministry are based in Tartu.Constitution of Estonia, Estonian is the sole official language.Constitution of the Republic of Estonia, 6th article In Võrumaa>southern counties, Võro language and Seto language>Seto are spoken along with it. Russian is spoken in parts of Ida-Virumaa and Tallinn.Võros and 0.93% Setos.{{big>Võrokesed ees, setod järel. postimees.ee (13 July 2012).}}475490Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Estonian)>Treaty of Tartu in 1920 between Estonia and Soviet Russia (then communist Bolshevik revolutionary government before 1923 organisation of USSR). Today, the remaining {{convertkm²abbr=on}} are part of Russia/Russian Federation. The ceded areas include most of the former Petseri County and areas behind the Narva river including Ivangorod (Jaanilinn).{{bigTerritorial changes of the Baltic states#Actual territorial changes after World War II>Territorial changes of the Baltic states Soviet territorial changes against Estonia after World War II (1939–1945)}} Pechory remains under Russian administration.| footnote_e = Also .eu, shared with other member states of the European Union.}}Estonia ( {{IPA-et|ˈeːsʲti||Et-Eesti.ogg}}), officially the Republic of Estonia (), is a country on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km).WEB,weblink Estonian Republic, 21 July 2011, unfit,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110721204649weblink">weblink 21 July 2011, . Official website of the Republic of Estonia (in Estonian) The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea,Matthew Holehouse Estonia discovers it's actually larger after finding 800 new islands The Telegraph, 28 August 2015 covering a total area of {{convert|45227|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}, water {{convert|2839|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}, land area {{convert|42388|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}, and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second-most-spoken Finnic language.The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C. Ancient Estonians were some of the last European pagans to be Christianized, following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Danes, Swedes, Poles and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the 19th and early 20th centuries. This culminated in independence from Russia in 1920 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I. Initially democratic, subsequent to the Great Depression, Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule since 1934 during the Era of Silence. During World War II (1939–1945), Estonia was repeatedly contested and occupied by the Soviet Union and Germany, ultimately being incorporated into the former. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. In 1987 the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of de facto independence on 20 August 1991.The sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least populous members of the European Union, the Eurozone, OECD, the Schengen Area, NATO, and from 2020, the United Nations Security Council.NEWS, Gallery: Estonia gains non-permanent UN Security Council seat, ERR News, Eesti Rahvusringhääling, ERR, 2019-06-07,weblink 2019-06-07, Estonia is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy that has been among the fastest-growing in the EU.WEB, Estonian Economic Miracle: A Model For Developing Countries, Global Politician,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110628230137weblink">weblink 28 June 2011, 5 June 2011, dead, The country ranks very high in the Human Development Index, and performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, education,WEB,weblink Asian countries dominate, science teaching criticised in survey, Yahoo, and press freedom (third in the world in 2012 and 2007).WEB,weblink Press Freedom Index 2016, Reports Without Borders, 29 May 2016, Estonian citizens are provided with universal health care,Comparing Performance of Universal Health Care Countries, 2016 Fraser Institute free education,Estonia OECD 2016 and the longest-paid maternity leave in the OECD.NEWS,weblink Which countries are most generous to new parents?, The Economist, 28 October 2016, . One of the world's most digitally advanced societies,NEWS,weblink Welcome to E-stonia, the world's most digitally advanced society, Wired (magaine), Wired, 20 October 2018, in 2005, Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, and in 2014, the first state to provide e-residency.

Etymology

In the Estonian language the oldest known endonym of the Estonians was ,Ariste, Paul (1956). Maakeel ja eesti keel. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised 5: 117–24; Beyer, Jürgen (2007). Ist maarahvas (‚Landvolk'), die alte Selbstbezeichnung der Esten, eine Lehnübersetzung? Eine Studie zur Begriffsgeschichte des Ostseeraums. Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung 56: 566–593. meaning "country people" or "people of the soil". The land inhabited by Estonians was called Maavald meaning "Country Realm" or "Land Realm".One hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia derives it from the Aesti, a people described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania (ca. 98 AD).BOOK, Tacitus, Cornelius, Tacitus, Germania: 45, Abel Grosvenor Hopkins, The Agricola and Germania,weblink The students' series of Latin classics, Latin, Boston, Leach, Shewell, and Sanborn, 1893, 74, 12 April 2019, [...] dextro Suebici maris litore Aestiorum gentes adluuntur, quibus ritus habitusque Sueborum, lingua Britannicae propior., The historic Aesti were allegedly Baltic people, whereas the modern Estonians are Finnic. The geographical areas of the Aesti and of Estonia do not match, with the Aesti living farther south.Ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to an area called Eistland, as the country is still called in Icelandic, with close parallels to the Danish, German, Dutch, Swedish and Norwegian terms Estland for the country. Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name include Estia and Hestia.BOOK, Cole, Jeffrey, Jeffrey Cole, Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, 2011, ABC-CLIO, 9781598843026, 124, Esthonia was a common alternative English spelling before 1921;NEWS, Spell it "ESTHONIA" here; Geographic Board Will Not Drop the "h," but British Board Does., The New York Times, 17 April 1926,weblink 6 November 2009, BOOK, Ziemele, Ineta, Baltic yearbook of international law,weblink 20 March 2002, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 978-90-411-1736-6, 26–, the country was admitted to the League of Nations under this name, retained in this orthography in the international organization's records until December 1926.BOOK, Tyler, Royall, League of Nations Economic, Financial, and Transit Dept, The League of Nations Reconstruction Schemes in the Inter-War Period, 132, 8, League of Nations publications, League of Nations, 1945,weblink 2019-06-07, {{qn|date=April 2019}}

History

Prehistory

File:KumnaHoardArtfs.jpg|thumb|left|Iron Age artefacts of a hoard from (Kumna]]BOOK, Jüri Selirand, Evald Tõnisson, Through past millennia: archaeological discoveries in Estonia,weblink 1984, Perioodika, )Human settlement in Estonia became possible 13,000 to 11,000 years ago, when the ice from the last glacial era melted. The oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, which was on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in south-western Estonia. According to radiocarbon dating it was settled around 11,000 years ago.NEWS,weblink Arheoloogid lammutavad ajalooõpikute arusaamu, Riho, Laurisaar, Eesti Päevaleht, Estonian, 31 July 2004, 1 November 2016, Laurisaar, The earliest human inhabitation during the Mesolithic period is connected to the Kunda culture, named after the town of Kunda in northern Estonia. At that time the country was covered with forests, and people lived in semi-nomadic communities near bodies of water. Subsistence activities consisted of hunting, gathering and fishing.BOOK, Subrenat, Jean-Jacques, Estonia: Identity and Independence, 23, 2004, Rodopi, 9042008903, Subrenat2013, Around 4900 BC appear ceramics of the neolithic period, known as Narva culture.BOOK, Subrenat, Jean-Jacques, Estonia: Identity and Independence, 24, 2004, Rodopi, 9042008903, Subrenat2013, Starting from around 3200 BC the Corded Ware culture appeared; this included new activities like primitive agriculture and animal husbandry.BOOK, Subrenat, Jean-Jacques, Estonia: Identity and Independence, 26, 2004, Rodopi, 9042008903, Subrenat2013, File:Kalmeväli .jpg|thumb|upright|Bronze AgeBronze AgeThe Bronze Age started around 1800 BC, and saw the establishment of the first hill fort settlements.BOOK, Kasekamp, Andres, A History of the Baltic States, 4, 2010, Palgrave Macmillan, 9780230364509, A transition from hunting-fishing-gathering subsistence to single-farm-based settlement started around 1000 BC, and was complete by the beginning of the Iron Age around 500 BC.BOOK, Kasekamp, Andres, A History of the Baltic States, 5, 2010, Palgrave Macmillan, 9780230364509, The large amount of bronze objects indicate the existence of active communication with Scandinavian and Germanic tribes.BOOK, Subrenat, Jean-Jacques, Estonia: Identity and Independence, 28, 2004, Rodopi, 9042008903, Subrenat2013,

Viking Age

The areas of Northern and Western Estonia belonged in the Scandinavian cultural sphere during the Viking Age.{{sfn|Tvauri|2012|p=322}} Estonia was not a unified country during the Viking Age, and the area of Ancient Estonia was divided among loosely allied regions.{{sfn|Frucht|2004}} The Viking Age in Estonia is often considered to be part of the Iron Age period which started around 400 AD and ended around 1200 AD, soon after Estonian Vikings were recorded in the Eric Chronicle to have sacked Sigtuna in 1187.{{sfn|Frucht|2004}}(File:Iru_Fort,_Estonia,_1924.jpg|thumb|left|The Iru Fort in Northern Estonia)The middle Iron Age produced threats appearing from different directions. Several Scandinavian sagas referred to major confrontations with Estonians, notably when "Estonian Vikings" defeated and killed the Swedish king Ingvar.BOOK, Frucht, Richard C., Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture, 68, 2005, ABC-CLIO, 9781576078006, BOOK, Faure, Gunter, Mensing, Teresa, The Estonians; The long road to independence, 27, 2012, Lulu.com, 9781105530036, Similar threats appeared in the east, where Russian principalities were expanding westward. In 1030 Yaroslav the Wise defeated Estonians and established a fort in modern-day Tartu; this foothold lasted until an Estonian tribe, the Sosols, destroyed it in 1061, followed by their raid on Pskov.BOOK, Tvauri, Andres, The Migration Period, Pre-Viking Age, and Viking Age in Estonia, 2012, 33, 34, 59, 60,weblink 27 December 2016, JOURNAL, Mäesalu, Ain, Could Kedipiv in East-Slavonic Chronicles be Keava hill fort?, Estonian Journal of Archaeology, 2012, 1, 199,weblink 27 December 2016, BOOK, Kasekamp, Andres, A History of the Baltic States, 9, 2010, Palgrave Macmillan, 9780230364509, BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 12, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537, Around the 11th century, the Scandinavian Viking era around the Baltic Sea was succeeded by the Baltic Viking era, with seaborne raids by Curonians and by Estonians from the island of Saaremaa, known as Oeselians. In 1187 Estonians (Oeselians), Curonians or/and Karelians sacked Sigtuna, which was a major city of Sweden at the time.BOOK, Kasekamp, Andres, A History of the Baltic States, 9–11, 2010, Palgrave Macmillan, 9780230364509, Enn Tarvel (2007). Sigtuna hukkumine Haridus, 2007 (7–8), pp. 38–41The society, economy, settlement and culture of the territory of what is in the present-day the country of Estonia is studied mainly through archaeological sources. The era is seen to have been a period of rapid change. The Estonian peasant culture came into existence by the end of the Viking Age. The overall understanding of the Viking Age in Estonia is deemed to be fragmentary and superficial, because of the limited amount of surviving source material. The main sources for understanding the period are remains of the farms and fortresses of the era, cemeteries and a large amount of excavated objects.{{sfn|Tvauri|2012}}The landscape of Ancient Estonia featured numerous hillforts, some later hillforts on Saaremaa heavily fortified during the Viking Age and on to the 12th century.{{sfn|Mägi|2015|pp=45–46}} There were a number of late prehistoric or medieval harbour sites on the coast of Saaremaa, but none have been found that are large enough to be international trade centres.{{sfn|Mägi|2015|pp=45–46}} The Estonian islands also have a number of graves from the Viking Age, both individual and collective, with weapons and jewellery.{{sfn|Mägi|2015|pp=45–46}} Weapons found in Estonian Viking Age graves are common to types found throughout Northern Europe and Scandinavia.{{sfn|Martens|2004|pp=132–135}}In the early centuries AD, political and administrative subdivisions began to emerge in Estonia. Two larger subdivisions appeared: the parish (Estonian: kihelkond) and the county (Estonian: maakond), which consisted of multiple parishes. A parish was led by elders and centred around a hill fort; in some rare cases a parish had multiple forts. By the 13th century Estonia consisted of eight major counties: Harjumaa, Järvamaa, Läänemaa, Revala, Saaremaa, Sakala, Ugandi, and Virumaa; and six minor, single-parish counties: Alempois, Jogentagana, Mõhu, Nurmekund, Soopoolitse, and Vaiga. Counties were independent entities and engaged only in a loose co-operation against foreign threats.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 4, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537, BOOK, Raukas, Anto, Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld, 227, 2002, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, Estonian, 9985701151, There is little known of early Estonian pagan religious practices. The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia mentions Tharapita as the superior god of the Oeselians. Spiritual practices were guided by shamans, with sacred groves, especially oak groves, serving as places of worship.BOOK, Kasekamp, Andres, A History of the Baltic States, 7, 2010, Palgrave Macmillan, 9780230364509, NEWS,weblink Arheoloogid lammutavad ajalooõpikute arusaamu, Riho, Laurisaar, Eesti Päevaleht, Estonian, 29 April 2006, 4 November 2016,

Middle Ages and German influences

(File:Medieval Livonia 1260.svg|thumb|left|Medieval Estonia and Livonia after the crusade)In 1199 Pope Innocent III declared a crusade to "defend the Christians of Livonia".BOOK, Tyerman, Christopher, God's War: A New History of the Crusades, 690, 2006, Harvard University Press, 9780674023871,weblink Fighting reached Estonia in 1206, when Danish king Valdemar II unsuccessfully invaded Saaremaa. The German Livonian Brothers of the Sword, who had previously subjugated Livonians, Latgalians, and Selonians, started campaigning against the Estonians in 1208, and over next few years both sides made numerous raids and counter-raids. A major leader of the Estonian resistance was Lembitu, an elder of Sakala County, but in 1217 the Estonians suffered a significant defeat in the Battle of St. Matthew's Day, where Lembitu was killed. In 1219, Valdemar II landed at Lindanise, defeated the Estonians in battle, and started conquering Northern Estonia.BOOK, Kasekamp, Andres, A History of the Baltic States, 14, 2010, Palgrave Macmillan, 9780230364509, BOOK, Raukas, Anto, Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld, 278, 2002, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, Estonian, 9985701151, The next year, Sweden invaded Western Estonia, but were repelled by the Oeselians. In 1223, a major revolt ejected the Germans and Danes from the whole of Estonia, except Reval, but the crusaders soon resumed their offensive, and in 1227, Saaremaa was the last county to surrender.BOOK, Kasekamp, Andres, A History of the Baltic States, 15, 2010, Palgrave Macmillan, 9780230364509, BOOK, Raukas, Anto, Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld, 279, 2002, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, Estonian, 9985701151, After the crusade, the territory of present-day Southern Estonia and Latvia was named Terra Mariana, but later it became known simply as Livonia.BOOK, Plakans, Andrejs, A Concise History of the Baltic States, 54, 2011, Cambridge University Press, 9780521833721, Northern-Estonia became the Danish Duchy of Estonia, while the rest was divided between the Sword Brothers and prince-bishoprics of Dorpat and Ösel–Wiek. In 1236, after suffering a major defeat, the Sword Brothers merged into the Teutonic Order becoming the Livonian Order.BOOK, O'Connor, Kevin, Culture and Customs of the Baltic States, 9–10, 2006, Greenwood Publishing Group, 9780313331251, In the next decades there were several uprisings against foreign rulers on Saaremaa. In 1343, a major rebellion started, known as the St. George's Night Uprising, encompassing the whole area of Northern-Estonia and Saaremaa. The Teutonic Order finished suppressing the rebellion in 1345, and the next year the Danish king sold his possessions in Estonia to the Order.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 20, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537, BOOK, O'Connor, Kevin, Culture and Customs of the Baltic States, 10, 2006, Greenwood Publishing Group, 9780313331251, The unsuccessful rebellion led to a consolidation of power for the Baltic German minority.BOOK, Pekomäe, Vello, Estland genom tiderna, 1986, VÄLIS-EESTI & EMP, Stockholm, Swedish, 91-86116-47-9, 319, For the subsequent centuries they remained the ruling elite in both cities and the countryside.BOOK, Jokipii, Mauno, Mauno, Jokipii, Baltisk kultur och historia, 1992, Swedish, 9789134512078, 22–23, File:Kuressaare Arensburg.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Kuressaare Castle, square stone keep with one square corner tower and red tile roof|Kuressaare Castle in SaaremaaSaaremaaDuring the crusade, Reval (Tallinn) was founded, as the capital of Danish Estonia, on the site of Lindanise. In 1248 Reval received full town rights and adopted the Lübeck law.BOOK, Miljan, Toivo, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, 441, 2015, Rowman & Littlefield, 9780810875135, The Hanseatic League controlled trade on the Baltic Sea, and overall the four largest towns in Estonia became members: Reval, Dorpat (Tartu), Pernau (Pärnu), and Fellin (Viljandi). Reval acted as a trade intermediary between Novgorod and Western Hanseatic cities, while Dorpat filled the same role with Pskov. Many guilds were formed during that period, but only a very few allowed the participation of native Estonians.BOOK, Frucht, Richard C., Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture, Volume 1, 100, 2005, ABC-CLIO, 9781576078006, Protected by their stone walls and alliance with the Hansa, prosperous cities like Reval and Dorpat repeatedly defied other rulers of Livonia.BOOK, Frost, Robert I., The Northern Wars: War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe, 1558 – 1721, 305, 2014, Routledge, 9781317898573, After the decline of the Teutonic Order after its defeat in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, and the defeat of the Livonian Order in the Battle of Swienta on 1 September 1435, the Livonian Confederation Agreement was signed on 4 December 1435.BOOK, Vana-Liivimaa maapäev, Raudkivi, Priit, 2007, Argo, Estonian, 9949-415-84-5, 118–119, As a result of the crusade, Baltic Germans played a role in the history of Estonia until 1945.The Reformation in Europe began in 1517, and soon spread to Livonia despite opposition by the Livonian Order.BOOK, Mol, Johannes A., Militzer, Klaus, Nicholson, Helen J., The Military Orders and the Reformation: Choices, State Building, and the Weight of Tradition, 5–6, 2006, Uitgeverij Verloren, 9789065509130, Towns were the first to embrace Protestantism in the 1520s, and by the 1530s the majority of the gentry had adopted Lutheranism for themselves and their peasant serfs.BOOK, Frucht, Richard C., Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture, Volume 1, 121, 2005, ABC-CLIO, 9781576078006, BOOK, O'Connor, Kevin, The History of the Baltic States, 25, 2003, Greenwood Publishing Group, 9780313323553, Church services were now conducted in vernacular language, which initially meant German, but in the 1530s the first religious services in Estonian also took place.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 24, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537, During the 16th century, the expansionist monarchies of Muscowy, Sweden, and Poland–Lithuania consolidated power, posing a growing threat to decentralised Livonia weakened by disputes between cities, nobility, bishops, and the Order.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 25, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537,

