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Scandinavia
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{{About|Scandinavia as a cultural-linguistic region|the broader group of northern European countries including Finland and Iceland|Nordic countries|the peninsula named after the region|Scandinavian Peninsula|other uses}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2017}}







factoids
{{flagSweden}}Sometimes also:HTTPS://EN.OXFORDDICTIONARIES.COM/DEFINITION/SCANDINAVIA>TITLE=DEFINITION OF SCANDINAVIA IN ENGLISHQUOTE="A LARGE PENINSULA IN NORTH-WESTERN EUROPE, OCCUPIED BY NORWAY AND SWEDEN … A CULTURAL REGION CONSISTING OF THE COUNTRIES OF NORWAY, SWEDEN, AND DENMARK AND SOMETIMES ALSO OF ICELAND, FINLAND, AND THE FAROE ISLANDS"Finland}}{{flagFaroe Islands}}{{flag|Åland Islands}}| languages_type = Languagesstyle=line-height:normal;Danish language>DanishNorwegian language>NorwegianSwedish language>SwedishFinnish language>FinnishIcelandic language>IcelandicFaroese language>Faroese}}| languages2_type = Regional languages| languages2_sub = yesstyle=line-height:normal;German language>GermanKven language>KvenMeänkieli dialects>MeänkieliRomani language>RomaniSami languages>SamiYiddishHTTP://WWW.NORDEN.ORG/EN/FAKTA-OM-NORDEN-1/LANGUAGEPUBLISHER=NORDIC COOPERATIONLAST=LANDESDATE=1 JULY 2009ACCESSDATE=8 JULY 2017, }}| area_km2 = 928,057| area_sq_mi = 358,325| percent_water = date=February 2017}}| population_estimate_year = 2017| population_density_km2 = 22.7| population_density_sq_mi = 58.7| time_zone = Central European Time| utc_offset = +1| utc_offset_DST = +2| time_zone_DST = Central European Summer Time| cctld = {{unbulleted list|.dk, .no, .se.ax, .fi, .fo, .gl, .is, .sj}}}}{{Scandinavia}}Scandinavia{{efn|Danish, Swedish and archaic (Dano-)Norwegian: Skandinavien, Norwegian, Faroese and Finnish: Skandinavia, , Sami: Skadesi-suolu/Skađsuâl}} ({{IPAc-en|ˌ|s|k|æ|n|d|ɪ|ˈ|n|eɪ|v|i|ə}} {{respell|SKAN|dih|NAY|vee|ə}}) is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. The majority national languages of the region, and their many dialects, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, and are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages.John Harrison, Michael Hoyler, Megaregions: Globalization's New Urban Form? (p. 152), Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015 The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. However, in English usage, the term also sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, which is always known locally as the Nordic countries.While part of the Nordic countries, the remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are not in Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark. The Faroe Islands are sometimes included.WEB,weblink Scandinavia, 2009, Encyclopædia Britannica, 28 October 2009, Scandinavia, historically Scandia, part of northern Europe, generally held to consist of the two countries of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Norway and Sweden, with the addition of Denmark. Some authorities argue for the inclusion of Finland on geologic and economic grounds and of Iceland and the Faroe Islands on the grounds that their inhabitants speak Scandinavian languages related to those of Norway and Sweden and also have similar cultures.,

Toponymy

The name Scandinavia originally referred to the former Danish, now Swedish, region of Scania. Scandinavia and Scandinavian entered usage in the late 18th century, being introduced by the early linguistic and cultural Scandinavist movement. The majority of the population of Scandinavia are descended from several North Germanic tribes who originally inhabited the southern part of Scandinavia and spoke a Germanic language that evolved into Old Norse. Icelanders and the Faroese are to a significant extent descended from the Norse and are therefore often seen as Scandinavian. Finland is mainly populated by Finns, with a minority of approximately 5weblink of Swedish speakers. A small minority of Sami people live in the extreme north of Scandinavia. The Danish, Norwegian and Swedish languages form a dialect continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another. Faroese and Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent. Finnish and Meänkieli are closely related to each other and more distantly to the Sami languages, but are entirely unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Apart from these, German, Yiddish and Romani are recognized minority languages in parts of Scandinavia.

