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{{about||the Japanese manga|Afghanis-tan}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use American English|date=May 2017}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2019}}{{short description|A landlocked south-central Asian country}}

conventional_long_name Islamic Republic of Afghanistan| common_name = Afghanistan| native_name = {hide}vunblist
|{{small|Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jumhoryat}}
|{{nobold|{{native name|prs|جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان|italic=no}}}}
|{{small|Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afġānestān}}}}| image_flag = File:Flag of Afghanistan.svg| image_coat = National emblem of Afghanistan.svg| symbol_type = National emblem| symbol_type_article = Emblem of Afghanistan! scope="col" style="background:#cfb;"|Year! scope="col" style="background:#cfb;"|Million
{{bigar"There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. (Shahada)}}ur''Afghan National Anthem''}}()(File:National anthem of Afghanistan, performed by the United States Navy Band.wav|center)| image_map = Afghanistan (orthographic projection).svg| map_caption = | capital = Kabul3365display=inline,title}}| largest_city = Kabul| languages_type = Official languagesstyle=white-space:nowrap;Pashto language>Pashto, Dari}}| ethnic_groups = {hide}unbulleted list
| 42% Pashtun
| 27% Tajik
| 9% Hazara
| 9% Uzbek
| 4% Aimaq
| 3% Turkmen
| 2% Baloch
| 4% others
{edih}| religion = {{unbulleted list
| 99.7% Muslims
| 0.3% others
AfghanHTTPS://WWW.DICTIONARY.COM/BROWSE/AFGHAN?S=TWEBSITE=WWW.DICTIONARY.COMACCESS-DATE=3 DECEMBER 2018, Afghanistani{{Citationurl= December 2018}}Unitary state>Unitary presidential Islamic republicPresident of Afghanistan>President| leader_name1 = Ashraf GhaniVice President of Afghanistan>1st Vice President| leader_name2 = Abdul Rashid DostumVice President of Afghanistan>2nd Vice President| leader_name3 = Sarwar DanishChief Executive Officer (Afghanistan)>Chief Executive Officer| leader_name4 = Abdullah AbdullahNational Assembly (Afghanistan)>National AssemblyHouse of Elders (Afghanistan)>House of EldersHouse of the People (Afghanistan)>House of the PeopleHistory of Afghanistan>Formation| sovereignty_note =Hotak Empire}}| established_date1 = 21 April 1709Durrani Empire}}| established_date2 = October 1747Emirate}}| established_date3 = 1823Afghan Independence Day>RecognizedAnglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919>19 August 1919Kingdom}}| established_date5 = 9 June 1926Republic}}1973 Afghan coup d'état>17 July 1973Constitution of Afghanistan>Current constitution| established_date7 = 26 January 2004| area_km2 = 652,230| area_rank = 40th| area_sq_mi = 251,830| percent_water = negligiblePUBLISHER=CENTRAL STATISTICS ORGANIZATION, 2019, | population_estimate_year = 2019| population_estimate_rank = 44th| population_density_km2 = 46| population_density_sq_mi = 119| population_density_rank = 174thPUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 14 November 2018, | GDP_PPP_year = 2018| GDP_PPP_rank = 96th| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $2,024| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 169th| GDP_nominal = $21.657 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2018| GDP_nominal_rank = 111st| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $601| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 177th| Gini = 27.8| Gini_year = 2008| Gini_change = decreasePUBLISHER=WORLD BANK ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140511044958/HTTP://DATA.WORLDBANK.ORG/INDICATOR/SI.POV.GINI, 11 May 2014, | Gini_rank = 1st| HDI = 0.498| HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increase DATE=14 DECEMBER 2015 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, 18, | HDI_rank = 168thAfghan afghani>Afghani (Afs)| currency_code = AFN| time_zone = D†Solar Hijri calendar>Solar CalendarRight- and left-hand traffic#Afghanistan>rightTelephone numbers in Afghanistan>+93| cctld = .af افغانستان.}}Afghanistan ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Afghanistan.ogg|æ|f|ˈ|ɡ|æ|n|ᵻ|s|t|æ|n|,_|æ|f|ˈ|ɡ|ɑː|n|ᵻ|s|t|ɑː|n}}; Pashto/Dari: , Pashto: {{IPA-ps|avɣɒnisˈtɒn, ab-|}},{{efn|name=fn1}} Dari: {{IPA-fa|avɣɒnesˈtɒn|}}), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country in Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south;{{efn|1 = Afghanistan is regarded as a border country also by the Government of India, which considers all of Kashmir to be part of India. However, this is disputed, and the region of Kashmir bordering Afghanistan is administered by Pakistan. Source: WEB, Ministry of Home Affairs (Department of Border Management),weblink 1 September 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 March 2015, }} Iran to the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north; and in the far northeast, China. Occupying {{convert|652,000|km2|sqmi|sp=us}}, it is a mountainous country with plains in the north and southwest. Kabul is the capital and largest city. The population is 32 million, mostly composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras and Uzbeks.Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, and the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia. The land has historically been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Mauryas, Muslim Arabs, Mongols, British, Soviets, and by the United States with allied countries. The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khaljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire. Its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence, eventually becoming a monarchy under Amanullah Khan, until almost 50 years later when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and then a Soviet protectorate. This evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled as a totalitarian regime for over five years. Following the September 11 attacks, an intervention by the US and its allies forcibly removed the Taliban from power, and a new democratically-elected government was formed, but the Taliban still control a significant portion of the country.Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic. The country has high levels of terrorism, poverty, child malnutrition, and corruption. It is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, and the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 96th largest, with a gross domestic product (GDP) of $72.9 billion by purchasing power parity; the country fares much worse in terms of per-capita GDP (PPP), ranking 169th out of 186 countries as of 2018.


The name Afghānistān () is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, which is documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam.BOOK, The Afghans, Vogelsang, Willem, 2002, Wiley Blackwell, 0-631-19841-5, 18,weblink 2010-08-22, The root name "Afghan" was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns,ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ch. M. Kieffer,weblink Afghan, Encyclopædia Iranica, online, Columbia University, 15 December 1983,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-11-16, and the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans{{sfn|Barfield|2012|page=159}} or, more specifically in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "[t]he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."WEB, Constitution of Afghanistan,weblink 2004, 16 February 2013,


File:Ekhtiarodin (1).jpg|thumb|Citadel of HeratCitadel of HeratExcavations of prehistoric sites suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Afghanistan â€“ John Ford Shroder, University of Nebraska, Encarta, 19 May 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 17 July 2004, dead, NEWS,weblink Afghanistan: A Treasure Trove for Archaeologists, Time (magazine), Time Magazine, 26 February 2009, 13 July 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 26 July 2013, dead, The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and often fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within vast regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, and the Islamic Empire.BOOK, The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity, George Erdosy, 321,weblink 3110144476, 1995, For its success in resisting foreign occupation during the 19th and 20th centuries, Afghanistan has been called the "graveyard of empires,"{{sfn|Barfield|2012|page=255}} though it is unknown who coined the phrase.NEWS, 0362-4331, Nordland, Rod, The Empire Stopper, The New York Times, 2019-11-18, 2017-08-29,weblink Afghanistan has long been called the “graveyard of empires” — for so long that it is unclear who coined that disputable term., Many empires and kingdoms have also risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Khaljis, Kartids, Timurids, Mughals, and finally the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.{{sfn|Runion|2007|page=44-49}}

Pre-Islamic period

File:AsokaKandahar.jpg|thumb|left|Bilingual (Greek and Aramaic) edict by Emperor Ashoka from the 3rd century BCE discovered in the southern city of KandaharKandaharArchaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been closely connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east, west, and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak (near Kandahar in the south of the country) may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilization today part of Pakistan, Afghanistan, and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan.BOOK, The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy, and Society, 1, Rita Wright, 2009,weblink 978-0521576529, Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1998). Ancient cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation. pp.96 There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well.{{multiple image| align = right| direction = vertical| width =| header =| image1 = Buddha of Bamiyan.jpg| width1 = 200
Buddha of Bamiyan. Buddhism in Afghanistan>Buddhism was widespread before the Islamic conquest of Afghanistan.| image2 = BamyanBuddha Smaller 1.jpg| width2 = 200| caption2 = The smaller Buddha.}}After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan; among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians. These tribes later migrated further into South Asia, Western Asia, and toward Europe via the area north of the Caspian Sea. The region at the time was referred to as Ariana.Bryant, Edwin F. (2001) The quest for the origins of Vedic culture: the Indo-Aryan migration debate Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|978-0-19-513777-4}}.The religion Zoroastrianism is believed by some to have originated in what is now Afghanistan between 1800 and 800 BCE, as its founder Zoroaster is thought to have lived and died in Balkh. Ancient Eastern Iranian languages may have been spoken in the region around the time of the rise of Zoroastrianism. By the middle of the 6th century BCE, the Achaemenids overthrew the Medes and incorporated Arachosia, Aria, and Bactria within its eastern boundaries. An inscription on the tombstone of Darius I of Persia mentions the Kabul Valley in a list of the 29 countries that he had conquered.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 9 September 2012, Chronological History of Afghanistan â€“ the cradle of Gandharan civilisation,, 15 February 1989, 19 May 2012, Alexander the Great and his Macedonian forces arrived in Afghanistan in 330 BCE after defeating Darius III of Persia a year earlier in the Battle of Gaugamela. Following Alexander's brief occupation, the successor state of the Seleucid Empire controlled the region until 305 BCE when they gave much of it to the Maurya Empire as part of an alliance treaty. The Mauryans controlled the area south of the Hindu Kush until they were overthrown in about 185 BCE. Their decline began 60 years after Ashoka's rule ended, leading to the Hellenistic reconquest by the Greco-Bactrians. Much of it soon broke away from them and became part of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. They were defeated and expelled by the Indo-Scythians in the late 2nd century BCE.WEB,weblink Country Profile: Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan, August 2008, 10 October 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 8 April 2014, {{sfn|Runion|2007|page=44}}During the first century BCE, the Parthian Empire subjugated the region but lost it to their Indo-Parthian vassals. In the mid-to-late first century CE the vast Kushan Empire, centered in Afghanistan, became great patrons of Buddhist culture, making Buddhism flourish throughout the region. The Kushans were overthrown by the Sassanids in the 3rd century CE, though the Indo-Sassanids continued to rule at least parts of the region. They were followed by the Kidarites who, in turn, were replaced by the Hephthalites. They were replaced by the Turk Shahi in the 7th century. The Buddhist Turk Shahi of Kabul was replaced by a Hindu dynasty before the Saffarids conquered the area in 870, this Hindu dynasty was called Hindu Shahi.André Wink, Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World Volume 1: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th-11th Centuries, Brill Publishers, p. 125 Much of the northeastern and southern areas of the country remained dominated by Buddhist culture.WEB,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 October 2008, Afghan and Afghanistan, Abdul Hai Habibi,, 1969, 17 November 2015, Charles Higham, Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations, Infobase Publishing, p. 141