Swedish Era

File:Academia Gustaviana.jpg|right|thumb|"Academia Dorpatensis" (now University of TartuUniversity of TartuIn 1558, Tsar Ivan the Terrible of Russia invaded Livonia, starting the Livonian War. The Livonian Order was decisively defeated in 1560, prompting Livonian factions to seek foreign protection. The majority of Livonia accepted Polish rule, while Reval and the nobles of Northern Estonia swore loyalty to the Swedish king, and the Bishop of Ösel-Wiek sold his lands to the Danish king. Russian forces gradually conquered the majority of Livonia, but in the late 1570s the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish armies started their own offensives and the bloody war finally ended in 1583 with Russian defeat.BOOK, Stone, David R., A Military History of Russia: From Ivan the Terrible to the War in Chechnya, 14–18, 2006, Greenwood Publishing Group, 9780275985028, As result of the war, Northern Estonia became Swedish Duchy of Estonia, Southern Estonia became Polish Duchy of Livonia, and Saaremaa remained under Danish control.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 28–29, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537, In 1600, the Polish-Swedish War broke out, causing further devastation. The protracted war ended in 1629 with Sweden gaining Livonia, including the regions of Southern Estonia and Northern Latvia.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 28, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537, Danish Saaremaa was transferred to Sweden in 1645.BOOK, Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania, Williams, Nicola, Debra Herrmann, Cathryn Kemp, 2003, University of Michigan, 1-74059-132-1, 190, The wars had halved the Estonian population from about 250–270,000 people in the mid 16th century to 115–120,000 in the 1630s.BOOK, Frost, Robert I., The Northern Wars: War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe, 1558 – 1721, 77, 2014, Routledge, 9781317898573, While serfdom was retained under Swedish rule, legal reforms took place which strengthened peasants' land usage and inheritance rights, resulting this period's reputation of the "Good Old Swedish Time" in people's historical memory.BOOK, Raukas, Anto, Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld, 283, 2002, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, Estonian, 9985701151, Swedish king Gustaf II Adolf established gymnasiums in Reval and Dorpat; the latter was upgraded to Tartu University in 1632. Printing presses were also established in both towns. In the 1680s the beginnings of Estonian elementary education appeared, largely due to efforts of Bengt Gottfried Forselius, who also introduced orthographical reforms to written Estonian.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 32–33, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537, The population of Estonia grew rapidly for a 60–70-year period, until the Great Famine of 1695–97 in which some 70,000–75,000 people perished â€“ about 20% of the population.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 31, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537,

Russian Era and National Awakening

File:Carl Robert Jakobson.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Carl Robert Jakobson played a key role in the Estonian national awakeningEstonian national awakeningIn 1700, the Great Northern War started, and by 1710 the whole of Estonia was conquered by the Russian Empire.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 33, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537, The war again devastated the population of Estonia, with the 1712 population estimated at only 150,000–170,000.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 34, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537, Russian administration restored all the political and landholding rights of Baltic Germans.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 38, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537, The rights of Estonian peasants reached their lowest point, as serfdom completely dominated agricultural relations during the 18th century.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 41, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537, Serfdom was formally abolished in 1816–1819, but this initially had very little practical effect; major improvements in rights of the peasantry started with reforms in the mid-19th century.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 47–49, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537, File:Perno Postimeees, Nr 1.png|thumb|upright|The front page of Perno Postimees, the first Estonian language newspaper.]]The Estonian national awakening began in the 1850s as the leading figures started promoting an Estonian national identity among the general populace. Its economic basis was formed by widespread farm buyouts by peasants, forming a class of Estonian landowners. In 1857 Johann Voldemar Jannsen started publishing the first Estonian language newspaper and began popularising the denomination of oneself as eestlane (Estonian).BOOK, Raukas, Anto, Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld, 286, 2002, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, Estonian, 9985701151, Schoolmaster Carl Robert Jakobson and clergyman Jakob Hurt became leading figures in a national movement, encouraging Estonian peasants to take pride in themselves and in their ethnic identity.BOOK, Subrenat, Jean-Jacques, Estonia: Identity and Independence, 90, 2004, Rodopi, 9042008903, Subrenat2013, The first nationwide movements formed, such as a campaign to establish the Estonian language Alexander School, the founding of the Society of Estonian Literati and the Estonian Students' Society, and the first national song festival, held in 1869 in Tartu.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 59, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537, BOOK, Raukas, Anto, Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld, 287, 2002, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, Estonian, 9985701151, BOOK, Subrenat, Jean-Jacques, Estonia: Identity and Independence, 93, 2004, Rodopi, 9042008903, Subrenat2013, Linguistic reforms helped to develop the Estonian language.BOOK, Subrenat, Jean-Jacques, Estonia: Identity and Independence, 90–91, 2004, Rodopi, 9042008903, Subrenat2013, The national epic Kalevipoeg was published in 1862, and 1870 saw the first performances of Estonian theatre.BOOK, Subrenat, Jean-Jacques, Estonia: Identity and Independence, 91, 2004, Rodopi, 9042008903, Subrenat2013, BOOK, Cultural Policy in Estonia, 23, 1997, Council of Europe, 9789287131652, In 1878 a major split happened in the national movement. The moderate wing led by Hurt focused on development of culture and Estonian education, while the radical wing led by Jacobson started demanding increased political and economical rights.In the late 19th century the Russification period started, as the central government initiated various administrative and cultural measures to tie Baltic governorates more closely to the empire. The Russian language was used throughout the education system and many Estonian social and cultural activities were suppressed. Still, some administrative changes aimed at reducing power of Baltic German institutions did prove useful to Estonians. In the late 1890s there was a new surge of nationalism with the rise of prominent figures like Jaan Tõnisson and Konstantin Päts. In the early 20th century Estonians started taking over control of local governments in towns from Germans.BOOK, Raukas, Anto, Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld, 291, 2002, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, Estonian, 9985701151, During the 1905 Revolution the first legal Estonian political parties were founded. An Estonian national congress was convened and demanded the unification of Estonian areas into a single autonomous territory and an end to Russification. During the unrest peasants and workers attacked manor houses. The Tsarist government responded with a brutal crackdown; some 500 people were executed and hundreds more were jailed or deported to Siberia.BOOK, Smith, David, Estonia: Independence and European Integration, 10, 2013, Routledge, 9781136452130, BOOK, Raukas, Anto, Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld, 292, 2002, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, Estonian, 9985701151,

Independence

File:FinnVlntrsTllnnDc1918.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Finnish volunteers arrive in Tallinn, Estonia - a period summarized as HeimosodatHeimosodatIn 1917, after the February Revolution, the governorate of Estonia was expanded to include Estonian speaking areas of Livonia and was granted autonomy, enabling formation of the Estonian Provincial Assembly.BOOK, Calvert, Peter, The Process of Political Succession, 67, 1987, Springer, 9781349089789, Bolsheviks seized power during the October Revolution, and disbanded the Provincial Assembly. However the Provincial Assembly established the Salvation Committee, and during the short interlude between Russian retreat and German arrival, the committee declared the independence of Estonia on 24 February 1918, and formed the Estonian Provisional Government. German occupation immediately followed, but after their defeat in World War I the Germans were forced to hand over power to the Provisional Government on 19 November.BOOK, Calvert, Peter, The Process of Political Succession, 68, 1987, Springer, 9781349089789, BOOK, Kasekamp, Andres, The Radical Right in Interwar Estonia, 9, 2000, Springer, 9781403919557, On 28 November 1918 Soviet Russia invaded, starting the Estonian War of Independence.BOOK, Pinder, David, Western Europe: Challenge and Change, 75, 1990, ABC-CLIO, 9781576078006, The Red Army came within 30 km from Tallinn, but in January 1919, the Estonian Army, led by Johan Laidoner, went on a counter-offensive, ejecting Bolshevik forces from Estonia within a few months. Renewed Soviet attacks failed, and in spring, the Estonian army, in cooperation with White Russian forces, advanced into Russia and Latvia.BOOK, Pinder, David, Western Europe: Challenge and Change, 76, 1990, ABC-CLIO, 9781576078006, BOOK, Kasekamp, Andres, The Radical Right in Interwar Estonia, 10, 2000, Springer, 9781403919557, In June 1919, Estonia defeated the German Landeswehr which had attempted to dominate Latvia, restoring power to the government of Kārlis Ulmanis there. After the collapse of the White Russian forces, the Red Army launched a major offensive against Narva in late 1919, but failed to achieve a breakthrough. On 2 February 1920, the Tartu Peace Treaty was signed between Estonia and Soviet Russia, with the latter pledging to permanently give up all sovereign claims to Estonia.BOOK, Kasekamp, Andres, The Radical Right in Interwar Estonia, 11, 2000, Springer, 9781403919557, File:Declaration of Estonian independence in Pärnu.jpg|thumb|alt=photograph of crowd around flag raising|Declaration of independence in PärnuPärnuIn April 1919, the Estonian Constituent Assembly was elected. The Constituent Assembly passed a sweeping land reform expropriating large estates, and adopted a new highly liberal constitution establishing Estonia as a parliamentary democracy.BOOK, Miljan, Toivo, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, 80–81, 2015, Rowman & Littlefield, 9780810875135, BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 128, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537, In 1924, the Soviet Union organized a communist coup attempt, which quickly failed.BOOK, Leonard, Raymond W., Secret Soldiers of the Revolution: Soviet Military Intelligence, 1918–1933, 34–36, 1999, Greenwood Publishing Group, 9780313309908, Estonia's cultural autonomy law for ethnic minorities, adopted in 1925, is widely recognized as one of the most liberal in the world at that time.BOOK, Bell, Imogen, Central and South-Eastern Europe 2003, 244, 2002, Psychology Press, 9781857431360, The Great Depression put heavy pressure on Estonia's political system, and in 1933, the right-wing Vaps movement spearheaded a constitutional reform establishing a strong presidency.BOOK, Smith, David, Estonia: Independence and European Integration, 18, 2013, Routledge, 9781136452130, BOOK, Misiunas, Romuald J., Taagepera, Rein, The Baltic States, Years of Dependence, 1940–1980, 11, 1983, University of California Press, 9780520046252, On 12 March 1934 the acting head of state, Konstantin Päts, declared a state of emergency, falsely claiming that the Vaps movement had been planning a coup. Päts, together with general Johan Laidoner and Kaarel Eenpalu, established an authoritarian regime, where the parliament was dissolved and the newly established Patriotic League became the only legal political party.BOOK, Smith, David, Estonia: Independence and European Integration, 19–20, 2013, Routledge, 9781136452130, In order to legitimize the regime, a new constitution was adopted and elections were held in 1938. Opposition candidates were allowed to participate, but only as independents, while opposition parties remained banned.BOOK, Smith, David, Estonia: Independence and European Integration, 21, 2013, Routledge, 9781136452130, The Päts regime was relatively benign compared to other authoritarian regimes in interwar Europe, and there was no systematic terror against political opponents.BOOK, Smith, David, Estonia: Independence and European Integration, 22, 2013, Routledge, 9781136452130, Estonia joined the League of Nations in 1921.BOOK, van Ginneken, Anique H. M., Historical Dictionary of the League of Nations, 82, 2006, Scarecrow Press, 9780810865136, Attempts to establish a larger alliance together with Finland, Poland, and Latvia failed, with only a mutual defence pact being signed with Latvia in 1923, and later was followed up with the Baltic Entente of 1934.BOOK, von Rauch, Georg, Die Geschichte der baltischen Staaten, 108–111, 1974, University of California Press, 9780520026001, BOOK, Hiden, John, Lane, Thomas, The Baltic and the Outbreak of the Second World War, 7, 2003, Cambridge University Press, 9780521531207, In the 1930s, Estonia also engaged in secret military cooperation with Finland.BOOK, Ã…selius, Gunnar, The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Navy in the Baltic 1921–1941, 119, 2004, Routledge, 9781135769604, Non-aggression pacts were signed with the Soviet Union in 1932, and with Germany in 1939.BOOK, Lane, Thomas, Pabriks, Artis, Purs, Aldis, Smith, David J., The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, 154, 2013, Routledge, 9781136483042, In 1938, Estonia declared neutrality, but this proved futile in World War II.BOOK, Gärtner, Heinz, Engaged Neutrality: An Evolved Approach to the Cold War, 125, 2017, Lexington Books, 9781498546195,

