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Denmark
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{{short description|Sovereign state and Scandinavian country in northern Europe}}{{Other uses}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2018}}







factoids
| image_flag = Flag of Denmark.svg{{!}}border| alt_flag = Red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side| image_coat = National Coat of arms of Denmark.svg| symbol_width = 75pxDer er et yndigt land{{small>There is a lovely country}}(File:United States Navy Band - Der er et yndigt land.ogg)----Kong Christian stod ved højen mast{{refn|Kong Christian has equal status as a national anthem but is generally used only on royal and military occasions.WEB, Not one but two national anthems,weblink Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Denmark), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, 18 May 2014, |group="N"}}{{small|King Christian stood by the lofty mast}}(File:United States Navy Band - Kong Kristian stod ved højen mast.ogg)| image_map = Kingdom of Denmark (orthographic projection).svg| map_width = 250px| map_caption = Location of the Kingdom of Denmark (green), including Greenland, the Faroe Islands (circled), and Denmark proper| image_map2 = EU-Denmark.svg| map2_width = 250pxlocation_color=dark green region=Europe subregion=the European Union |subregion_color=green}}| capital = Copenhagen55N34type:city}}| largest_city = capitalDanish language>DanishFaroese language>FaroeseGreenlandic languageGerman language>GermanFaroese is co-official with Danish in the Faroe Islands. Greenlandic is the sole official language in Greenland. German is recognised as a protected minority language in the South Jutland area of Denmark.Danes >Dane}}| membership_type = Autonomous constituent countries
  • {{flag|Faroe Islands{edih}
  • {{flag|Greenland}}}}
Unitary state Parliamentary system>parliamentaryconstitutional monarchy}}Monarchy of Denmark>MonarchMargrethe II of Denmark>Margrethe IIPrime Minister of Denmark>Prime Minister| leader_name2 = Lars Løkke Rasmussen| legislature = FolketingHistory of Denmark>HistoryDenmark in the middle ages>ConsolidationStoneBooth2008|p=31}}Constitutional Act}}| established_date2 = 5 June 1849| established_event3 = The unity of the Realm| established_date3 = 24 March 1948The Faroe Islands became the first territory to be granted home rule on 24 March 1948. Greenland also gained autonomy on 1 May 1979.| area_km2 = 42,933| area_label = DenmarkPUBLISHER=, | area_rank = 130th| area_sq_mi = (16,576.5)| area_label2 = Faroe Islands1,393.4sqmisigfig=5}}| area_label3 = Greenland2,166,086sqmisigfig=6}}List of countries by population>112th)| population_estimate_year = April 2018| population_density_km2 = 134.76| population_label2 = Faroe IslandsPUBLISHER=HAGSTOVA FøROYA, 25 February 2018, | population_label3 = GreenlandPUBLISHER=STATISTICS GREENLAND, 30 August 2017, | FR_foot5 =  (Denmark)PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, | GDP_PPP_year = 2017| GDP_PPP_rank = 52nd| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $49,883| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 19th| GDP_nominal = $340.982 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2017| GDP_nominal_rank = 34th| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $59,314| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 6th| Gini = 28.8 | Gini_year = 2015| Gini_change = increase WEBSITE=WWW.CIA.GOV, | HDI = 0.925| HDI_year = 2015| HDI_change = steady YEAR=2016 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 5thDanish kroneIn the Faroe Islands the currency has a separate design and is known as the Faroese króna>króna, but is not a separate currency.| currency_code = DKKCentral European Time>CET| utc_offset = +1| utc_offset_DST = +2Central European Summer Time>CESTWestern European Time>WET, East Greenland Time, West Greenland Time>WGT and Atlantic Standard Time. Marginal Daylight saving time>DST time zones, offset by one hour, include: Greenwich Mean Time, Eastern Greenland Summer Time>EGST, Western Greenland Summer Time, Atlantic Daylight Time>ADT| drives_on = Right| calling_code = {hide}collapsible list
|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
|title = 3 calling codes
| +45{{nbsp|6{edih}{{small|(Denmark)}}
| +298{{nbsp|4}}{{small|(Faroe Islands)}}
| +299{{nbsp|4}}{{small|(Greenland)}}
}}| cctld = {{collapsible list
|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
|title = 3 TLDs
| .dk{{nbsp|1}}{{small|(Denmark)}}The TLD .eu is shared with other European Union countries. Greenland (.gl) and the Faroe Islands (.fo) have their own TLDs.
| .fo{{nbsp|2}}{{small|(Faroe Islands)}}
| .gl{{nbsp|2}}{{small|(Greenland)}}
}}| religion = Church of Denmark
}}Denmark (, {{IPA-da|ˈdanmɑɡ|pron|DA-Danmark.ogg}}), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,, {{IPA-da|ˈkɔŋəʁiːəð ˈdanmɑɡ|pron|Kongeriget Danmark.ogg}}. See also: The unity of the Realm is a Nordic country and a sovereign state. The southernmost of the Scandinavian nations, it is south-west of Sweden and south of Norway,The island of Bornholm is offset to the east of the rest of the country, in the Baltic Sea. and bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands,WEB, Denmark in numbers 2010,weblink Statistics Denmark, 2 May 2013, with the largest being Zealand, Funen and the North Jutlandic Island. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of {{convert|42924|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}, land area of {{convert|42394|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} , and the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is {{convert|2210579|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|lk=off}}, and a population of 5,781,190 ({{as of|2018|lc=on}}).The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea.{{sfn|Stone|Bain|Booth|Parnell|2008|p=31}} Denmark, Sweden and Norway were ruled together as one realm under the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523. The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until 1814, often referred to as the Dano-Norwegian Realm, or simply Denmark-Norway. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Iceland. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a highly developed mixed economy.The Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660. It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city and main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islandsin 1948; in Greenland home rule was established in 1979 and further autonomy in 2009. Denmark became a member of the European Economic Community (now the EU) in 1973, maintaining certain opt-outs; it retains its own currency, the krone. It is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, and the United Nations; it is also part of the Schengen Area.Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and socially developed countries in the world.WEB,weblink Denmark Is Considered The Happiest Country. You'll Never Guess Why., Meredith, Melnick, 22 October 2013, The Huffington Post, Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks highly in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance, prosperity and human development.2013 Legatum Prosperity Index™: Global prosperity rising while US and UK economies decline. Legatum Institute, 29 October 2013. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140806123613weblink |date=6 August 2014 }}WEB, Denmark Country Profile: Human Development Indicators,weblink United Nations Development Programme, 19 April 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130328232058weblink">weblink 28 March 2013, dmy, The country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility,Dave Serchuk. Happy Country=Social Mobility? Forbes. 12 July 2011 a high level of income equality,WEB,weblink 1997–2001, The World Bank, 1997, 11 November 2012, is the country with the lowest perceived level of corruption in the world, the fifth-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, and one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.

Etymology

The etymology of the word Denmark, and especially the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as a single kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate.Kristian Andersen Nyrup, Middelalderstudier Bog IX. Kong Gorms SagaIndvandrerne i Danmarks historie, Bent Østergaard, Syddansk Universitetsforlag 2007, {{ISBN|978-87-7674-204-1}}, pp. 19–24 This is centred primarily on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending.Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, and the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave".J. de Vries, Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, 1962, 73; (:da:Niels Åge Nielsen|N. Å. Nielsen), Dansk etymologisk ordbog, 1989, 85–96. The -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland (see marches), with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig.Navneforskning, Københavns UniversitetWEB,weblink Udvalgte stednavnes betydning, 27 January 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060716144406weblink">weblink 16 July 2006, dmy, The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old ({{circa|955}}) and Harald Bluetooth ({{circa|965}}). The larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate" (dåbsattest),BOOK, O'Donoghue, Heather, Old Norse-Icelandic Literature: A Short Introduction,weblink 2008, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-470-77683-4, 27, though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative {{runic|ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ}} "tanmaurk" ({{IPA|[danmɒrk]}}) on the large stone, and genitive {{runic|ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ}} "tanmarkar" (pronounced {{IPA|[danmarkaɽ]}}) on the small stone.The dative form tąnmarku (pronounced {{IPA|[danmarkʊ]}}) is found on the contemporaneous Skivum stone. The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "tani" ({{IPA|[danɪ]}}), or "Danes", in the accusative.

History

{{See also|History of Greenland|History of the Faroe Islands}}

Prehistory

File:Solvognen DO-6865 2000.jpg|thumb|left|The gilded side of the Trundholm sun chariotTrundholm sun chariotThe earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC.Michaelsen (2002), p. 19. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC.WEB, Nielsen, Poul Otto, May 2003,weblink Denmark: History, Prehistory, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Denmark), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, 1 May 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051122020555weblink">weblink 22 November 2005, The Nordic Bronze Age (1800–600 BC) in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot.During the Pre-Roman Iron Age (500 BC â€“ AD 1), native groups began migrating south, and the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age,Busck and Poulsen (ed.) (2002), p. 20. in the Roman Iron Age (AD 1–400). The Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, and Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron.The tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands (Zealand) and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic. Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal Jutes. The Jutes migrated to Great Britain eventually, some as mercenaries by Brythonic King Vortigern, and were granted the south-eastern territories of Kent, the Isle of Wight and other areas, where they settled. They were later absorbed or ethnically cleansed by the invading Angles and Saxons, who formed the Anglo-Saxons. The remaining Jutish population in Jutland assimilated in with the settling Danes.A short note about the Dani in "Getica" by the historian Jordanes is believed to be an early mention of the Danes, one of the ethnic groups from whom modern Danes are descended.WEB, Jordanes, Charles C. Mierow (trans.), 22 April 1997,weblink The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, chapter III, 1 May 2006, Busck and Poulsen (ed.) (2002), p. 19. The Danevirke defence structures were built in phases from the 3rd century forward and the sheer size of the construction efforts in AD 737 are attributed to the emergence of a Danish king.Michaelsen (2002), pp. 122–23. A new runic alphabet was first used around the same time and Ribe, the oldest town of Denmark, was founded about AD 700.

Viking and Middle Ages

File:Ladbyskibet.jpg|thumb|The Ladby shipLadby shipFrom the 8th to the 10th century the wider Scandinavian region was the source of Vikings. They colonised, raided, and traded in all parts of Europe. The Danish Vikings were most active in the eastern and southern British Isles and Western Europe. They conquered and settled parts of England (known as the Danelaw) under King Sweyn Forkbeard in 1013, and France where Danes and Norwegians founded Normandy with Rollo as head of state. More Anglo-Saxon pence of this period have been found in Denmark than in England.*WEB, Lund, Niels, May 2003,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060510174200weblink">weblink 10 May 2006, Denmark – History – The Viking Age, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Denmark), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, 24 June 2012, yes, dmy, File:Jellingsten stor 1.jpg|thumb|left|upright|alt=Large stone containing a carved depiction of Jesus Christ|Larger of the two Jelling stones, raised by Harald BluetoothHarald BluetoothDenmark was largely consolidated by the late 8th century and its rulers are consistently referred to in Frankish sources as kings (reges). Under the reign of Gudfred in 804 the Danish kingdom may have included all the lands of Jutland, Scania and the Danish islands, excluding Bornholm.WEB,weblink Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy: Scandinavia, Central Europe and Rus' c.900–1200, Nora, Berend, 22 November 2007, Cambridge University Press, Google Books, The extant Danish monarchy traces its roots back to Gorm the Old, who established his reign in the early 10th century.{{sfn|Stone|Bain|Booth|Parnell|2008|p=31}} As attested by the Jelling stones, the Danes were Christianised around 965 by Harald Bluetooth, the son of Gorm. It is believed that Denmark became Christian for political reasons so as not to get invaded by the rising Christian power in Europe, the Holy Roman Empire, which was an important trading area for the Danes. In that case, Harald built six fortresses around Denmark called Trelleborg and built a further Danevirke. In the early 11th century, Canute the Great won and united Denmark, England, and Norway for almost 30 years with a Scandinavian army.Throughout the High and Late Middle Ages, Denmark also included Skåneland (the areas of Scania, Halland, and Blekinge in present-day south Sweden) and Danish kings ruled Danish Estonia, as well as the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. Most of the latter two now form the state of Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany.In 1397, Denmark entered into a personal union with Norway and Sweden, united under Queen Margaret I.{{sfn|Stone|Bain|Booth|Parnell|2008|p=33}} The three countries were to be treated as equals in the union. However, even from the start, Margaret may not have been so idealistic—treating Denmark as the clear "senior" partner of the union.Lauring, Palle (1960) A History of the Kingdom of Denmark, Host & Son Co.: Copenhagen, p. 108. Thus, much of the next 125 years of Scandinavian history revolves around this union, with Sweden breaking off and being re-conquered repeatedly. The issue was for practical purposes resolved on 17 June 1523, as Swedish King Gustav Vasa conquered the city of Stockholm. The Protestant Reformation spread to Scandinavia in the 1530s, and following the Count's Feud civil war, Denmark converted to Lutheranism in 1536. Later that year, Denmark entered into a union with Norway.{{clear left}}

Early modern history (1536–1849)