Islamization and Mongol invasion

File:Herat Congregational Mosque -Afghanistan.jpg|thumb|The Friday Mosque of HeratFriday Mosque of HeratFile:Mazar-e sharif - Steve Evans.jpg|thumb|The Blue Mosque in Mazar-i-Sharif was built in the 15th century]]Arab Muslims brought Islam to Herat and Zaranj in 642 CE and began spreading eastward; some of the native inhabitants they encountered accepted it while others revolted. Before Islam was introduced, people of the region were mostly Buddhists and Zoroastrians, but there were also Surya and Nana worshipers, Jews, and others. The Zunbils and Kabul Shahi were first conquered in 870 CE by the Saffarid Muslims of Zaranj. Later, the Samanids extended their Islamic influence south of the Hindu Kush. It is reported that Muslims and non-Muslims still lived side by side in Kabul before the Ghaznavids rose to power in the 10th century.WEB,weblink A.—The Hindu Kings of Kábul, Sir H. M. Elliot, Packard Humanities Institute, London, 1867–1877, 18 September 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 8 April 2014, WEB,weblink The Geographical Part of the NUZHAT-AL-QULUB, Hamd-Allah Mustawfi of Qazwin, Translated by Guy Le Strange, Packard Humanities Institute, 1340, 19 August 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 26 July 2013, WEB,weblink A.—The Hindu Kings of Kábul (p.3), Sir H. M. Elliot, Packard Humanities Institute, London, 1867–1877, 18 September 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 26 July 2013, By the 11th century, Mahmud of Ghazni defeated the remaining Hindu rulers and effectively Islamized the wider region,{{sfn|Ewans|2002|page=22-23}} with the exception of Kafiristan.WEB,weblink Richard Strand's Nuristân Site: Peoples and Languages of Nuristan, Richard F. Strand, 31 December 2005,, Richard Strand, Mahmud made Ghazni into an important city and patronized intellectuals such as the historian Al-Biruni and the poet Ferdowsi.BOOK, Afghanistan: A Country Study, 1986, Foreign Area Studies, The American University, Richard Nyrop, Donald Seekins, 10, The Ghaznavid dynasty was overthrown by the Ghurids, whose architectural achievements included the remote Minaret of Jam. The Ghurids controlled Afghanistan for less than a century before being conquered by the Khwarazmian dynasty in 1215.{{sfn|Ewans|2002|page=23}}In 1219 AD, Genghis Khan and his Mongol army overran the region. His troops are said to have annihilated the Khorasanian cities of Herat and Balkh as well as Bamyan.WEB,weblink Central Asian world cities,, 29 September 2007, 6 May 2012,weblink 23 July 2013, The destruction caused by the Mongols forced many locals to return to an agrarian rural society.NEWS, Page, Susan,weblink Obama's war: Deploying 17,000 raises stakes in Afghanistan,, 18 February 2009, 19 May 2012, Mongol rule continued with the Ilkhanate in the northwest while the Khalji dynasty administered the Afghan tribal areas south of the Hindu Kush until the invasion of Timur, who established the Timurid Empire in 1370.In the early 16th century, Babur arrived from Fergana and captured Kabul from the Arghun dynasty. In 1526, he invaded Delhi in India to replace the Lodi dynasty with the Mughal Empire.{{sfn|Barfield|2012|92–93}} Between the 16th and 18th century, the Uzbek Khanate of Bukhara, Iranian Safavids, and Indian Mughals ruled parts of the territory.{{sfn|Dupree|1997|pp=319, 321}} Before the 19th century, the northwestern area of Afghanistan was referred to by the regional name Khorasan. Two of the four capitals of Khorasan (Herat and Balkh) are now located in Afghanistan, while the regions of Kandahar, Zabulistan, Ghazni, Kabulistan, and Afghanistan formed the frontier between Khorasan and Hindustan.BOOK,weblink Khurasan, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 55, In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the term "Khurassan" frequently had a much wider denotation, covering also parts of what are now Soviet Central Asia and Afghanistan, Brill, 2009, BOOK, Travels in Asia and Africa, 1325–1354, Ibn Battuta, reprint, illustrated, 2004, Routledge, 978-0-415-34473-9, 416,weblink BOOK,weblink The History of India, 6, Chapter 200: Translation of the Introduction to Firishta's History, 8, 22 August 2010, Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah, Sir H. M. Elliot, Packard Humanities Institute, London, 1560,weblink" title="">weblink 26 July 2013, Firishta,

Hotak dynasty and Durrani Empire

In 1709, Mirwais Hotak, a local Ghilzai tribal leader, successfully rebelled against the Safavids. He defeated Gurgin Khan and made Afghanistan independent.WEB,weblink A Literary History of Persia, Volume 4: Modern Times (1500–1924), Chapter IV. An Outline Of The History Of Persia During The Last Two Centuries (A.D. 1722–1922), Edward G. Browne, Packard Humanities Institute, 9 September 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 26 July 2013, dead, Mirwais died of natural causes in 1715 and was succeeded by his brother Abdul Aziz, who was soon killed by Mirwais' son Mahmud for treason. Mahmud led the Afghan army in 1722 to the Persian capital of Isfahan, captured the city after the Battle of Gulnabad and proclaimed himself King of Persia. The Afghan dynasty was ousted from Persia by Nader Shah after the 1729 Battle of Damghan.In 1738, Nader Shah and his forces captured Kandahar, the last Hotak stronghold, from Shah Hussain Hotak, at which point the incarcerated 16-year-old Ahmad Shah Durrani was freed and made the commander of an Afghan regiment. Soon after, the Persian and Afghan forces invaded India. By 1747, the Afghans chose Durrani as their head of state.WEB,weblink Ahmad Shah Durrani, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 9 September 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 4 April 2014, Durrani and his Afghan army conquered much of present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, the Khorasan and Kohistan provinces of Iran, and Delhi in India.WEB,weblink Afghanistan, 25 August 2010, Friedrich Engels, Andy Blunden, The New American Cyclopaedia, Vol. I, 1857,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2014, Friedrich Engels, He defeated the Indian Maratha Empire, and one of his biggest victories was the 1761 Battle of Panipat.In October 1772, Durrani died of natural causes and was buried at a site now adjacent to the Shrine of the Cloak in Kandahar. He was succeeded by his son, Timur Shah, who transferred the capital of Afghanistan from Kandahar to Kabul in 1776. After Timur's death in 1793, the Durrani throne passed down to his son Zaman Shah, followed by Mahmud Shah, Shuja Shah and others.The Oxford Dictionary of Islam by John L. Esposito, p.71File:Afghan foot soldiers in 1841.jpg|thumb|Afghan tribesmen in 1841, painted by British officer James RattrayJames RattrayBy the early 19th century, the Afghan empire was under threat from the Persians in the west and the Sikh Empire in the east. Fateh Khan, leader of the Barakzai tribe, had installed 21 of his brothers in positions of power throughout the empire. After his death, they rebelled and divided up the provinces of the empire between themselves. During this turbulent period, Afghanistan had many temporary rulers until Dost Mohammad Khan declared himself emir in 1826.BOOK, Afghanistan: A Military History from Alexander the Great to the War against the Taliban, Tanner, Stephen, 2009, Da Capo Press, 978-0-306-81826-4, {{Google books, yes, J3pUS_-uD-oC, 126, |page=126}} The Punjab region was lost to Ranjit Singh, who invaded Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and in 1834 captured the city of Peshawar.BOOK, Hari Singh Nalwa, "champion of the Khalsaji" (1791–1837), Nalwa, Vanit, 2009, 978-81-7304-785-5, {{Google books, yes, ULhgNexD92QC, 198, |page=198}} In 1837, during the Battle of Jamrud near the Khyber Pass, Akbar Khan and the Afghan army failed to capture the Jamrud fort from the Sikh Khalsa Army, but killed Sikh Commander Hari Singh Nalwa, thus ending the Afghan-Sikh Wars. By this time the British were advancing from the east and the first major conflict during "The Great Game" was initiated.BOOK, History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century, Chahryar, Adle, 2003, UNESCO, 978-92-3-103876-1,weblink 296,