Second World War

File:Red Army entering into Estonia in 1939.jpg|thumb|right|The Red Army entering Estonia in 1939 after Estonia had been forced to sign the Bases Treaty ]]On 23 August 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. The pact's secret protocol divided Eastern Europe into spheres of influence, with Estonia belonging to the Soviet sphere.BOOK, Miljan, Toivo, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, 335, 2015, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-8108-7513-5, On 24 September, the Soviet Union presented an ultimatum, demanding that Estonia sign a treaty of mutual assistance which would allow Soviet military bases into the country. The Estonian government felt that it had no choice but to comply, and the treaty was signed on 28 September.BOOK, Hiden, John, Salmon, Patrick, The Baltic Nations and Europe: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the Twentieth Century, 110, 2014, Routledge, 978-1-317-89057-7, In May 1940, Red Army forces in bases were set in combat readiness and, on 14 June, the Soviet Union instituted a full naval and air blockade on Estonia. On the same day, the airliner Kaleva was shot down by the Soviet Air Force. On 16 June, Soviets presented an ultimatum demanding completely free passage of the Red Army into Estonia and the establishment of a pro-Soviet government. Feeling that resistance was hopeless, the Estonian government complied and, on the next day, the whole country was occupied.BOOK, Raukas, Anto, Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld, 309, 2002, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, Estonian, 9985701151, WEB, Eric A. Johnson, Anna Hermann,weblink The Last Flight from Tallinn,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120117175841weblink">weblink 17 January 2012, Foreign Service Journal, American Foreign Service Association, May 2007, On 6 August 1940, Estonia was annexed by the Soviet Union as the Estonian SSR.BOOK, Lauri Mälksoo, 2003, Illegal Annexation and State Continuity: The Case of the Incorporation of the Baltic States by the USSR, Leiden â€“ Boston, Brill, 90-411-2177-3, The German government initiated a program to relocate most of Estonia's Baltic German population to the land of the ancestors.The Soviets established a regime of oppression; most of the high-ranking civil and military officials, intelligentsia and industrialists were arrested, and usually executed soon afterwards. Soviet repressions culminated on 14 June 1941 with mass deportation of around 11,000 people to Siberia, among whom more than half perished in inhumane conditions.BOOK, Miljan, Toivo, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, 110, 2015, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-8108-7513-5, BOOK, Gatrell, Peter, Baron, Nick, Warlands: Population Resettlement and State Reconstruction in the Soviet-East European Borderlands, 1945–50, 233, 2009, Springer, 978-0-230-24693-5, When the German Operation Barbarossa started against the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, around 34,000 young Estonian men were forcibly drafted into the Red Army, fewer than 30% of whom survived the war. Soviet destruction battalions initiated a scorched earth policy. Political prisoners who could not be evacuated were executed by the NKVD.The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence by Anatol Lieven p424 {{ISBN|0-300-06078-5}}BOOK, Lane, Thomas, Pabriks, Artis, Purs, Aldis, Smith, David J., The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, 34, 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-48304-2, Many Estonians went into the forest, starting an anti-Soviet guerrilla campaign. In July, German Wehrmacht reached south Estonia. Soviets evacuated Tallinn in late August with massive losses, and capture of the Estonian islands was completed by German forces in October.BOOK, Pinder, David, Western Europe: Challenge and Change, 80, 1990, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-57607-800-6, File:TLA 1465 1 973 Varemetes Harju tänav, vasakul Kuld Lõvi varemed 1944.jpg|thumb|left|The old town of Tallinn after bombing by the Soviet Air Force in March 1944]]Initially many Estonians were hopeful that Germany would help to restore Estonia's independence, but this soon proved to be in vain. Only a puppet collaborationist administration was established, and occupied Estonia was merged into Reichskommissariat Ostland, with its economy being fully subjugated to German military needs.BOOK, Miljan, Toivo, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, 209, 2015, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-8108-7513-5, About a thousand Estonian Jews who had not managed to leave were almost all quickly killed in 1941. Numerous forced labour camps were established where thousands of Estonians, foreign Jews, Romani, and Soviet prisoners of war perished.WEB, Conclusions of the Commission,weblink Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080629035526weblink">weblink 29 June 2008, 1998, German occupation authorities started recruiting men into small volunteer units but, as these efforts provided meagre results and military situation worsened, a forced conscription was instituted in 1943, eventually leading to formation of the Estonian Waffen-SS division.BOOK, Smith, David, Estonia: Independence and European Integration, 36, 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-45213-0, Thousands of Estonians who did not want to fight in German military secretly escaped to Finland, where many volunteered to fight together with Finns against Soviets.BOOK, Miljan, Toivo, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, 275, 2004, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-6571-6, File:Estlandssvenska flyktingar.jpg|thumb|right|alt=sailing ship filled with refugees|Estonian SwedesEstonian SwedesThe Red Army reached the Estonian borders again in early 1944, but its advance into Estonia was stopped in heavy fighting near Narva for six months by German forces, including numerous Estonian units.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 159, 2002, Hoover Press, 978-0-8179-2853-7, In March, the Soviet Air Force carried out heavy bombing raids against Tallinn and other Estonian towns.BOOK, Kangilaski, Jaan, Salo, Vello, The white book: losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes, 1940–1991, 18, 2005, Estonian Encyclopaedia Publishers, 9789985701959, In July, the Soviets started a major offensive from the south, forcing the Germans to abandon mainland Estonia in September, with the Estonian islands being abandoned in November. As German forces were retreating from Tallinn, the last pre-war prime minister Jüri Uluots appointed a government headed by Otto Tief in an unsuccessful attempt restore Estonia's independence.BOOK, Kasekamp, Andres, A History of the Baltic States, 138, 2010, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-0-230-36450-9, Tens of thousands of people, including most of the Estonian Swedes, fled westwards to avoid the new Soviet occupation.BOOK, Kangilaski, Jaan, Salo, Vello, The white book: losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes, 1940–1991, 30, 2005, Estonian Encyclopaedia Publishers, 9789985701959, Overall, Estonia lost about 25% of its population through deaths, deportations and evacuations in World War II.BOOK, Kangilaski, Jaan, Salo, Vello, The white book: losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes, 1940–1991, 37, 2005, Estonian Encyclopaedia Publishers, 9789985701959, Estonia also suffered some irrevocable territorial losses, as Soviet Union transferred border areas comprising about 5% of Estonian pre-war territory from the Estonian SSR to the Russian SFSR.BOOK, Misiunas, Romuald J., Taagepera, Rein, The Baltic States, Years of Dependence, 1940–1980, 71, 1983, University of California Press, 978-0-520-04625-2,

Soviet Period

File:Johannes Käbin 1978.jpg|thumb|upright|Johannes Käbin, the leader of the Communist Party of EstoniaCommunist Party of EstoniaThousands of Estonians opposing the second Soviet occupation joined a guerrilla movement known as Forest Brothers. The armed resistance was heaviest in the first few years after the war, but Soviet authorities gradually wore it down through attrition, and resistance effectively ceased to exist in the mid 1950s.BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated, 174, 2002, Hoover Press, 9780817928537, The Soviets initiated a policy of collectivization, but as peasants remained opposed to it a campaign of terror was unleashed. In March 1949 about 20,000 Estonians were deported to Siberia. Collectivization was fully completed soon afterwards.BOOK, Purs, Aldis, Baltic Facades: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania since 1945, 335, 2013, Reaktion Books, 9781861899323, The Soviet Union began Russification, with hundreds of thousands of Russians and people of other Soviet nationalities being induced to settle in Estonia, which eventually threatened to turn Estonians into a minority in their own land.BOOK, Taagepera, Rein, The Finno-Ugric Republics and the Russian State, 128, 2013, Routledge, 9781136678011, In early 1945 Estonians formed 94% of the population, but by 1989 their share of the population had fallen to 61.5%.BOOK, O'Connor, Kevin, The History of the Baltic States, 128, 2003, Greenwood Publishing Group, 9780313323553, Economically, heavy industry was strongly prioritized, but this did not improve the well-being of the local population, and caused massive environmental damage through pollution.BOOK, Miljan, Toivo, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, 227, 2015, Rowman & Littlefield, 9780810875135, Living standards under the Soviet occupation kept falling further behind nearby independent Finland. The country was heavily militarized, with closed military areas covering 2% of territory.BOOK, Spyra, Wolfgang, Katzsch, Michael, Environmental Security and Public Safety: Problems and Needs in Conversion Policy and Research after 15 Years of Conversion in Central and Eastern Europe, 14, 2007, Springer Science & Business Media, 9781402056444, Islands and most of the coastal areas were turned into a restricted border zone which required a special permit for entry.BOOK, Stöcker, Lars Fredrik, Bridging the Baltic Sea: Networks of Resistance and Opposition during the Cold War Era, 72, 2017, Lexington Books, 9781498551281, The United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and the majority of other Western countries considered the annexation of Estonia by the Soviet Union illegal.BOOK, Feldbrugge, F. J. Ferdinand Joseph Maria, Van den Berg, Gerard Pieter, Simons, William Bradford, Encyclopedia of Soviet Law, 461, 1985, BRILL, 9789024730759, Legal continuity of the Estonian state was preserved through the government-in-exile and the Estonian diplomatic representatives which Western governments continued to recognize.BOOK, Lane, Thomas, Pabriks, Artis, Purs, Aldis, Smith, David J., The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, xx, 2013, Routledge, 9781136483042, BOOK, Frankowski, Stanisław, Stephan III, Paul B., Legal Reform in Post-Communist Europe: The View from Within, 73, 1995, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 9780792332183,

Restoration of Independence

File:Lennart Meri 1998.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Lennart MeriLennart MeriThe introduction of Perestroika in 1987 made political activity possible again, starting an independence restoration process known as the Singing Revolution.BOOK, Backes, Uwe, Moreau, Patrick, Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe: Schriften Des Hannah-Arendt-Instituts Für Totalitarismusforschung 36, 9, 2008, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 9783525369128, The environmental Phosphorite War campaign became the first major protest movement against the central government.BOOK, Vogt, Henri, Between Utopia and Disillusionment: A Narrative of the Political Transformation in Eastern Europe, 20–22, 2005, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 9781571818959, In 1988 new political movements appeared, such as the Popular Front of Estonia which came to represent the moderate wing in the independence movement, and the more radical Estonian National Independence Party, which was the first non-communist party in the Soviet Union and demanded full restoration of independence.BOOK, Simons, Greg, Westerlund, David, Religion, Politics and Nation-Building in Post-Communist Countries, 151, 2015, Ashgate Publishing, 9781472449719, Reformist Vaino Väljas became the first secretary of Estonian Communist Party, and under his leadership on 16 November 1988 Estonian Supreme Soviet issued Sovereignty Declaration asserting the primacy of Estonian laws over Union laws. Over the next two years almost all other Soviet Republics followed the Estonian lead issuing similar declarations.BOOK, Smith, David, Estonia: Independence and European Integration, 46–48, 2013, Routledge, 9781136452130, BOOK, Walker, Edward W., Dissolution: Sovereignty and the Breakup of the Soviet Union, 63, 2003, Rowman & Littlefield, 9780742524538,weblink On 23 August 1989 about 2 million Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians participated in a mass demonstration forming a Baltic Way human chain across the three republics.BOOK, Smith, David, Estonia: Independence and European Integration, 52, 2013, Routledge, 9781136452130, In 1990 the Congress of Estonia was formed as representative body of Estonian citizens.BOOK, Smith, David, Estonia: Independence and European Integration, 54, 2013, Routledge, 9781136452130, In March 1991 a referendum was held where 77.7% of voters supported independence, and during the coup attempt in Moscow Estonia declared restoration of independence on 20 August,BOOK, Gill, Graeme, Democracy and Post-Communism: Political Change in the Post-Communist World, 41, 2003, Routledge, 9781134485567, which is now the Day of Restoration of Independence, a national holiday.WEB,weblink Estonia celebrates the Day of Restoration of Independence, 20 August 2016, Estonian World, en-US, 18 August 2018, Soviet authorities recognized Estonian independence on 6 September, and on 17 September Estonia was admitted into the United Nations.BOOK, Dillon, Patricia, Wykoff, Frank C., Creating Capitalism: Transitions and Growth in Post-Soviet Europe, 164, 2002, Edward Elgar Publishing, 9781843765561, The last units of the Russian army left Estonia in 1994.BOOK, Nørgaard, Ole, The Baltic States After Independence, 188, 1999, Edward Elgar Publishing, 9781843765561, In 1992 radical economic reforms were launched for switching over to a market economy, including privatisation and currency reform.BOOK, Ó Beacháin, Donnacha, Sheridan, Vera, Stan, Sabina, Life in Post-Communist Eastern Europe after EU Membership, 170, 2012, Routledge, 9781136299810, Estonian foreign policy since independence has been orientated towards the West, and in 2004 Estonia joined both the European Union and NATO.BOOK, Miljan, Toivo, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, 18–19, 2015, Rowman & Littlefield, 9780810875135,

Territorial history timeline

{{History Timeline of Estonia}}

Geography

(File:Luftbild Finnischer Meerbusen.jpg|thumb|Satellite image of Estonia)Estonia lies on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea immediately across the Gulf of Finland, on the level northwestern part of the rising East European platform between 57.3° and 59.5° N and 21.5° and 28.1° E. Average elevation reaches only {{convert|50|m|ft|0}} and the country's highest point is the Suur Munamägi in the southeast at {{convert|318|m|ft|0}}. There is {{convert|3794|km|mi|0}} of coastline marked by numerous bays, straits, and inlets. The number of islands and islets is estimated at some 2,355 (including those in lakes). Two of them are large enough to constitute separate counties: Saaremaa and Hiiumaa.WEB, World InfoZone â€“ Estonia,weblink World InfoZone, World InfoZonek, LTD., 20 February 2007, A small, recent cluster of meteorite craters, the largest of which is called Kaali is found on Saaremaa, Estonia.Estonia is situated in the northern part of the temperate climate zone and in the transition zone between maritime and (Köppen climate classification#Group D: Continental/microthermal climates|continental climate).Estonia has four seasons of near-equal length. Average temperatures range from {{convert|16.3|°C|1|abbr=on}} on the islands to {{convert|18.1|°C|1|abbr=on}} inland in July, the warmest month, and from {{convert|-3.5|°C|1|abbr=on}} on the islands to {{convert|-7.6|°C|1|abbr=on}} inland in February, the coldest month. The average annual temperature in Estonia is {{convert|5.2|°C|1|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Keskmine ohutemperatuur (°C) 1971–2000, Emhi.ee, 2 June 2010, The average precipitation in 1961–1990 ranged from {{convert|535|to|727|mm|in|1|abbr=on}} per year.WEB,weblink Sademed, õhuniiskus, Emhi.ee, 2 June 2010, Snow cover, which is deepest in the south-eastern part of Estonia, usually lasts from mid-December to late March. Estonia has over 1,400 lakes. Most are very small, with the largest, Lake Peipus, being {{convert|3555|km2|mi2|0|abbr=on}}. There are many rivers in the country. The longest of them are Võhandu ({{convert|162|km|mi|0|abbr=on|disp=or}}), Pärnu ({{convert|144|km|mi|0|abbr=on|disp=or}}), and Põltsamaa ({{convert|135|km|mi|0|abbr=on|disp=or}}).WEB,weblink World Info Zone, World Info Zone, 2 June 2010, Estonia has numerous fens and bogs. Forest land covers 50% of Estonia.Facts {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170202081812weblink |date=2 February 2017 }} Estonian Timber The most common tree species are pine, spruce and birch.WEB,weblink European Commission – PRESS RELEASES – Press release – Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey 2012 Buildings, roads and other artificial areas cover 5% of the EU ...and forests 40%, 27 March 2015, Phytogeographically, Estonia is shared between the Central European and Eastern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Estonia belongs to the ecoregion of Sarmatic mixed forests.

Biodiversity

File:Landsvale.jpg| thumb|The barn swallowbarn swallowMany species extinct in most of the European countries can be still found in Estonia. Mammals present in Estonia include the grey wolf, lynx, brown bear, red fox, badger, wild boar, moose, red deer, roe deer, beaver, otter, grey seal, and ringed seal. Critically endangered European mink has been successfully reintroduced to the island of Hiiumaa, and the rare Siberian flying squirrel is present in east Estonia.BOOK, Taylor, Neil, Estonia, 6–7, 2014, Bradt Travel Guides, 9781841624877, BOOK, Taylor, Neil, Estonia, 4, 2014, Bradt Travel Guides, 9781841624877, Introduced species, such as the sika deer, raccoon dog and muskrat, can now be found throughout the country.WEB,weblink Mammals in Estonia, Estonian Nature Tours, Autumn 2017, 26 December 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190410003844weblink">weblink 10 April 2019, dead, Over 300 bird species have been found in Estonia, including the white-tailed eagle, lesser spotted eagle, golden eagle, western capercaillie, black and white stork, numerous species of owls, waders, geese and many others.BOOK, Taylor, Neil, Estonia, 7–8, 2014, Bradt Travel Guides, 9781841624877, The Barn swallow is the national bird of Estonia.BOOK, Spilling, Michael, Estonia, 11, 2010, Marshall Cavendish, 9781841624877, Protected areas cover 18% of Estonian land and 26% of its sea territory. There are 5 national parks, 159 nature reserves, and many other protection areas.WEB,weblink Nature conservation in Estonia, Estonian Environmental Board, 16 November 2017, 23 February 2018,

Politics

{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:left; float:right; margin-right:9px; margin-left:2px;" (File:Ināra Mūrniece tiekas ar Igaunijas prezidenti (croped).jpg (File:RK Jüri Ratas.jpg|x190px)Kersti KaljulaidPresident since 2016Jüri RatasPrime Minister since 2016Estonia is a parliamentary representative democratic republic in which the Prime Minister of Estonia is the head of government and which includes a multi-party system. The political culture is stable in Estonia, where power is held between two and three parties that have been in politics for a long time. This situation is similar to other countries in Northern Europe. The former Prime Minister of Estonia, Andrus Ansip, is also the European Union's longest-serving Prime Minister (from 2005 until 2014). The current Estonian Prime Minister is Jüri Ratas, who is the former Second Vice-President of the Parliament and the head of the Estonian Centre Party.