File:Slaget vid Öland Claus Møinichen 1686.jpg|thumb|upright=1.25|The Battle of Öland during the Scanian War, between an allied Dano-Norwegian-Dutch fleet and the Swedish navy, 1 June 1676]]After Sweden permanently broke away from the personal union, Denmark tried on several occasions to reassert control over its neighbour. King Christian IV attacked Sweden in the 1611–1613 Kalmar War but failed to accomplish his main objective of forcing it to return to the union. The war led to no territorial changes, but Sweden was forced to pay a war indemnity of 1 million silver riksdaler to Denmark, an amount known as the Älvsborg ransom.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011111014weblink">weblink 11 October 2007, Kalmarkriget 1611–1613, 4 May 2007, Svenskt Militärhistoriskt Bibliotek, yes, dmy, King Christian used this money to found several towns and fortresses, most notably Glückstadt (founded as a rival to Hamburg) and Christiania. Inspired by the Dutch East India Company, he founded a similar Danish company and planned to claim Ceylon as a colony, but the company only managed to acquire Tranquebar on India's Coromandel Coast. Denmark's large colonial aspirations were limited to a few key trading posts in Africa and India. The empire was sustained by trade with other major powers, and plantations – ultimately a lack of resources led to its stagnation.BOOK, James Stuart, Olson, Robert, Shadle, 1991, Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism, Greenwood Publishing Group,weblink 15 May 2014, In the Thirty Years' War, Christian tried to become the leader of the Lutheran states in Germany but suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Lutter.Parker, pp. 69–70. The result was that the Catholic army under Albrecht von Wallenstein was able to invade, occupy, and pillage Jutland, forcing Denmark to withdraw from the war.Parker, p. 70. Denmark managed to avoid territorial concessions, but King Gustavus Adolphus' intervention in Germany was seen as a sign that the military power of Sweden was on the rise while Denmark's influence in the region was declining. In 1643, Swedish armies invaded Jutland and claimed Scania in 1644.File:Denmark-Norway in 1780.svg|thumb|Extent of the Dano-Norwegian Realm. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands, Iceland and GreenlandGreenlandIn the 1645 Treaty of Brømsebro, Denmark surrendered Halland, Gotland, the last parts of Danish Estonia, and several provinces in Norway. In 1657, King Frederick III declared war on Sweden and marched on Bremen-Verden. This led to a massive Danish defeat and the armies of King Charles X Gustav of Sweden conquered both Jutland, Funen, and much of Zealand before signing the Peace of Roskilde in February 1658, which gave Sweden control of Scania, Blekinge, Trøndelag, and the island of Bornholm. Charles X Gustav quickly regretted not having wrecked Denmark and in August 1658, he began a two-year-long siege of Copenhagen but failed to take the capital.{{sfn|Stone|Bain|Booth|Parnell|2008|p=35}} In the following peace settlement, Denmark managed to maintain its independence and regain control of Trøndelag and Bornholm.Denmark tried to regain control of Scania in the Scanian War (1675–1679) but it ended in failure. After the Great Northern War (1700–21), Denmark managed to restore control of the parts of Schleswig and Holstein ruled by the house of Holstein-Gottorp in the 1720 Treaty of Frederiksborg and the 1773 Treaty of Tsarskoye Selo, respectively. Denmark prospered greatly in the last decades of the 18th century due to its neutral status allowing it to trade with both sides in the many contemporary wars. In the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark traded with both France and the United Kingdom and joined the League of Armed Neutrality with Russia, Sweden, and Prussia.WEB, League of Armed Neutrality,weblink Oxford Reference, 28 August 2015, The British considered this a hostile act and attacked Copenhagen in 1801 and 1807, in one case carrying off the Danish fleet, in the other, burning large parts of the Danish capital. This led to the so-called Danish-British Gunboat War. British control of the waterways between Denmark and Norway proved disastrous to the union's economy and in 1813 Denmark–Norway went bankrupt.The union was dissolved by the Treaty of Kiel in 1814; the Danish monarchy "irrevocably and forever" renounced claims to the Kingdom of Norway in favour of the Swedish king.BOOK, Jenssen-Tusch, Georg Friedrich, Zur Regierungsgeschichte Friedrich VI. Königs von Dänemark, Herzogs von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg, 166, 1852, Verlag Schröder, German, Denmark kept the possessions of Iceland (which retained the Danish monarchy until 1944), the Faroe Islands and Greenland, all of which had been governed by Norway for centuries.BOOK, Dörr, Oliver, Kompendium völkerrechtlicher Rechtsprechung : eine Auswahl für Studium und Praxis, 2004, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, 3-16-148311-1, 101, Apart from the Nordic colonies, Denmark continued to rule over Danish India from 1620 to 1869, the Danish Gold Coast (Ghana) from 1658 to 1850, and the Danish West Indies from 1671 to 1917.

Constitutional monarchy (1849–present)

File:Grundlovgivende rigsforsamling - Constantin Hansen.jpg|thumb|left|The National Constitutional Assembly was convened by King Frederick VII in 1848 to adopt the Constitution of DenmarkConstitution of DenmarkA nascent Danish liberal and national movement gained momentum in the 1830s; after the European Revolutions of 1848, Denmark peacefully became a constitutional monarchy on 5 June 1849. A new constitution established a two-chamber parliament. Denmark faced war against both Prussia and Habsburg Austria in what became known as the Second Schleswig War, lasting from February to October 1864. Denmark was defeated and obliged to cede Schleswig and Holstein to Prussia. This loss came as the latest in the long series of defeats and territorial loss that had begun in the 17th century. After these events, Denmark pursued a policy of neutrality in Europe.Industrialisation came to Denmark in the second half of the 19th century.BOOK, Tellier, Luc-Normand, Urban world history an economic and geographical perspective, 2009, Presses de l'Université du Québec, Québec, 9782760522091, 457,weblink The nation's first railways were constructed in the 1850s, and improved communications and overseas trade allowed industry to develop in spite of Denmark's lack of natural resources. Trade unions developed starting in the 1870s. There was a considerable migration of people from the countryside to the cities, and Danish agriculture became centred on the export of dairy and meat products.Denmark maintained its neutral stance during World War I. After the defeat of Germany, the Versailles powers offered to return the region of Schleswig-Holstein to Denmark. Fearing German irredentism, Denmark refused to consider the return of the area without a plebiscite; the two Schleswig Plebiscites took place on 10 February and 14 March 1920, respectively. On 10 July 1920, Northern Schleswig was recovered by Denmark, thereby adding some 163,600 inhabitants and {{convert|3984|km2|sqmi}}.In 1939 Denmark signed a 10-year non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany but Germany invaded Denmark on 9 April 1940 and the Danish government quickly surrendered. World War II in Denmark was characterised by economic co-operation with Germany until 1943, when the Danish government refused further co-operation and its navy scuttled most of its ships and sent many of its officers to Sweden, which was neutral. The Danish resistance performed a rescue operation that managed to evacuate several thousand Jews and their families to safety in Sweden before the Germans could send them to death camps. Some Danes supported Nazism by joining the Danish Nazi Party or volunteering to fight with Germany as part of the Frikorps Danmark.WEB, Rugg, Andy, Traitor Danes: most soldiers return heroes, but this lot came home total zeroes,weblinkculture/through-looking-glass/traitor-danes-most-soldiers-return-heroes-lot-came-home-total-zeroes, Copenhagen Post, 30 January 2013, yes, https:web.archive.org/web/20130129130650weblink 29 January 2013, Iceland severed ties to Denmark and became an independent republic in 1944; Germany surrendered in May 1945; in 1948, the Faroe Islands gained home rule; in 1949, Denmark became a founding member of NATO.File:Tratado de Lisboa 13 12 2007 (081).jpg|thumb|Denmark became a member of the European Union in 1973 and signed the Lisbon TreatyLisbon TreatyDenmark was a founding member of European Free Trade Association (EFTA). During the 1960s, the EFTA countries were often referred to as the Outer Seven, as opposed to the Inner Six of what was then the European Economic Community (EEC).NEWS, Finland: Now, the Seven and a Half, Time, 7 April 1961,weblink 18 July 2009, In 1973, along with Britain and Ireland, Denmark joined the European Economic Community (now the European Union) after a public referendum. The Maastricht Treaty, which involved further European integration, was rejected by the Danish people in 1992; it was only accepted after a second referendum in 1993, which provided for four opt-outs from policies. The Danes rejected the euro as the national currency in a referendum in 2000. Greenland gained home rule in 1979 and was awarded self-determination in 2009. Neither the Faroe Islands nor Greenland are members of the European Union, the Faroese having declined membership of the EEC in 1973 and Greenland in 1986, in both cases because of fisheries policies.Constitutional change in 1953 led to a single-chamber parliament elected by proportional representation, female accession to the Danish throne, and Greenland becoming an integral part of Denmark. The centre-left Social Democrats led a string of coalition governments for most of the second half of the 20th century, introducing the Nordic welfare model. The Liberal Party and the Conservative People's Party have also led centre-right governments. In recent years the right-wing populistBOOK, David Arter, Democracy in Scandinavia: Consensual, Majoritarian Or Mixed?,weblink 2006, Manchester University Press, 978-0-7190-7047-1, 52, Danish People's Party has emerged as a major party—becoming the second-largest following the 2015 general election—during which time immigration and integration have become major issues of public debate.

Geography

{{Hatnote|Also related: Geography of the Faroe Islands and Geography of Greenland}}(File:Satellite image of Denmark in July 2001.jpg|thumb|alt=Satellite image|A satellite image of Jutland and the Danish islands)Located in Northern Europe, Denmark{{#tag:ref|The Kingdom of Denmark's territory in continental Europe is referred to as "Denmark (wikt:proper#Adjective|proper)" (), "(wikt:Metropolitan|metropolitan) Denmark",Administrative divisions – Denmark The World Factbook. Access date: 14 April 2012 or simply Denmark. In this article, usage of "Denmark" excludes Greenland and the Faroe Islands.|name="proper"|group="N"}} consists of the peninsula of Jutland and 443 named islands (1,419 islands above {{convert|100|m2|sqft}} in total).WEB,weblink Landet i tal  – Største øer, 14 July 2007, 23 September 2003, National Survey and Cadastre of Denmark, {{dead link|date=November 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Of these, 74 are inhabited (January 2015),Statistikbanken.dk/bef4 with the largest being Zealand, the North Jutlandic Island, and Funen. The island of Bornholm is located east of the rest of the country, in the Baltic Sea. Many of the larger islands are connected by bridges; the Øresund Bridge connects Zealand with Sweden; the Great Belt Bridge connects Funen with Zealand; and the Little Belt Bridge connects Jutland with Funen. Ferries or small aircraft connect to the smaller islands. The four cities with populations over 100,000 are the capital Copenhagen on Zealand; Aarhus and Aalborg in Jutland; and Odense on Funen.File:Da-map.png|thumb|left|alt=A labelled map of Denmark|A map showing major urban areas, islands and connecting bridges]]The country occupies a total area of {{convert|42,924|km2|sqmi|lk=in|sigfig=5}} The area of inland water is {{convert|700|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}, variously stated as from 500 – 700 km2 (193–270 sq mi). Lake Arresø northwest of Copenhagen is the largest lake. The size of the land area cannot be stated exactly since the ocean constantly erodes and adds material to the coastline, and because of human land reclamation projects (to counter erosion). Post-glacial rebound raises the land by a bit less than {{convert|1|cm|1|abbr=on}} per year in the north and east, extending the coast. A circle enclosing the same area as Denmark would be {{convert|234|km|mi|abbr=off}} in diameter with a circumference of {{convert|742|km|0|abbr=on}}. It shares a border of {{convert|68|km| mi}} with Germany to the south and is otherwise surrounded by {{convert|8,750|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} of tidal shoreline (including small bays and inlets).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070403235436weblink">weblink 3 April 2007, Nature & Environment, 3 February 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Denmark), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, yes, dmy, No location in Denmark is farther from the coast than {{convert|52|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}. On the south-west coast of Jutland, the tide is between {{convert|1|and|2|m|ft|2|abbr=on}}, and the tideline moves outward and inward on a {{convert|10|km|mi|1|abbr=on}} stretch.Nationalencyklopedin, (1990) Denmark's territorial waters total {{convert|105,000|km2|0|abbr=off}}.Denmark's northernmost point is Skagen's point (the north beach of the Skaw) at 57° 45' 7" northern latitude; the southernmost is Gedser point (the southern tip of Falster) at 54° 33' 35" northern latitude; the westernmost point is BlÃ¥vandshuk at 8° 4' 22" eastern longitude; and the easternmost point is Østerskær at 15° 11' 55" eastern longitude. This is in the archipelago Ertholmene {{convert|18|km|mi}} north-east of Bornholm. The distance from east to west is {{convert|452|km|mi|0}}, from north to south {{convert|368|km|mi|0}}.File:Landscape seen from Ellemandsbjerg.jpg|thumb|Bay of Aarhus viewed from southern DjurslandDjurslandThe country is flat with little elevation, having an average height above sea level of {{convert|31|m|ft|0}}. The highest natural point is Møllehøj, at {{convert|170.86|m|ft|2}}.WEB, Nyt højeste punkt i Danmark,weblink Danish Geodata Agency, 26 May 2014, Danish, A sizeable portion of Denmark's terrain consists of rolling plains whilst the coastline is sandy, with large dunes in northern Jutland. Although once extensively forested, today Denmark largely consists of arable land. It is drained by a dozen or so rivers, and the most significant include the GudenÃ¥, Odense, Skjern, SusÃ¥ and Vidå—a river that flows along its southern border with Germany.The Kingdom of Denmark includes two overseas territories, both well to the west of Denmark: Greenland, the world's largest island, and the Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean. These territories are self-governing and form part of the Danish Realm.