British influence and independent kingdom

{{Further|European influence in Afghanistan|Afghan Civil War (1928–1929)}}File:Kandahar-1881.jpg|thumb|British and allied forces at Kandahar after the 1880 Battle of Kandahar, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The large defensive wall around the city was removed in the early 1930s by order of King Nadir.]]In 1838, the British marched into Afghanistan and arrested Dost Mohammad, sent him into exile in India and replaced him with the previous ruler, Shah Shuja.Edward Ingram. The International History Review, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Apr. 1980), pp. 160–171. Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. Stable URL:weblink Great Britain's Great Game: An IntroductionIn Defence of British India: Great Britain in the Middle East, 1775–1842 By Edward Ingram. Frank Cass & Co, London, 1984. {{ISBN|0714632465}}. p7-19 Following an uprising, the 1842 retreat from Kabul of British-Indian forces and the annihilation of Elphinstone's army, and the Battle of Kabul that led to its recapture, the British placed Dost Mohammad Khan back into power and withdrew their military forces from Afghanistan. In 1878, the Second Anglo-Afghan War was fought over perceived Russian influence, Abdur Rahman Khan replaced Ayub Khan, and Britain gained control of Afghanistan's foreign relations as part of the Treaty of Gandamak of 1879. In 1893, Mortimer Durand made Amir Abdur Rahman Khan sign a controversial agreement in which the ethnic Pashtun and Baloch territories were divided by the Durand Line. This was a standard divide and rule policy of the British and would lead to strained relations, especially with the later new state of Pakistan. Shia-dominated Hazarajat and pagan Kafiristan remained politically independent until being conquered by Abdur Rahman Khan in 1891–1896.File:Zahir Shah of Afghanistan in 1930s-cropped.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Zahir Shah, the last king of Afghanistan, who reigned from 1933 to 1973.]]After the Third Anglo-Afghan War and the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi on 19 August 1919, King Amanullah Khan declared Afghanistan a sovereign and fully independent state. He moved to end his country's traditional isolation by establishing diplomatic relations with the international community and, following a 1927–28 tour of Europe and Turkey, introduced several reforms intended to modernize his nation. A key force behind these reforms was Mahmud Tarzi, an ardent supporter of the education of women. He fought for Article 68 of Afghanistan's 1923 constitution, which made elementary education compulsory. The institution of slavery was abolished in 1923.ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1976, Volume 25, Encyclopedia Americana, Americana Corporation, 24, Afghanistan, File:Bundesarchiv Bild 102-05499, Berlin, Besuch König von Afghanistan.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|King Amanullah Khan and Queen Soraya TarziSoraya TarziSome of the reforms that were put in place, such as the abolition of the traditional burqa for women and the opening of several co-educational schools, quickly alienated many tribal and religious leaders, and this led to the Afghan Civil War (1928–1929). Faced with the overwhelming armed opposition, Amanullah Khan abdicated in January 1929, and soon after Kabul fell to Saqqawist forces led by Habibullah Kalakani.BOOK,weblink Kabul under siege: Fayz Muhammad's account of the 1929 Uprising, Muḥammad, Fayz̤, McChesney, R. D., 1999, Markus Wiener Publishers, 9781558761544, 39, 40, en, Prince Mohammed Nadir Shah, Amanullah's cousin, in turn defeated and killed Kalakani in October 1929, and was declared King Nadir Shah.BOOK,weblink Kabul under siege: Fayz Muhammad's account of the 1929 Uprising, Muḥammad, Fayz̤, McChesney, R. D., 1999, Markus Wiener Publishers, 9781558761544, 275, 276, en, He abandoned the reforms of Amanullah Khan in favor of a more gradual approach to modernization but was assassinated in 1933 by Abdul Khaliq, a fifteen-year-old Hazara student.BOOK, Culture and customs of Afghanistan, Hafizullah, Emadi, 2005, Greenwood Publishing Group, 0-313-33089-1, 35,weblink October 23, 2011, Mohammed Zahir Shah, Nadir Shah's 19-year-old son, succeeded to the throne and reigned from 1933 to 1973. Until 1946, Zahir Shah ruled with the assistance of his uncle, who held the post of Prime Minister and continued the policies of Nadir Shah. Another of Zahir Shah's uncles, Shah Mahmud Khan, became Prime Minister in 1946 and began an experiment allowing greater political freedom, but reversed the policy when it went further than he expected. He was replaced in 1953 by Mohammed Daoud Khan, the king's cousin and brother-in-law, and a Pashtun nationalist who sought the creation of a Pashtunistan, leading to highly tense relations with Pakistan.WEB,weblink Afghanistan: History Of 1973 Coup Sheds Light On Relations With Pakistan, 6 July 2019, 18 July 2003, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Ron Synovitz, During his ten years at the post until 1963, Daoud Khan pressed for social modernization reforms and sought a closer relationship with the Soviet Union. Afterward, the 1964 constitution was formed, and the first non-royal Prime Minister was sworn in.BOOK, Eur, The Far East and Australasia 2003,weblink 2002, Psychology Press, 978-1-85743-133-9, 62–, King Zahir Shah, like his father Nadir Shah, had a policy of maintaining national independence while pursuing gradual modernization, creating nationalist feeling, and improving relations with the United Kingdom. Close relations with the Muslim states Turkey, the Kingdom of Iraq and Iran/Persia were also pursued, while further international relations were sought by joining the League of Nations in 1934. The 1930s saw the development of roads, infrastructure, the founding of a national bank, and increased education. Road links in the north played a large part in a growing cotton and textile industry. The country built close relationships with the Axis powers, with Germany having the largest share in Afghan development at the time.BOOK, Anthony Hyman, Afghanistan under Soviet Domination, 1964–91,weblink 27 July 2016, Springer, 978-1-349-21948-3, 46–, However, Afghanistan remained neutral and was neither a participant in World War II nor aligned with either power bloc in the Cold War thereafter. However, it was a beneficiary of the latter rivalry as both the Soviet Union and the United States vied for influence by building Afghanistan's main highways, airports, and other vital infrastructure. On a per capita basis, Afghanistan received more Soviet development aid than any other country. Afghanistan had, therefore, good relations with both Cold War enemies. In 1973, while the King was on an official overseas visit, Daoud Khan launched a bloodless coup and became the first President of Afghanistan, abolishing the monarchy. In the meantime, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto got neighboring Pakistan involved in Afghanistan. Some experts suggest that Bhutto paved the way for the April 1978 Saur Revolution.BOOK
, The Gem Hunter: The Adventures of an American in Afghanistan
, Bowersox
, Gary W.
, To launch this plan, Bhutto recruited and trained a group of Afghans in the Bala Hissar, Peshawar, Bala-Hesar of Peshawar, in Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, North-west Frontier Province. Among these young men were Ahmad Shah Massoud, Massoud, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, and other members of Jawanan-e Musulman. Massoud's mission to Bhutto was to create unrest in northern Afghanistan. It served Massoud's interests, which were opposition to the Soviets and independence for Afghanistan. Later, after Massoud and Hekmatyar had a terrible falling-out over Massoud's opposition to terrorist tactics and methods, Massoud overthrew from Jawanan-e Musulman. He joined Burhanuddin Rabbani, Rabani's newly created Afghan political party, Jamiat-e Islami, Jamiat-i-Islami, in exile in Pakistan., 2004, GeoVision, Inc., United States, 978-0-9747323-1-2, 100,weblink

PDPA coup d'état and Soviet war

{{multiple image|image1=Afgan1987 Gardez UAZ469.jpg|caption1=Soviet troops in Gardez, Afghanistan in 1987|image2=Jamiat e-Islami in Shultan Valley 1987 with Dashaka.jpg|caption2=Hezb-i Islami Khalis fighters in the Sultan Valley of Kunar Province, 1987|width2=150}}In April 1978, the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) seized power in the Saur Revolution, a coup d'état against then-President Mohammed Daoud Khan. The PDPA declared the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, with its first President named as Nur Muhammad Taraki.{{sfn|Ewans|2002|page=186-88}}Opposition to PDPA reforms, such as its land redistribution policy and modernization of civil and marriage laws, led to unrest which became an open revolt by October 1978, first in eastern Afghanistan. That uprising quickly expanded into a civil war waged by guerrilla mujahideen against regime forces countrywide. The Pakistani government provided these rebels with covert training centers, while the Soviet Union sent thousands of military advisers to support the PDPA regime.BOOK, Hussain, Rizwan, Pakistan And The Emergence Of Islamic Militancy In Afghanistan, Ashgate Publishing, 2005, 108–109, 978-0-7546-4434-7, The United States supported Afghan mujahideen and foreign "Afghan Arab" fighters through Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI).BOOK, Meher, Jagmohan, America's Afghanistan War: The Success that Failed, Gyan Books, 2004, 68–69, 94, 978-81-7835-262-6, Meanwhile, increasing friction between the competing factions of the PDPA â€” the dominant Khalq and the more moderate Parcham â€” resulted (in July–August 1979) in the dismissal of Parchami cabinet members and the arrest of Parchami military officers under the pretext of a Parchami coup.BOOK, Afghanistan: A Modern History, I.B.Tauris, 2005, 978-1850438571, Rasanayagam, Angelo, 73,weblink In September 1979, President Taraki was assassinated in a coup within the PDPA orchestrated by fellow Khalq member Hafizullah Amin, who assumed the presidency. The situation in the country deteriorated under Amin and thousands of people went missing.WEB,weblink Afghanistan: 20 years of bloodshed, BBC, 26 April 1998, 4 July 2019, The Soviet Union was displeased with Amin's government and decided to intervene and invade the country on 27 December 1979, killing Amin that same day.{{sfn|Barfield|2012|page=234}}A Soviet-organized regime, led by Parcham's Babrak Karmal but inclusive of both factions (Parcham and Khalq), filled the vacuum. Soviet troops in more substantial numbers were deployed to stabilize Afghanistan under Karmal, marking the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War.BOOK, Kalinovsky, Artemy M., A Long Goodbye: The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan, Harvard University Press, 2011, 25–28, 978-0-674-05866-8, The United States continued to support the mujahideen through Pakistan's ISI and Saudi Arabia, delivering billions of dollars in cash and weapons including two thousand FIM-92 Stinger surface-to-air missiles.WEB, 2009,weblink Story of US, CIA and Taliban, The Brunei Times, 16 December 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 5 December 2013, WEB, 1999,weblink The Cost of an Afghan 'Victory', The Nation, 16 December 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 2 March 2014, dead, The war lasted until 1989. Soviet forces, their Afghan proxies and rebels killed between 562,000JOURNAL, Lacina, Bethany, Gleditsch, Nils Petter,weblink Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths, European Journal of Population, 21, 2–3, 2005, 154, 10.1007/s10680-005-6851-6, 1 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 6 October 2014, dead, dmy-all, and 2 million Afghans,BOOK,weblink The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979–1982, Kakar, Mohammed, University of California Press, 9780520208933, The Afghans are among the latest victims of genocide by a superpower. Large numbers of Afghans were killed to suppress resistance to the army of the Soviet Union, which wished to vindicate its client regime and realize its goal in Afghanistan., 3 March 1997, BOOK,weblink The Widening Circle of Genocide, Klass, Rosanne, Transaction Publishers, 1994, 978-1-4128-3965-5, 129, During the intervening fourteen years of Communist rule, an estimated 1.5 to 2 million Afghan civilians were killed by Soviet forces and their proxies- the four Communist regimes in Kabul, and the East Germans, Bulgarians, Czechs, Cubans, Palestinians, Indians and others who assisted them. These were not battle casualties or the unavoidable civilian victims of warfare. Soviet and local Communist forces seldom attacked the scattered guerilla bands of the Afghan Resistance except, in a few strategic locales like the Panjsher valley. Instead they deliberately targeted the civilian population, primarily in the rural areas., WEB,weblink Genocide and the Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan, Reisman, W. Michael, Norchi, Charles H., 7 January 2017, According to widely reported accounts, substantial programmes of depopulation have been conducted in these Afghan provinces: Ghazni, Nagarhar, Lagham, Qandahar, Zabul, Badakhshan, Lowgar, Paktia, Paktika and Kunar...There is considerable evidence that genocide has been committed against the Afghan people by the combined forces of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and the Soviet Union., BOOK,weblink Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics, and the Rise of the Taliban, Goodson, Larry P., University of Washington Press, 2001, 978-0-295-98050-8, 5, WEB,weblink Soldiers of God: Cold War (Part 1/5), CNN, 1998, 11 October 2011,weblink 29 July 2013, UNICEF, Land-mines: A deadly inheritance {{webarchive |url= | date=5 August 2013 }}WEB,weblink Landmines in Afghanistan: A Decades Old Danger,, 1 February 2010, 6 May 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2014, and displaced about 6 million people who subsequently fled Afghanistan, mainly to Pakistan and Iran.WEB,weblink Refugee Admissions Program for Near East and South Asia, Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, 29 December 2013, Many countryside villages were bombed and some cities such as Herat and Kandahar were also damaged from air bombardment. Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province functioned as an organisational and networking base for the anti-Soviet Afghan resistance, with the province's influential Deobandi ulama playing a major supporting role in promoting the 'jihad'.JOURNAL, Haroon, Sana, 2008, The Rise of Deobandi Islam in the North-West Frontier Province and Its Implications in Colonial India and Pakistan 1914–1996, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 18, 1, 66–67, 27755911, 10.1017/S1356186307007778, Faced with mounting international pressure and numerous casualties, the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989, but continued to support Afghan President Mohammad Najibullah until 1992.WEB,weblink Afghanistan: History â€“ Columbia Encyclopedia,, 11 September 2001, 19 May 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 10 August 2012,