Parliament

File:Riigikogu hoone, Kaupo Kalda foto, 2016.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Toompea Castle pink stucco three-story building with red hip roof|The seat of the Parliament of Estonia in Toompea CastleToompea CastleThe Parliament of Estonia () or the legislative branch is elected by people for a four-year term by proportional representation. The Estonian political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1992 constitutional document. The Estonian parliament has 101 members and influences the governing of the state primarily by determining the income and the expenses of the state (establishing taxes and adopting the budget). At the same time the parliament has the right to present statements, declarations and appeals to the people of Estonia, ratify and denounce international treaties with other states and international organisations and decide on the Government loans.WEB,weblink Functions, 27 March 2015, The Riigikogu elects and appoints several high officials of the state, including the President of the Republic. In addition to that, the Riigikogu appoints, on the proposal of the President of Estonia, the Chairman of the National Court, the chairman of the board of the Bank of Estonia, the Auditor General, the Legal Chancellor and the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Forces. A member of the Riigikogu has the right to demand explanations from the Government of the Republic and its members. This enables the members of the parliament to observe the activities of the executive power and the above-mentioned high officials of the state.

Government

The Government of Estonia () or the executive branch is formed by the Prime Minister of Estonia, nominated by the president and approved by the parliament. The government exercises executive power pursuant to the Constitution of Estonia and the laws of the Republic of Estonia and consists of twelve ministers, including the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister also has the right to appoint other ministers and assign them a subject to deal with. These are ministers without portfolio – they don't have a ministry to control.File:Stenbock House.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Stenbock House grey stucco three-story building with pediment and portico and red hip roof|Stenbock House, the seat of the Government of Estonia on ToompeaToompeaThe Prime Minister has the right to appoint a maximum of three such ministers, as the limit of ministers in one government is fifteen. It is also known as the cabinet. The cabinet carries out the country's domestic and foreign policy, shaped by parliament; it directs and co-ordinates the work of government institutions and bears full responsibility for everything occurring within the authority of executive power. The government, headed by the Prime Minister, thus represents the political leadership of the country and makes decisions in the name of the whole executive power.Estonia has pursued the development of the e-state and e-government. Internet voting is used in elections in Estonia.WEB,weblink Estonia pulls off nationwide Net voting, CNET, 27 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="archive.today/20120713045721weblink">weblink 13 July 2012, The first internet voting took place in the 2005 local elections and the first in a parliamentary election was made available for the 2007 elections, in which 30,275 individuals voted over the internet. Voters have a chance to invalidate their electronic vote in traditional elections, if they wish to. In 2009 in its eighth Worldwide Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders ranked Estonia sixth out of 175 countries.Reporters Without Borders. Worldwide press freedom index 2009 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120128213104weblink |date=28 January 2012 }} In the first ever State of World Liberty Index report, Estonia was ranked first out of 159 countries.{{Clear}}

Law

{{See also|Police and Border Guard Board}}File:Piirivalve mootorkelgud.jpg|thumb|alt=Huey helicopter landing on a pad next to a wetland|Estonian Border GuardEstonian Border GuardAccording to the Constitution of Estonia () the supreme power of the state is vested in the people. The people exercise their supreme power of the state on the elections of the Riigikogu through citizens who have the right to vote.WEB,weblink Introduction, 27 March 2015, The supreme judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court or Riigikohus, with nineteen justices.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110722122621weblink">weblink 22 July 2011, Riigikohus, Riigikohus, Estonian, 8 October 2009, dead, The Chief Justice is appointed by the parliament for nine years on nomination by the president. The official Head of State is the President of Estonia, who gives assent to the laws passed by Riigikogu, also having the right of sending them back and proposing new laws.The President, however, does not use these rights very often, having a largely ceremonial role.NEWS, Estonia country profile,weblink BBC, 16 March 2013, He or she is elected by Riigikogu, with two-thirds of the votes required. If the candidate does not gain the number of votes required, the right to elect the President goes over to an electoral body, consisting of the 101 members of Riigikogu and representatives from local councils. As in other spheres, Estonian law-making has been successfully integrated with the Information Age.

Administrative divisions

File:Eesti maakonnad 2006 blue.svg|350px|right|Counties of Estoniapoly 149 174 230 291 137 327 40 263 Hiiu Countypoly 197 110 338 228 338 319 263 375 203 242 Lääne Countypoly 225 294 271 387 233 585 38 511 21 363 Saare Countypoly 534 33 567 172 515 174 492 245 421 185 342 240 246 141 Harju Countypoly 531 35 567 168 514 176 572 197 569 221 594 244 597 263 666 247 693 192 670 170 666 85 Lääne-Viru Countypoly 669 77 667 170 693 192 665 246 704 273 805 244 874 107 Ida-Viru Countypoly 340 240 422 185 490 246 475 314 443 318 433 308 374 323 338 322 Rapla Countypoly 270 375 337 318 373 327 433 307 486 314 477 352 453 361 449 408 484 421 446 495 345 546 Pärnu Countypoly 476 309 515 173 573 197 569 223 594 243 596 275 546 317 505 340 484 335 491 313 Järva Countypoly 454 365 479 348 482 334 505 338 545 319 597 366 602 479 591 454 560 462 527 507 458 486 487 418 445 401 Viljandi Countypoly 597 367 546 316 597 265 665 246 707 274 735 310 684 344 Jõgeva Countypoly 600 365 676 347 748 300 809 443 731 412 662 452 637 439 591 461 Tartu Countypoly 525 512 556 461 637 442 662 453 658 495 632 501 652 588 622 598 Valga Countypoly 656 492 660 452 732 412 806 445 840 514 756 522 753 501 Põlva Countypoly 634 502 659 493 756 502 756 521 816 524 765 612 654 619 Võru County{| class="sortable wikitable" style="text-align:center; font-size:90%;"! style="width:140px;"|County !! style="width:70px;"|Area (km²)!! style="width:50px;"|Population (thousands) in 2017!! style="width:50px;"|Nominal GDP billions EUR in 2017WEB,weblink National accounts - Statistics Estonia, www.stat.ee, !! style="width:50px;"|Nominal GDP per capita EUR in 2017 !! style="width:70px;"|GDP PPP per capita USD in 2017WEB,weblink Report for Selected Countries and Subjects, www.imf.org, | Harju County| 4,333| 610| 15.3| 25,650| 46,430| Hiiu County| 989| 10| 0.1| 10,210| 18,480| Ida-Viru County| 3,364| 143| 1.4| 10,240| 18,530| Jõgeva County| 2,604 | 30| 0.3| 8,820| 15,960| Järva County| 2,623| 31| 0.3| 10,880| 19,690| Lääne County| 2,383| 21| 0.2| 12,020| 21,760| Lääne-Viru County| 3,627| 61| 0.7| 11,190| 20,250| Põlva County| 2,165| 26| 0.2| 7,520| 13,610| Pärnu County| 4,807 | 88| 1.0| 11,390| 20,620| Rapla County| 2,980| 34| 0.3| 9,400| 17,000| Saare County| 2,673| 34| 0.4| 12,420| 22,480| Tartu County| 2,993 | 155| 2.5| 16,520| 29,900| Valga County| 2,044| 30| 0.3| 11,140| 20,160| Viljandi County| 3,422| 48| 0.5| 11,220| 20,310| Võru County| 2,305| 37| 0.3| 8,730| 15,800! Estonia! 45,227! 1,324! 23.6! 17,930! 32,450The Republic of Estonia is divided into fifteen counties (Maakonnad), which are the administrative subdivisions of the country. The first documented reference to Estonian political and administrative subdivisions comes from the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, written in the thirteenth century during the Northern Crusades.History of Estonia History of EstoniaA maakond (county) is the biggest administrative subdivision. Several changes were made to the borders of counties after Estonia became independent, most notably the formation of Valga County (from parts of Võru, Tartu and Viljandi counties) and Petseri County (area acquired from Russia with the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty). During the Soviet rule, Petseri County was annexed and ceded to the Russian SFSR in 1945 where it became Pechorsky District of Pskov Oblast. Counties were again re-established on 1 January 1990 in the borders of the Soviet-era districts. Because of the numerous differences between the current and historical (pre-1940, and sometimes pre-1918) layouts, the historical borders are still used in ethnology, representing cultural and linguistic differences better. Now defunct, the county government (Maavalitsus) of each county used to be led by a county governor (Maavanem), who represented the national government at the regional level. Governors were appointed by the Government of Estonia for a term of five years.Each county is further divided into municipalities (omavalitsus), which is also the smallest administrative subdivision of Estonia. There are two types of municipalities: an urban municipality â€“ linn (town), and a rural municipality â€“ vald (parish). There is no other status distinction between them. Each municipality is a unit of self-government with its representative and executive bodies. The municipalities in Estonia cover the entire territory of the country.A municipality may contain one or more populated places. Tallinn is divided into eight districts (linnaosa) with limited self-government (Haabersti, Kesklinn (centre), Kristiine, Lasnamäe, Mustamäe, Nõmme, Pirita and Põhja-Tallinn). Rural municipalities may also be divided into (rural) districts (osavald), most prominent being Hiiumaa Parish with its five, fairly autonomous districts.Municipalities range in size of population from Tallinn with around 450,000 inhabitants to Ruhnu with as few as around 150. They also range fairly in area from Saaremaa Parish (2717,83 km²) to Loksa town (3,82 km²). {{as of|2017|October}}, after the Administrative reform of Estonia, there are a total of 79 municipalities in Estonia, 14 of them being urban and 65 rural. Previously there were 213 municipalities.

Foreign relations

File:The_Embassy_of_Finland_and_Estonia_to_Australia_May_2016.jpg|thumb|right|The joint embassy of Estonia & Finland in Canberra, AustraliaAustraliaEstonia was a member of the League of Nations from 22 September 1921, and became a member of the United Nations on 17 September 1991.BOOK, Whittaker Briggs, Herbert, The law of nations: cases, documents, and notes,weblink 1952, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 106, WEB,weblink Estonia country brief, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Australia), 22 February 2018, Since restoration of independence Estonia has pursued close relations with the Western countries, and has been member of NATO since 29 March 2004, as well as the European Union since 1 May 2004. In 2007, Estonia joined the Schengen Area, and in 2011 the Eurozone. The European Union Agency for large-scale IT systems is based in Tallinn, which started operations at the end of 2012.WEB,weblink EU Agency for large-scale IT systems, European Commission, 20 July 2012, 11 August 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120910112010weblink">weblink 10 September 2012, Estonia held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union in the second half of 2017.NEWS,weblink Estonian presidency leaves 'more confident' EU, EUobserver, 21 December 2017, 22 February 2018, File:President Barack Obama giving a speech at the Nordea Concert Hall on 2014-09-03 in Tallinn, Estonia.jpg|thumb|left|US President Barack Obama giving a speech at the Nordea Concert Hall in TallinnTallinnSince the early 1990s, Estonia has been involved in active trilateral Baltic states co-operation with Latvia and Lithuania, and Nordic-Baltic co-operation with the Nordic countries. The Baltic Council is the joint forum of the interparliamentary Baltic Assembly and the intergovernmental Baltic Council of Ministers.WEB,weblink Estonian Chairmanship of the Baltic Council of Ministers in 2011, Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 11 August 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131113111112weblink">weblink 13 November 2013, Estonia has built close relationship with the Nordic countries, especially Finland and Sweden, and is a member of Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB-8) uniting Nordic and Baltic countries.WEB,weblink Nordic-Baltic Co-operation, Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 10 July 2012, 11 August 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120511184410weblink">weblink 11 May 2012, Joint Nordic-Baltic projects include the education programme NordplusWEB,weblink Nordplus, Nordic Council of Ministers, 11 August 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131113110917weblink">weblink 13 November 2013, and mobility programmes for business and industryWEB,weblink NordicBaltic Mobility and Network Programme for Business and Industry, Nordic Council of Ministers' Office in Latvia, 11 August 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131118051601weblink">weblink 18 November 2013, and for public administration.WEB,weblink NordicBaltic mobility programme for public administration, Nordic Council of Ministers' Office in Estonia, 11 August 2012, The Nordic Council of Ministers has an office in Tallinn with a subsidiaries in Tartu and Narva.WEB,weblink Nordic Council of Ministers' Information Offices in the Baltic States and Russia, Nordic Council of Ministers, 11 August 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121018134356weblink">weblink 18 October 2012, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Norden in Estonia, Nordic Council of Ministers' Office in Estonia, 11 August 2012, The Baltic states are members of Nordic Investment Bank, European Union's Nordic Battle Group, and in 2011 were invited to co-operate with NORDEFCO in selected activities.WEB,weblink Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 10-year owners at NIB, Nordic Investment Bank, December 2014, 22 February 2018, NEWS,weblink Smyth, Patrick, World View: German paper outlines vision for EU defence union, Irish Times, 7 May 2016, 22 February 2018, BOOK, Dahl, Ann Sofie, Järvenpää, Pauli, Northern Security and Global Politics: Nordic-Baltic strategic influence in a post-unipolar world, 2014, Routledge, 978-0-415-83657-9, 166,weblink 24 December 2016, WEB,weblink PDF, NORDEFCO annual report 2015, Nordefco.org, 23 July 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171014085148weblink">weblink 14 October 2017, dead, File:Foreign Ministers of Nordic and Baltic countries met in Helsinki, 30.08.2011 (Photographer Eero Kuosmanen).jpg|thumb|right|alt=Foreign ministers standing in arc around microphones 2011|Foreign ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in HelsinkiHelsinkiThe beginning of the attempt to redefine Estonia as "Nordic" was seen in December 1999, when then Estonian foreign minister (and President of Estonia from 2006 until 2016) Toomas Hendrik Ilves delivered a speech entitled "Estonia as a Nordic Country" to the Swedish Institute for International Affairs,WEB,weblink Estonia as a Nordic Country, Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, Toomas Hendrik Ilves, 14 December 1999, Estonian Foreign Ministry, 19 September 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511094242weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, with potential political calculation behind it being wish to distinguish Estonia from more slowly progressing southern neighbours, which could have postponed early participation in European Union enlargement for Estonia too.BOOK, Mouritzen, Hans, Wivel, Anders, The Geopolitics of Euro-Atlantic Integration, 2005, Routledge, 143, 1,weblink 24 December 2016, Andres Kasekamp argued in 2005, that relevance of identity discussions in Baltic states decreased with their entrance into EU and NATO together, but predicted, that in the future, attractiveness of Nordic identity in Baltic states will grow and eventually, five Nordic states plus three Baltic states will become a single unit.Other Estonian international organization memberships include OECD, OSCE, WTO, IMF, the Council of the Baltic Sea States,WEB,weblink List of OECD Member countries – Ratification of the Convention on the OECD, OECD, 22 February 2018, WEB,weblink Participating States, OSCE, 22 February 2018, and on 7 June 2019, was elected a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for a term that begins on 1 January 2020.Relations with Russia remain generally cold, though there is some practical cooperation.NEWS,weblink Ambassador: Successes tend to get ignored in Estonian-Russian relations, Eesti Rahvusringhääling, 9 December 2017, 22 February 2018, In 2018, Estonia was one of the founding members of the New Hanseatic League, an intra-EU grouping of Northern European member states focused around matters of fiscal policy.