{{anchor|terminology}}Terminology and use

File:Scandinavia M2002074 lrg.jpg|thumb|Satellite photo of the Scandinavian PeninsulaScandinavian Peninsula"Scandinavia" refers to Denmark, Norway and Sweden.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia, Scandinavia,weblink 30 January 2007, 1997–2007, Microsoft Corporation, Scandinavia (ancient Scandia), name applied collectively to three countries of northern Europe—Norway, Sweden (which together form the Scandinavian Peninsula) and Denmark.,weblink 1 November 2009, yes, Some sources argue for the inclusion of the Faroe Islands, Finland and Iceland,ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Scandinavia, 2008, The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 9 January 2008, Scandinavia: Denmark, Norway, Sweden—sometimes also considered to include Iceland, the Faeroe Islands, & Finland., BOOK, Lonely Planet Scandinavian Europe, 2009, BOOK, The Rough Guide to Scandinavia, 2008, WEB,weblink Official Site of Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America, 2009, 23 October 2008, though that broader region is usually known by the countries concerned as Norden (, , ), or the Nordic countries.WEB,weblink Facts about the Nordic region, Nordic Council of Ministers & Nordic Council, 1 October 2007, 25 March 2014, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland work together in the official Nordic co-operation., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180208124953weblink">weblink 8 February 2018, dmy-all, File:Original meaning of Scandinavia.svg|thumb|Scandinavia originally referred vaguely to ScaniaScaniaFile:Map of Scandinavia.png|thumb|{{legend|#ff0000|outline=#aaaaaa|Scandinavia according to the local definition}}{{legend|#ff8811|outline=#aaaaaa|The extended usage in English, which includes Iceland and the Faroe Islands, the Åland IslandsÅland IslandsThe use of "Scandinavia" as a convenient general term for Denmark, Norway and Sweden is fairly recent. According to some historians, it was adopted and introduced in the eighteenth century, at a time when the ideas about a common heritage started to appear and develop into early literary and linguistic Scandinavism.Østergård, Uffe (1997). "The Geopolitics of Nordic Identity – From Composite States to Nation States". The Cultural Construction of Norden. Øystein Sørensen and Bo Stråth (eds.), Oslo: Scandinavian University Press 1997, 25–71. Also published online at Danish Institute for International Studies {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071114212929weblink |date=14 November 2007 }}. For the history of cultural Scandinavism, see Oresundstid's articles The Literary Scandinavism and The Roots of Scandinavism. Retrieved 19 January 2007. Before this time, the term "Scandinavia" was familiar mainly to classical scholars through Pliny the Elder's writings and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula.As a political term, Scandinavia was first used by students agitating for pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s. The popular usage of the term in Sweden, Denmark and Norway as a unifying concept became established in the nineteenth century through poems such as Hans Christian Andersen's "I am a Scandinavian" of 1839. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism. In a letter describing the poem to a friend, he wrote: "All at once I understood how related the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, and with this feeling I wrote the poem immediately after my return: 'We are one people, we are called Scandinavians!'".Hans Christian Andersen and Music – I am a Scandinavian. The Royal Library of Denmark, the National Library and Copenhagen University Library. Retrieved 17 January 2007. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090113082313weblink |date=13 January 2009 }}The clearest example of the use of Scandinavia is Finland, based largely on the fact that most of modern-day Finland was part of the Swedish kingdom for hundreds of years, thus to much of the world associating Finland with all of Scandinavia. However, the creation of a Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was formed in relation to two different imperial models, the Swedish"Finland and the Swedish Empire". Country Studies. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 November 2006. and the Russian,"Introduction: Reflections on Political Thought in Finland." Editorial. Redescriptions, Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History, 1997, Volume 1, University of Jyväskylä, pp. 6–7: "[T]he populist opposition both to Sweden as a former imperial country and especially to Swedish as the language of the narrow Finnish establishment has also been strong, especially in the inter-war years. [...] Finland as a unitary and homogeneous nation-state was constructed [...] in opposition to the imperial models of Sweden and Russia.""The Rise of Finnish Nationalism". Country Studies. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 November 2006: "The eighteenth century had witnessed the appearance of [...] a sense of national identity for the Finnish people, [...] an expression of the Finns' growing doubts about Swedish rule [...] The ethnic self-consciousness of Finnish speakers was given a considerable boost by the Russian conquest of Finland in 1809, because ending the connection with Sweden forced Finns to define themselves with respect to the Russians." as described by the University of Jyväskylä based editorial board of the Finnish journal Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History.Editors and Board, Redescriptions, Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual HistoryOlwig, Kenneth R. "Introduction: The Nature of Cultural Heritage, and the Culture of Natural Heritage—Northern Perspectives on a Contested Patrimony". International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2005, pp. 3–7.