Proxy and civil war and Islamic jihad 1989–96

(File:War in Afganistan (1992–2001).png|thumb|Development of the civil war from 1992 to late 2001)After the Soviet withdrawal, the conflict between the mujahideen and the PDPA continued.'Mujahidin vs. Communists: Revisiting the battles of Jalalabad and Khost. By Anne Stenersen: a Paper presented at the conference COIN in Afghanistan: From Mughals to the Americans, Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), 12–13 February 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2018. President Najibullah, who had become president in 1987, tried to build support for his government by moving away from socialism to pan-Afghan nationalism and portraying his government as Islamic.{{sfn|Barfield|2012|pp=239, 244}}Nevertheless, Najibullah did not win any significant support. In March 1989, mujahideen groups launched an attack on Jalalabad, instigated by the Pakistani ISI, but the attack failed.{{sfn|Barfield|2012|page=241}} With the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991 and the ending of Russian support, President Najibullah was left without foreign aid. In March 1991, mujahideen forces attacked and conquered the city of Khost.In March 1992, President Najibullah agreed to step aside and make way for a mujahideen coalition government. At this time there were seven main mujahideen groups: Hezb-e Islami (Gulbuddin faction), Hezb-e Islami (Khalis faction), Jamiat-e Islami, Islamic Dawah Organisation of Afghanistan, the National Islamic Front for Afghanistan, the National Liberation Front, and the Islamic Revolution Movement . Their leaders came together in Peshawar, Pakistan, to negotiate a coalition government, but Hezbi Islami's leader Gulbuddin Hekmatyar refused to confer and instead invaded Kabul. This kicked off a civil war, starting 25 April 1992, between initially three, but within weeks five or six mujahideen groups.BOOK, Amin Saikal, Amin Saikal, Modern Afghanistan: A History of Struggle and Survival, 2006 1st, 352, I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd., London New York, 978-1-85043-437-5, 13 November 2004, WEB,weblink Blood-Stained Hands, Past Atrocities in Kabul and Afghanistan's Legacy of Impunity, Human Rights Watch,weblink" title="">weblink 12 December 2009, GUTMAN, Roy (2008): How We Missed the Story: Osama Bin Laden, the Taliban and the Hijacking of Afghanistan, Endowment of the United States Institute of Peace, 1st ed., Washington D.C. Kabul was heavily bombarded and partially destroyed by the fighting.File:Kabul during civial war of fundamentalists 1993-2.jpg|thumb|A section of Kabul during the civil war in 1993, which caused significant damage to the capital]]As the war continued in 1993–95, the mujahideen committed widespread rape, murder and extortion.WEB, 2005,weblink Casting Shadows: War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity: 1978–2001, Afghanistan Justice Project, 16 December 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 4 October 2013, WEB,weblink Afghanistan: The massacre in Mazar-i Sharif. (Chapter II: Background), Human Rights Watch, November 1998, 16 December 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 2 November 2008, In January–June 1994, 25,000 people died in Kabul due to fighting between an alliance of Abdul Rashid Dostum's Junbish with Hekmatyar's Hezbi Islami against Ahmad Shah Massoud's Jamiat forces.WEB, 2005,weblink 63, Casting Shadows: War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity: 1978–2001, Afghanistan Justice Project, 16 December 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 4 October 2013, The Taliban emerged in September 1994 as a movement and militia of Pashtun students (talib) from Islamic madrassas (schools) in Pakistan,Matinuddin, Kamal, The Taliban Phenomenon, Afghanistan 1994–1997, Oxford University Press, (1999), pp. 25–26pledged to rid Afghanistan of 'warlords and criminals','The Taliban'. Mapping Militant Organizations. Stanford University. Updated 15 July 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2017.and soon had military support from Pakistan.WEB, 2007,weblink Documents Detail Years of Pakistani Support for Taliban, Extremists, George Washington University, 16 December 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 3 December 2013, In November 1994 the Taliban took control of Kandahar city after forcing out local Pashtunleaders.The Taliban in early 1995 attempted to capture Kabul but were repelled by forces under Massoud. The Taliban grew stronger and in September 1996 attacked and occupied Kabul after Massoud and Hekmatyar had withdrawn their troops from the city.REPORT, {{sfnRef, Chronology of Events, 1997, |title=Afghanistan: Chronology of Events January 1995 – February 1997 | date=February 1997 |publisher=Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada |url=}}Coll, Ghost Wars (New York: Penguin, 2005), 14.

Taliban Emirate and Northern Alliance

In late September 1996, the Taliban, in control of Kabul and most of Afghanistan,Country profile: Afghanistan (published August 2008)(page 3). Library of Congress. Retrieved 13 February 2018. proclaimed the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. The Taliban were condemned internationally for the harsh enforcement of their interpretation of Islamic sharia law, which resulted in the brutal treatment of many Afghans, especially women.BOOK, Skain, Rosemarie, The women of Afghanistan under the Taliban, 2002, McFarland, 978-0-7864-1090-3, 41,
  • NEWS,weblink 18 November 2001, James Gerstenzan, Lisa Getter, Laura Bush Addresses State of Afghan Women, Los Angeles Times, 14 September 2012,
  • WEB,weblink 11 September 2007, Women's Rights in the Taliban and Post-Taliban Eras, PBS, A Woman Among Warlords, 14 September 2012, During their rule, the Taliban and their allies committed massacres against Afghan civilians, denied UN food supplies to 160,000 starving civilians and conducted a policy of scorched earth, burning vast areas of fertile land and destroying tens of thousands of homes.BOOK, Rashid, Ahmed, Taliban: Islam, Oil and the New Great Game in Central Asia, 2002, I.B.Tauris, 978-1-86064-830-4, 253, NEWS,weblink Taliban massacres outlined for UN, October 2001, Chicago Tribune, Edward A, Gargan, WEB,weblink Confidential UN report details mass killings of civilian villagers, 12 October 2001, Newsday, 2001,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 November 2002, {{citation |url= |agency=Associated Press |title=U.N. says Taliban starving hungry people for military agenda | date=7 January 1998}}BOOK, Goodson, Larry P., Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics and the Rise of the Taliban,weblink registration, 2002, University of Washington Press, 978-0-295-98111-6, 121, NEWS,weblink NPR, Re-Creating Afghanistan: Returning to Istalif, 1 August 2002, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 October 2013,
After the fall of Kabul to the Taliban, Massoud and Dostum formed the Northern Alliance. The Taliban defeated Dostum's forces during the Battles of Mazar-i-Sharif (1997–98). Pakistan's Chief of Army Staff, Pervez Musharraf, began sending thousands of Pakistanis to help the Taliban defeat the Northern Alliance.BOOK, Marcela Grad, Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader, 1 March 2009, 310, Webster University Press, WEB, 2010,weblink Ahmed Shah Massoud, History Commons, 16 December 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 25 January 2014, BOOK, Maley, William, The Afghanistan wars, 2009, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-0-230-21313-5, 288, NEWS,weblink Afghanistan resistance leader feared dead in blast, The Telegraph, London, 11 September 2001, Ahmed, Rashid,weblink" title="">weblink 8 November 2013, From 1996 to 2001, the al-Qaeda network of Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri was also operating inside Afghanistan.WEB,weblink Brigade 055, CNN,weblink 29 July 2013, Around 400,000 Afghans died in internal conflicts between 1990 and 2001."Life under Taliban cuts two ways". CSM. 20 September 2001 {{webarchive |url= | date=30 December 2013 }}On 9 September 2001, Massoud was assassinated by two Arab suicide attackers in Panjshir province. Two days later, the September 11 attacks were carried out in the United States. The US government suspected Osama bin Laden as the perpetrator of the attacks, and demanded that the Taliban hand him over.NEWS, Rory McCarthy in Islamabad,weblink New offer on Bin Laden, Guardian, 17 October 2001, 17 July 2012, London,weblink" title="">weblink 28 June 2013, The Taliban offered to hand over Bin Laden to a third country for trial, but not directly to the US. Washington refused that offer.'Trump calls out Pakistan, India as he pledges to 'fight to win' in Afghanistan., 24 August 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2017. Instead, the US launched the October 2001 Operation Enduring Freedom. The majority of Afghans supported the American invasion of their country.WEB,weblink WPO Poll: Afghan Public Overwhelmingly Rejects al-Qaeda, Taliban, 30 January 2006, 2 January 2017, Equally large percentages endorse the US military presence in Afghanistan. Eighty-three percent said they have a favorable view of “the US military forces in our country” (39% very favorable). Just 17% have an unfavorable view., WEB,weblink Afghan Futures: A National Public Opinion Survey, 29 January 2015, 4, 2 January 2017, Seventy-seven percent support the presence of U.S. forces; 67 percent say the same of NATO/ISAF forces more generally. Despite the country’s travails, eight in 10 say it was a good thing for the United States to oust the Taliban in 2001. And much more blame either the Taliban or al Qaeda for the country’s violence, 53 percent, than blame the United States, 12 percent. The latter is about half what it was in 2012, coinciding with a sharp reduction in the U.S. deployment., During the initial invasion, US and UK forces bombed al-Qaeda training camps. Working with the Northern Alliance, the US removed the Taliban from power.NEWS,weblink A Nation challenged: The attack; U.S. and Britain strike Afghanistan, aiming at bases and terrorist camps; Bush warns 'Taliban will pay a price', Tyler, Patrick, 8 October 2001, New York Times, 28 February 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 11 April 2014,