Military

(File:Baltic Battalion Soldiers, Trident Juncture 15 (22200204329).jpg|thumb|left|Estonian soldiers during a NATO exercise in 2015)The military of Estonia is based upon the Estonian Defence Forces (), which is the name of the unified armed forces of the republic with Maavägi (Army), Merevägi (Navy), Õhuvägi (Air Force) and a paramilitary national guard organisation Kaitseliit (Defence League). The Estonian National Defence Policy aim is to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land, territorial waters, airspace and its constitutional order.WEB,weblink Estonian National Defence Policy, Mil.ee, 2 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100528073601weblink">weblink 28 May 2010, Current strategic goals are to defend the country's interests, develop the armed forces for interoperability with other NATO and EU member forces, and participation in NATO missions.The current national military service () is compulsory for men between 18 and 28, and conscripts serve eight-month to eleven-month tours of duty depending on the army branch they serve in. Estonia has retained conscription unlike Latvia and Lithuania and has no plan to transition to a professional army.NEWS,weblink Terras: Conscription Will Stay, Eesti Rahvusringhääling, 10 December 2012, 16 March 2013, In 2008, annual military spending reached 1.85% of GDP, or 5 billion kroons, and was expected to continue to increase until 2010, when a 2.0% level was anticipated.WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100104115703weblink">weblink 4 January 2010,weblink Estonian Defence Budget, Mod.gov.ee, 2 June 2010, dead, Estonia co-operates with Latvia and Lithuania in several trilateral Baltic defence co-operation initiatives, including Baltic Battalion (BALTBAT), Baltic Naval Squadron (BALTRON), Baltic Air Surveillance Network (BALTNET) and joint military educational institutions such as the Baltic Defence College in Tartu.WEB,weblink Baltic Defence Co-operation, Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, January 2002, 11 August 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110805201335weblink">weblink 5 August 2011, Future co-operation will include sharing of national infrastructures for training purposes and specialisation of training areas (BALTTRAIN) and collective formation of battalion-sized contingents for use in the NATO rapid-response force.WEB,weblink Baltic Defence Ministers announced new defence cooperation initiatives, Ministry of National Defence Republic of Lithuania, 12 December 2011, 11 August 2012, In January 2011 the Baltic states were invited to join NORDEFCO, the defence framework of the Nordic countries.WEB,weblink Nordic Countries Invite Baltics to Join Defence Co-operation Framework, Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 21 January 2011, 11 August 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120608191401weblink">weblink 8 June 2012, File:XA-180EST in Afghanistan.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Estonian armoured car in desert camouflage Afghanistan|An Estonian Patria PasiPatria PasiIn January 2008, the Estonian military had almost 300 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of various international peacekeeping forces, including 35 Defence League troops stationed in Kosovo; 120 Ground Forces soldiers in the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan; 80 soldiers stationed as a part of MNF in Iraq; and 2 Estonian officers in Bosnia-Herzegovina and 2 Estonian military agents in Israeli occupied Golan Heights.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110504080436weblink">weblink 4 May 2011, Iisrael, Liibanon ja Süüria, Estonian, Operatsioonid.kmin.ee, 26 April 2010, 2 June 2010, dead, The Estonian Defence Forces have also previously had military missions in Croatia from March until October 1995, in Lebanon from December 1996 until June 1997 and in Macedonia from May until December 2003.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110720125510weblink">weblink 20 July 2011, Former operations, Mil.ee, 2 June 2010, Estonia participates in the Nordic Battlegroup and has announced readiness to send soldiers also to Sudan to Darfur if necessary, creating the first African peacekeeping mission for the armed forces of Estonia.WEB,weblink Eesti osalus Euroopa julgeoleku- ja kaitsepoliitikas â€“ ESDP, 29 June 2008, unfit,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070624001241weblink">weblink 24 June 2007, , Estonian Ministry of Defence (in Estonian)The Ministry of Defence and the Defence Forces have been working on a cyberwarfare and defence formation for some years now. In 2007, a military doctrine of an e-military of Estonia was officially introduced as the country was under massive cyberattacks in 2007.NEWS, BBC, 25 January 2008, 23 February 2008, Estonia fines man for 'cyber war',weblink The proposed aim of the e-military is to secure the vital infrastructure and e-infrastructure of Estonia. The main cyber warfare facility is the Computer Emergency Response Team of Estonia (CERT), founded in 2006. The organisation operates on security issues in local networks.WEB,weblink CERT Estonia, Ria.ee, 2 June 2010, dead,weblink 10 March 2013, Then President of the US, George W. Bush, announced his support of Estonia as the location of a NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE) in 2007.Krister Paris USA toetab Eesti küberkaitsekeskust. Eesti Päevaleht, 28 June 2007 In the aftermath of the 2007 cyberattacks, plans to combine network defence with Estonian military doctrine have been nicknamed as the Tiger's Defence, in reference to Tiigrihüpe.WEB,weblink President Ilves kohtus Ameerika Ãœhendriikide riigipeaga, 24 February 2012, unfit,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927203245weblink">weblink 27 September 2007, . Office of the President of Estonia. 25 June 2007 The CCDCOE started its operations in November 2008.WEB,weblink Kaitsevägi â€“ Uudised, Mil.ee, 2 June 2010,

Economy

File:BlueEurozone.svg|thumb|alt=map of European Union eurozone|Estonia is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue), and of the EU single market.]]As a member of the European Union, Estonia is considered a high-income economy by the World Bank. The GDP (PPP) per capita of the country was $29,312 in 2016 according to the International Monetary Fund. Because of its rapid growth, Estonia has often been described as a Baltic Tiger beside Lithuania and Latvia. Beginning 1 January 2011, Estonia adopted the euro and became the 17th eurozone member state.NEWS, Mardiste, David, Estonia joins crisis-hit euro club,weblink 2 January 2011, 1 January 2011, Reuters, According to Eurostat, Estonia had the lowest ratio of government debt to GDP among EU countries at 6.7% at the end of 2010.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111027125232weblink">weblink dead, Eurostat news release, 27 October 2011, A balanced budget, almost non-existent public debt, flat-rate income tax, free trade regime, competitive commercial banking sector, innovative e-Services and even mobile-based services are all hallmarks of Estonia's market economy.File:Tln1.jpg|thumb|left|alt=aerial view of high rises at sunset|The central business district of TallinnTallinnEstonia produces about 75% of its consumed electricity."Electricity Balance, Yearly" 8 June 2010 (Estonian) In 2011, about 85% of it was generated with locally mined oil shale.WEB,weblink "Põlevkivi kasutamise riikliku arengukava 2008–2015" 2011. a täitmise aruanne, Valitsus.ee, 6 September 2012, 16 March 2013,weblink 8 May 2013, dead, dmy-all, Alternative energy sources such as wood, peat, and biomass make up approximately 9% of primary energy production. Renewable wind energy was about 6% of total consumption in 2009."Energy Effectiveness, Yearly" 22 September 2010 (Estonian) Estonia imports petroleum products from western Europe and Russia. Estonia imports 100% of its natural gas from Russia."Europe's Declining Gas Demand: Trends and Facts about European Gas Consumption – June 2015". (PDF). p.9. E3G. Source: Eurostat, Eurogas, E3G. Oil shale energy, telecommunications, textiles, chemical products, banking, services, food and fishing, timber, shipbuilding, electronics, and transportation are key sectors of the economy.WEB, DISCOVER BUSINESS AND INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN ESTONIA!,weblink Estonian Export Directory, 2 July 2013, The ice-free port of Muuga, near Tallinn, is a modern facility featuring good transshipment capability, a high-capacity grain elevator, chill/frozen storage, and new oil tanker off-loading capabilities.{{Citation needed|date=February 2013}} The railroad serves as a conduit between the West, Russia, and other points to the East.{{Citation needed|date=February 2013}}Because of the global economic recession that began in 2007, the GDP of Estonia decreased by 1.4% in the 2nd quarter of 2008, over 3% in the 3rd quarter of 2008, and over 9% in the 4th quarter of 2008. The Estonian government made a supplementary negative budget, which was passed by Riigikogu. The revenue of the budget was decreased for 2008 by EEK 6.1 billion and the expenditure by EEK 3.2 billion.WEB,weblink Ministry of Finance, fin.ee, 15 May 2008, 2 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131102031135weblink">weblink 2 November 2013, In 2010, the economic situation stabilised and started a growth based on strong exports. In the fourth quarter of 2010, Estonian industrial output increased by 23% compared to the year before. The country has been experiencing economic growth ever since.WEB,weblink Eesti Statistika – Enim nõutud statistika, Stat.ee, 23 March 2010, 5 June 2011, According to Eurostat data, Estonian PPS GDP per capita stood at 67% of the EU average in 2008.WEB,weblink GDP per capita in PPS, Eurostat, 25 June 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090711153813weblink">weblink 11 July 2009, In 2017, the average monthly gross salary in Estonia was €1221.WEB, Allan Aron, Evelin Puura,weblink Avaleht – Eesti Statistika, Stat.ee, 31 March 2016, However, there are vast disparities in GDP between different areas of Estonia; currently, over half of the country's GDP is created in Tallinn.WEB, Kaja Koovit,weblink bbn.ee – Half of Estonian GDP is created in Tallinn, Balticbusinessnews.com, 1 June 2011, 5 June 2011, In 2008, the GDP per capita of Tallinn stood at 172% of the Estonian average,Half of the gross domestic product of Estonia is created in Tallinn. Statistics Estonia. Stat.ee. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2011. which makes the per capita GDP of Tallinn as high as 115% of the European Union average, exceeding the average levels of other counties.The unemployment rate in March 2016 was 6.4%, which is below the EU average, while real GDP growth in 2011 was 8.0%,WEB,weblink Real GDP per capita, growth rate and totals, Statistics Estonia, Stat.ee, 25 November 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131114083834weblink">weblink 14 November 2013, dead, dmy-all, five times the euro-zone average. In 2012, Estonia remained the only euro member with a budget surplus, and with a national debt of only 6%, it is one of the least indebted countries in Europe.WEB, Estonia Uses the Euro, and the Economy is Booming,weblink CNBC, 13 June 2012, 5 June 2012,

Economic indicators

Estonia's economy continues to benefit from a transparent government and policies that sustain a high level of economic freedom, ranking 6th globally and 2nd in Europe.WEB,weblink Country Rankings: World & Global Economy Rankings on Economic Freedom, Heritage.org, 13 January 2017, 23 July 2017, WEB,weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2016 – Transparency International, Transparency.org, 25 January 2017, 23 July 2017, The rule of law remains strongly buttressed and enforced by an independent and efficient judicial system. A simplified tax system with flat rates and low indirect taxation, openness to foreign investment, and a liberal trade regime have supported the resilient and well-functioning economy.WEB,weblink 2015 International Tax Competitiveness Index, Taxfoundation.org, 23 July 2017, {{Asof|2018|May}}, the Ease of Doing Business Index by the World Bank Group places the country 16th in the world.WEB,weblink Rankings & Ease of Doing Business Score, Doing Business, The World Bank, 25 January 2019, The strong focus on the IT sector has led to much faster, simpler and efficient public services where for example filing a tax return takes less than five minutes and 98% of banking transactions are conducted through the internet.WEB,weblink Digital Economy Estonia: From IT tiger to the World’s Most Pre-eminent e-state, New European Economy, 23 July 2017, WEB, Jun 2015,weblink Estonia: a digital economy, Treasury Today, 23 July 2017, Estonia has the third lowest business bribery risk in the world, according to TRACE Matrix.WEB,weblink Trace Matrix, Traceminternational.org, 23 July 2017, {{Bar chart| title = Business Bribery Risk Scores in the region, 2016| label_type = Rank/Country| data_type = Business Bribery Risk Score| bar_width = 35| float = left| caption = Lower score = Less risk. Source: TRACE Matrix| width_units = em| data_max = 58| label1 = 1 Sweden| data1 = 10| label2 = 3 Estonia| data2 = 17| label3 = 8 Singapore| data3 = 25| label4 = 10 Denmark| data4 = 27| label5 = 12 Canada| data5 = 28| label6 = 14 Switzerland| data6 = 29| label7 = 20 United States| data7 = 34| label8 = 31 Belgium| data8 = 40| label9 = 94 Russian Federation| data9 =58}}{| class="wikitable sortable" style="border-spacing:0; border-top:none; border-left:none; border-spacing:0; padding:0; margin:14px;" The Index of Economic Freedom 2017!style="width:150px;" | Country!style="width:45px;" | Rank!style="width:45px;" | Score {{flaguSpecial administrative regions of China>Special administrative region (SAR) of China 1 style="text-align:center; background:#28589C; color:white;" | 89.8 {{flagu|Singapore}} 2 style="text-align:center; background:#28589C; color:white;" | 88.6 {{flagu|New Zealand}} 3 style="text-align:center; background:#28589C; color:white;" | 83.7 {{flagu|Switzerland}} 4 style="text-align:center; background:#28589C; color:white;" | 81.5 {{flagu|Australia}} 5 style="text-align:center; background:#28589C; color:white;" | 81.0 {{flagu|Estonia}} 6 style="text-align:center; background:#28589C; color:white;" | 79.1 {{flagu|Canada}} 7 style="text-align:center; background:#7CB9E8; color:white;" | 78.5 {{flagu|United Arab Emirates}} 8 style="text-align:center; background:#7CB9E8; color:white;" | 76.9 {{flagu|Ireland}} 9 style="text-align:center; background:#7CB9E8; color:white;" | 76.7 {{flagu|Chile}} 10 style="text-align:center; background:#7CB9E8; color:white;" | 76.5

Historic development

In 1928, a stable currency, the kroon, was established. It is issued by the Bank of Estonia, the country's central bank. The word kroon ({{IPA-et|ˈkroːn|est}}, "crown") is related to that of the other Nordic currencies (such as the Swedish krona and the Danish and Norwegian krone). The kroon succeeded the mark in 1928 and was used until 1940. After Estonia regained its independence, the kroon was reintroduced in 1992.(File:Real GDP growth in Estonia, 2002-2012.png|thumb|right|Estonia's GDP growth from 2000 till 2012)Since re-establishing independence, Estonia has styled itself as the gateway between East and West and aggressively pursued economic reform and integration with the West. Estonia's market reforms put it among the economic leaders in the former COMECON area.{{Citation needed|date=February 2013}} In 1994, based on the economic theories of Milton Friedman, Estonia became one of the first countries to adopt a flat tax, with a uniform rate of 26% regardless of personal income. This rate has since been reduced three times, to 24% in January 2005, 23% in January 2006, and finally to 21% by January 2008.Personal Income Tax {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131102031341weblink |date=2 November 2013 }}, Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Estonia The Government of Estonia finalised the design of Estonian euro coins in late 2004, and adopted the euro as the country's currency on 1 January 2011, later than planned due to continued high inflation.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110710203542weblink">weblink 10 July 2011, Estonian Free Press, Estonia Gets Closer to the Euro, Angioni, Giovanni, 31 March 2009, 22 November 2009, dead, A Land Value Tax is levied which is used to fund local municipalities. It is a state level tax, however 100% of the revenue is used to fund Local Councils. The rate is set by the Local Council within the limits of 0.1–2.5%. It is one of the most important sources of funding for municipalities.WEB, Land Taxation Reform in Estonia,weblink PDF, Aysps.gsu.edu, 23 July 2017, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100806011749weblink">weblink 6 August 2010, The Land Value Tax is levied on the value of the land only with improvements and buildings not considered. Very few exemptions are considered on the land value tax and even public institutions are subject to the tax. The tax has contributed to a high rate (~90%) of owner-occupied residences within Estonia, compared to a rate of 67.4% in the United States.WEB, Homeownership rate graph,weblink Housing Vacancies and Homeownership, US Census, 2 June 2015, In 1999, Estonia experienced its worst year economically since it regained independence in 1991, largely because of the impact of the 1998 Russian financial crisis.{{Citation needed|date=February 2013}} Estonia joined the WTO in November 1999. With assistance from the European Union, the World Bank and the Nordic Investment Bank, Estonia completed most of its preparations for European Union membership by the end of 2002 and now has one of the strongest economies of the new member states of the European Union.{{Citation needed|date=February 2013}} Estonia joined the OECD in 2010.WEB,weblink Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD, Estonia's accession to the OECD, 9 December 2010, 22 July 2016,

Resources

File:Estonian shale.JPG|thumb|right|The oil shale industry in Estonia is one of the most developed in the world.IEA (2013), p. 20. In 2012, oil shale supplied 70% of Estonia's total primary energy and accounted for 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.WEB
,weblink
, Actions of the state in directing the use of oil shale. Does the state guarantee that oil shale reserves are used sustainably? Report of the National Audit Office to the Riigikogu
, National Audit Office of Estonia
, PDF
, 19 November 2014
, 7–14; 29
, 7 January 2015
,weblink
, 13 December 2018
, live
, IEA (2013), p. 7.]]Although Estonia is in general resource-poor, the land still offers a large variety of smaller resources. The country has large oil shale and limestone deposits, along with forests that cover 48% of the land.WEB,weblink Forest resources based on national forest inventory, Statistics Estonia, 2012, In addition to oil shale and limestone, Estonia also has large reserves of phosphorite, pitchblende, and granite that currently are not mined, or not mined extensively.WEB,weblink Uranium production at Sillamäe, Ut.ee, 2 June 2010, Significant quantities of rare-earth oxides are found in tailings accumulated from 50 years of uranium ore, shale and loparite mining at Sillamäe.BOOK, Turning a Problem into a Resource: Remediation and Waste Management at the Sillamäe Site, Estonia, Rofer, Cheryl K., Tõnis Kaasik, Volume 28 of NATO science series: Disarmament technologies, 2000, Springer, 978-0-7923-6187-9, 229, Because of the rising prices of rare earths, extraction of these oxides has become economically viable. The country currently exports around 3000 tonnes per annum, representing around 2% of world production.NEWS, Estonia's rare earth break China's market grip, Anneli Reigas, Agence France-Presse, 1 December 2010,weblink 1 December 2010, Since 2008, public debate has discussed whether Estonia should build a nuclear power plant to secure energy production after closure of old units in the Narva Power Plants, if they are not reconstructed by the year 2016.Tulevikuraport: Soome-Eesti tuumajaam võiks olla Eestis (Future Report: Finnish and Estonian joint nuclear power station could be located in Estonia), Postimees. 25 June 2008 (in Estonian).WEB,weblink A nuclear power plant for Estonia?, www.baltictimes.com, en, 23 June 2018,