Climate

Denmark has a temperate climate, characterised by mild winters, with mean temperatures in January of {{convert|1.5|°C|°F|1}}, and cool summers, with a mean temperature in August of {{convert|17.2|°C|°F|1}}.WEB,weblink Climate Normals for Denmark, 2 January 2015, Danish Meteorological Institute, Figures, labelled in Danish: First plot is the whole country; Nedbør=Precipitation, Nedbørdage=Precipitation days (>1 mm), (Dag/Middel/Nat)temp.=(Daytime/Average/Nighttime) temperature, Solskinstimer=Hours of sunshine. The most extreme temperatures recorded in Denmark, since 1874 when recordings began, was {{convert|36.4|°C|°F|1}} in 1975 and {{convert|-31.2|°C|°F|1}} in 1982.WEB,weblink Vejrekstremer i Danmark [Weather extremes in Denmark], Danish, Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), 6 October 2016, 19 October 2016, Denmark has an average of 179 days per year with precipitation, on average receiving a total of {{convert|765|mm|in|0}} per year; autumn is the wettest season and spring the driest. The position between a continent and an ocean means that weather often changes.WEB,weblink The weather cross – the four corners of autumn weather, 17 September 2015, Danish Meteorological Institute, Because of Denmark's northern location, there are large seasonal variations in daylight. There are short days during the winter with sunrise coming around 8:45 am and sunset 3:45 pm (standard time), as well as long summer days with sunrise at 4:30 am and sunset at 10 pm (daylight saving time).WEB,weblink Copenhagen, Denmark  – Sunrise, sunset, dawn and dusk times for the whole year, Gaisma, 24 June 2012, {{Weather box|collapsed = yes|location = Denmark (2001–2010)|metric first=Yes|single line=Yes|Jan high C = 3.3|Feb high C = 3.3|Mar high C = 6.1|Apr high C = 11.5|May high C = 15.5|Jun high C = 18.5|Jul high C = 21.6|Aug high C = 21.2|Sep high C = 17.5|Oct high C = 12.3|Nov high C = 7.9|Dec high C = 4.2|year high C = 11.9|Jan mean C= 1.5|Feb mean C= 1.2|Mar mean C= 3.0|Apr mean C= 7.5|May mean C= 11.4|Jun mean C= 14.6|Jul mean C= 17.4|Aug mean C= 17.2|Sep mean C= 13.8|Oct mean C= 9.4|Nov mean C= 5.7|Dec mean C= 2.2|year mean C = 8.8|Jan low C= −0.8|Feb low C= −1.3|Mar low C= −0.2|Apr low C= 3.6|May low C= 7.4|Jun low C= 10.6|Jul low C= 13.4|Aug low C= 13.5|Sep low C= 10.2|Oct low C= 6.2|Nov low C= 3.2|Dec low C= −0.3|year low C= 5.5|Jan precipitation mm=66|Feb precipitation mm=50|Mar precipitation mm=43|Apr precipitation mm=37|May precipitation mm=53|Jun precipitation mm=68|Jul precipitation mm=77|Aug precipitation mm=91|Sep precipitation mm=62|Oct precipitation mm=83|Nov precipitation mm=75|Dec precipitation mm=61|year precipitation mm=765|unit rain days=1mm|Jan rain days=18|Feb rain days=15|Mar rain days=13|Apr rain days=11|May rain days=13|Jun rain days=13|Jul rain days=14|Aug rain days=16|Sep rain days=14|Oct rain days=17|Nov rain days=20|Dec rain days=17|Jan sun=47|Feb sun=71|Mar sun=146|Apr sun=198|May sun=235|Jun sun=239|Jul sun=232|Aug sun=196|Sep sun=162|Oct sun=111|Nov sun=58|Dec sun=45|year sun=1739|source 1=Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut}}

Ecology

{{Further information|List of forests in Denmark|List of mammals of Denmark|List of birds of Denmark}}{{multiple image|align=right|direction=|image1=Baltic sea coast of skagen.JPG|caption1=The Danish landscape is characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts.|width1=260|image2=Grib skov.jpgFagus sylvatica>Beech trees are common throughout Denmark, especially in the sparse woodlands.|width2=184}}Denmark belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and can be subdivided into two ecoregions: the Atlantic mixed forests and Baltic mixed forests.WEB, Hogan, C Michael, Ecoregions of Denmark,weblink Encyclopedia of Earth, 26 August 2015, Almost all of Denmark's primeval temperate forests have been destroyed or fragmented, chiefly for agricultural purposes during the last millennia.WEB, Jensen, Christian Lundmark, Forests and forestry in Denmark – Thousands of years of interaction between man and nature,weblink Danish Ministry of the Environment Nature Agency, 31 May 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160715001546weblink">weblink 15 July 2016, dmy-all, The deforestation has created large swaths of heathland and devastating sand drifts. In spite of this, there are several larger second growth woodlands in the country and, in total, 12.9% of the land is now forested.WEB, Forest area (% of land area),weblink worldbank.org, The World Bank, 26 August 2015, Norway spruce is the most widespread tree (2017), being important in the production of Christmas trees.Roe deer occupy the countryside in growing numbers, and large-antlered red deer can be found in the sparse woodlands of Jutland. Denmark is also home to smaller mammals, such as polecats, hares and hedgehogs.WEB, Animals in Denmark,weblink listofcountriesoftheworld.com, 31 May 2016, 2012, Approximately 400 bird species inhabit Denmark and about 160 of those breed in the country.WEB, Bird list of Denmark,weblink Netfugl.dk, 26 August 2015, It involves all category A, B and C birds recorded in Denmark (according to SU/BOURC/AERC standard)., Large marine mammals include healthy populations of Harbour porpoise, growing numbers of pinnipeds and occasional visits of large whales, including blue whales and orcas. Cod, herring and plaice are abundant fish in Danish waters and form the basis for a large fishing industry.WEB, Byskov, Søren, Theme: Herring, cod and other fish – 1001 Stories of Denmark,weblink The Heritage Agency of Denmark, 31 May 2016,

Environment

Land and water pollution are two of Denmark's most significant environmental issues, although much of the country's household and industrial waste is now increasingly filtered and sometimes recycled. The country has historically taken a progressive stance on environmental preservation; in 1971 Denmark established a Ministry of Environment and was the first country in the world to implement an environmental law in 1973.The law of environmental damage: liability and reparation. Marie-Louise Larsson. To mitigate environmental degradation and global warming the Danish Government has signed the Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol.WEB, 19 January 2012,weblink Denmark, The World Factbook, CIA, 4 February 2012, However, the national ecological footprint is 8.26 global hectares per person, which is very high compared to a world average of 1.7 in 2010.WEB, Ecological Footprint Atlas 2010,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110709225943weblink">weblink yes, 9 July 2011, Global Footprint Network, 26 August 2015, 2010, Contributing factors to this value are an exceptional high value for cropland but also a relatively high value for grazing land,WWF (2014): Living Planet Report. which may be explained by the substantially high meat production in Denmark ({{convert|115.8|kg}} meat annually per capita) and the large economic role of the meat and dairy industries.AMI (2012); preliminary data for 2011 In December 2014, the Climate Change Performance Index for 2015 placed Denmark at the top of the table, explaining that although emissions are still quite high, the country was able to implement effective climate protection policies.WEB,weblink The Climate Change Performance Index: Results 2015, Jan Burck, Franziska Marten, Christoph Bals, Germanwatch, 9 December 2014, Denmark has an outstanding performance in the global Environmental Performance Index (EPI) with an overall ranking of 4 out of 180 countries in 2016. This recent and significant increase in ranking and performance is mostly due to remarkable achievements in energy efficiency and reductions in CO2 emission levels. A future implementation of air quality improvements are expected. The EPI was established in 2001 by the World Economic Forum as a global gauge to measure how well individual countries perform in implementing the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. The environmental areas where Denmark performs best (i.e. lowest ranking) are sanitation (12), water resource management (13) and health impacts of environmental issues (14), followed closely by the area of biodiversity and habitat. The latter are due to the many protection laws and protected areas of significance within the country even though the EPI is not considering how well these laws and regulations are affecting the current biodiversity and habitats in reality; one of many weaknesses in the EPI.Nor does the EPI gauge how well the biodiversity is faring compared to a pristine situation. Denmark performs worst (i.e. highest ranking) in the areas of environmental effects of fisheries (128)This is 128 out of only 136 countries, as only 136 countries are represented in this area of the EPI report. and forest management (96). The very poor ranking in the fisheries area are due to alarmingly low and continually rapidly declining fish stocks, placing Denmark among the worst performing countries of the world.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160204021925weblink">weblink yes, 4 February 2016, 2016 Report, EPI Report, Yale University, 17 December 2016, EPI (2016): Denmark {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170423194404weblink |date=23 April 2017 }} Denmark's territories, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, kill approximately 650 whales per year.NEWS,weblink Almost Saving Whales: The Ambiguity of Success at the International Whaling Commission [Full Text] - Ethics & International Affairs, 29 March 2012, Ethics & International Affairs, 27 December 2017, en-US, NEWS,weblink Hundreds of whales slaughtered in Faroe Island's annual killing, 20 June 2017, The Independent, 27 December 2017, en-GB,

Administrative divisions

{{Danish regions|float=right}}Denmark, with a total area of {{convert|43,094|km2|sqmi|lk=in|sigfig=5}}, is divided into five administrative regions (). The regions are further subdivided into 98 municipalities (). The easternmost land in Denmark, the Ertholmene archipelago, with an area of 39 hectares (0.16 sq mi), is neither part of a municipality nor a region but belongs to the Ministry of Defence.NEWS, Jonas, Michael Kjær, Christiansø betaler ikke sundhedsbidrag, 15 November 2006,weblink dr.dk, 12 August 2007, da, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011075640weblink">weblink 11 October 2007, dmy-all, The regions were created on 1 January 2007 to replace the 16 former counties. At the same time, smaller municipalities were merged into larger units, reducing the number from 270. Most municipalities have a population of at least 20,000 to give them financial and professional sustainability, although a few exceptions were made to this rule.Denmark: Regions, Municipalities, Cities & Major Urban Areas – Statistics and Maps on City Population. The administrative divisions are led by directly elected councils, elected proportionally every four years; the most recent Danish local elections were held on 19 November 2013. Other regional structures use the municipal boundaries as a layout, including the police districts, the court districts and the electoral wards.

Regions

The governing bodies of the regions are the regional councils, each with forty-one councillors elected for four-year terms. The councils are headed by regional district chairmen (), who are elected by the council.BOOK, The Danish Regions – in Brief, 2007, Danske Regioner, Copenhagen, 978-87-7723-471-2, 3rd revised edition., The areas of responsibility for the regional councils are the national health service, social services and regional development.WEB, Regional Tasks in Denmark,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140510023358weblink">weblink yes, 10 May 2014, Danske Regioner, 23 August 2015, dmy-all, Unlike the counties they replaced, the regions are not allowed to levy taxes and the health service is partly financed by a national health care contribution until 2018 (), partly by funds from both government and municipalities.WEB, The Danish Tax System,weblink Aarhus University, 23 August 2015, From 1 January 2019 this contribution will be abolished, as it is being replaced by higher income tax instead.The area and populations of the regions vary widely; for example, the Capital Region, which encompasses the Copenhagen metropolitan area with the exception of the subtracted province East Zeeland but includes the Baltic Sea island of Bornholm, has a population three times larger than that of North Denmark Region, which covers the more sparsely populated area of northern Jutland. Under the county system certain densely populated municipalities, such as Copenhagen Municipality and Frederiksberg, had been given a status equivalent to that of counties, making them first-level administrative divisions. These sui generis municipalities were incorporated into the new regions under the 2007 reforms.{|class="wikitable" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" style="background:#ccc;"! Danish name !! English name !! Admin. centre !! Largest city (populous)|| Population(January 2017) !! Total area(km²) Hovedstaden Capital Region of Denmark Hillerød Copenhagen style="text-align:right;" 2,568.29 Midtjylland Central Denmark Region Viborg, Denmark >Aarhus > 1,304,253 style="text-align:right;"| 13,095.80 Nordjylland North Denmark Region Aalborg Aalborg style="text-align:right;" 7,907.09 Sjælland Region Zealand Sorø Roskilde style="text-align:right;" 7,268.75 Syddanmark Region of Southern Denmark Vejle Odense style="text-align:right;" 12,132.21Source: Regional and municipal key figures{{clear}}