Recent history (2002–present)

{{Further|War in Afghanistan (2001–present)|Taliban insurgency|Civilian casualties in the war in Afghanistan (2001–present)|Corruption in Afghanistan}}File:Hamid Karzai 2006-09-26.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Hamid KarzaiHamid Karzai(File:Afghan history from 2008-2011.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|From upper left, clockwise – Canadian troops in Kandahar; American president Barack Obama meets Afghan leader Hamid Karzai in March 2010; US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton with female politicians in Kabul in October 2011; An officer of the RAF explains a C-27 of the Afghan air force to 'Thunder Lab' students in July 2011)In December 2001, after the Taliban government was overthrown, the Afghan Interim Administration under Hamid Karzai was formed. The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was established by the UN Security Council to help assist the Karzai administration and provide basic security.{{UN document |docid=S-RES-1386(2001) |type=Resolution|body=Security Council|year=2001|resolution_number=1386 |accessdate=21 September 2007| date=31 May 2001}} â€“ (s:United Nations Security Council Resolution 1386|UNSCR 1386]])WEB,weblink United States Mission to Afghanistan,, 14 November 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 21 October 2010, live, Taliban forces meanwhile began regrouping inside Pakistan, while more coalition troops entered Afghanistan and began rebuilding the war-torn country.WEB, Julie, Fossler,weblink USAID Afghanistan,, 14 November 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 17 October 2010, dead, WEB,weblink Canada's Engagement in Afghanistan: Backgrounder,, 9 July 2010, 14 November 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 15 December 2010, dead, Shortly after their fall from power, the Taliban began an insurgency to regain control of Afghanistan. Over the next decade, ISAF and Afghan troops led many offensives against the Taliban, but failed to fully defeat them. Afghanistan remains one of the poorest countries in the world due to a lack of foreign investment, government corruption, and the Taliban insurgency.NEWS,weblink ABC News (US), ABC News, 28 September 2010, Pakistan Accused of Helping Taliban, 31 July 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 21 December 2013, NEWS,weblink The Telegraph, 28 September 2010, Wikileaks: Pakistan accused of helping Taliban in Afghanistan attacks, 26 July 2010, London, Rob, Crilly, Alex, Spillius,weblink" title="">weblink 29 January 2014, Meanwhile, the Afghan government was able to build some democratic structures, and the country changed its name to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Attempts were made, often with the support of foreign donor countries, to improve the country's economy, healthcare, education, transport, and agriculture. ISAF forces also began to train the Afghan National Security Forces. Following 2002, nearly five million Afghans were repatriated.BOOK, Howard Adelman, Protracted Displacement in Asia: No Place to Call Home,weblink 15 April 2016, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-317-07407-6, 167, By 2009, a Taliban-led shadow government began to form in parts of the country.NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, 30 March 2010, Taliban shadow officials offer concrete alternative, Griff, Witte, 8 December 2009, In 2010, President Karzai attempted to hold peace negotiations with the Taliban leaders, but the rebel group refused to attend until mid-2015 when the Taliban supreme leader finally decided to back the peace talks.NEWS,weblink Afghan Taliban leader backs peace talks with Kabul officials, 15 July 2015, Associated Press, Mirwais Khan, 11 June 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 6 August 2016, dead,
Note: It later came to light that Mullah Omar died in 2013. See also: Mullah Omar: Taliban leader 'died in Pakistan in 2013' See also: Afghanistan says Taliban leader Mullah Omar died 2 years ago
In September 2014 Ashraf Ghani became President after the 2014 presidential election where for the first time in Afghanistan's history power was democratically transferred.NEWS, Huge security as Afghan presidential election looms,weblink BBC, 4 April 2014, NEWS, Afghanistan votes in historic presidential election,weblink BBC, 5 April 2014, NEWS, Shalizi and Harooni, Hamid and Mirwais, Landmark Afghanistan Presidential Election Held Under Shadow of Violence,weblink Huffington Post, 4 April 2014, NEWS, Afghanistan's Future: Who's Who in Pivotal Presidential Election,weblink NBC News, NEWS, Afghan president Ashraf Ghani inaugurated after bitter campaign,weblink The Guardian, 12 April 2015, On 28 December 2014, NATO formally ended ISAF combat operations in Afghanistan and transferred full security responsibility to the Afghan government. The NATO-led Operation Resolute Support was formed the same day as a successor to ISAF.NEWS, U.S. formally ends the war in Afghanistan,weblink 28 December 2014, Associated Press, online, CBA News, 28 December 2014, NEWS, Nato ends combat operations in Afghanistan,weblink 11 January 2015, The Guardian, The Guardian, 28 December 2014, Kabul, Sune Engel Rasmussen in Kabul, Thousands of NATO troops remained in the country to train and advise Afghan government forcesWEB, U.S. formally ends the war in Afghanistan,weblink CBS News, 12 April 2015, and continue their fight against the Taliban.WEB,weblink TSG IntelBrief: Afghanistan 16.0, The Soufan Group, 27 September 2018, It was estimated in 2015 that "about 147,000 people have been killed in the Afghanistan war since 2001. More than 38,000 of those killed have been civilians".WEB, Afghan Civilians,weblink Brown University, 2015, 3 September 2015, A report titled Body Count concluded that 106,000–170,000 civilians have been killed as a result of the fighting in Afghanistan at the hands of all parties to the conflict.


File:Koppen-Geiger Map AFG present.svg|thumb|Köppen climate map of AfghanistanJOURNAL, Beck, Hylke E., Zimmermann, Niklaus E., McVicar, Tim R., Vergopolan, Noemi, Berg, Alexis, Wood, Eric F., Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution, Scientific Data, 30 October 2018, 5, 180214, 10.1038/sdata.2018.214, 30375988, 6207062, ]]A landlocked mountainous country with plains in the north and southwest, Afghanistan is located within South Asia* WEB,weblink U.S. maps,, 19 May 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 25 December 2013,
  • WEB,weblink South Asia: Data, Projects, and Research, 2 March 2015,
  • WEB,weblink University of Washington Jackson School of International Studies: The South Asia Center, 2 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2015,
  • WEB,weblink Syracruse University: The South Asia Center, 2 March 2015,
  • WEB,weblink Center for South Asian studies, 2 March 2015, WEB,weblink Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings, UNdata, 26 April 2011, 13 July 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 13 July 2011, live, and Central Asia.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Afghanistan, Encyclopædia Britannica, 17 March 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 25 February 2010, live, The country's highest point is Noshaq, at {{convert|7492|m|abbr=on}} above sea level. It has a continental climate with harsh winters in the central highlands, the glaciated northeast (around Nuristan), and the Wakhan Corridor, where the average temperature in January is below {{convert|-15|C}}, and hot summers in the low-lying areas of the Sistan Basin of the southwest, the Jalalabad basin in the east, and the Turkestan plains along the Amu River in the north, where temperatures average over {{convert|35|C}} in July. The lowest point lies in Jowzjan Province along the Amu River bank, at {{convert|258|m|abbr=on}} above sea level.
File:Geography of Afghanistan.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.25|Landscapes of Afghanistan, from left to right: 1. Band-e Amir National Park; 2. Salang Pass in Parwan Province; 3. Korangal Valley in Kunar Province; and 4. Kajaki Dam in Helmand ProvinceHelmand ProvinceDespite having numerous rivers and reservoirs, large parts of the country are dry. The endorheic Sistan Basin is one of the driest regions in the world.WEB,weblink History of Environmental Change in the Sistan Basin 1976–2005, 20 July 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 7 August 2007, live, Afghanistan receives snow during the winter in the Hindu Kush and Pamir Mountains, and the melting snow in the spring season enters the rivers, lakes, and streams.WEB,weblink Snow in Afghanistan: Natural Hazards, NASA, 3 February 2006, 6 May 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 30 December 2013, NEWS,weblink Reuters, Snow may end Afghan drought, but bitter winter looms, 18 January 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 30 December 2013, However, two-thirds of the country's water flows into the neighboring countries of Iran, Pakistan, and Turkmenistan. The state needs more than {{US$|2 billion}} to rehabilitate its irrigation systems so that the water is properly managed.WEB,weblink Afghanistan's woeful water management delights neighbors,, 15 June 2010, 14 November 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 14 November 2010, live, The northeastern Hindu Kush mountain range, in and around the Badakhshan Province of Afghanistan, is in a geologically active area where earthquakes may occur almost every year.TECHREPORT, Crone, Anthony J., Earthquakes Pose a Serious Hazard in Afghanistan,weblink US Geological Survey, 14 October 2011, Fact Sheet FS 2007–3027, April 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 27 July 2013, They can be deadly and destructive, causing landslides in some parts or avalanches during the winter.WEB, Earthquake Hazards,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 4 October 2011, USGS Projects in Afghanistan, US Geological Survey, 13 October 2011, 1 August 2011, The last strong earthquakes were in 1998, which killed about 6,000 people in Badakhshan near Tajikistan.NEWS, 'Seven dead' as earthquake rocks Afghanistan,weblink 13 October 2011, BBC News, 19 April 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 31 December 2013, This was followed by the 2002 Hindu Kush earthquakes in which over 150 people were killed and over 1,000 injured. A 2010 earthquake left 11 Afghans dead, over 70 injured, and more than 2,000 houses destroyed.The country's natural resources include: coal, copper, iron ore, lithium, uranium, rare earth elements, chromite, gold, zinc, talc, barite, sulfur, lead, marble, precious and semi-precious stones, natural gas, and petroleum, among other things.TECHREPORT, Peters, Steven G., Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007,weblink USGS Afghanistan Project/US Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey, 13 October 2011, Fact Sheet 2007–3063, October 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 27 July 2013, In 2010, US and Afghan government officials estimated that untapped mineral deposits located in 2007 by the US Geological Survey are worth at least {{nowrap|$1 trillion}}.NEWS, Afghans say US team found huge potential mineral wealth,weblink 13 October 2011, BBC News, 14 June 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2013, (File:Afghanistan physical en.png|thumb|Topography)At over {{convert|652230|km2|abbr=on}},WEB, Land area (sq. km),weblink World Development Indicators, World Bank, 13 October 2011, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 29 October 2013, Afghanistan is the world's 41st largest country,WEB,weblink CIA Factbook â€“ Area: 41, CIA, 26 November 1991, 4 February 2012,weblink 31 January 2014, slightly bigger than France and smaller than Burma, about the size of Texas in the United States. It borders Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and China in the far east.BOOK, Cary Gladstone, Afghanistan Revisited,weblink 2001, Nova Publishers, 978-1-59033-421-8, 121,