Industry and environment

{{See also|Oil shale in Estonia|Narva Power Plants|Wind power in Estonia}}File:Hanila tuulepark 2.JPG|thumb|left|alt=Rõuste wind turbines next to wetland|Rõuste wind farm in Hanila ParishHanila ParishFood, construction, and electronic industries are currently among the most important branches of Estonia's industry.{{Citation needed|date=February 2013}} In 2007, the construction industry employed more than 80,000 people, around 12% of the entire country's workforce.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071021094336weblink">weblink 21 October 2007, Invest in Estonia: Overview of the Construction industry in Estonia, 2 June 2010, dead, Another important industrial sector is the machinery and chemical industry, which is mainly located in Ida-Viru County and around Tallinn.The oil shale-based mining industry, which is also concentrated in East-Estonia, produces around 90% of the entire country's electricity.{{Citation needed|date=February 2013}} Although the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have been falling since the 1980s,M. Auer (2004). Estonian Environmental Reforms: A Small Nation's Outsized Accomplishments. In: Restoring Cursed Earth: Appraising Environmental Policy Reforms in Eastern Europe and Russia. Rowman & Littlefield. pp 117–144. the air is still polluted with sulphur dioxide from the mining industry that the Soviet Union rapidly developed in the early 1950s. In some areas the coastal seawater is polluted, mainly around the Sillamäe industrial complex.WEB,weblink Environment â€“ current issues in Estonia. CIA Factbook, Umsl.edu, 2 June 2010, Estonia is a dependent country in the terms of energy and energy production. In recent years many local and foreign companies have been investing in renewable energy sources.{{Citation needed|date=February 2013}} The importance of wind power has been increasing steadily in Estonia and currently the total amount of energy production from wind is nearly 60 MW while at the same time roughly 399 MW worth of projects are currently being developed and more than 2800 MW worth of projects are being proposed in the Lake Peipus area and the coastal areas of Hiiumaa.WEB,weblink Estonian Wind Power Association, Tuuleenergia.ee, 2 June 2010, Peipsile võib kerkida mitusada tuulikut, Postimees. 21 October 2007 (in Estonian) {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130822013819weblink |date=22 August 2013 }}Henrik Ilves Tuule püüdmine on saanud Eesti kullapalavikuks, Eesti Päevaleht. 13 June 2008 (in Estonian)Currently{{When|date=February 2011}}, there are plans to renovate some older units of the Narva Power Plants, establish new power stations, and provide higher efficiency in oil shale-based energy production.WEB,weblink State Environment in Estonia, Enrin.grida.no, 2 June 2010, Estonia liberalised 35% of its electricity market in April 2010. The electricity market as whole will be liberalised by 2013.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090325013625weblink">weblink 25 March 2009, Developing Estonian energy policy hand in hand with EU energy packages, PDF, 18 August 2010, dead, Together with Lithuania, Poland, and Latvia, the country considered participating in constructing the Visaginas nuclear power plant in Lithuania to replace the Ignalina.NEWS,weblink Visaginas recognised with nuclear site name, World Nuclear News, 30 July 2008, 31 July 2008, WEB
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110722151647weblink">weblink
, 22 July 2011
, Nuclear Power Plant Project in Lithuania is Feasible. Press release
, 25 October 2006
, Lietuvos Energija
, 13 July 2007
, dead
,
However, due to the slow pace of the project and problems with the sector (like Fukushima disaster and bad example of Olkiluoto plant), Eesti Energia has shifted its main focus to shale oil production that is seen as much more profitable business.WEB,weblink 24 November 2014, Liive: Eesti Energia ditched nuclear plant plans for shale oil, ERR, 24 February 2015,
Estonia has a strong information technology sector, partly owing to the Tiigrihüpe project undertaken in the mid-1990s, and has been mentioned as the most "wired" and advanced country in Europe in the terms of e-Government of Estonia.Hackers Take Down the Most Wired Country in Europe, August 2007 A new direction is to offer those services present in Estonia to the non-residents via e-residency program.Skype was written by Estonia-based developers Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu, and Jaan Tallinn, who had also originally developed Kazaa.WEB,weblinkweblink dead, 7 February 2012, 6 September 2006, Andreas Thomann, Skype â€“ A Baltic Success Story, credit-suisse.com, 24 February 2008, Other notable tech startups include GrabCAD, Fortumo and TransferWise. It is even claimed that Estonia has the most startups per person in world.NEWS,weblink 11 July 2013, Not only Skype, The Economist, 24 February 2015, The Estonian electricity network forms a part of the Nord Pool Spot network.WEB,weblink Nord Pool, Nordpoolspot.com, 23 July 2017,

Trade

(File:Tree map exports 2010 Estonia.svg|thumb|upright=1.25|alt=graph of exports in 2010 showing $10,345,000,000 2.8 percent cars, 12 percent lubricating oil, 3.8 percent telephone|Graphical depiction of Estonia's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories)Estonia has had a market economy since the end of the 1990s and one of the highest per capita income levels in Eastern Europe.WEB, GNI per capita in PPP dollars for Baltic states,weblink Google WorldBank, 27 February 2015, Proximity to the Scandinavian and Finnish markets, its location between the East and West, competitive cost structure and a highly skilled labour force have been the major Estonian comparative advantages in the beginning of the 2000s (decade). As the largest city, Tallinn has emerged as a financial centre and the Tallinn Stock Exchange joined recently with the OMX system. Several cryptocurrency trading platforms are officially recognized by the government, such as CoinMetro.WEB, CoinMetro License,weblink 8 August 2018, The current government has pursued tight fiscal policies, resulting in balanced budgets and low public debt.In 2007, however, a large current account deficit and rising inflation put pressure on Estonia's currency, which was pegged to the Euro, highlighting the need for growth in export-generating industries.Estonia exports mainly machinery and equipment, wood and paper, textiles, food products, furniture, and metals and chemical products.WEB,weblink CIA World Factbook: Estonia, Cia.gov, 23 December 2010, dead,weblink 2 April 2009, Estonia also exports 1.562 billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually. At the same time Estonia imports machinery and equipment, chemical products, textiles, food products and transportation equipment. Estonia imports 200 million kilowatt hours of electricity annually.Between 2007 and 2013, Estonia received 53.3 billion kroons (3.4 billion euros) from various European Union Structural Funds as direct supports, creating the largest foreign investments into Estonia.WEB,weblink European Union Structural Funds in Estonia, Struktuurifondid.ee, 2 June 2010, Majority of the European Union financial aid will be invested into the following fields: energy economies, entrepreneurship, administrative capability, education, information society, environment protection, regional and local development, research and development activities, healthcare and welfare, transportation and labour market.WEB,weblink Livia Vosman, Europostitus on jõudnud 350 000 kodusse, Rahandusministeerium, 13 November 2010, Estonian, Main sources of foreign direct investments to Estonia are Sweden and Finland ({{as of|2016|December|31}} 48.3%).WEB,weblink Estonian Economy Overview | Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Vm.ee, 16 June 2017, 23 July 2017,

Demographics

{{bar box|float = rightPUBLISHER=STATISTICS ESTONIA, 10 Oct 2019, |bars ={{bar percent|Estonians|DarkSlateGray|68.5}}{{bar percent|Russians|DarkSlateGray|24.8}}{{bar percent|Ukrainians|DarkSlateGray|1.8}}{{bar percent|Belarusians|DarkSlateGray|0.9}}{{bar percent|Finns|DarkSlateGray|0.6}}{{bar percent|Latvians|DarkSlateGray|0.2}}{{bar percent|Others|DarkSlateGray|2.0}}{{bar percent|Unknown|DarkSlateGray|1.3}}}}(File:Eesti rahvaarv 1960-2019.png|thumb|upright=1.25|alt=The population of Estonia, from 1960 to 2019, with a peak in 1990.|Population of Estonia 1960-2019. The changes are largely attributed to Soviet immigration and emigration.WEB, Rahvaarv, 1. jaanuar, aasta,weblink Statistics Estonia, 10 Oct 2019, )Before World War II, ethnic Estonians constituted 88% of the population, with national minorities constituting the remaining 12%.WEB,weblink 26 December 1998, Ethnic minorities in Estonia: past and present, Einst.ee, 2 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110807204855weblink">weblink 7 August 2011, The largest minority groups in 1934 were Russians, Germans, Swedes, Latvians, Jews, Poles, Finns and Ingrians.The share of Baltic Germans in Estonia had fallen from 5.3% (~46,700) in 1881 to 1.3% (16,346) by the year 1934,Baltic Germans in Estonia {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071223082557weblink |date=23 December 2007 }}. Estonian Instituteweblink which was mainly due to emigration to Germany in the light of general Russification in the end of the 19th century and the independence of Estonia in the 20th century.Between 1945 and 1989, the share of ethnic Estonians in the population resident within the currently defined boundaries of Estonia dropped to 61%, caused primarily by the Soviet programme promoting mass immigration of urban industrial workers from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, as well as by wartime emigration and Joseph Stalin's mass deportations and executions. {{Citation needed|date=March 2014}} By 1989, minorities constituted more than one-third of the population, as the number of non-Estonians had grown almost fivefold.File:Oskar_Friberg.jpg|thumb|left|Oskar Friberg is the last male Estonian Swede on the island of VormsiVormsiAt the end of the 1980s, Estonians perceived their demographic change as a national catastrophe. This was a result of the migration policies essential to the Soviet Nationalisation Programme aiming to russify Estonia – administrative and military immigration of non-Estonians from the USSR coupled with the deportation of Estonians to the USSR. In the decade after the reconstitution of independence, large-scale emigration by ethnic Russians and the removal of the Russian military bases in 1994 caused the proportion of ethnic Estonians in Estonia to increase from 61% to 69% in 2006.Modern Estonia is a fairly ethnically heterogeneous country, but this heterogeneity is not a feature of much of the country as the non-Estonian population is concentrated in two of Estonia's counties. Thirteen of Estonia's 15 counties are over 80% ethnic Estonian, the most homogeneous being Hiiumaa, where Estonians account for 98.4% of the population. In the counties of Harju (including the capital city, Tallinn) and Ida-Viru, however, ethnic Estonians make up 60% and 20% of the population, respectively. Russians make up 25.6% of the total population but account for 36% of the population in Harju county and 70% of the population in Ida-Viru county.The Estonian Cultural Autonomy law that was passed in 1925 was unique in Europe at that time.BOOK, Smith, David James, The Baltic States and Their Region: New Europe Or Old?, 211, 2005, Rodopi, 978-90-420-1666-8, Cultural autonomies could be granted to minorities numbering more than 3,000 people with longstanding ties to the Republic of Estonia. Before the Soviet occupation, the Germans and Jewish minorities managed to elect a cultural council. The Law on Cultural Autonomy for National Minorities was reinstated in 1993. Historically, large parts of Estonia's northwestern coast and islands have been populated by indigenous ethnically Rannarootslased (Coastal Swedes).In recent years the numbers of Coastal Swedes has risen again, numbering in 2008 almost 500 people, owing to the property reforms in the beginning of the 1990s. In 2004, the Ingrian Finnish minority in Estonia elected a cultural council and was granted cultural autonomy. The Estonian Swedish minority similarly received cultural autonomy in 2007.

Society

{{See also|Human rights in Estonia|Nordic identity in Estonia|Estonian alien's passport}}File:Viljandi folkdanslag på Hedemora gammelgård 2014 01.jpg|thumb|left|A Viljandi folk dance group performing at Hedemora gammelgårdHedemora gammelgårdEstonian society has undergone considerable changes over the last twenty years, one of the most notable being the increasing level of stratification, and the distribution of family income. The Gini coefficient has been steadily higher than the European Union average (31 in 2009),CIA World Factbook. . Retrieved 7 November 2011 although it has clearly dropped. The registered unemployment rate in January 2012 was 7.7%.Registreeritud töötus ja kindlustushüvitised jaanuaris 2012. Estonian unemployment office (in Estonian) {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120228220747weblink |date=28 February 2012 }}Modern Estonia is a multinational country in which 109 languages are spoken, according to a 2000 census. 67.3% of Estonian citizens speak Estonian as their native language, 29.7% Russian, and 3% speak other languages.WEB,weblink Population by the place of residence and mother tongue, statistical database: Population Census 2000, July 2010, Statistics Estonia (government agency at the area of administration of the Ministry of Finance), 19 June 2009, {{as of|2010|July|2}}, 84.1% of Estonian residents are Estonian citizens, 8.6% are citizens of other countries and 7.3% are "citizens with undetermined citizenship".WEB,weblink Citizenship, Estonia.eu, 13 July 2010, 18 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100827195243weblink">weblink 27 August 2010, Since 1992 roughly 140,000 people have acquired Estonian citizenship by passing naturalisation exams.Eesti andis mullu kodakondsuse 2124 inimesele, Postimees. 9 January 2009 Estonia has also accepted quota refugees under the migrant plan agreed upon by EU member states in 2015.NEWS, Refugees frustrated and trapped in chilly Baltic states,weblink BBC News, 4 July 2017, The ethnic distribution in Estonia is very homogeneous, where in most counties over 90% of the people are ethnic Estonians. This is in contrast to large urban centres like Tallinn, where Estonians account for 60% of the population, and the remainder is composed mostly of Russian and other Slavic inhabitants, who arrived in Estonia during the Soviet period.File:Saare küla Piirissaar.JPG|thumb|A Russian Old Believer village with a church on PiirissaarPiirissaarThe 2008 United Nations Human Rights Council report called "extremely credible" the description of the citizenship policy of Estonia as "discriminatory".Naturalisation in Estonia Statement by the Legal Information Centre for Human Rights (Tallinn, Estonia) ([...]the Special Rapporteur considers extremely credible the views of the representatives of the Russian-speaking minorities who expressed that the citizenship policy is discriminatory[...]) According to surveys, only 5% of the Russian community have considered returning to Russia in the near future. Estonian Russians have developed their own identity – more than half of the respondents recognised that Estonian Russians differ noticeably from the Russians in Russia. When comparing the result with a survey from 2000, then Russians' attitude toward the future is much more positive.Eesti ühiskond Society {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110902020818weblink |date=2 September 2011 }}. (2006, PDF in Estonian/English). Retrieved 23 December 2011.Estonia has been the first post-Soviet republic that has legalised civil unions of same-sex couples. The law was approved in October 2014 and came into effect 1 January 2016.NEWS,weblink Estonia Passes Law Recognizing Gay Partnerships, Liis, Kangsepp, The Wall Street Journal, 9 October 2014, 4 January 2014, 53.3% of ethnically Estonian youth consider belonging in the Nordic identity group as important or very important for them. 52.2% have the same attitude towards the "Baltic" identity group, according to a research study from 2013:WEB,weblink Identity in an Open World,

Urbanization

Tallinn is the capital and the largest city of Estonia, and lies on the northern coast of Estonia, along the Gulf of Finland. There are 33 cities and several town-parish towns in the country. In total, there are 47 linna, with "linn" in English meaning both "cities" and "towns". More than 70% of the population lives in towns. The 20 largest cities are listed below:{{Estonian cities}}{{Clear}}