Greenland and the Faroe Islands

{{Further|The unity of the Realm}}File:Kunoy.10.jpg|thumb|Kunoy island, Faroe IslandsFaroe IslandsThe Kingdom of Denmark is a unitary state that comprises, in addition to Denmark proper, two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: Greenland and the Faroe Islands. They have been integrated parts of the Danish Realm since the 18th century; however, due to their separate historical and cultural identities, these parts of the Realm have extensive political powers and have assumed legislative and administrative responsibility in a substantial number of fields.The working autonomies in Europe – Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker (GFBV). Retrieved 13 March 2012. Home rule was granted to the Faroe Islands in 1948 and to Greenland in 1979, each having previously had the status of counties.The unity of the Realm {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130120161948weblink |date=20 January 2013 }} – Statsministeriet – stm.dk. Retrieved 13 March 2012.Greenland and the Faroe Islands have their own home governments and parliaments and are effectively self-governing in regards to domestic affairs. High Commissioners () act as representatives of the Danish government in the Faroese Løgting and in the Greenlandic Parliament, but they cannot vote. The Faroese home government is defined to be an equal partner with the Danish national government,WEB, Act on the Faroese authorities acquisition of affairs and fields,weblink retsinformation.dk, 11 June 2014, Danish, Lov om de færøske myndigheders overtagelse af sager og sagsområder, 24 June 2005, while the Greenlandic people are defined as a separate people with the right to self-determination.Lov om Grønlands Selvstyre {{da icon}}. Retsinformation.dk. "I erkendelse af, at det grønlandske folk er et folk i henhold til folkeretten med ret til selvbestemmelse, bygger loven på et ønske om at fremme ligeværdighed og gensidig respekt i partnerskabet mellem Danmark og Grønland.{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%; margin-left:auto; margin-right:auto;"! Country! Population {{small|(2015)}}! Total area! Capital! Local parliament! PremierGreenland}} {{small)}}| 56,1142,166,086sqmisigfig=6}}Nuuk}}| Inatsisartut| Kim KielsenFaroe Islands}} {{small)}}| 49,0791,399sqmisigfig=5}}Tórshavn}}| Løgting| Aksel V. Johannesen

Politics

{{See also|Politics of the Faroe Islands|Politics of Greenland}}{hide}multiple image
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Politics in Denmark operate under a framework laid out in the Constitution of Denmark.{{#tag:ref|Denmark has a codified constitution. Changes to it require an absolute majority in two consecutive parliamentary terms and the approval of at least 40% of the electorate through a referendum.WEB, Tschentscher, Axel,weblink The Constitution of Denmark – Section 88, Servat.unibe.ch, 12 February 2016, |group="N"}} First written in 1849, it establishes a sovereign state in the form of a constitutional monarchy, with a representative parliamentary system. The monarch officially retains executive power and presides over the Council of State (privy council)."The executive power is vested in the King." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 3."The body of Ministers shall form the Council of State, in which the Successor to the Throne shall have a seat when he is of age. The Council of State shall be presided over by the King..." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 17. In practice, the duties of the Monarch are strictly representative and ceremonial,The Constitution refers to "the King" (), rather than the gender-neutral term "monarch". In light of the restriction of powers of the monarchy, this is best interpreted as referring to the government Cabinet.The Monarchy today – The Danish Monarchy (kongehuset.dk). Access date: 16 June 2012 such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other Government ministers. The Monarch is not answerable for his or her actions, and their person is sacrosanct."The King shall not be answerable for his actions; his person shall be sacrosanct." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 13. Hereditary monarch Queen Margrethe II has been head of state since 14 January 1972.

Government

The Danish Parliament is unicameral and called the Folketing (). It is the legislature of the Kingdom of Denmark, passing acts that apply in Denmark and, variably, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Folketing is also responsible for adopting the state's budgets, approving the state's accounts, appointing and exercising control of the Government, and taking part in international co-operation. Bills may be initiated by the Government or by members of parliament. All bills passed must be presented before the Council of State to receive Royal Assent within thirty days in order to become law."A Bill passed by the Parliament shall become law if it receives the Royal Assent not later than thirty days after it was finally passed." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 22.File:Christiansborg Slot Copenhagen 2014 01.jpg|thumb|left|Christiansborg Palace houses the Folketing, the Supreme Court, and Government offices.]]Denmark is a representative democracy with universal suffrage.{{#tag:ref|The Economist Intelligence Unit, while acknowledging that democracy is difficult to measure, listed Denmark 5th on its index of democracy.WEB, Democracy Index 2014,weblink The Economist/Economist Intelligence Unit, 23 August 2015, 2015, |group="N"}} Membership of the Folketing is based on proportional representation of political parties,WEB,weblink ICL – Denmark – Constitution – Section 31. Elections, unibe.ch, 12 February 2016, with a 2% electoral threshold. Danes elect 175 members to the Folketing, with Greenland and the Faroe Islands electing an additional two members each—179 members in total.{{harvnb|Jørgensen|1995|p=16.}} Parliamentary elections are held at least every four years, but it is within the powers of the Prime Minister to ask the Monarch to call for an election before the term has elapsed. On a vote of no confidence, the Folketing may force a single minister or an entire government to resign."A Minister shall not remain in office after the Parliament has passed a vote of no confidence in him." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 15.The Government of Denmark operates as a cabinet government, where executive authority is exercised—formally, on behalf of the Monarch—by Prime Minister and other cabinet ministers, who head ministries. As the executive branch, the Cabinet is responsible for proposing bills and a budget, executing the laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies of Denmark. The position of prime minister belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of a majority in the Folketing; this is usually the current leader of the largest political party or, more effectively, through a coalition of parties. A single party generally does not have sufficient political power in terms of the number of seats to form a cabinet on its own; Denmark has often been ruled by coalition governments, themselves sometimes minority governments dependent on non-government parties.WEB,weblink Radikale ved historisk skillevej, Berlingske Tidende, 17 June 2007, 17 August 2007, Following a general election defeat, in June 2015 Helle Thorning-Schmidt, leader of the Social Democrats ('), resigned as Prime Minister. She was succeeded by Lars Løkke Rasmussen, the leader of the Liberal Party ('). Rasmussen became the leader of a cabinet that, unusually, consisted entirely of ministers from his own party. In the next cabinet, created November 2016, there are several political parties represented.

Law and judicial system

{{See also|Crime in Denmark}}Denmark has a civil law system with some references to Germanic law. Denmark resembles Norway and Sweden in never having developed a case-law like that of England and the United States nor comprehensive codes like those of France and Germany. Much of its law is customary.BOOK, Orfield, Lester Bernhardt Orfield, The Growth of Scandinavian Law, 2002, Lawbook Exchange, Union, N.J., 978-1-58477-180-7, 14, The judicial system of Denmark is divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration. Articles sixty-two and sixty-four of the Constitution ensure judicial independence from government and Parliament by providing that judges shall only be guided by the law, including acts, statutes and practice."The administration of justice shall always remain independent of the executive power. Rules to this effect shall be laid down by Statute ..." The Constitution of Denmark – Sections/Articles 62 and 64. The Kingdom of Denmark does not have a single unified judicial system – Denmark has one system, Greenland another, and the Faroe Islands a third.{{harvnb|Gammelgaard|Sørensen|1998|p=18.}} However, decisions by the highest courts in Greenland and the Faroe Islands may be appealed to the Danish High Courts. The Danish Supreme Court is the highest civil and criminal court responsible for the administration of justice in the Kingdom.

Foreign relations

Denmark wields considerable influence in Northern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs.WEB, Behringer, Ronald M., Middle Power Leadership on the Human Security Agenda,weblink Nordic International Studies Association / SAGE Publications, 1 May 2016, September 2005, In recent years, Greenland and the Faroe Islands have been guaranteed a say in foreign policy issues such as fishing, whaling, and geopolitical concerns. The foreign policy of Denmark is substantially influenced by its membership of the European Union (EU); Denmark joined the European Economic Community (EEC), the EU's predecessor, in 1973.The Faroese declined membership in 1973; Greenland chose to leave the EEC in 1985, following a referendum. Denmark held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union on seven occasions, most recently from January to June 2012.WEB, Danish Presidency of the European Union 2012,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120103093056weblink">weblink yes, 3 January 2012, European Union, 25 May 2014, Following World War II, Denmark ended its two-hundred-year-long policy of neutrality. It has been a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) since 1949, and membership remains highly popular.WEB,weblink US Department of State: Denmark, Government of the United States, 25 May 2014, As a member of Development Assistance Committee (DAC), Denmark has for a long time been among the countries of the world contributing the largest percentage of gross national income to development aid. In 2015, Denmark contributed 0.85% of its gross national income (GNI) to foreign aid and was one of only six countries meeting the longstanding UN target of 0.7% of GNI.As measured in official development assistance (ODA). Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdomexceeded the United Nations' ODA target of 0.7% of GNI.WEB, 2015 Preliminary ODA Figures,weblink OECD, 1 May 2016, Paris, 13 April 2016, The country participates in both bilateral and multilateral aid, with the aid usually administered by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The organisational name of Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) is often used, in particular when operating bilateral aid.

Military

{{See also|Danish Defence|Military history of Denmark}}(File:Danish Military Police.JPG|thumb|left|Danish MP-soldiers conducting advanced law enforcement training)Denmark's armed forces are known as the Danish Defence (). The Minister of Defence is commander-in-chief of the Danish Defence, and serves as chief diplomatic official abroad. During peacetime, the Ministry of Defence employs around 33,000 in total. The main military branches employ almost 27,000: 15,460 in the Royal Danish Army, 5,300 in the Royal Danish Navy and 6,050 in the Royal Danish Air Force (all including conscripts).{{citation needed|date=February 2016}} The Danish Emergency Management Agency employs 2,000 (including conscripts), and about 4,000 are in non-branch-specific services like the Danish Defence Command and the Danish Defence Intelligence Service. Furthermore, around 55,000 serve as volunteers in the Danish Home Guard.Denmark is a long-time supporter of international peacekeeping, but since the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 and the War in Afghanistan in 2001, Denmark has also found a new role as a warring nation, participating actively in several wars and invasions. This relatively new situation has stirred some internal critique, but the Danish population has generally been very supportive, in particular of the War in Afghanistan.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160215191400weblink">weblink yes, 15 February 2016, Denmark as a warring nation: A bracket that should be closed, Gunnar Olesen, The council for international conflict resolution (RIKO), 7 September 2011, Danish, 1 January 2016, JOURNAL,weblink Danmark er en krisnation, Lasse Lavrsen, Information, 19 June 2010, Danish, 1 January 2016, The Danish Defence has around 1,400WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071227125607weblink">weblink 27 December 2007, Forsvarsministerens Verdenskort, Ministry of Defense of Denmark, 27 December 2007, 20 August 2009, yes, dmy, staff in international missions, not including standing contributions to NATO SNMCMG1. Danish forces were heavily engaged in the former Yugoslavia in the UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR), with IFOR,BOOK, Bosnia: What Every American Should Know, Clark,, A.L., 1996, Berkley Books, New York, and now SFOR.BOOK,weblink Bosnia-Hertsegovinia: The U.S. Army's Role in Peace Enforcement Operations 1995–2004, United States Army Center of Military History, CMH Pub 70-97-1, R. Cody, Phillips, Washington, D.C., yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131209001303weblink">weblink 9 December 2013, Between 2003 and 2007, there were approximately 450 Danish soldiers in Iraq.WEB,weblink Denmark follows UK Iraq pullout, Al Jazeera English, 21 February 2007, 20 August 2009, Denmark also strongly supported American operations in Afghanistan and has contributed both monetarily and materially to the ISAF.WEB,weblink Danmarks Radio – Danmark mister flest soldater i Afghanistan, Dr.dk, 15 February 2009, 5 July 2010, These initiatives are often described by the authorities as part of a new "active foreign policy" of Denmark.