{{Map of major cities of Afghanistan}}{|class="wikitable" style="float: right; margin-left: 10px"
The population of Afghanistan was estimated at 32.2 million in 2019. Of this, 16.4 million are males and 15.8 million females. About 23.9% of them are urbanite, 71.4% live in rural areas, and the remaining 4.7% are nomadic. An additional 3 million or so Afghans are temporarily housed in neighboring Pakistan and Iran, most of whom were born and raised in those two countries. The current population growth rate is 2.37%,WEB,weblink Afghanistan, The World Factbook,, 22 August 2018, the highest in the world outside of Africa. This population is expected to reach 82 million by 2050 if current population trends continue.WEB,weblink Afghanistan â€“ Population Reference Bureau, Population Reference Bureau, 29 December 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 2 December 2013, The only city with over a million residents is its capital, Kabul. After Kabul the other five large cities are Kandahar, Herat, Mazar-i-Sharif, Kunduz and Jalalabad.{{Largest cities of Afghanistan}}

Ethnic groups

Afghanistan's population is divided into several ethnolinguistic groups, which are represented in the ethnolinguistic map and listed in the chart below. The percentages given are estimates only, as accurate and current statistical data on ethnicity are not available.File:US Army ethnolinguistic map of Afghanistan -- circa 2001-09.jpg|thumb|center|upright=2.2|Ethnolinguistic groups of Afghanistan as of 2001]]{| class="wikitable sortable" style="width:65%; margin: 1em auto;"|+Ethnic groups in Afghanistan! style="background:#ddf; width:10%;"|Ethnic group! style="background:#ddf; width:15%;"|{{small|Library of Congress 2008 estimate}}Pashtun people>Pashtun42%Tajik people>Tajik27%Hazara people>Hazara9%Uzbeks>Uzbek9%Aimaq people>Aimak4%Turkmen people>Turkmen3%Baloch people>Baloch2%Ethnic groups in Afghanistan#Ethnic groups>others (Pashayi people, Nuristani people>Nuristani, Pamiri people, History of Arabs in Afghanistan>Arab, etc.)4%{{clear}}


{{bar box|title =Spoken ability of different languages in Afghanistan| titlebar=#ddd| float=right|bars ={{bar percent|Dari (Afghan Persian)|green|77}}{{bar percent|Pashto|red|48}}{{bar percent|Uzbek|blue|11}}{{bar percent|English|red|6}}{{bar percent|Turkmen|blue|3}}{{bar percent|Urdu|red|3}}{{bar percent|Pashayi|blue|1}}{{bar percent|Nuristani|red|1}}{{bar percent|Arabic|blue|1}}{{bar percent|Balochi|red|1}}}}Dari and Pashto are the official languages of Afghanistan; bilingualism is very common.WEB, Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan,weblink Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state. Uzbek, Turkmen, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani and Pamiri are – in addition to Pashto and Dari – the third official language in areas where the majority speaks them, 2004, 13 June 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 28 October 2013, Dari, which is a variety of and mutually intelligible with Persian (and very often called 'Farsi' by some Afghans like in Iran) functions as the lingua franca in Kabul as well as in much of the northern and northwestern parts of the country. Pashto is the native tongue of the Pashtuns, although many of them are also fluent in Dari while some non-Pashtuns are fluent in Pashto.There are a number of smaller regional languages, they include Uzbek, Turkmen, Balochi, Pashayi, and Nuristani. Some Afghans are also fluent in Urdu, English, and other foreign languages.The Asia Foundation. Afghanistan in 2018: A Survey of the Afghan People.


{{Bar box| title=Religion in Afghanistan| titlebar=#ddd| float=right| bars={{Bar percent|Sunni Islam |green |70}}{{Bar percent|Imami Shia Islam |lightgreen |25}}{{Bar percent|Ismaili Shia Islam |greenyellow |4.5}}{{Bar percent|others |orange |0.5}}}}An estimated 99.7% of the Afghan population is Muslim.{| class="wikitable"|+ style="background:#ececec; vertical-align:top;"!| Source!| Sunni Islam! colspan=2| Shia Islam!| other!| just a Muslim!| Nothing, do not know, or no answer Pew Research CenterHTTP://WWW.PEWFORUM.ORG/2012/08/09/THE-WORLDS-MUSLIMS-UNITY-AND-DIVERSITY-1-RELIGIOUS-AFFILIATION/#IDENTITY>TITLE=CHAPTER 1: RELIGIOUS AFFILIATIONWORK=THE WORLD’S MUSLIMS: UNITY AND DIVERSITYPEW RESEARCH CENTER'S RELIGION & PUBLIC LIFE PROJECT>ACCESSDATE=22 AUGUST 2018, 90% 7% 0% 3% 0% CIA Factbook (2009 estimate) 84.7 – 89.7% 10 – 15% 0.3%!| Source!| Sunni Islam!| Imami Shia Islam!| Ismaili Shia Islam!| other!|!| Dr Michael IzadyHTTP://GULF2000.COLUMBIA.EDU/IMAGES/MAPS/AFGHANISTAN_RELIGION_LG.PNG>FIRST1=MICHAELTITLE=CHAPTER 1: RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION OF|accessdate=22 August 2018}} 70% 25% 4.5% 0.5%Thousands of Afghan Sikhs and Hindus are also found in the major cities.WEB, Lavina Melwani,weblink Hindus Abandon Afghanistan, Hinduism Today, 19 May 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2007, NEWS, Majumder, Sanjoy,weblink Sikhs struggle in Afghanistan, BBC News, 25 September 2003, 19 May 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 22 February 2009, There was a small Jewish community in Afghanistan who had emigrated to Israel and the United States by the end of the twentieth century; at least one Jew, Zablon Simintov, remained.NEWS,weblink Afghan Jew Becomes Country's One and Only, N.C. Aizenman,, 27 January 2005, 19 May 2012, Afghan Christians, who number 500–8,000, practice their faith secretly due to intense societal opposition.WEB, USSD Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, 2009, International Religious Freedom Report 2009,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2009-11-30, 2010-03-06, WEB,weblink Christians in Afghanistan: A Community of Faith and Fear,, 20 March 2006, 25 April 2019,


File:New Afghan Parliament Building.png|thumb|The National Assembly of AfghanistanNational Assembly of AfghanistanAfghanistan is an Islamic republic consisting of three branches, the executive, legislative, and judicial. The nation is led by President Ashraf Ghani with Abdul Rashid Dostum and Sarwar Danish as vice presidents. Abdullah Abdullah serves as the chief executive officer (CEO). The National Assembly is the legislature, a bicameral body having two chambers, the House of the People and the House of Elders. The Supreme Court is led by Chief Justice Said Yusuf Halem, the former Deputy Minister of Justice for Legal Affairs.WEB,weblink The Supreme Court Chief Justice Biography,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 October 2015, WEB,weblink Database,, According to Transparency International, Afghanistan remains in the top most corrupt countries list.WEB,weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2016 Results, Transparency International, 30 November 2017, A January 2010 report published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime revealed that bribery consumed an amount equal to 23% of the GDP of the nation.WEB,weblink Corruption widespread in Afghanistan, UNODC survey says,, 19 January 2010, 14 November 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 16 April 2014,

Elections and parties

File:President Donald J. Trump and President Ashraf Ghani of Afghanistan at the United Nations General Assembly (36747065014).jpg|thumb|left|U.S. President Donald Trump with president of Afghanistan Ashraf GhaniAshraf GhaniOne instrument of Afghan governance is the loya jirga (grand assembly), a Pashtun consultative meeting that is mainly organized for choosing a new head of state, adopting a new constitution, or to settle national or regional issue such as war.NEWS,weblink BBC News, Q&A: What is a loya jirga?, July 1, 2002, May 11, 2010, Loya jirgas have been held since at least 1747,{{sfn|Barfield|2012|page=295}} with the most recent one occurring in 2013.WEB,weblink Loya jirga approves U.S.-Afghan security deal; asks Karzai to sign, CNN, 17 November 2013, 2 June 2019, Under the 2004 constitution, both presidential and parliamentary elections are to be held every five years. However, due to the disputed 2014 presidential election, the scheduled 2015 parliamentary elections were delayed until 2018.NEWS,weblink Afghans defy deadly poll violence, 2018-10-21, BBC News, 2018-11-16, en-GB, Presidential elections use the two-round system; if no candidate receives a majority of the vote in the first round, a second round will be held featuring the top two candidates. Parliamentary elections have only one round and are based on the single non-transferable vote system, which allows some candidates to be elected with as little as one percent of the vote.WEB, Afghanistan's "Lottery Effect",weblink Afghan 2010, 10 January 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 2015-01-10, dead, The 2004 Afghan presidential election was relatively peaceful, in which Hamid Karzai won in the first round with 55.4% of the votes. However, the 2009 presidential election was characterized by lack of security, low voter turnout, and widespread electoral fraud, ending in Karzai's reelection.NEWS, Cooper, Helene,weblink Karzai Gets New Term as Afghan Runoff is Scrapped,, 2 November 2009, 4 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2011, The 2014 presidential election ended with Ashraf Ghani winning by 56.44% of the votes.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 6 June 2018, 4 July 2019, 2014 Afghanistan Election Results, Independent Election Commission of Afghanistan, File:Presidential Palace - panoramio (7).jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|right|The Arg (Presidential Palace) ]]Political parties played a marginal role in post-2001 Afghan politics, in part due to Karzai's opposition to them.{{sfn|Barfield|2012|page=301}} In the 2005 parliamentary election, the ballots did not show candidates' party affiliation, so the results were dictated by the personal prestige of the candidates.{{sfn|Barfield|2012|page=301}} Among the elected officials were former mujahideen, Islamic fundamentalists, warlords, communists, reformists, and several Taliban associates.WEB,weblink RAWA Photo Gallery: They are Responsible for Afghanistan's Tragedy, RAWA, 11 October 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 19 October 2010, live, In the same period, Afghanistan became the 30th highest nation in terms of female representation in the National Assembly.WEB,weblink Women in Parliaments: World Classification,, 30 November 2009, 29 December 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 28 March 2014, Parties became more influential after 2009, when a new law established more stringent requirements for party registration.WEB,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink Political Parties in Afghanistan, 3 July 2011, 6 July 2019, British Embassy Kabul, Nearly a hundred new parties were registered after the law came into effect,WEB,weblink" title="">weblinkweblink Afghanistan sees new political parties form, Central Asia Online, 22 February 2014, Zia Ur Rehman, and party activity increased in the 2014 elections, but party influence remained limited.WEB,weblink Political Parties in Afghanistan, 1–3, 6 July 2019, Anna Larson, United States Institute of Peace,