Religion

{|class="wikitable sortable" style="margin:0;"!rowspan="2"|Religion !colspan="2"|2000 CensusWEB,weblink PC231: POPULATION BY RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION AND ETHNIC NATIONALITY, 31 March 2000, 9 January 2014, Statistics Estonia, !colspan="2"|2011 CensusWEB,weblink PC0454: AT LEAST 15-YEAR-OLD PERSONS BY RELIGION, SEX, AGE GROUP, ETHNIC NATIONALITY AND COUNTY, 31 DECEMBER 2011, 31 December 2011, 9 January 2014, Statistics Estonia, ! Number ! % ! Number! %|Orthodox Christians 143,55412.80176,773 16.15|Lutheran Christians152,23713.57108,5139.91|Baptists6,0090.544,5070.41|Roman Catholics5,7450.514,5010.41|Jehovah's Witnesses3,8230.343,9380.36|Old Believers2,5150.222,6050.24 valign=topCongregational church>Christian FreeCongregations 2230.022,1890.20Estonian neopaganism>Earth Believers 1,0580.091,9250.18Estonian neopaganism>Taara Believers1,0470.10|Pentecostals2,6480.241,8550.17|Muslims1,3870.121,5080.14|Adventists1,5610.141,1940.11|Buddhists6220.061,1450.10|Methodists1,4550.131,0980.10|Other religion 4,9950.458,0740.74Irreligion>No religion450,45840.16592,58854.14|Undeclared343,29230.61181,10416.55|Total11,121,582100.001,094,564100.001Population, persons aged 15 and older.Estonia has a rich and diverse religious history, but in recent years it has become increasingly secular, with either a plurality or a majority of the population declaring themselves nonreligious in recent censuses, followed by those who identify as religiously "undeclared". The largest minority groups are the various Christian denominations, principally Lutheran and Orthodox Christians, with very small numbers of adherents in non-Christian faiths, namely Judaism, Islam and Buddhism. Other polls suggest the country is broadly split between Christians and the non-religious / religiously undeclared.In ancient Estonia, prior to Christianization and according to Livonian Chronicle of Henry, Tharapita was the predominant deity for the Oeselians.WEB,weblink Taarapita – the Great God of the Oeselians. Article by Urmas Sutrop, Estonia was Christianised by the Catholic Teutonic Knights in the 13th century. The Protestant Reformation led to the establishment of the Lutheran church in 1686. Before the Second World War, Estonia was approximately 80% Protestant, overwhelmingly Lutheran,BOOK, Ivković, Sanja Kutnjak, Haberfeld, M.R., Measuring Police Integrity Across the World: Studies from Established Democracies and Countries in Transition, 10 June 2015, Springer, English, 9781493922796, 131, Estonia is considered Protestant when classified by its historically predominant major religion (Norris and Inglehart 2011) and thus some authors (e.g., Davie 2003) claim Estonia belongs to Western (Lutheran) Europe, while others (e.g., Norris and Inglehart 2011) see Estonia as a Protestant ex-Communist society., WEB, Is Estonia really the least religious country in the world?,weblink Ringvee, Ringo, 16 September 2011, The Guardian, 14 October 2014, For this situation there are several reasons, starting from the distant past (the close connection of the churches with the Swedish or German ruling classes) up to the Soviet-period atheist policy when the chain of religious traditions was broken in most families. In Estonia, religion has never played an important role on the political or ideological battlefield. The institutional religious life was dominated by foreigners until the early 20th century. The tendencies that prevailed in the late 1930s for closer relations between the state and Lutheran church [...] ended with the Soviet occupation in 1940., BOOK, World and Its Peoples: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, 2010, Marshall Cavendish, 9780761478966, 1066, Triin Edovald, Michelle Felton, John Haywood, Rimvydas Juskaitis, Michael Thomas Kerrigan, Simon Lund-Lack, Nicholas Middleton, Josef Miskovsky, Ihar Piatrowicz, Lisa Pickering, Dace Praulins, John Swift, Vytautas Uselis, Ilivi Zajedova, It is usually said that Estonia is a Protestant country; however, the overwhelming majority of Estonians, some 72 percent, are nonreligious. Estonia is the European Union (EU) country with the greatest percentage of people with no religious belief. This is in part, the result of Soviet actions and repression of religion. When the Soviet Union annexed Estonia in 1940, church property was confiscated, many theologians were deported to Siberia, most of the leadership of Evangelical Lutheran Church went into exile, and religious instruction was banned. Many churches were destroyed in the German occupation of Estonia, from 1941 through 1944, and in World War II (1939–1945), and religion was actively persecuted in Estonia under Soviet rule 1944 until 1989, when some measure of tolerance was introduced., followed by Calvinism and other Protestant branches. Many Estonians profess not to be particularly religious, because religion through the 19th century was associated with German feudal rule.WEB,weblink Estonia – Religion, Country Studies, 2 June 2010, There has historically been a small but noticeable minority of Russian Old-believers near the Lake Peipus area in Tartu County.File:Ruhnu puukirik.jpg|thumb|left|upright|RuhnuRuhnuToday, Estonia's constitution guarantees freedom of religion, separation of church and state, and individual rights to privacy of belief and religion.(Constitution of Estonia#Chapter 2: Fundamental Rights, Liberties, and Duties) Article 40.–42. According to the Dentsu Communication Institute Inc, Estonia is one of the least religious countries in the world, with 75.7% of the population claiming to be irreligious. The Eurobarometer Poll 2005 found that only 16% of Estonians profess a belief in a god, the lowest belief of all countries studied.WEB,weblink Social Values, PDF, 5 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060524004644weblink">weblink 24 May 2006, According to the Lutheran World Federation, the historic Lutheran denomination has a large presence with 180,000 registered members.WEB, Churches in Estonia,weblink lutheranworld.org, 16 February 2016,weblink 5 March 2016, dead, dmy-all, New polls about religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer found that Christianity is the largest religion in Estonia accounting for 45% of Estonians.{{citation|title=Discrimination in the EU in 2012 |work=Special Eurobarometer |year=2012 |series=383 |page=233 |url=http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_393_en.pdf |accessdate=14 August 2013 |publisher=European Commission |location=European Union |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121202023700weblink |archivedate=2 December 2012 }} The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?" With a card showing: Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Other Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, and Non-believer/Agnostic. Space was given for Other (SPONTANEOUS) and DK. Jewish, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu did not reach the 1% threshold. Eastern Orthodox are the largest Christian group in Estonia, accounting for 17% of Estonia citizens, while Protestants make up 6%, and Other Christian make up 22%. Non believer/Agnostic account 22%, Atheist accounts for 15%, and undeclared accounts for 15%.The most recent Pew Research Center, found that in 2015, 51% of the population of Estonia declared itself Christian, 45% religiously unaffiliated—a category which includes atheists, agnostics and those who describe their religion as "Nothing in Particular", while 2% belonged to other faiths.WEB, ANALYSIS,weblink Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe, 10 May 2017, 12 May 2017, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170513130508weblink">weblink 13 May 2017, The Christians divided between 25% Eastern Orthodox, 20% Lutherans, 5% other Christians and 1% Roman Catholic.WEB, USA,weblink Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe | Pew Research Center, Pewforum.org, 23 July 2017, While the religiously unaffiliated divided between 9% as atheists, 1% as agnostics and 35% as Nothing in Particular.Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe: 1. Religious affiliation; Pew Research Center, 10 May 2017 File:korghoone.PNG|thumb|right|alt=The spire of St. Olaf's Church in Tallinn looks over the city and the Gulf of Finland|St. Olaf's Church is one of the major landmarks in Tallinn city center]]Traditionally, the largest religious denomination in the country was Lutheranism, which was adhered to by 160,000 Estonians (or 13% of the population) according from 2000 census, principally ethnic Estonians. Other organisations, such as the World Council of Churches, report that there are as many as 265,700 Estonian Lutherans.WEB, Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church,weblink oikoumene.org, 22 September 2015, Additionally, there are between 8,000–9,000 members abroad. However, the 2011 census indicated that Eastern Orthodoxy had surpassed Lutheranism, accounting for 16.5% of the population (176,773 people).Eastern Orthodoxy is practised chiefly by the Russian minority. The Estonian Orthodox Church, affiliated with the Russian Orthodox Church, is the primary Orthodox denomination. The Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church, under the Greek-Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarchate, claims another 20,000 members. Thus, the number of adherents of Lutheranism and Orthodoxy, without regard to citizenship or ethnicity, is roughly equal.Roman Catholics are a small minority in Estonia. They are organized under the Latin Apostolic Administration of Estonia.According to the census of 2000 (data in table to the right), there were about 1,000 adherents of the Taara faithWEB,weblink Maavald, Maavald.ee, 2 June 2010, WEB,weblink Old Estonian Religions, Ahto Kaasik, Einst.ee, 2 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110811050822weblink">weblink 11 August 2011, NEWS,weblink Some Estonians return to pre-Christian animist traditions, The New York Times, Ellen, Barry, 9 November 2008, 2 May 2010, or Maausk in Estonia (see Maavalla Koda). The Jewish community has an estimated population of about 1,900 (see History of the Jews in Estonia), and the Muslim community numbers just over 1,400. Around 68,000 people consider themselves atheists.WEB,weblink Statistical database: Population Census 2000 – Religious affiliation, Statistics Estonia, 22 October 2002, 2 June 2010,

Languages

File:Finnic languages.png|thumb|The FinnicFinnicThe official language, Estonian, belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages. Estonian is closely related to Finnish, spoken in Finland, across the other side of the Gulf of Finland, and is one of the few languages of Europe that is not of an Indo-European origin. Despite some overlaps in the vocabulary due to borrowings, in terms of its origin, Estonian and Finnish are not related to their nearest geographical neighbours, Swedish, Latvian, and Russian, which are all Indo-European languages.Although the Estonian and Germanic languages are of very different origins, one can identify many similar words in Estonian and German, for example. This is primarily because the Estonian language has borrowed nearly one third of its vocabulary from Germanic languages, mainly from Low Saxon (Middle Low German) during the period of (History of Estonia#Estonian Crusade: The Middle Ages|German rule), and High German (including standard German). The percentage of Low Saxon and High German loanwords can be estimated at 22–25 percent, with Low Saxon making up about 15 percent.South Estonian languages are spoken by 100,000 people and include the dialects of Võro and Seto. The languages are spoken in South-Eastern Estonia, are genealogically distinct from northern Estonian: but are traditionally and officially considered as dialects and "regional forms of the Estonian language", not separate language(s).BOOK, Laakso, Johanna, Sarhimaa, Anneli, Spiliopoulou Åkermark, Sia, Toivanen, Reeta, Towards Openly Multilingual Policies and Practices: Assessing Minority Language Maintenance Across Europe, Multilingual Matters, Bristol; Buffalo, 9781783094950, 1,weblink 23 December 2016, Russian is by far the most spoken minority language in the country. There are towns in Estonia with large concentrations of Russian speakers and there are towns where Estonian speakers are in the minority (especially in the northeast, e.g. Narva). Russian is spoken as a secondary language by forty- to seventy-year-old ethnic Estonians, because Russian was the unofficial language of the Estonian SSR from 1944 to 1991 and taught as a compulsory second language during the Soviet era. In 1998, most first- and second-generation industrial immigrants from the former Soviet Union (mainly the Russian SFSR) did not speak Estonian.WEB,weblink Kirch, Aksel. "Russians in contemporary Estonia – different strategies of the integration in to the nation-state.", Ies.ee, 10 February 1998, 2 June 2010, However, by 2010, 64.1% of non-ethnic Estonians spoke Estonian.Table ML133, Eesti Statistika. Retrieved 30 April 2011 The latter, mostly Russian-speaking ethnic minorities, reside predominantly in the capital city of Tallinn and the industrial urban areas in Ida-Virumaa.From the 13th to the 20th century, there were Swedish-speaking communities in Estonia, particularly in the coastal areas and on the islands (e.g., Hiiumaa, Vormsi, Ruhnu; in Swedish, known as Dagö, Ormsö, Runö, respectively) along the Baltic sea, communities which today have almost disappeared. The Swedish-speaking minority was represented in parliament, and entitled to use their native language in parliamentary debates.From 1918 to 1940, when Estonia was independent, the small Swedish community was well treated. Municipalities with a Swedish majority, mainly found along the coast, used Swedish as the administrative language and Swedish-Estonian culture saw an upswing. However, most Swedish-speaking people fled to Sweden before the end of World War II, that is, before the invasion of Estonia by the Soviet army in 1944. Only a handful of older speakers remain. Apart from many other areas the influence of Swedish is especially distinct in the Noarootsi Parish of Lääne County where there are many villages with bilingual Estonian and/or Swedish names and street signs.WEB,weblink Names of populated places changed with the reform of 1997, Institute of the Estonian Language, 29 September 1998, 12 August 2012, WEB,weblink Information about the bilingual Estonian/Swedish parish of Noarootsi, Noavv.ee, 2 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="archive.today/20120904104245weblink">weblink 4 September 2012, The most common foreign languages learned by Estonian students are English, Russian, German, and French. Other popular languages include Finnish, Spanish, and Swedish.WEB, Estonian Foreign Languages Strategy 2009 – 2015,weblink Ministry of Education and Research, 22 August 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303191208weblink">weblink 3 March 2016, dead, dmy-all,

Education and science

File:Tartu Ülikooli peahoone 2012.jpg|thumb|alt=gray stucco building three-story building with grey slate hip roof, central portico and pediment|The University of TartuUniversity of Tartu{{See also|List of universities in Estonia|Space science in Estonia|Tiigrihüpe}}The history of formal education in Estonia dates back to the 13th and 14th centuries when the first monastic and cathedral schools were founded.WEB,weblink Ajaloost: Koolihariduse algusest, University of Tartu, 24 March 2010, Estonian, 14 October 2013, The first primer in the Estonian language was published in 1575. The oldest university is the University of Tartu, established by the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf in 1632. In 1919, university courses were first taught in the Estonian language.Today's education in Estonia is divided into general, vocational, and hobby. The education system is based on four levels: pre-school, basic, secondary, and higher education.WEB,weblink Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium, Hm.ee, 23 December 2010, A wide network of schools and supporting educational institutions have been established. The Estonian education system consists of state, municipal, public, and private institutions. There are currently 589 schools in Estonia.WEB,weblink Koolide, huvikoolide, koolieelsete lasteasutuste kontaktandmed, 17 September 2009, unfit,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090617071702weblink">weblink 17 June 2009, . Estonian Education Infosystem, (in Estonian)According to the Programme for International Student Assessment, the performance levels of gymnasium-age pupils in Estonia is among the highest in the world: in 2010, the country was ranked 13th for the quality of its education system, well above the OECD average.WEB,weblink Eelnõu algtekst (30.05.2001), 27 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070621032607weblink">weblink 21 June 2007, Additionally, around 89% of Estonian adults aged 25–64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, one of the highest rates in the industrialised world.WEB,weblink OECD Better Life Index, 27 March 2015, File:Building of Estonian Students' Society.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Building of Estonian Students' Society in Tartu. In August 2008 a Georgian flag was hoisted besides Estonian to support Georgia in the South Ossetia war.|Building of the Estonian Students' Society in Tartu. It is considered to be the first example of Estonian national architecture.Eesti Üliõpilaste Seltsi maja Tartus — 100 aastat Estonian World Review, 16 October 2002 The Treaty of Tartu between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed in the building in 1920.]]Academic higher education in Estonia is divided into three levels: bachelor's, master's, and doctoral studies. In some specialties (basic medical studies, veterinary, pharmacy, dentistry, architect-engineer, and a classroom teacher programme) the bachelor's and master's levels are integrated into one unit.WEB,weblink National summary sheets on education systems in Europe and ongoing reforms: Estonia, February 2009, Eurydice, 19 September 2009, Estonian public universities have significantly more autonomy than applied higher education institutions. In addition to organising the academic life of the university, universities can create new curricula, establish admission terms and conditions, approve the budget, approve the development plan, elect the rector, and make restricted decisions in matters concerning assets.WEB,weblink Implementation of Bologna Declaration in Estonia, Bologna-berlin2003.de, 2 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090709041912weblink">weblink 9 July 2009, Estonia has a moderate number of public and private universities. The largest public universities are the University of Tartu, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn University, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonian Academy of Arts; the largest private university is Estonian Business School.File:ESTCube orbiidil 2.jpg|thumb|alt=ESTCube-1 micro satellite orbiting globe and beaming light to Estonia|ESTCube-1ESTCube-1The Estonian Academy of Sciences is the national academy of science. The strongest public non-profit research institute that carries out fundamental and applied research is the National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics (NICPB; Estonian KBFI). The first computer centres were established in the late 1950s in Tartu and Tallinn. Estonian specialists contributed in the development of software engineering standards for ministries of the Soviet Union during the 1980s.BOOK, Detlef Kochan, Software for manufacturing: proceedings of the 7th International IFIP/IFAC Conference on Software for Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Dresden, German Democratic Republic, 14–17 June 1988,weblink 1989, North-Holland, 978-0-444-87342-2, A. Kalja, J. Pruuden, B. Tamm, E. Tyugu, Two Families of Knowledge Based CAD Environments, 125–134, JOURNAL, H. Jaakkola, A. Kalja, Estonian Information Technology Policy in Government, Industry and Research, Technology Management: Strategies and Applications, 3, 3, 1997, 299–307, {{As of|2015}}, Estonia spends around 1.5% of its GDP on Research and Development, compared to an EU average of around 2.0%.WEB, Research and development expenditure (% of GDP),weblink 2015, World Bank, 19 January 2019, Some of the best-known scientists related to Estonia include astronomers Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve, Ernst Öpik and Jaan Einasto, biologist Karl Ernst von Baer, Jakob von Uexküll, chemists Wilhelm Ostwald and Carl Schmidt, economist Ragnar Nurkse, mathematician Edgar Krahn, medical researchers Ludvig Puusepp and Nikolay Pirogov, physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck, political scientist Rein Taagepera, psychologist Endel Tulving and Risto Näätänen, semiotician Yuri Lotman.According to New Scientist, Estonia will be the first nation to provide personal genetic information service sponsored by the state. They aim to minimize and prevent future ailments for those whose genes make them extra prone to conditions like adult-onset diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The government plans to provide lifestyle advice based on the DNA for 100,000 of its 1.3 million citizens.NEWS,weblink Estonia to give genetic testing and advice to 100,000 residents, New Scientist, 3 April 2018, en-US,