Economy

{{further information|Economy of Denmark|List of companies of Denmark}}File:Lego Color Bricks.jpg|thumb|right|Lego bricks are produced by The Lego Group, headquartered in Billund.]]Denmark has a developed mixed economy that is classed as a high-income economy by the World Bank.Country and Lending Groups. World Bank. Accessed on 14 March 2016. It ranks 18th in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) per capita and 6th in nominal GDP per capita."GDP per capita, PPP (current international $)", World Development Indicators database, World Bank. Database updated on 14 April 2015. Accessed on 22 August 2015.weblink (selecting all countries, GDP per capita (current US$), World Bank. Accessed on 22 August 2015. Denmark's economy stands out as one of the most free in the Index of Economic Freedom and the Economic Freedom of the World."Country Ratings", 2012 Index of Economic Freedom. Retrieved 12 January 2012.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110926213117weblink">weblink yes, 26 September 2011, Economic Freedom of the World: 2011 Annual Report Complete Publication (2.7 MB), freetheworld.com, Fraser Institute, 2011, PDF, 20 September 2011, It is the 13th most competitive economy in the world, and 8th in Europe, according to the World Economic Forum in its Global Competitiveness Report 2014–2015.WEB,weblink Global Competitiveness Report 2014–2015, World Economic Forum, 22 August 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141210040419weblink">weblink 10 December 2014, Denmark has the fourth highest ratio of tertiary degree holders in the world.UNESCO 2009 Global Education Digest, Shared fourth with Finland at a 30.3% ratio. Graph on p28, table on p194. The country ranks highest in the world for workers' rights.Kevin Short (28 May 2014). The Worst Places On The Planet To Be A Worker. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 May 2014. GDP per hour worked was the 13th highest in 2009. The country has a market income inequality close to the OECD average,WEB,weblink Tackling income inequality. The role of taxes and transfers., Isabelle Joumard, Mauro Pisu, Debbie Bloch, OECD, 2012, WEB,weblink Sources and impact of rising inequality in Denmark, Ioana Neamtu and Niels Westergaard-Nielsen, March 2013, but after public cash transfers the income inequality is very low. According to the International Monetary Fund, Denmark has the world's highest minimum wage.WEB,weblink World Economic Outlook Database, October 2010 Edition, IMF, 6 October 2010, 5 July 2012, As Denmark has no minimum wage legislation, the high wage floor has been attributed to the power of trade unions. For example, as the result of a collective bargaining agreement between the 3F trade union and the employers group (:da:Horesta|Horesta), workers at McDonald's and other fast food chains make the equivalent of US$20 an hour, which is more than double what their counterparts earn in the United States, and have access to five weeks' paid vacation, parental leave and a pension plan.Liz Alderman and Steven Greenhouse (27 October 2014). Living Wages, Rarity for U.S. Fast-Food Workers, Served Up in Denmark. The New York Times. Retrieved 28 October 2014. Union density in 2015 was 68%.On Sweden and Denmark, see Anders Kjellberg and Christian Lyhne Ibsen "Attacks on union organizing: Reversible and irreversible changes to the Ghent-systems in Sweden and Denmark" in Trine Pernille Larsen and Anna Ilsøe (eds.)(2016) Den Danske Model set udefra (The Danish Model Inside Out) – komparative perspektiver pÃ¥ dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering, Copenhagen: Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag (pp.292)File:Sow with piglet.jpg|thumb|left|Denmark is a leading producer of (pork]], and the largest exporter of pork products in the EU.An Overview of Danish Pork Industry: Integration and Structure by Karen Hamann – The Institute for Food Studies & Agroindustrial Development. Access date: 23 July 2012.)Once a predominantly agricultural country on account of its arable landscape, since 1945 Denmark has greatly expanded its industrial base so that by 2006 industry contributed about 25% of GDP and agriculture less than 2%.WEB, Denmark:Economy,weblink Pearson Education, 29 May 2014, Major industries include iron, steel, chemicals, food processing, pharmaceuticals, shipbuilding and construction. The country's main exports are: industrial production/manufactured goods 73.3% (of which machinery and instruments were 21.4%, and fuels (oil, natural gas), chemicals, etc. 26%); agricultural products and others for consumption 18.7% (in 2009 meat and meat products were 5.5% of total export; fish and fish products 2.9%). Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy and has for a number of years had a balance of payments surplus while battling an equivalent of approximately 39% of GNP foreign debt or more than DKK 300 billion.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110810003332weblink">weblink 10 August 2011, yes, Statens Gæld og LÃ¥ntagning, Statistics Denmark, File:EU Single Market.svg|thumb|Denmark is a member of the European Single MarketEuropean Single MarketA liberalisation of import tariffs in 1797 marked the end of mercantilism and further liberalisation in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century established the Danish liberal tradition in international trade that was only to be broken by the 1930s.Mathias, Peter and Polard, Sidney (eds.) (1989) The Cambridge Economic History of Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 22. Even when other countries, such as Germany and France, raised protection for their agricultural sector because of increased American competition resulting in much lower agricultural prices after 1870, Denmark retained its free trade policies, as the country profited from the cheap imports of cereals (used as feedstuffs for their cattle and pigs) and could increase their exports of butter and meat of which the prices were more stable.BOOK, Baten, Jörg, A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present., 2016, Cambridge University Press, 23, 978-1-107-50718-0, Today, Denmark is part of the European Union's internal market, which represents more than 508 million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union (EU) members and by EU legislation. Support for free trade is high among the Danish public; in a 2007 poll 76% responded that globalisation is a good thing.Why Denmark Loves Globalisation, Time Magazine 70% of trade flows are inside the European Union. {{As of|2014}}, Denmark's largest export partners are Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom and Norway.Denmark's currency, the krone (DKK), is pegged at approximately 7.46 kroner per euro through the ERM. Although a September 2000 referendum rejected adopting the euro,WEB,weblink Denmark and the euro, 3 February 2007, 17 November 2006, Danmarks Nationalbank, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061116210231weblink">weblink 16 November 2006, the country follows the policies set forth in the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union and meets the economic convergence criteria needed to adopt the euro. The majority of the political parties in the Folketing support adopting the euro, but as yet a new referendum has not been held, despite plans;NEWS, Denmark to have second referendum on euro, 22 November 2007,weblink 22 November 2007, scepticism of the EU among Danish voters has historically been strong.Denmark is home to many multinational companies, among them: A.P. Møller-Mærsk (international shipping), Arla Foods (dairy), Lego Group (toys), Danfoss (industrial services), Carlsberg Group (beer), Vestas (wind turbines), and the pharmaceutical companies Leo Pharma and Novo Nordisk.WEB, The largest companies by turnover in Denmark,weblink largestcompanies.com, Nordic Netproducts AB, 26 April 2016, {{clear}}

Science and technology

{{See also|Internet in Denmark}}(File:Denmark Confirms Participation in E-ELT.jpg|thumb|With an investment of 8.5 million euros over the ten-year construction period, Denmark confirms participation in E-ELT.NEWS, Denmark Confirms Participation in E-ELT,weblink 17 April 2013, ESO Announmentes, )Denmark has a long tradition of scientific and technological invention and engagement, and has been involved internationally from the very start of the scientific revolution. In current times, Denmark is participating in many high-profile international science and technology projects, including CERN, ITER, ESA, ISS and E-ELT.In the 20th century, Danes have also been innovative in several fields of the technology sector. Danish companies have been influential in the shipping industry with the design of the largest and most energy efficient container ships in the world, the Maersk Triple E class, and Danish engineers have contributed to the design of MAN Diesel engines. In the software and electronic field, Denmark contributed to design and manufacturing of Nordic Mobile Telephones, and the now-defunct Danish company DanCall was among the first to develop GSM mobile phones.Life science is a key sector with extensive research and development activities. Danish engineers are world-leading in providing diabetes care equipment and medication products from Novo Nordisk and, since 2000, the Danish biotech company Novozymes, the world market leader in enzymes for first generation starch based bioethanol, has pioneered development of enzymes for converting waste to cellulosic ethanol.WEB,weblink Novozymes, the world's leading provider of enzymes to the biofuels industry, Canadian Biomass Magazine, 7 October 2014, Medicon Valley, spanning the Øresund Region between Zealand and Sweden, is one of Europe's largest life science clusters, containing a large number of life science companies and research institutions located within a very small geographical area.Danish-born computer scientists and software engineers have taken leading roles in some of the world's programming languages: Anders Hejlsberg (Turbo Pascal, Delphi, C#); Rasmus Lerdorf (PHP); Bjarne Stroustrup (C++); David Heinemeier Hansson (Ruby on Rails); Lars Bak, a pioneer in virtual machines (V8, Java VM, Dart). Physicist Lene Vestergaard Hau is the first person to stop light, leading to advances in quantum computing, nanoscale engineering and linear optics.

Public policy

{{See also|Flexicurity|Taxation in Denmark}}Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the Danish economy is characterised by extensive government welfare provisions. Like other Nordic countries, Denmark has adopted the Nordic Model, which combines free market capitalism with a comprehensive welfare state and strong worker protection.WEB,weblink The surprising ingredients of Swedish success – free markets and social cohesion, 25 June 2013, Institute of Economic Affairs, 13 April 2014, As a result of its acclaimed "flexicurity" model, Denmark has the most free labour market in Europe, according to the World Bank. Employers can hire and fire whenever they want (flexibility), and between jobs, unemployment compensation is very high (security).WEB,weblink 10 Good Reasons to Invest in Denmark, Investindk.com, 12 February 2016, Establishing a business can be done in a matter of hours and at very low costs.WEB,weblink The world's best business environment, Investindk.com, 5 July 2012, No restrictions apply regarding overtime work, which allows companies to operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Denmark has a competitive corporate tax rate of 22% and a special time-limited tax regime for expatriates.Business Environment, Invest in Denmark The Danish taxation system is broad based, with a 25% value-added tax, in addition to excise taxes, income taxes and other fees. The overall level of taxation (sum of all taxes, as a percentage of GDP) is estimated to be 46% in 2011.WEB,weblink Skattetrykket, Danish Ministry of Taxation, 24 June 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120531230744weblink">weblink 31 May 2012, {{As of|2014}}, 6% of the population was reported to live below the poverty line, when adjusted for taxes and transfers. Denmark has the 2nd lowest relative poverty rate in the OECD, below the 11.3% OECD average. The share of the population reporting that they feel that they cannot afford to buy sufficient food in Denmark is less than half of the OECD average. With an employment rate of 72.8%, Denmark ranks 7th highest among the OECD countries, and above the OECD average of 66.2%.WEB, Society at a Glance 2014 Highlights: DENMARK OECD Social Indicators,weblink OECD, 23 August 2015, The number of unemployed people is forecast to be 65,000 in 2015.BOOK, Madsen, Bjarne, Svend Lundtorp, Arbejdsmarkedet på Sjælland og øerne i 2015, 10, 2006, Akf forlaget,weblink 3 February 2007, 87-7509-801-6, The number of people in the working age group, less disability pensioners etc., will grow by 10,000 to 2,860,000, and jobs by 70,000 to 2,790,000; part-time jobs are included.Statistikbanken.dk, tables AB513+ BESK11+12+13. Because of the present high demand and short supply of skilled labour, for instance for factory and service jobs, including hospital nurses and physicians, the annual average working hours have risen, especially compared with the recession 1987–1993.NEWS, Jens, Nüchel, Lars Erik Skovgaard, Danskere arbejder mere og mere, 13 December 2006,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130120172239weblink">weblink 20 January 2013, Business.dk, 3 February 2007, yes, dmy, Increasingly, service workers of all kinds are in demand, i.e. in the postal services and as bus drivers, and academics.NEWS, Annette, Bonde, Virksomheder foretrækker tysk arbejdskraft, 24 September 2007,weblink Business.dk, 23 September 2007, The level of unemployment benefits is dependent on former employment (the maximum benefit is at 90% of the wage) and at times also on membership of an unemployment fund, which is almost always—but need not be—administered by a trade union, and the previous payment of contributions. However, the largest share of the financing is still carried by the central government and is financed by general taxation, and only to a minor degree from earmarked contributions. There is no taxation, however, on proceeds gained from selling one's home (provided there was any home equity ()), as the marginal tax rate on capital income from housing savings is around 0%.WEB,weblink Danish Economic Council Spring Report 2008 English Summary, p. 11, Dors.dk, 20 August 2009,

Energy

File:DanishWindTurbines.jpg|thumb|MiddelgrundenMiddelgrundenDenmark has considerably large deposits of oil and natural gas in the North Sea and ranks as number 32 in the world among net exporters of crude oilWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100304094837weblink">weblink 4 March 2010, EIA – International Energy Data and Analysis for Denmark, Tonto.eia.doe.gov, 15 May 2009, 29 May 2009, no, dmy, and was producing 259,980 barrels of crude oil a day in 2009.Denmark Crude Oil Production and Consumption by Year (Thousand Barrels per Day) – indexmundi. Denmark is a long-time leader in wind power: In 2015 wind turbines provided 42.1% of the total electricity consumption.Wind energy in Denmark breaking world records The Copenhagen Post, Retrieved 17. January 2016. {{As of|2011|05|alt=in May 2011}} Denmark derived 3.1% of its gross domestic product from renewable (clean) energy technology and energy efficiency, or around €6.5 billion ($9.4 billion).Denmark Invests the Most in Clean Energy per GDP {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120516123405weblink |date=16 May 2012 }} – yourolivebranch.org. Retrieved 3 January 2012 Denmark is connected by electric transmission lines to other European countries. On 6 September 2012, Denmark launched the biggest wind turbine in the world, and will add four more over the next four years.{{needs update|date=December 2016}}Denmark's electricity sector has integrated energy sources such as wind power into the national grid. Denmark now aims to focus on intelligent battery systems (V2G) and plug-in vehicles in the transport sector.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110719122621weblink">weblink 19 July 2011, Plug-in and Electrical Vehicles, EnergyMap.dk, 10 October 2009, The country is a member nation of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).NEWS, Global support for International Renewable Energy Agency growing fast,weblink 10 September 2014, 10 September 2014, IRENA,