Administrative divisions

Afghanistan is administratively divided into 34 provinces (wilayats).WEB,weblink Afghanistan Provinces, 4 July 2019, Ariana News, Each province is the size of a U.S. county, having a governor and a capital. The country is further divided into nearly 400 provincial districts, each of which normally covers a city or several villages. Each district is represented by a district governor.The provincial governors are appointed by the President of Afghanistan, and the district governors are selected by the provincial governors.NEWS,weblink For Afghan Officials, Prospect of Death Comes With Territory, Ahmed, Azam, 8 December 2012, The New York Times, 7 April 2017, 0362-4331, The provincial governors are representatives of the central government in Kabul and are responsible for all administrative and formal issues within their provinces. There are also provincial councils that are elected through direct and general elections for four years.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 27 August 2010, Explaining Elections, Independent Election Commission of Afghanistan,, 9 October 2004, 4 February 2012, The functions of provincial councils are to take part in provincial development planning and to participate in the monitoring and appraisal of other provincial governance institutions.According to article 140 of the constitution and the presidential decree on electoral law, mayors of cities should be elected through free and direct elections for a four-year term. In practice however, mayors are appointed by the government.WEB, An Assessment of Afghanistan's Municipal Governance Framework,weblink 4 July 2019, Urban Institute Center on International Development and Governance, Jamie Boex, Grace Buencamino, Deborah Kimble, The following is a list of all the 34 provinces in alphabetical order:File:Afghanistan provinces numbered.png|thumb|upright=1.6|Afghanistan is divided into 34 provinces, which are further divided into a number of districts ]]{{colbegin}}
  1. Badakhshan
  2. Badghis
  3. Baghlan
  4. Balkh
  5. Bamyan
  6. Daykundi
  7. Farah
  8. Faryab
  9. Ghazni
  10. Ghor
  11. Helmand
  12. Herat
  13. Jowzjan
  14. Kabul
  15. Kandahar
  16. Kapisa
  17. Khost
  18. Kunar
  19. Kunduz
  20. Laghman
  21. Logar
  22. Nangarhar
  23. Nimruz
  24. Nuristan
  25. Oruzgan
  26. Paktia
  27. Paktika
  28. Panjshir
  29. Parwan
  30. Samangan
  31. Sar-e Pol
  32. Takhar
  33. Wardak
  34. Zabul

Foreign relations and military

File:First set of Afghan UH-60A Black Hawks.jpg|thumb|Black Hawks of the Afghan Air Force at Kandahar Airfield. As a major non-NATO ally, the Afghan Armed Forces receive most of their equipment and training from the United States.]]Afghanistan became a member of the United Nations in 1946.{{sfn|Dupree|1997|page=642}} It enjoys cordial relations with a number of NATO and allied nations, particularly the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, and Turkey. In 2012, the United States and Afghanistan signed their Strategic Partnership Agreement in which Afghanistan became a major non-NATO ally.NEWS, Hillary Clinton says Afghanistan 'major non-Nato ally',weblink 4 July 2019, BBC News, July 7, 2012, Afghanistan also has friendly diplomatic relations with neighboring China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, including with regional states such as Bangladesh, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Nepal, Russia, South Korea, the UAE, and so forth. The Afghan Ministry of Foreign Affairs continues to develop diplomatic relations with other countries around the world.The United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) was established in 2002 to help the country recover from decades of war.NEWS,weblink Security Council endorses establishment of UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan for initial 12-month period, 28 March 2002, United Nations,weblink 21 July 2006, 28 July 2019, live, Today, several NATO member states deploy about 17,000 troops in Afghanistan as part of the Resolute Support Mission.WEB,weblink Resolute Support Mission: Key Facts and Figures, NATO, June 2019, Its main purpose is to train the Afghan National Security Forces. The Afghan Armed Forces are under the Ministry of Defense, which includes the Afghan Air Force (AAF) and the Afghan National Army (ANA). The Afghan Defense University houses various educational establishments for the Afghan Armed Forces, including the National Military Academy of Afghanistan.WEB, Glasch, Mike, USACE TAA employee named top engineer,weblink, US Army, 22 November 2016,

Law enforcement

File:ANP trucks in Kunar.jpg|thumb|Afghan National Police (ANP) in Kunar ProvinceKunar Province
Law enforcement in Afghanistan is the responsibility of the Afghan National Police (ANP), which is part of the Ministry of Interior Affairs. The ANP consists of two primary branches, the Afghan Uniformed Police and the Afghan Border Police. The mission of the Uniformed Police is to ensure security within Afghanistan, prevent crime, and protect property. The Border Police is responsible for securing and maintaining the nation's borders with neighboring states as well as all international airports within the country.WEB, Afghan National Security Forces Order of Battle, The Long War Journal, CJ Radin, November 2008, 25 May 2019,weblink Afghanistan's intelligence agency, the National Directorate of Security (NDS), assists the ANP with security matters.WEB,weblink Afghanistan's dysfunctional security agencies, British Broadcasting Corporation, 14 August 2011, 25 May 2019, All parts of Afghanistan are considered dangerous due to militant activities and terrorism-related incidents. Kidnapping for ransom and robberies are common in major cities. Every year hundreds of Afghan police are killed in the line of duty.NEWS,weblink Staggering Afghan death toll revealed, 2019-01-25, 2019-01-25, en-GB,weblink 25 January 2019, live, dmy-all, Afghanistan is also the world's leading producer of opium.WEB,weblink UNODC 2010 world drug report, page 43, November 30, 2011, Afghanistan's opium poppy harvest produces more than 90% of illicit heroin globally, and more than 95% of the European supply.BOOK, Vanda Felbab-Brown, Shooting Up: Counterinsurgency and the War on Drugs,weblink 1 December 2009, Brookings Institution Press, 978-0-8157-0450-8, 113, Vanda Felbab-Brown, DAVID GREENE (HOST, MORNING EDITION), HAYATULLAH HAYAT (GOVERNOR OF HELMAND PROVINCE, AFGHANISTAN), TOM BOWMAN (REPORTER), DIANNE FEINSTEIN (U.S. SENATOR, CHAIR OF THE CAUCUS ON INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS CONTROL)>DATE=6 JULY 2016MEDIUM=RADIO BROADCASTACCESS-DATE=6 JULY 2016PUBLISHER=NPRMinistry of Counter Narcotics (Afghanistan)>Afghan Ministry of Counter Narcotics is responsible for the monitoring and eradication of the illegal drug business.

Human rights

{{See also|Human rights in Afghanistan|LGBT rights in Afghanistan}}Journalist in Afghanistan face threat from both the security forces and insurgents.NEWS,weblink Afghan journalists 'face increasing attacks and threats' - report, 21 January 2015, The Guardian, Afghan Journalists Safety Committee (AJSC) in 2017 claim that Afghan government accounted for 46% of the attacks on Afghans journalist, while insurgents were responsible for rest of the attacks.NEWS,weblink Violence Against Journalists Surges In Afghanistan In 2017, 25 July 2017, RFERL, Homosexuality is illegal and is a capital offense in Afghanistan.WEB,weblink LGBT relationships are illegal in 74 countries, research finds, The Independent, 17 May 2016,


File:Afghan pomegranate processing.jpg|thumb|left|Workers processing pomegranates (anaar), which Afghanistan is famous for in Asia]]Afghanistan's nominal GDP was $21.7 billion in 2018, or $72.9 billion by purchasing power parity (PPP). Its GDP per capita is $2,024 (PPP). Despite having $1 trillion or more in mineral deposits,WEB,weblink Karzai Woos India Inc. as Delay on U.S. Pact Deters Billions, Kartikay, Mehrotra, it remains one of the world's least developed countries. The country imports over $7 billion worth of goods but exports only $784 million, mainly fruits and nuts. It has $2.8 billion in external debt.Agricultural production is the backbone of Afghanistan's economy.WEB,weblink Agriculture, USAID, 23 May 2017, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 September 2013, The country is known for producing pomegranates, grapes, apricots, melons, and several other fresh and dry fruits. It is also known as the world's largest producer of opium. As much as 16% or more of the nation's economy is derived from the cultivation and sale of opium.WEB,weblink AAN Q&A: An established industry – Basic facts about Afghanistan’s opium-driven economy, Afghanistan Analysts Network, 11 July 2017, 10 August 2019, (File:Afghan women at a textile factory in Kabul.jpg|thumb|Afghan women at a textile factory in Kabul)While the nation's current account deficit is largely financed with donor money, only a small portion is provided directly to the government budget. The rest is provided to non-budgetary expenditure and donor-designated projects through the United Nations system and non-governmental organizations.WEB,weblink The Taliban Is Capturing Afghanistan's $1 Trillion in Mining Wealth,, 20 October 2015, 23 May 2017, File:Afghanistan, Trends in the Human Development Index 1970-2010.png|thumb|left|Afghanistan, Trends in the Human Development IndexHuman Development IndexDa Afghanistan Bank serves as the central bank of the nationWEB, Interest Rate Cut In Place, Says Central Bank, TOLOnews, 2019-05-28,weblink and the "Afghani" (AFN) is the national currency, with an exchange rate of about 75 Afghanis to 1 US dollar.NEWS, Afghani Falls Against Dollar By 3% In A Month,weblink TOLOnews, April 18, 2019, 28 May 2019, A number of local and foreign banks operate in the country, including the Afghanistan International Bank, New Kabul Bank, Azizi Bank, Pashtany Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, and the First Micro Finance Bank.One of the main drivers for the current economic recovery is the return of over 5 million expatriates, who brought with them entrepreneurship and wealth-creating skills as well as much needed funds to start up businesses. Many Afghans are now involved in construction, which is one of the largest industries in the country.NEWS,weblink Afghan Companies Say U.S. Did Not Pay Them, New York Times, Carlotta, Gall, 7 July 2010, 30 September 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2013, Some of the major national construction projects include the {{nowrap|$35 billion}} New Kabul City next to the capital, the Aino Mena project in Kandahar, and the Ghazi Amanullah Khan Town near Jalalabad.WEB,weblink the Kabul New City Official Website, DCDA, 4 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 30 December 2013, WEB,weblink Ghazi Amanullah Khan City, 2009,, 15 August 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2013, WEB,weblink Case study: Aino Mina,, 4 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 6 January 2014, Similar development projects have also begun in Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, and other cities.A Humane Afghan City? by Ann Marlowe in Forbes 2 September 2009. {{webarchive |url= | date=31 December 2013 }} An estimated 400,000 people enter the labor market each year.WEB, Michael Sprague, AFGHANISTAN COUNTRY PROFILE,weblink, (File:Afghan market teeming with vendors and shoppers 2-4-09.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|A bustling market street in central Kabul, 2009)Several small companies and factories began operating in different parts of the country, which not only provide revenues to the government but also create new jobs. Improvements to the business environment have resulted in more than $1.5 billion in telecom investment and created more than 100,000 jobs since 2003.WEB,weblink Economic Growth, USAID, 25 September 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 29 September 2013, Afghan rugs are becoming popular again, allowing many carpet dealers around the country to hire more workers.Afghanistan is a member of WTO, SAARC, ECO, and OIC. It holds an observer status in SCO.