Societal and tourism promotional organizations

Various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States (such as The American-Scandinavian Foundation, established in 1910 by the Danish American industrialist Niels Poulsen) serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. Today, the five Nordic heads of state act as the organization's patrons and according to the official statement by the organization its mission is "to promote the Nordic region as a whole while increasing the visibility of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in New York City and the United States".About The American-Scandinavian Foundation. Official site. Retrieved 2 February 2007. The official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, such as the Scandinavian Tourist Board.Scandinavian Tourist Board. Official site. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080117090528weblink |date=17 January 2008 }} The cooperation was introduced for the Asian market in 1986, when the Swedish national tourist board joined the Danish national tourist board to coordinate intergovernmental promotion of the two countries. Norway's government entered one year later. All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America.The Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America. Official Website. Retrieved 2 February 2007.

Use of "Nordic countries" vs. "Scandinavia"

{{details|topic=this terminology|Nordic countries}}While the term "Scandinavia" is commonly used for Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the term "Nordic countries" is used unambiguously for Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland, including their associated territories (Svalbard,{{citation needed|reason=not mentioned by name in source given|date=August 2018}} Greenland, the Faroe Islands and the Ã…land Islands). Scandinavia can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries. Furthermore, the term Fennoscandia refers to Scandinavia, Finland and Karelia, excluding Denmark and overseas territories, but the usage of this term is restricted to geology when speaking of the Fennoscandian Shield (Baltic Shield).In addition to the mainland Scandinavian countries of: The Nordic countries also consist of:
  • {{flagcountry|Finland}} (parliamentary republic)
  • {{flagcountry|Iceland}} (parliamentary republic)
  • {{flagcountry|Ã…land}} (an autonomous province of Finland since 1920)
  • {{flagcountry|Faroe Islands}} (an autonomous country within the Danish Realm, self-governed since 1948)
  • {{flagcountry|Greenland}} (an autonomous country within the Danish Realm, self-governed since 1979)
  • {{flagcountry|Svalbard}}, which is under Norwegian sovereignty, is not considered part of Scandinavia as a cultural-historical region, but as a part of the Kingdom of Norway (since 1925) it is part of the Nordic countries (Norden).
Whereas the term "Scandinavia" is relatively straightforward as traditionally relating to the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden there exists some ambiguity as regards the ethnic aspect of the concept in the modern era. Traditionally, the term refers specifically to the majority peoples of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, their states, their Germanic languages and their culture. In the modern era, the term will often include minority peoples such as the Sami and Meänkieli speakers in a political and to some extent cultural sense as they are citizens of Scandinavian countries and speak Scandinavian languages either as their first or second language. However, Scandinavian is still also seen as an ethnic term for the Germanic majority peoples of Scandinavia and as such the inclusion of Sami and Finnish speakers can be seen as controversial within these groups.File:Nordic Bronze Age.png|thumb|The original areas inhabited (during the Bronze Age) by the peoples since known as Scandinavians included what is now Northern Germany (particularly Schleswig-Holstein), all of Denmark, southern Sweden and the southern coast of Norway while namesake ScaniaScaniaScandinavia and Scania (Skåne, the southernmost province of Sweden) are thought to go back to the proto-Germanic compound *Skaðin-awjō, which appears later in Old English as Scedenig and in Old Norse as Skáney.Anderson, Carl Edlund in (1999). Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia. PhD dissertation, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English), University of Cambridge, 1999. The earliest identified source for the name Scandinavia is Pliny the Elder's Natural History, dated to the first century A.D.Various references to the region can also be found in Pytheas, Pomponius Mela, Tacitus, Ptolemy, Procopius and Jordanes, usually in the form of Scandza. It is believed that the name used by Pliny may be of West Germanic origin, originally denoting Scania.Haugen, Einar (1976). The Scandinavian Languages: An Introduction to Their History. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1976. According to some scholars, the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as *skaðan- and meaning "danger" or "damage" (English: "scathing", German: Schaden, Dutch: schade).BOOK, Knut Helle, The Cambridge History of Scandinavia: Prehistory to 1520,weblink 2003, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-47299-9, The second segment of the name has been reconstructed as (wikt:Appendix:Proto-Germanic/awjō|*awjō), meaning "land on the water" or "island". The name Scandinavia would then mean "dangerous island", which is considered to refer to the treacherous sandbanks surrounding Scania. Skanör in Scania, with its long Falsterbo reef, has the same stem (skan) combined with -ör, which means "sandbanks".In the reconstructed Germanic root *Skaðin-awjō (the edh represented in Latin by t or d), the first segment is sometimes considered more uncertain than the second segment. The American Heritage Dictionary"Island". Bartleby, American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000. derives the second segment from proto-Indo-European *akwa-, "water", in the sense of "watery land".The Old Norse goddess name Skaði, along with Sca(n)dinavia and Skáney, may be related to Gothic skadus, Old English sceadu, Old Saxon scado and Old High German scato (meaning "shadow"). Scholar John McKinnell comments that this etymology suggests that the goddess Skaði may have once been a personification of the geographical region of Scandinavia or associated with the underworld.BOOK, John McKinnell, Meeting the other in Norse myth and legend,weblink 2005, Ds Brewer, 978-1-84384-042-8, 63,

Pliny the Elder's descriptions

Pliny's descriptions of Scatinavia and surrounding areas are not always easy to decipher. Writing in the capacity of a Roman admiral, he introduces the northern region by declaring to his Roman readers that there are 23 islands "Romanis armis cognitae" ("known to Roman arms") in this area. According to Pliny, the "clarissima" ("most famous") of the region's islands is Scatinavia, of unknown size. There live the Hilleviones. The belief that Scandinavia was an island became widespread among classical authors during the first century and dominated descriptions of Scandinavia in classical texts during the centuries that followed.Pliny begins his description of the route to Scatinavia by referring to the mountain of Saevo (mons Saevo ibi), the Codanus Bay (Codanus sinus) and the Cimbrian promontory.Pliny the Elder. Naturalis Historia. Book IV, chapter XXXIX. Ed. Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff. Online version at Persus. Retrieved 2 October 2007. The geographical features have been identified in various ways. By some scholars, "Saevo" is thought to be the mountainous Norwegian coast at the entrance to Skagerrak and the Cimbrian peninsula is thought to be Skagen, the north tip of Jutland, Denmark. As described, Saevo and Scatinavia can also be the same place.Pliny mentions Scandinavia one more time: in Book VIII he says that the animal called achlis (given in the accusative, achlin, which is not Latin) was born on the island of Scandinavia.Pliny the Elder. Naturalis Historia. Book VIII, chapter XVII. Ed. Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff. Online version at Persus. Retrieved 2 October 2007. The animal grazes, has a big upper lip and some mythical attributes.The name "Scandia", later used as a synonym for Scandinavia, also appears in Pliny's Naturalis Historia (Natural History), but is used for a group of Northern European islands which he locates north of Britannia. "Scandia" thus does not appear to be denoting the island Scadinavia in Pliny's text. The idea that "Scadinavia" may have been one of the "Scandiae" islands was instead introduced by Ptolemy (c. 90 – c. 168 AD), a mathematician, geographer and astrologer of Roman Egypt. He used the name "Skandia" for the biggest, most easterly of the three "Scandiai" islands, which according to him were all located east of Jutland.Neither Pliny's nor Ptolemy's lists of Scandinavian tribes include the Suiones mentioned by Tacitus. Some early Swedish scholars of the Swedish Hyperborean schoolBOOK, Oskar Bandle, The Nordic languages: an international handbook of the history of the North Germanic languages,weblink 2002, Mouton De Gruyter, 978-3-11-014876-3, 358, and of the 19th-century romantic nationalism period proceeded to synthesize the different versions by inserting references to the Suiones, arguing that they must have been referred to in the original texts and obscured over time by spelling mistakes or various alterations.Malone, Kemp (1924). "Ptolemy's Skandia". The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 45, No. 4. (1924), pp. 362–70.Stadius, Peter (2001). "Southern Perspectives on the North: Legends, Stereotypes, Images and Models" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071025082526weblink |date=25 October 2007 }}. BaltSeaNet Working Paper 3, The Baltic Sea Area Studies, Gdansk/Berlin, 2001. Online version retrieved 2 October 2007.