Transport

File:Storebæltsforbindelsen højbroen.jpg|thumb|right|Great Belt Fixed Link, The East Bridge as seen from ZealandZealandFile:Copenhagen Airport Mai 2009 PD 131.JPG|thumb|Copenhagen Airport is the largest airport in Scandinavia and 15th-busiest in Europe.]]Significant investment has been made in building road and rail links between regions in Denmark, most notably the Great Belt Fixed Link, which connects Zealand and Funen. It is now possible to drive from Frederikshavn in northern Jutland to Copenhagen on eastern Zealand without leaving the motorway. The main railway operator is DSB for passenger services and DB Schenker Rail for freight trains. The railway tracks are maintained by Banedanmark. The North Sea and the Baltic Sea are intertwined by various, international ferry links. Construction of the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link, connecting Denmark and Germany with a second link, will start in 2015.NEWS, Denmark-Germany undersea Fehmarn tunnel gets go-ahead,weblink 19 August 2015, BBC News, 23 July 2015, Copenhagen has a rapid transit system, the Copenhagen Metro, and an extensive electrified suburban railway network, the S-train. In the four largest cities – Copenhagen, Aarhus, Odense, Aalborg – light rail systems are planned to be in operation around 2020.WEB, Ring 3 summary report,weblink 12 April 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140413131909weblink">weblink 13 April 2014, Cycling in Denmark is a very common form of transport, particularly for the young and for city dwellers. With a network of bicycle routes extending more than 12,000 kmWEB,weblink Cykelruter og regioner, Visitdenmark.com, Danish, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120315171238weblink">weblink 15 March 2012, and an estimated 7,000 kmWEB,weblink Vi cykler til arbejde 2011, 16 August 2011, Dansk Cyklist Forbund, Danish, of segregated dedicated bicycle paths and lanes, Denmark has a solid bicycle infrastructure.Private vehicles are increasingly used as a means of transport. Because of the high registration tax (150%), VAT (25%), and one of the world's highest income tax rates, new cars are very expensive. The purpose of the tax is to discourage car ownership.In 2007, an attempt was made by the government to favour environmentally friendly cars by slightly reducing taxes on high mileage vehicles. However, this has had little effect, and in 2008 Denmark experienced an increase in the import of fuel inefficient old cars,NEWS, Tyske miljøzoner sender gamle biler til Danmark, 9 January 2009,weblink Politiken.dk, 29 November 2010, Danish, as the cost for older cars—including taxes—keeps them within the budget of many Danes.{{As of|2011}}, the average car age is 9.2 years.BOOK, Transport, Statistical Yearbook 2012, dst.dk,weblink 3 September 2012, With Norway and Sweden, Denmark is part of the Scandinavian Airlines flag carrier. Copenhagen Airport is Scandinavia's busiest passenger airport, handling over 25 million passengers in 2014.WEB, Group Annual Report 2014,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150616072050weblink">weblink yes, 16 June 2015, cph.dk, Copenhagen Airports A/S, 19 August 2015, PDF, dmy-all, Other notable airports are Billund Airport, Aalborg Airport, and Aarhus Airport.

Demographics

{{Pie chart|thumb = right|caption = Population by ancestry (Q1 2016)|label1 = People of Danish origin|value1= 88.67|color1= DarkBlue|label2 = Immigrant|value2 = 9.47|color2 = DarkGray|label3 = Descendant of an immigrant|value3 = 2.86|color3 = MediumBlue}}The population of Denmark, as defined by Statistics Denmark, was estimated in {{As of|2017|01|01|alt=January 2017}} to be 5,748,769. The median age is 41.4 years, with 0.97 males per female. The total fertility rate is 1.73 children born per woman; despite the low birth rate, the population is still growing at an average annual rate of 0.22%. The World Happiness Report frequently ranks Denmark's population as the happiest in the world.WEB, Helliwell, John, Layard, Richard, Sachs, Jeffrey, Jeffrey Sachs, World Happiness Report 2016,weblink Sustainable Development Solutions Network, 17 March 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160318091325weblink">weblink 18 March 2016, dmy, Helliwell, John; Layard, Richard; Sachs, Jeffrey World Happiness Report. The Earth Institute at Columbia University, p. 8. See also: World Happiness Report 2013, p. 23.; Denmark Is Considered The Happiest Country. You'll Never Guess Why. Huffington Post. 22 October 2013.Stokes, Buce (8 June 2011). The Happiest Countries in the World. The Atlantic. Retrieved 20 September 2013 This has been attributed to the country's highly regarded education and health care systems,NEWS,weblink Denmark is the world's happiest country – official – Europe, World, The Independent, London, 1 August 2006, 5 May 2009, Jerome, Taylor, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090309234926weblink">weblink 9 March 2009, and its low level of income inequality.WEB, Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC),weblink Eurostat Data Explorer, 4 December 2015, Denmark is an historically homogeneous nation. However, as with its Scandinavian neighbours, Denmark has recently transformed from a nation of net emigration, up until World War II, to a nation of net immigration. Today, immigration to Denmark consists particularly of asylum seekers and persons who arrive as family dependants.WEB, Denmark: Integrating Immigrants into a Homogeneous Welfare State,weblink Migration Policy Institute, 24 August 2015, In addition, Denmark annually receives a number of citizens from Western countries, notably Nordic countries, the EU, and North America, who seek residency to work or study for a definite period of time. Recently, substantial numbers of workers—several tens of thousands—from the new EU accession countries, especially Poland and the Baltic nations, have arrived to perform menial labour in construction, agriculture, consumer industries, and cleaning. Overall, the net migration rate in 2015 was 2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population, comparable to the United Kingdom and well below other North European countries, except the Baltic states.For comparisons and developments see: JOURNAL,weblink Denmark – Migration Profiles, UNICEF, 2013, 5 January 2016, Statistics on migration only includes people changing citizenship and does not always provide a realistic picture of migration pressure. In Denmark, 5% of the population were non-citizens in 2005, which is a relatively high figure. See JOURNAL,weblink Counting Immigrant and Expatriates in OECD Countries: A New Perspective, OECD, 119–120, 21 October 2005, 5 January 2016, for example.There are no official statistics on ethnic groups, but according to 2016 figures from Statistics Denmark, approximately 86.9% of the population was of Danish descent, defined as having at least one parent who was born in Denmark and has Danish citizenship.WEB, Population at the first day of the quarter by municipality, sex, age, marital status, ancestry, country of origin and citizenship,weblink Statistics Denmark, 13 February 2017, January 2017, This data is for Denmark (wikt:proper#Adjective|proper) only. For data relevant to Greenland and the Faroe Islands see their respective articles. The remaining 13.1% were of a foreign background, defined as immigrants or descendants of recent immigrants. With the same definition, the most common countries of origin were Poland, Turkey, Germany, Iraq, Romania, Syria, Somalia, Iran, Afghanistan, and Balkan states.{{Largest cities of Denmark}}{{clear}}

Languages

Danish is the de facto national language of Denmark. Faroese and Greenlandic are the official languages of the Faroe Islands and Greenland respectively.BOOK, M. Paul, Lewis, 2009, Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 16th, SIL International., Dallas, Texas, 978-1-55671-216-6,weblink 27 August 2012, German is a recognised minority language in the area of the former South Jutland County (now part of the Region of Southern Denmark), which was part of the German Empire prior to the Treaty of Versailles. Danish and Faroese belong to the North Germanic (Nordic) branch of the Indo-European languages, along with Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish.WEB, Language,weblink The Nordic Council, 7 June 2014, There is a limited degree of mutual intelligibility between Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish. Danish is more distantly related to German, which is a West Germanic language. Greenlandic or "Kalaallisut" belongs to the Eskimo–Aleut languages; it is closely related to the Inuit languages in Canada, such as Inuktitut, and entirely unrelated to Danish.A large majority (86%) of Danes speak English as a second language,WEB, Europeans and their Languages,weblink Eurobarometer, European Commission, 22 May 2014, February 2006, generally with a high level of proficiency. German is the second-most spoken foreign language, with 47% reporting a conversational level of proficiency. Denmark had 25,900 native speakers of German in 2007 (mostly in the South Jutland area).

Religion

Christianity is the dominant religion in Denmark. In January 2017, 75.9% of the population of Denmark were members of the Church of Denmark (), the officially established church, which is Protestant in classification and Lutheran in orientation.Denmark – Constitution – Part I – Section 4 [State Church]: "The Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the Established Church of Denmark, and, as such, it shall be supported by the State."The Church of Denmark is the established church (or state religion) in Denmark and Greenland; the Church of the Faroe Islands became an independent body in 2007. This is down 1.0% compared to the year earlier and 1.9% down compared to two years earlier. Despite the high membership figures, only 3% of the population regularly attend Sunday servicesWEB,weblink Denmark – Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, 2009, International Religious Freedom Report 2009, U.S. Department of State, 23 August 2012, WEB,weblink Religion in Europe: Trust Not Filling the Pews, Manchin, Robert, 21 September 2004, Gallup Poll, Gallup (company), Gallup, 23 August 2012, and only 19% of Danes consider religion to be an important part of their life.WEB, Crabtree, Steve, Religiosity Highest in World's Poorest Nations,weblink Gallup, 27 May 2015, {| class="wikitable infobox" style="width: 250px; margin-right: 0; text-align: center;"|+ Church of Denmark! year !! population !! members !! percentage| 89.3%| 85.1%| 83.3%| 80.9%| 77.8%| 76.9%| 75.9%! colspan="4" style="text-align: left; font-weight: normal;" | Statistical data: 1984,Church membership 1984 Danmarks statistik {{da icon}} 1990–2017,WEB,weblink Folkekirkens medlemstal, www.km.dk, Source: KirkeministerietFile:Roskilde Cathedral aerial.jpg|thumb|left|Roskilde Cathedral has been the burial place of Danish royalty since the 15th century. In 1995 it became a World Heritage SiteWorld Heritage SiteThe Constitution states that a member of the Royal Family must be a member of the Church of Denmark, though the rest of the population is free to adhere to other faiths.Denmark – Constitution – Part II – Section 6 .Denmark – Constitution – Part VII – Section 70: "No person shall for reasons of his creed or descent be deprived of access to complete enjoyment of his civic and political rights, nor shall he for such reasons evade compliance with any common civic duty."Freedom of religion and religious communities in Denmark – The Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs – May 2006 In 1682 the state granted limited recognition to three religious groups dissenting from the Established Church: Roman Catholicism, the Reformed Church and Judaism, although conversion to these groups from the Church of Denmark remained illegal initially. Until the 1970s, the state formally recognised "religious societies" by royal decree. Today, religious groups do not need official government recognition, they can be granted the right to perform weddings and other ceremonies without this recognition. Denmark's Muslims make up approximately 3.7% of the population and form the country's second largest religious community and largest minority religion.Denmark country profile- [Euro-Islam.info] and Muslimpopulation.com – Retrieved 8 June 2012. The Danish Foreign Ministry estimates that other religious groups comprise less than 1% of the population individually and approximately 2% when taken all together.WEB,weblink Religion in Denmark, 8 February 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060208030036weblink">weblink 8 February 2006, dmy, – From the Danish Foreign Ministry. Archive retrieved on 3 January 2012.According to a 2010 Eurobarometer Poll,WEB,weblink Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, page 204, Fieldwork: Jan–Feb 2010, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101215001129weblink">weblink 15 December 2010, dmy, 28% of Danish citizens polled responded that they "believe there is a God", 47% responded that they "believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 24% responded that they "do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force". Another poll, carried out in 2009, found that 25% of Danes believe Jesus is the son of God, and 18% believe he is the saviour of the world.Poll performed in December 2009 among 1114 Danes between ages 18 and 74, Hver fjerde dansker tror på Jesus {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091225060504weblink |date=25 December 2009 }} (One in four Danes believe in Jesus), Kristeligt Dagblad, 23 December 2009 {{da icon}}{{clear left}}

Education

File:Københavns universitet lektionskatalog 1537.jpg|thumb|upright|left|The oldest surviving Danish lecture plan dated 1537 from the University of CopenhagenUniversity of CopenhagenFile:The Black Diamond (Royal Library), Copenhagen.JPG|thumb|right|The Royal Danish LibraryRoyal Danish LibraryAll educational programmes in Denmark are regulated by the Ministry of Education and administered by local municipalities. Folkeskole covers the entire period of compulsory education, encompassing primary and lower secondary education.WEB, Overview of the Danish Education System,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120111062215weblink">weblink yes, 11 January 2012, Danish Ministry for Children, Education and Gender Equality, 28 April 2016, Most children attend folkeskole for 10 years, from the ages of 6 to 16. There are no final examinations, but pupils can choose to go to a test when finishing ninth grade (14–15 years old). The test is obligatory if further education is to be attended. Pupils can alternatively attend an independent school (), or a private school (), such as Christian schools or Waldorf schools.Following graduation from compulsory education, there are several continuing educational opportunities; the Gymnasium (STX) attaches importance in teaching a mix of humanities and science, Higher Technical Examination Programme (HTX) focuses on scientific subjects and the Higher Commercial Examination Programme emphasises on subjects in economics. Higher Preparatory Examination (HF) is similar to Gymnasium (STX), but is one year shorter. For specific professions, there is vocational education, training young people for work in specific trades by a combination of teaching and apprenticeship.The government records upper secondary school completion rates of 95% and tertiary enrollment and completion rates of 60%.WEB, Education Policy Outlook: Denmark,weblink OECD, 27 April 2016, 4, All university and college (tertiary) education in Denmark is free of charges; there are no tuition fees to enrol in courses. Students aged 18 or above may apply for state educational support grants, known as Statens Uddannelsesstøtte (SU), which provides fixed financial support, disbursed monthly.Rick Noack (4 February 2015). Why Danish students are paid to go to college. The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 February 2015. Danish universities offer international students a range of opportunities for obtaining an internationally recognised qualification in Denmark. Many programmes may be taught in the English language, the academic lingua franca, in bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, doctorates and student exchange programmes.WEB,weblink Study in Denmark, official government website on international higher education in Denmark,