Culture

The culture of Estonia incorporates indigenous heritage, as represented by the Estonian language and the sauna, with mainstream Nordic and European cultural aspects. Because of its history and geography, Estonia's culture has been influenced by the traditions of the adjacent area's various Finnic, Baltic, Slavic and Germanic peoples as well as the cultural developments in the former dominant powers Sweden and Russia.Today, Estonian society encourages liberty and liberalism, with popular commitment to the ideals of the limited government, discouraging centralised power and corruption. The Protestant work ethic remains a significant cultural staple, and free education is a highly prized institution. Like the mainstream culture in the other Nordic countries, Estonian culture can be seen to build upon the ascetic environmental realities and traditional livelihoods, a heritage of comparatively widespread egalitarianism out of practical reasons (see: Everyman's right and universal suffrage), and the ideals of closeness to nature and self-sufficiency (see: summer cottage).The Estonian Academy of Arts (Estonian: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, EKA) is providing higher education in art, design, architecture, media, art history and conservation while Viljandi Culture Academy of University of Tartu has an approach to popularise native culture through such curricula as native construction, native blacksmithing, native textile design, traditional handicraft and traditional music, but also jazz and church music. In 2010, there were 245 museums in Estonia whose combined collections contain more than 10 million objects.Eesti 245 muuseumis säilitatakse 10 miljonit museaali. Postimees, 30 October 2011. (in Estonian)

Music

{{See also|Estonian national awakening|Estonian Song Festival|Estonia in the Eurovision Song Contest}}File:Tallinna laululava ansambel, 1960.a.*.JPG|thumb|left|The Estonian Song Festival is UNESCO's Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.]]The earliest mention of Estonian singing dates back to Saxo Grammaticus Gesta Danorum (ca. 1179).BOOK, Sir George Grove, Stanley Sadie, The New Grove dictionary of music and musicians,weblink June 1980, Macmillan Publishers, 978-0-333-23111-1, 358, Saxo speaks of Estonian warriors who sang at night while waiting for a battle. The older folksongs are also referred to as regilaulud, songs in the poetic metre regivärss the tradition shared by all Baltic Finns. Runic singing was widespread among Estonians until the 18th century, when rhythmic folk songs began to replace them.{{Citation needed|date=February 2013}}Traditional wind instruments derived from those used by shepherds were once widespread, but are now becoming again more commonly played. Other instruments, including the fiddle, zither, concertina, and accordion are used to play polka or other dance music. The kannel is a native instrument that is now again becoming more popular in Estonia. A Native Music Preserving Centre was opened in 2008 in Viljandi.Margus Haav Pärimusmuusika ait lööb uksed valla (Estonian Native Music Preserving Centre is opened) {{webarchive|url=https://archive.today/20120912151814weblink |date=12 September 2012 }}. Postimees. 27 March 2008 (in Estonian)File:Arvo Pärt.jpg|thumb|right|upright|alt=Arvo Pärt bearded balding man facing left|Arvo PärtArvo PärtThe tradition of Estonian Song Festivals (Laulupidu) started at the height of the Estonian national awakening in 1869. Today, it is one of the largest amateur choral events in the world. In 2004, about 100,000 people participated in the Song Festival. Since 1928, the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (Lauluväljak) have hosted the event every five years in July. The last festival took place in July 2019. In addition, Youth Song Festivals are also held every four or five years, the last of them in 2017.The 12th Estonian youth song and dance celebration {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170706073054weblink |date=6 July 2017 }}. Estonian Song and Dance Celebration FoundationProfessional Estonian musicians and composers such as Rudolf Tobias, Miina Härma, Mart Saar, Artur Kapp, Juhan Aavik, Aleksander Kunileid, Artur Lemba and Heino Eller emerged in the late 19th century. At the time of this writing, the most known Estonian composers are Arvo Pärt, Eduard Tubin, and Veljo Tormis.{{Citation needed|date=February 2013}} In 2014, Arvo Pärt was the world's most performed living composer for the fourth year in a row.WEB, Bachtrack, 8 January 2015,weblink 2014 Classical music statistics: Lis(z)tmania | by Bachtrack for classical music, opera, ballet and dance event reviews, Bachtrack.com, 8 January 2015, 31 March 2016, In the 1950s, Estonian baritone Georg Ots rose to worldwide prominence as an opera singer.In popular music, Estonian artist Kerli Kõiv has become popular in Europe, as well as gaining moderate popularity in North America. She has provided music for the 2010 Disney film Alice in Wonderland and the television series Smallville in the United States of America.Estonia won the Eurovision Song Contest in 2001 with the song "Everybody" performed by Tanel Padar and Dave Benton. In 2002, Estonia hosted the event. Maarja-Liis Ilus has competed for Estonia on two occasions (1996 and 1997), while Eda-Ines Etti, Koit Toome and Evelin Samuel owe their popularity partly to the Eurovision Song Contest. Lenna Kuurmaa is a very popular singer in Europe{{Citation needed|date=February 2013}}, with her band Vanilla Ninja. "Rändajad" by Urban Symphony, was the first ever song in Estonian to chart in the UK, Belgium, and Switzerland.

Literature

{{See also|Estophile}}
missing image!
- OKallis-Kalevipoeg.jpg -
Kalevipoeg is the national epic of Estonia written by Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald
The Estonian literature refers to literature written in the Estonian language (ca. 1 million speakers).WEB,weblink Estonian literature, Encyclopædia Britannica, 27 March 2015, The domination of Estonia after the Northern Crusades, from the 13th century to 1918 by Germany, Sweden, and Russia resulted in few early written literary works in the Estonian language. The oldest records of written Estonian date from the 13th century. Originates Livoniae in Chronicle of Henry of Livonia contains Estonian place names, words and fragments of sentences. The Liber Census Daniae (1241) contains Estonian place and family names.BOOK, George Kurman, The development of written Estonian,weblink 1968, Indiana University, Many folk tales are told to this day and some have been written down and translated to make them accessible to an international readership.BOOK, Tiidu the Piper, 2014, Collegium Basilea, Basel, 9781500941437, The cultural stratum of Estonian was originally characterised by a largely lyrical form of folk poetry based on syllabic quantity. Apart from a few albeit remarkable exceptions, this archaic form has not been much employed in later times. One of the most outstanding achievements in this field is the national epic Kalevipoeg. At a professional level, traditional folk song reached its new heyday during the last quarter of the 20th century, primarily thanks to the work of composer Veljo Tormis.Oskar Luts was the most prominent prose writer of the early Estonian literature, who is still widely read today, especially his lyrical school novel Kevade (Spring).Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature Estonica.org Anton Hansen Tammsaare's social epic and psychological realist pentalogy Truth and Justice captured the evolution of Estonian society from a peasant community to an independent nation.Literature and an independent Estonia Estonica.orgWEB,weblink Anton Tammsaare, Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi), Petri, Liukkonen, Kuusankoski Public Library, Finland,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071005054341weblink">weblink 5 October 2007, dead, In modern times, Jaan Kross and Jaan Kaplinski are Estonia's best known and most translated writers.Jaan Kross at google.books Among the most popular writers of the late 20th and early 21st centuries are Tõnu Õnnepalu and Andrus Kivirähk, who uses elements of Estonian folklore and mythology, deforming them into absurd and grotesque.Andrus Kivirähk. The Old Barny (novel) {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110504012509weblink |date=4 May 2011 }} Estonian Literature Centre

Media

{{See also|List of Estonian films|List of Estonian war films}}The cinema of Estonia started in 1908 with the production of a newsreel about Swedish King Gustav V's visit to Tallinn.WEB,weblink Cinema of Estonia, Einst.ee, 2 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110807061344weblink">weblink 7 August 2011, The first public TV broadcast in Estonia was in July 1955. Regular, live radio broadcasts began in December 1926. Deregulation in the field of electronic media has brought radical changes compared to the beginning of the 1990s. The first licenses for private TV broadcasters were issued in 1992. The first private radio station went on the air in 1990.Today the media is a vibrant and competitive sector. There is a plethora of weekly newspapers and magazines, and Estonians have a choice of 9 domestic TV channels and a host of radio stations. The Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, and Estonia has been internationally recognised for its high rate of press freedom, having been ranked 3rd in the 2012 Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders.WEB,weblink Press Freedom Index 2011–2012 – Reporters Without Borders, 27 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303230901weblink">weblink 3 March 2016, Estonia has two news agencies. The Baltic News Service (BNS), founded in 1990, is a private regional news agency covering Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The ETV24 is an agency owned by Eesti Rahvusringhääling who is a publicly funded radio and television organisation created on 30 June 2007 to take over the functions of the formerly separate Eesti Raadio and Eesti Televisioon under the terms of the Estonian National Broadcasting Act.BOOK, Europe on a Shoestring, Johnstone, Sarah, 2007, Lonely Planet, 325, 978-1-74104-591-8,weblink BOOK, Campaigning in Europe, Maier, Michaela, 2006, LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster, 978-3-8258-9322-4, 398,weblink

Architecture

File:Musée de plein air (Tallinn) (7644656256).jpg|thumb|right|A traditional farmhouse built in the Estonian vernacular style.]]The architectural history of Estonia mainly reflects its contemporary development in northern Europe. Worth mentioning is especially the architectural ensemble that makes out the medieval old town of Tallinn, which is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. In addition, the country has several unique, more or less preserved hill forts dating from pre-Christian times, a large number of still intact medieval castles and churches, while the countryside is still shaped by the presence of a vast number of manor houses from earlier centuries.

Holidays

The Estonian National Day is the Independence Day celebrated on 24 February, the day the Estonian Declaration of Independence was issued. {{As of|2013}}, there are 12 public holidays (which come with a day off) and 12 national holidays celebrated annually.WEB, Pühade ja tähtpäevade seadus,weblink Riigi Teataja, 19 December 2010, Estonian, In effect since 26 February 2010, WEB, Estonian Holidays in 2010,weblink Estonian Foreign Ministry, 19 December 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110106162819weblink">weblink 6 January 2011, {{Holidays of Estonia}}

Cuisine

{{See also|Kama (food)|Kalev (confectioner)|Kohuke|Verivorst}}(File:Mulgipuder.jpg|thumb|Mulgipuder, a national dish of Estonia made with potatoes, groats, and meat)Historically, the cuisine of Estonia has been heavily dependent on seasons and simple peasant food. Today, it includes many typical international foods. The most typical foods in Estonia are black bread, pork, potatoes, and dairy products.WEB,weblink Estonian Food Inforserver, 24 September 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071217022649weblink">weblink 17 December 2007, (in Estonian) Traditionally in summer and spring, Estonians like to eat everything fresh – berries, herbs, vegetables, and everything else that comes straight from the garden. Hunting and fishing have also been very common, although currently hunting and fishing are enjoyed mostly as hobbies. Today, it is also very popular to grill outside in summer.Traditionally in winter, jams, preserves, and pickles are brought to the table. Gathering and conserving fruits, mushrooms, and vegetables for winter has always been popular, but today gathering and conserving is becoming less common because everything can be bought from stores. However, preparing food for winter is still very popular in the countryside.

Sports

File:Tartu_Maraton_2006-3.jpg|thumb|left|alt=large crowd of skiers participating in the marathon |Tartu Ski Marathon in 2006.]]Sport plays an important role in Estonian culture. After declaring independence from Russia in 1918, Estonia first competed as a nation at the 1920 Summer Olympics, although the National Olympic Committee was established in 1923. Estonian athletes took part of the Olympic Games until the country was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940. The 1980 Summer Olympics Sailing regatta was held in the capital city Tallinn. After regaining independence in 1991, Estonia has participated in all Olympics. Estonia has won most of its medals in athletics, weightlifting, wrestling and cross-country skiing. Estonia has had very good success at the Olympic games given the country's small population. Estonia's best results were being ranked 13th in the medal table at the 1936 Summer Olympics, and 12th at the 2006 Winter Olympics.The list of notable Estonian athletes include wrestlers Kristjan Palusalu, Johannes Kotkas, Voldemar Väli, and Georg Lurich, skiers Andrus Veerpalu and Kristina Å migun-Vähi, fencer Nikolai Novosjolov, decathlete Erki Nool, tennis players Kaia Kanepi and Anett Kontaveit, cyclists Jaan Kirsipuu and Erika Salumäe and discus throwers Gerd Kanter and Aleksander Tammert.Paul Keres, Estonian and Soviet chess grandmaster, was among the world's top players from the mid-1930s to the mid-1960s. He narrowly missed a chance at a World Chess Championship match on five occasions.File:Nabi, Heiki.IMG 8732.JPG|thumb|right|alt=Wrestler Heiki Nabi at 2012 Summer Olympics|Wrestler Heiki Nabi at 2012 Summer Olympics, wrestling is Estonia's most successful Olympic sport.]]Kiiking, a relatively new sport, was invented in 1996 by Ado Kosk in Estonia. Kiiking involves a modified swing in which the rider of the swing tries to go around 360 degrees.Basketball is also a notable sport in Estonia. The domestic top-tier basketball championship is called the Korvpalli Meistriliiga. BC Kalev/Cramo are the most recent champions, having won the league in the 2016–17 season. University of Tartu team has won the league a record 26 times. Estonian clubs also participate in European and regional competitions. Estonia national basketball team previously participated in 1936 Summer Olympics, appeared in EuroBasket four times. Estonian national team also competed at the EuroBasket 2015.Kelly Sildaru, an Estonian freestyle skier, won the gold medal in the slopestyle event in the 2016 Winter X Games. At age 13, she became the youngest gold medalist to date at a Winter X Games event, and the first person to win a Winter X Games medal for Estonia. She has also won the women's slopestyle at 2015 and 2016 Winter Dew Tour.In modern-era motorsports, World Rally Championship has seen two very successful Estonian drivers reach high results, with Markko Märtin achieving 5 rally victories and finishing 3rd overall in the 2004 World Rally Championship and Ott Tänak (active driver) winning his first WRC event at 2017 Rally d'Italia. In circuit racing, Marko Asmer was the first Estonian driver to test a Formula One car in 2003 with Williams Grand Prix Engineering, in other series Sten Pentus and Kevin Korjus (active driver) have enjoyed success on a global scale.

See also

{{Wikipedia books|Estonia}}

Notes

{{notelist}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Giuseppe D'Amato Travel to the Baltic Hansa. The European Union and its enlargement to the East. Book in Italian. Viaggio nell'Hansa baltica. L'Unione europea e l'allargamento ad Est. Greco&Greco editori, Milano, 2004. {{ISBN|88-7980-355-7}}
  • BOOK, Hiden, John, Patrick Salmon, The Baltic Nations and Europe: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in the Twentieth Century, 1991, Longman, London, 0-582-08246-3,
  • BOOK, Laar, Mart, Mart Laar, War in the Woods: Estonia's Struggle for Survival, 1944–1956, 1992, trans. Tiina Ets, Compass Press, Washington, D.C., 0-929590-08-2,
  • BOOK, Lieven, Anatol, Anatol Lieven, The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the Path to Independence, 1993, Yale University Press, New Haven, 0-300-05552-8,
  • BOOK, Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians, 1987, Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 0-8179-8511-5,
  • BOOK, Smith, David J., Estonia: Independence and European Integration, 2001, Routledge, London, 0-415-26728-5,
  • BOOK, Smith, Graham, The Baltic States: The National Self-determination of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, 1994, St. Martin's Press, New York, 0-312-12060-5,weblink
  • BOOK, Taagepera, Rein, Rein Taagepera, Estonia: Return to Independence, 1993, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo., 0-8133-1199-3,
  • BOOK, Taylor, Neil, Estonia, 2004, 4th, Bradt, Chalfont St. Peter, 1-84162-095-5,
  • BOOK, Williams, Nicola, Debra Herrmann, Cathryn Kemp, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, 2003, 3rd, Lonely Planet, London, 1-74059-132-1,
  • BOOK, Subrenat, Jean-Jacques, Jean-Jacques Subrenat, Estonia, identity and independence, 2004, Rodopi, 90-420-0890-3, Amsterdam & New York,

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