Germanic reconstruction

The Latin names in Pliny's text gave rise to different forms in medieval Germanic texts. In Jordanes' history of the Goths (AD 551), the form Scandza is the name used for their original home, separated by sea from the land of Europe (chapter 1, 4).Jordanes (translated by Charles C. Mierow), The Origins and Deeds of the Goths, 22 April 1997 Where Jordanes meant to locate this quasi-legendary island is still a hotly debated issue, both in scholarly discussions and in the nationalistic discourse of various European countries.Hoppenbrouwers, Peter (2005). Medieval Peoples Imagined. Working Paper No. 3, Department of European Studies, University of Amsterdam, {{ISSN|1871-1693}}, p. 8: "A second core area was the quasi-legendary 'Isle of Scanza', the vague indication of Scandinavia in classical ethnography, and a veritable 'hive of races and a womb of peoples' according to Jordanes' Gothic History. Not only the Goths were considered to have originated there, but also the Dacians/Danes, the Lombards, and the Burgundians—claims that are still subject to debate."Goffart, Walter (2005), "Jordanes’s Getica and the disputed authenticity of Gothic origins from Scandinavia". Speculum. A Journal of Medieval Studies 80, 379–98 The form Scadinavia as the original home of the Langobards appears in Paulus Diaconus' Historia Langobardorum,Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum, Bibliotheca Ausustana but in other versions of Historia Langobardorum appear the forms Scadan, Scandanan, Scadanan and Scatenauge.History of the Langobards, Northvegr Foundation {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100406031959weblink |date=6 April 2010 }} Frankish sources used Sconaowe and Aethelweard, an Anglo-Saxon historian, used Scani.BOOK, Erik Björkman, Studien zur englischen Philologie,weblink 1973, Max Niemeyer, 978-3-500-28470-5, 99, BOOK, Richard North, Heathen gods in Old English literature,weblink 1997, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-55183-0, 192, In Beowulf, the forms Scedenige and Scedeland are used while the Alfredian translation of Orosius and Wulfstan's travel accounts used the Old English Sconeg.