Health

{{See also|Health care in Denmark}}{{As of|2015}}, Denmark has a life expectancy of 80.6 years at birth (78.6 for men, 82.5 for women), up from 76.9 years in 2000.WEB, Life expectancy,weblink World Health Organization, 20 August 2017, 6 July 2016, This ranks it 27th among 193 nations, behind the other Nordic countries. The National Institute of Public Health of the University of Southern Denmark has calculated 19 major risk factors among Danes that contribute to a lowering of the life expectancy; this includes smoking, alcohol, drug abuse and physical inactivity.BOOK, Brønnum-Hansen, Knud Juel, Jan Sørensen, Henrik, Risk factors and public health in Denmark – Summary report, 2007, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, København, 978-87-7899-123-2,weblink 31 May 2014, Although the obesity rate is lower than in North America and most other European countries,WEB,weblink Obesity – Adult prevalence, CIA Factbook, 20 August 2017, the large number of Danes becoming overweight is an increasing problem and results in an annual additional consumption in the health care system of DKK 1,625 million. In a 2012 study, Denmark had the highest cancer rate of all countries listed by the World Cancer Research Fund International; researchers suggest the reasons are better reporting, but also lifestyle factors like heavy alcohol consumption, smoking and physical inactivity.NEWS, Why is Denmark the cancer capital of the world?,weblink The Daily Telegraph, London, 4 January 2016, WEB, Data for cancer frequency by country,weblink WCRF, 2012, 4 January 2016, Denmark has a universal health care system, characterised by being publicly financed through taxes and, for most of the services, run directly by the regional authorities. One of the sources of income is a national health care contribution () (2007–11:8%; '12:7%; '13:6%; '14:5%; '15:4%; '16:3%; '17:2%; '18:1%; '19:0%) but it is being phased out and will be gone from January 2019, with the income taxes in the lower brackets being raised gradually each year instead. Another source comes from the municipalities that had their income taxes raised by 3 percentage points from 1 January 2007, a contribution confiscated from the former county tax to be used from 1 January 2007 for health purposes by the municipalities instead. This means that most health care provision is free at the point of delivery for all residents. Additionally, roughly two in five have complementary private insurance to cover services not fully covered by the state, such as physiotherapy. {{As of|2012}}, Denmark spends 11.2% of its GDP on health care; this is up from 9.8% in 2007 (US$3,512 per capita).WEB, International Profiles of Health Care Systems,weblink The Commonwealth Fund, 31 May 2014, This places Denmark above the OECD average and above the other Nordic countries.WEB, Country Comparison :: Life Expectancy at Birth,weblink The World Factbook, CIA, 31 May 2014,

Ghettos

Denmark is the only country to officially use the word 'ghetto' in the 21st century to denote certain residential areas.NEWS,weblink In Danish 'ghettos', immigrants feel stigmatized and shut out, Nielson, Emil Gjerding, U.S., 2018-07-04, en-US, Since 2010, the Danish Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing publishes the ghettolisten (List of ghettos) which in 2018 consists of 25 areas.NEWS,weblink In Denmark's Plan To Rid Country Of 'Ghettos,' Some Immigrants Hear 'Go Home', NPR.org, 2018-07-04, en, As a result, the term is widely used in the media and common parlance.NEWS,weblink In Denmark, Harsh New Laws for Immigrant ‘Ghettos’, 2018-07-04, en, The legal designation is applied to areas based on the residents' income levels, employment status, education levels, criminal convictions and 'non-Western' ethnic background.NEWS,weblink Danes to double penalty for ghetto crime, 2018-02-27, BBC News, 2018-07-04, en-GB, In 2017, 8.7% of immigrants in Denmark were non-Western immigrants or their descendants. The population proportion of 'ghetto residents' with non-Western background was 66.5%.NEWS,weblink Denmark to school 'ghetto' kids in democracy and Christmas, Editorial, Reuters, U.S., 2018-07-04, en-US, In 2018, the government has proposed measures to solve the issue of integration and to rid the country of 'parallel societies and ghettos by 2030'.NEWS,weblink Here's what we know about Denmark's 'ghetto plan', 2018-02-28, 2018-07-04, en, WEB,weblink What to Know About Denmark's Plan to End Immigrant "Ghettos", Time, en, 2018-07-04, The measures focus on physical redevelopment, control over who is allowed to live in these areas, crime abatement and education. These policies have been criticized for undercutting 'equality before law' and for portraying immigrants, especially Muslim immigrants, in a bad light.NEWS,weblink "No ghettos in 2030": Denmark’s controversial plan to get rid of immigrant neighborhoods, Vox, 2018-07-04, While some proposals like restricting 'ghetto children' to their homes after 8 p.m. have been rejected for being too radical, most of the 22 proposals have been agreed upon by a parliamentary majority.

Culture

{{See also|LGBT rights in Denmark}}Denmark shares strong cultural and historic ties with its Scandinavian neighbours Sweden and Norway. It has historically been one of the most socially progressive cultures in the world. In 1969, Denmark was the first country to legalise pornography,WEB,weblink Denmark  – An Overview, 22 September 2007, 22 September 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080122084309weblink">weblink 22 January 2008, yes, dmy, and in 2012, Denmark replaced its "registered partnership" laws, which it had been the first country to introduce in 1989,Sheila Rule: "Rights for Gay Couples in Denmark" – New York Times. Published: 2 October 1989. Retrieved 7 June 2012WEB,weblink Same-Sex Marriage FAQ, Marriage.about.com, 17 June 2003, 5 May 2009, with gender-neutral marriage.NEWS, Rainbow wedding bells: Denmark allows gay marriage in church,weblink RT (TV network), RT, 7 June 2012, 7 June 2012, NEWS, Denmark passes bill allowing gays to marry in church, AFP,weblink The Express Tribune, 7 June 2012, 7 June 2012, Modesty and social equality are important parts of Danish culture.Denmark – Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette. From Kwintessential {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120610114106weblink |date=10 June 2012 }}. Retrieved 4 December 2008.File:Kierkegaard 20090502-DSCF1495.jpg|thumb|upright|Statue of philosopher Søren KierkegaardSøren KierkegaardThe astronomical discoveries of Tycho Brahe (1546–1601), Ludwig A. Colding's (1815–88) neglected articulation of the principle of conservation of energy, and the contributions to atomic physics of Niels Bohr (1885–1962) indicate the range of Danish scientific achievement. The fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875), the philosophical essays of Søren Kierkegaard (1813–55), the short stories of Karen Blixen (penname Isak Dinesen), (1885–1962), the plays of Ludvig Holberg (1684–1754), and the dense, aphoristic poetry of Piet Hein (1905–96), have earned international recognition, as have the symphonies of Carl Nielsen (1865–1931). From the mid-1990s, Danish films have attracted international attention, especially those associated with Dogme 95 like those of Lars von Trier.A major feature of Danish culture is Jul (Danish Christmas). The holiday is celebrated throughout December, starting either at the beginning of Advent or on 1 December with a variety of traditions, culminating with the Christmas Eve meal.There are five Danish heritage sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list in Northern Europe: Christiansfeld, a Moravian Church Settlement, the Jelling Mounds (Runic Stones and Church), Kronborg Castle, Roskilde Cathedral, and The par force hunting landscape in North Zealand.WEB,weblink Denmark: Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List (8), UNESCO, 19 July 2015,

Media

Danish mass media date back to the 1540s, when handwritten fly sheets reported on the news. In 1666, Anders Bording, the father of Danish journalism, began a state paper. In 1834, the first liberal, factual newspaper appeared, and the 1849 Constitution established lasting freedom of the press in Denmark. Newspapers flourished in the second half of the 19th century, usually tied to one or another political party or trade union. Modernisation, bringing in new features and mechanical techniques, appeared after 1900. The total circulation was 500,000 daily in 1901, more than doubling to 1.2 million in 1925.Kenneth E. Olson, The history makers: The press of Europe from its beginnings through 1965 (LSU Press, 1966) pp 50 – 64, 433 The German occupation during World War II brought informal censorship; some offending newspaper buildings were simply blown up by the Nazis. During the war, the underground produced 550 newspapers—small, surreptitiously printed sheets that encouraged sabotage and resistance.File:LarsVonTrier.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Director Lars von TrierLars von TrierDanish cinema dates back to 1897 and since the 1980s has maintained a steady stream of product due largely to funding by the state-supported Danish Film Institute. There have been three big internationally important waves of Danish cinema: erotic melodrama of the silent era; the increasingly explicit sex films of the 1960s and 1970s; and lastly, the Dogme 95 movement of the late 1990s, where directors often used hand-held cameras to dynamic effect in a conscious reaction against big-budget studios. Danish films have been noted for their realism, religious and moral themes, sexual frankness and technical innovation. The Danish filmmaker Carl Th. Dreyer (1889–1968) is considered one of the greatest directors of early cinema.WEB, Carl Dreyer:Day of Wrath, Ordet, Gertrud,weblinkweblink yes, 17 May 2016, Bright Lights Film Journal, 1 July 2013, WEB, Ebert, Robert, The Passion of Joan of Arc,weblink Chicago Sun Times, 1 July 2013, 16 February 1997, ...Carl Theodor Dreyer (1889–1968), the Dane who was one of the greatest early directors., Other Danish filmmakers of note include Erik Balling, the creator of the popular Olsen-banden films; Gabriel Axel, an Oscar-winner for Babette's Feast in 1987; and Bille August, the Oscar-, Palme d'Or- and Golden Globe-winner for Pelle the Conqueror in 1988. In the modern era, notable filmmakers in Denmark include Lars von Trier, who co-created the Dogme movement, and multiple award-winners Susanne Bier and Nicolas Winding Refn. Mads Mikkelsen is a world-renowned Danish actor, having starred in films such as King Arthur, Casino Royale, the Danish film The Hunt, and the American TV series Hannibal. Another renowned Danish actor Nikolaj Coster-Waldau is internationally known for playing the role of Jaime Lannister in the HBO series Game of Thrones.Danish mass media and news programming are dominated by a few large corporations. In printed media JP/Politikens Hus and Berlingske Media, between them, control the largest newspapers Politiken, Berlingske Tidende and Jyllands-Posten and major tabloids B.T. and Ekstra Bladet. In television, publicly owned stations DR and TV 2 have large shares of the viewers.TNS-Gallup meter {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140219144649weblink |date=19 February 2014 }}; Television station viewer statistics, figures for July 2012 (week 28). Retrieved 20 July 2012. DR in particular is famous for its high quality TV-series often sold to foreign broadcasters and often with leading female characters like internationally known actresses Sidse Babett Knudsen and Sofie Gråbøl. In radio, DR has a near monopoly, currently broadcasting on all four nationally available FM channels, competing only with local stations.WEB, Commercial radio,weblink Danish Agency for Culture, 14 May 2014,

Music

File:Carl Nielsen - Wind Quintet - 3. Praeludium - Adagio. Tema con variazioni - Un poco andantino, Min Jesus lad min hjerte få.ogg|thumb|upright=0.9|A sample from Carl Nielsen's Wind Quintet with the theme from Min Jesus, lad mit hjerte få]]Copenhagen and its multiple outlying islands have a wide range of folk traditions. The Royal Danish Orchestra is among the world's oldest orchestras.WEB, The Royal Danish Orchestra,weblink The Royal Danish Theatre, 14 May 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140507235232weblink">weblink 7 May 2014, Denmark's most famous classical composer is Carl Nielsen, especially remembered for his six symphonies and his Wind Quintet, while the Royal Danish Ballet specialises in the work of the Danish choreographer August Bournonville. Danes have distinguished themselves as jazz musicians, and the Copenhagen Jazz Festival has acquired an international reputation. The modern pop and rock scene has produced a few names of note internationally, including MØ, Aqua, Lukas Graham, D-A-D, Oh Land, The Raveonettes, Michael Learns to Rock, King Diamond, Alphabeat, Kashmir, Mew and Volbeat, among others. Lars Ulrich, the drummer of the band Metallica, has become the first Danish musician to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.Roskilde Festival near Copenhagen is the largest music festival in Northern Europe since 1971 and Denmark has many recurring music festivals of all genres throughout, including Aarhus International Jazz Festival, Skanderborg Festival, The Blue Festival in Aalborg, Esbjerg International Chamber Music Festival and Skagen Festival among many others.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160516134259weblink">Festivalguide Gaffa {{da icon}}Musikfestivaler i Danmark VisitDenmark {{da icon}}Denmark has been a part of the Eurovision Song Contest since 1957. Denmark has won the contest three times, in 1963, 2000 and 2013.