Sami etymology

File:This is the center of the sami town Kautokeino.jpg|thumb|Kautokeino, the main Sami municipality in NorwayNorwayThe earliest Sami yoik texts written down refer to the world as Skadesi-suolo (north Sami) and Skađsuâl (east Sami), meaning "Skaði's island". Svennung considers the Sami name to have been introduced as a loan word from the North Germanic languages;Svennung, J. (1963). Scandinavia und Scandia. Lateinisch-nordische Namenstudien. Almqvist & Wiksell/Harrassowitz, 1963, pp. 54–56. "Skaði" is the giant stepmother of Freyr and Freyja in Norse mythology. It has been suggested that Skaði to some extent is modeled on a Sami woman. The name for Skade's father Thjazi is known in Sami as Čáhci, "the waterman"; and her son with Odin, Saeming, can be interpreted as a descendant of Saam the Sami population.Mundel, E. (2000). "weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040706090209weblink">Coexistence of Saami and Norse culture – reflected in and interpreted by Old Norse myths" Coexistence of Saami and Norse culture – reflected in and interpreted by Old Norse myths University of Bergen, 11th Saga Conference Sydney 2000Steinsland, Gro (1991). Det hellige bryllup og norrøn kongeideologi. En analyse av hierogami-myten i Skírnismál, Ynglingatal, Háleygjatal og Hyndluljóð. Oslo: Solum, 1991. (In Norwegian). Older joik texts give evidence of the old Sami belief about living on an island and state that the wolf is known as suolu gievra, meaning "the strong one on the island". The Sami place name Sulliidčielbma means "the island's threshold" and Suoločielgi means "the island's back".In recent substrate studies, Sami linguists have examined the initial cluster sk- in words used in Sami and concluded that sk- is a phonotactic structure of alien origin.Aikio, A. (2004). "An essay on substrate studies and the origin of Saami". In Etymologie, Entlehnungen und Entwicklungen: Festschrift für Jorma Koivulehto zum 70. Geburtstag. Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 63, Eds. Irma Hyvärinen / Petri Kallio / Jarmo Korhonen, Helsinki, pp. 5–34 (p. 14: "On the basis of Scandinavian loanwords it can be inferred that both {{IPA|sk-}} and {{IPA|-ʃ-}} were adopted in the west during the early separate development of the Saami languages, but never spread to Kola Saami. These areal features thus emerged in a phase when Proto-Saami began to diverge into dialects anticipating the modern Saami languages.")

Other etymologies

Another possibility is that all or part of the segments of the name came from the Mesolithic people inhabiting the region. In modernity, Scandinavia is a peninsula, but between approximately 10,300 and 9,500 years ago the southern part of Scandinavia was an island separated from the northern peninsula, with water exiting the Baltic Sea through the area where Stockholm is now located.Uścinowicz, Szymon (2003). "How the Baltic Sea was changing" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071212134140weblink |date=12 December 2007 }}. Marine Geology Branch, Polish Geological Institute, 9 June 2003. Retrieved 13 January 2008.Some Basque scholars have presented the idea that the segment sk that appears in *Skaðinawjō is connected to the name for the Euzko peoples, akin to Basques, that populated Paleolithic Europe. According to some of these intellects, Scandinavian people share particular genetic markers with the Basque people.BOOK, J. F. Del Giorgio, The Oldest Europeans: Who Are We? Where Do We Come From? What Made European Women Different?,weblink 24 May 2006, A J Place, 978-980-6898-00-4,

Geography

File:GaldhøpiggenFromFannaråki.jpg|thumb|Galdhøpiggen is the highest point in Scandinavia and is a part of the Scandinavian MountainsScandinavian Mountains{{See also|Geography of Denmark|Geography of Finland|Geography of Iceland|Geography of Norway|Geography of Sweden}}The geography of Scandinavia is extremely varied. Notable are the Norwegian fjords, the Scandinavian Mountains, the flat, low areas in Denmark and the archipelagos of Sweden and Norway. Sweden has many lakes and moraines, legacies of the ice age, which ended about ten millennia ago.The southern and by far most populous regions of Scandinavia have a temperate climate. Scandinavia extends north of the Arctic Circle, but has relatively mild weather for its latitude due to the Gulf Stream. Many of the Scandinavian mountains have an alpine tundra climate.The climate varies from north to south and from west to east: a marine west coast climate ((Köppen climate classification#GROUP C: Temperate/mesothermal climates|Cfb)) typical of western Europe dominates in Denmark, southernmost part of Sweden and along the west coast of Norway reaching north to 65°N, with orographic lift giving more mm/year precipitation (

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