Architecture and design

File:Pv jensen-klint 05 grundtvig memorial church 1913-1940.jpg|thumb|upright|Grundtvig's ChurchGrundtvig's ChurchDenmark's architecture became firmly established in the Middle Ages when first Romanesque, then Gothic churches and cathedrals sprang up throughout the country. From the 16th century, Dutch and Flemish designers were brought to Denmark, initially to improve the country's fortifications, but increasingly to build magnificent royal castles and palaces in the Renaissance style.During the 17th century, many impressive buildings were built in the Baroque style, both in the capital and the provinces. Neoclassicism from France was slowly adopted by native Danish architects who increasingly participated in defining architectural style. A productive period of Historicism ultimately merged into the 19th-century National Romantic style.WEB,weblink "Danish Architecture: An Overview", 19 July 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110719130528weblink">weblink 19 July 2011, dmy, , Visit Denmark. Retrieved 3 September 2011.The 20th century brought along new architectural styles; including expressionism, best exemplified by the designs of architect Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint, which relied heavily on Scandinavian brick Gothic traditions; and Nordic Classicism, which enjoyed brief popularity in the early decades of the century. It was in the 1960s that Danish architects such as Arne Jacobsen entered the world scene with their highly successful Functionalist architecture. This, in turn, has evolved into more recent world-class masterpieces including Jørn Utzon's Sydney Opera House and Johan Otto von Spreckelsen's Grande Arche de la Défense in Paris, paving the way for a number of contemporary Danish designers such as Bjarke Ingels to be rewarded for excellence both at home and abroad.WEB,weblink "Architecture", 6 February 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100206051248weblink">weblink 6 February 2010, dmy, , Embassy of Denmark, Hanoi. Retrieved 3 October 2011.Danish design is a term often used to describe a style of functionalistic design and architecture that was developed in the mid-20th century, originating in Denmark. Danish design is typically applied to industrial design, furniture and household objects, which have won many international awards. The Royal Porcelain Factory is famous for the quality of its ceramics and export products worldwide. Danish design is also a well-known brand, often associated with world-famous, 20th-century designers and architects such as Børge Mogensen, Finn Juhl, Hans Wegner, Arne Jacobsen, Poul Henningsen and Verner Panton.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100522002856weblink">"Danish by Design", DDC. Retrieved 4 September 2011. Other designers of note include Kristian Solmer Vedel (1923–2003) in the area of industrial design, Jens Quistgaard (1919–2008) for kitchen furniture and implements and Ole Wanscher (1903–1985) who had a classical approach to furniture design.

Literature and philosophy

File:Constantin Hansen 1836 - HC Andersen.jpg|thumb|upright|left|A portrait of Hans Christian Andersen (1836), by Christian Albrecht JensenChristian Albrecht JensenThe first known Danish literature is myths and folklore from the 10th and 11th century. Saxo Grammaticus, normally considered the first Danish writer, worked for bishop Absalon on a chronicle of Danish history (Gesta Danorum). Very little is known of other Danish literature from the Middle Ages. With the Age of Enlightenment came Ludvig Holberg whose comedy plays are still being performed.In the late 19th century, literature was seen as a way to influence society. Known as the Modern Breakthrough, this movement was championed by Georg Brandes, Henrik Pontoppidan (awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature) and J. P. Jacobsen. Romanticism influenced the renowned writer and poet Hans Christian Andersen, known for his stories and fairy tales, e.g. The Ugly Duckling, The Little Mermaid and The Snow Queen. In recent history Johannes Vilhelm Jensen was also awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Karen Blixen is famous for her novels and short stories. Other Danish writers of importance are Herman Bang, Gustav Wied, William Heinesen, Martin Andersen Nexø, Piet Hein, Hans Scherfig, Klaus Rifbjerg, Dan Turèll, Tove Ditlevsen, Inger Christensen and Peter Høeg.Danish philosophy has a long tradition as part of Western philosophy. Perhaps the most influential Danish philosopher was Søren Kierkegaard, the creator of Christian existentialism. Kierkegaard had a few Danish followers, including Harald Høffding, who later in his life moved on to join the movement of positivism. Among Kierkegaard's other followers include Jean-Paul Sartre who was impressed with Kierkegaard's views on the individual, and Rollo May, who helped create humanistic psychology. Another Danish philosopher of note is Grundtvig, whose philosophy gave rise to a new form of non-aggressive nationalism in Denmark, and who is also influential for his theological and historical works.

Painting and photography

File:C W Eckersberg 1841 - Kvinde foran et spejl.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Woman in front of a Mirror, (1841), by Christoffer Wilhelm EckersbergChristoffer Wilhelm EckersbergWhile Danish art was influenced over the centuries by trends in Germany and the Netherlands, the 15th- and 16th-century church frescos, which can be seen in many of the country's older churches, are of particular interest as they were painted in a style typical of native Danish painters.Wall Paintings in Danish Churches from Panoramas.dk. Retrieved 12 August 2009. Adopting the Biblia pauperum approach, they present many of the most popular stories from the Old and New Testaments.The Danish Golden Age, which began in the first half of the 19th century, was inspired by a new feeling of nationalism and romanticism, typified in the later previous century by history painter Nicolai Abildgaard. Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg was not only a productive artist in his own right but taught at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts where his students included notable painters such as Wilhelm Bendz, Christen Købke, Martinus Rørbye, Constantin Hansen, and Wilhelm Marstrand.In 1871, Holger Drachmann and Karl Madsen visited Skagen in the far north of Jutland where they quickly built up one of Scandinavia's most successful artists' colonies specialising in Naturalism and Realism rather than in the traditional approach favoured by the Academy. Hosted by Michael and his wife Anna, they were soon joined by P.S. Krøyer, Carl Locher and Laurits Tuxen. All participated in painting the natural surroundings and local people.Art Encyclopedia: Skagen. Retrieved 9 December 2008. Similar trends developed on Funen with the Fynboerne who included Johannes Larsen, Fritz Syberg and Peter Hansen,"The Funish Art Colony" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130418012953weblink |date=18 April 2013 }}, Johannes Larsen Museet. Retrieved 12 August 2011. and on the island of Bornholm with the Bornholm school of painters including Niels Lergaard, Kræsten Iversen and Oluf Høst.The Bornholm School from the Rough Guide to Denmark. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130120162042weblink |date=20 January 2013 }} Retrieved 10 December 2008.Painting has continued to be a prominent form of artistic expression in Danish culture, inspired by and also influencing major international trends in this area. These include impressionism and the modernist styles of expressionism, abstract painting and surrealism. While international co-operation and activity has almost always been essential to the Danish artistic community, influential art collectives with a firm Danish base includes De Tretten (1909–1912), Linien (1930s and 1940s), COBRA (1948–51), Fluxus (1960s and 1970s), De Unge Vilde (1980s) and more recently Superflex (founded in 1993). Most Danish painters of modern times have also been very active with other forms of artistic expressions, such as sculpting, ceramics, art installations, activism, film and experimental architecture. Notable Danish painters from modern times representing various art movements include Theodor Philipsen (1840–1920, impressionism and naturalism), Anna Klindt Sørensen (1899–1985, expressionism), Franciska Clausen (1899–1986, Neue Sachlichkeit, cubism, surrealism and others), Henry Heerup (1907–1993, naivism), Robert Jacobsen (1912–1993, abstract painting), Carl Henning Pedersen (1913–2007, abstract painting), Asger Jorn (1914–1973, Situationist, abstract painting), Bjørn Wiinblad (1918–2006, art deco, orientalism), Per Kirkeby (b. 1938, neo-expressionism, abstract painting), Per Arnoldi (b. 1941, pop art), Michael Kvium (b. 1955, neo-surrealism) and Simone Aaberg Kærn (b. 1969, superrealism).Danish photography has developed from strong participation and interest in the very beginnings of the art of photography in 1839 to the success of a considerable number of Danes in the world of photography today. Pioneers such as Mads Alstrup and Georg Emil Hansen paved the way for a rapidly growing profession during the last half of the 19th century. Today Danish photographers such as Astrid Kruse Jensen and Jacob Aue Sobol are active both at home and abroad, participating in key exhibitions around the world.Contemporary Danish Photography. From Photography-Now {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120707000845weblink |date=7 July 2012 }} . Retrieved 28 January 2010.

Cuisine

(File:Smørrebrød-01.jpg|thumb|left|Smørrebrød – a variety of Danish open sandwiches piled high with delicacies)The traditional cuisine of Denmark, like that of the other Nordic countries and of Northern Germany, consists mainly of meat, fish and potatoes. Danish dishes are highly seasonal, stemming from the country's agricultural past, its geography, and its climate of long, cold winters.The open sandwiches on rye bread, known as smørrebrød, which in their basic form are the usual fare for lunch, can be considered a national speciality when prepared and decorated with a variety of fine ingredients. Hot meals traditionally consist of ground meats, such as frikadeller (meat balls of veal and pork) and hakkebøf (minced beef patties), or of more substantial meat and fish dishes such as flæskesteg (roast pork with crackling) and kogt torsk (poached cod) with mustard sauce and trimmings. Denmark is known for its Carlsberg and Tuborg beers and for its akvavit and bitters.Since around 1970, chefs and restaurants across Denmark have introduced gourmet cooking, largely influenced by French cuisine. Also inspired by continental practices, Danish chefs have recently developed a new innovative cuisine and a series of gourmet dishes based on high-quality local produce known as New Danish cuisine.WEB, new nordic recipes,weblink Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, 15 August 2016, As a result of these developments, Denmark now have a considerable number of internationally acclaimed restaurants of which several have been awarded Michelin stars. This includes Geranium and Noma in Copenhagen.

Sports

File:Michael Laudrup, 2005.jpg|thumb|upright|Michael LaudrupMichael LaudrupSports are popular in Denmark, and its citizens participate in and watch a wide variety. The national sport is football, with over 320,000 players in more than 1600 clubs.WEB, DIF specialforbunds medlems,weblink Danmarks Idrætsforbund, 15 June 2014, Danish, 2013, Denmark qualified six times consecutively for the European Championships between 1984 and 2004, and were crowned European champions in 1992; other significant achievements include winning the Confederations Cup in 1995 and reaching the quarter-final of the 1998 World Cup. Notable Danish footballers include Allan Simonsen, named the best player in Europe in 1977, Peter Schmeichel, named the "World's Best Goalkeeper" in 1992 and 1993, and Michael Laudrup, named the best Danish player of all time by the Danish Football Association.WEB, Michael Laudrup bedste spiller gennem tiderne, DBU, 13 November 2006,weblink 18 November 2012, There is much focus on handball, too. The women's national team celebrated great successes during the 1990s. On the men's side, Denmark has won eight medals—two gold (in 2008 and 2012), three silver (in 2011, 2013 and 2014) and three bronze (in 2002, 2004 and 2006)—the most that have been won by any team in European Handball Championship history.WEB, National Team rankings,weblink European Handball Federation, 13 May 2014, In recent years, Denmark has made a mark as a strong cycling nation, with Michael Rasmussen reaching King of the Mountains status in the Tour de France in 2005 and 2006. Other popular sports include golf—which is mostly popular among those in the older demographic;WEB,weblink Om DIF – Medlemstal, 16 July 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070716195104weblink">weblink 16 July 2007, dmy, , The National Olympic Committee and Sports Confederation of Denmark tennis—in which Denmark is successful on a professional level; basketball—Denmark joined the international governing body FIBA in 1951;Profile | Denmark, Fiba.com. Retrieved 24 September 2015. rugby—the Danish Rugby Union dates back to 1950;Bath, Richard (ed.) The Complete Book of Rugby (Seven Oaks Ltd, 1997 {{ISBN|1-86200-013-1}}) p66. Archived from July 2007 and Retrieved June 2012. hockey— often competing in the top division in the Men's World Championships; rowing—Denmark specialise in lightweight rowing and are particularly known for their lightweight coxless four, having won six gold and two silver World Championship medals and three gold and two bronze Olympic medals; and several indoor sports—especially badminton, table tennis and gymnastics, in each of which Denmark holds World Championships and Olympic medals. Denmark's numerous beaches and resorts are popular locations for fishing, canoeing, kayaking, and many other water-themed sports.

See also

Notes

{{reflist|group="N"|30em}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}
Bibliography
  • BOOK, Stone, Andrew, Bain, Carolyn, Booth, Michael, Parnell, Fran, Denmark, 2008, Lonely Planet, Footscray, Victoria, 978-1-74104-669-4, 31, 5th,weblink harv,
  • {{da icon}} Busck, Steen and Poulsen, Henning (ed.), "Danmarks historie  – i grundtræk", Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2002, {{ISBN|87-7288-941-1}}
  • BOOK, Gammelgaard, Frederik, Sørensen, Niels, 1998, Danmark – en demokratisk stat, Alinearef=harv, da,
  • BOOK, Jørgensen, Gitte, 1995, SÃ¥dan styres Danmark, Flachs
ref=harv, da,
  • {{da icon}} Michaelsen, Karsten Kjer, "Politikens bog om Danmarks oldtid", Politikens Forlag (1. bogklubudgave), 2002, {{ISBN|87-00-69328-6}}
  • {{sv icon}} Nationalencyklopedin, vol. 4, Bokförlaget Bra Böcker, 2000, {{ISBN|91-7024-619-X}}.

External links

{{Sister project links|Denmark|b=no|q=no|v=no|voy=Denmark}}

Government
  • Stm.dk – official Danish government web site
  • um.dk – official Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark web site
  • Statistics Denmark (DST) – Key figures from the Danish bureau of statistics.
  • {{Statoids|id=udk|title=Regions of Denmark}}


Maps


Trade


News and media


Other
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131207061449weblink">Vifanord.de – library of scientific information on the Nordic and Baltic countries.
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