File:Lapis Lazuli from Afganistan.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Lapis lazuliLapis lazuliMichael E. O'Hanlon of the Brookings Institution estimated that if Afghanistan generates about $10 billion per year from its mineral deposits, its gross national product would double and provide long-term funding for Afghan security forces and other critical needs.O'Hanlon, Michael E. "Deposits Could Aid Ailing Afghanistan" {{webarchive |url= | date=23 September 2011 }}, The Brookings Institution, 16 June 2010. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) estimated in 2006 that northern Afghanistan has an average {{convert|2.9|e9oilbbl|e6m3|abbr=unit|order=flip}} of crude oil, {{convert|15.7|e12cuft|abbr=unit|order=flip}} of natural gas, and {{convert|562|e6USbbl|e9L|0|abbr=unit|order=flip}} of natural gas liquids.TECHREPORT, Klett, T.R., Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of Northern Afghanistan, 2006,weblink USGS-Afghanistan Ministry of Mines & Industry Joint Oil & Gas Resource Assessment Team, 13 October 2011, March 2006, Fact Sheet 2006–3031,weblink" title="">weblink 27 July 2013, In 2011, Afghanistan signed an oil exploration contract with China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) for the development of three oil fields along the Amu Darya river in the north.NEWS,weblink Afghanistan signs '$7 bn' oil deal with China, 28 December 2011, 29 December 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 30 December 2013, The country has significant amounts of lithium, copper, gold, coal, iron ore, and other minerals.WEB,weblink'gold%20and%20copper%20discovered%20in%20afghanistan', PDF, Minerals in Afghanistan, British Geological Survey, 4 December 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 26 July 2013, WEB,weblink Afghanistan's Mineral Fortune, Institute for Environmental Diplomacy and Security Report, 2011, 16 December 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 12 December 2013, The Khanashin carbonatite in Helmand Province contains {{convert|1000000|t|lk=out}} of rare earth elements.TECHREPORT, Tucker, Ronald D., Rare Earth Element Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Preliminary Resource Assessment of the Khanneshin Carbonatite Complex, Helmand Province, Afghanistan,weblink USGS, 13 October 2011, 2011, Open-File Report 2011–1207,weblink" title="">weblink 27 July 2013, In 2007, a 30-year lease was granted for the Aynak copper mine to the China Metallurgical Group for $3 billion,"China, Not U.S., Likely to Benefit from Afghanistan's Mineral Riches". Daily Finance. 14 June 2010 {{webarchive |url= | date=31 December 2013 }} making it the biggest foreign investment and private business venture in Afghanistan's history.NEWS,weblink China Willing to Spend Big on Afghan Commerce, The New York Times, 29 December 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 31 July 2011, The state-run Steel Authority of India won the mining rights to develop the huge Hajigak iron ore deposit in central Afghanistan."Indian Group Wins Rights to Mine in Afghanistan's Hajigak {{webarchive |url= | date=10 October 2013 }}". Businessweek. 6 December 2011 Government officials estimate that 30% of the country's untapped mineral deposits are worth at least {{nowrap|$1 trillion}}. One official asserted that "this will become the backbone of the Afghan economy" and a Pentagon memo stated that Afghanistan could become the "Saudi Arabia of lithium".NEWS,weblink U.S. Identifies Vast Riches of Minerals in Afghanistan, The New York Times, James, Risen, 17 June 2010, 14 November 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 17 June 2010, live, In a 2011 news story, the CSM reported, "The United States and other Western nations that have borne the brunt of the cost of the Afghan war have been conspicuously absent from the bidding process on Afghanistan's mineral deposits, leaving it mostly to regional powers.""China wins $700 million Afghan oil and gas deal. Why didn't the US bid?". 28 December 2011 {{webarchive |url= | date=31 December 2013 }}



File:Ariana Afghan A310-300 F-GEMO.jpg|thumb|An Ariana Afghan Airlines Airbus A310Airbus A310Air transport in Afghanistan is provided by the national carrier, Ariana Afghan Airlines,NEWS, EU To Impose Ban On Afghan Planes,weblink Airwise News, {{date, 2010-11-22, |accessdate=28 May 2019 |quote=Kabul-based Safi is the country's No. 2 airline after national carrier Ariana Afghan Airlines |df=dmy }} and by the private company Kam Air. Airlines from a number of countries also provide flights in and out of the country. These include Air India, Emirates, Gulf Air, Iran Aseman Airlines, Pakistan International Airlines, and Turkish Airlines.The country has four international airports: Hamid Karzai International Airport (formerly Kabul International Airport), Kandahar International Airport, Herat International Airport, and Mazar-e Sharif International Airport. Including domestic airports, there are 43.


(File:Rail crossing in northern Afghanistan.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|right|Rail crossing in northern Afghanistan on the line towards Uzbekistan)The country has three rail links: one, a {{convert|75|km|adj=on|sp=us}} line from Mazar-i-Sharif to the Uzbekistan border;WEB,weblink Hairatan to Mazar-i-Sharif railway – Railways of Afghanistan,, a {{convert|10|km|adj=on|sp=us}} long line from Toraghundi to the Turkmenistan border (where it continues as part of Turkmen Railways); and a short link from Aqina across the Turkmen border to Kerki, which is planned to be extended further across Afghanistan.WEB,weblink Afghan-Turkmenistan railroad inaugurated,, These lines are used for freight only and there is no passenger service. A rail line between Khaf, Iran and Herat, western Afghanistan, intended for both freight and passengers, is under construction as of 2019.WEB,weblink Khaf-Herat railroad to be launched in Iran soon, "Iran-Afghanistan railway networks through Khaf-Herat Railroad will be completed in the next few months," Yazdani said, according to Mehr news agency on August 3, WEB,weblink Iran Strongly Condemns Herat Railway Mine Blast, 20 May 2019, 7 July 2019, Iran Front Page, About {{convert|125|km|sp=us}} of the line will lie on the Afghan side.WEB,weblink Rail Linkup With Afghanistan by March 2018, 25 February 2017, WEB, Khaf-Herat railway,weblink RaillyNews {{!, Dailly Railway News in English |date=10 December 2013 |access-date=1 June 2014 |archive-url= |archive-date=20 December 2017 |url-status=dead |df=dmy-all }} There are various proposals for the construction of additional rail lines in the country.WEB, Railways of Afghanistan -Afghan railroads, past, present and future,weblink,


The most important road in Afghanistan is Highway 1, also called the Ring Road, which extends for {{convert|2210|km|sp=us}} and connects four major cities: Kabul, Ghazni, Kandahar, and Herat.WEB,weblink Going in Circles: The never-ending story of Afghanistan's unfinished Ring Road, Afghanistan Analysts Network, Qayoom Suroush, 16 January 2015, 7 July 2019, A key portion of Highway 1 is the Salang Tunnel, completed in 1964, which facilitates travel through the Hindu Kush mountain range and connects northern and southern Afghanistan.BOOK, Cary Gladstone, Afghanistan Revisited,weblink 2001, Nova Publishers, 978-1-59033-421-8, 122, Traveling by bus in Afghanistan remains dangerous due to militant activities.WEB, Driving in Afghanistan,weblink Caravanistan, Caravanistan, 22 November 2016, Serious traffic accidents are common on Afghan roads and highways, particularly on the Kabul–Kandahar and the Kabul–Jalalabad Road.NEWS,weblink Afghan bus crash kills 45,, 26 April 2013, 4 November 2014,


(File:Kabul Military Hospital - panoramio.jpg|thumb|A hospital in Kabul)According to the Human Development Index, Afghanistan is the 15th least developed country in the world. The average life expectancy is estimated to be around 60 years.WEB,weblink Afghanistan, World Health Organization (WHO), 17 May 2017, UNESCO, Country profile,weblink The country's maternal mortality rate is 396 deaths/100,000 live births and its infant mortality rate is 66 to 112.8 deaths in every 1,000 live births. The Ministry of Public Health plans to cut the infant mortality rate to 400 for every 100,000 live births before 2020. The country has more than 3,000 midwives, with an additional 300 to 400 being trained each year.NEWS,weblink Childbirth and maternal health improve in Afghanistan, Tom A., Peter, Christian Science Monitor, 17 December 2011, 12 January 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 31 December 2013, There are over 100 hospitals in Afghanistan,NEWS,weblink Afghanistan National Hospital Survey, August 2004, 28 March 2017, Afghan Ministry of Health, with the most advanced treatments being available in Kabul. The French Medical Institute for Children and Indira Gandhi Children's Hospital in Kabul are the leading children's hospitals in the country. Some of the other leading hospitals in Kabul include the Jamhuriat Hospital and Jinnah Hospital.NEWS,weblink Pakistan-funded Afghan Hospital Begins Operations, VOA News, Ayaz, Gul, 20 April 2019, 28 May 2019, It opens a new chapter in the friendship of the two countries... This is the second-largest hospital [in Afghanistan] built with your support that will serve the needy," Feroz told the gathering., In spite of all this, many Afghans travel to Pakistan and India for advanced treatment.It was reported in 2006 that nearly 60% of the Afghan population lives within a two-hour walk of the nearest health facility.WEB,weblink Health, United States Agency for International Development (USAID), 20 October 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 29 September 2013, Disability rate is also high in Afghanistan due to the decades of war.WEB, Anne-Marie DiNardo, LPA/PIPOS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 8 May 2004, Empowering Afghanistan's Disabled Population â€“ 31 March 2006,, 31 March 2006, 19 May 2012, It was reported recently that about 80,000 people are missing limbs.NEWS, Richard Norton-Taylor,weblink Afghanistan's refugee crisis 'ignored', Guardian, 13 February 2008, 19 May 2012, London,weblink" title="">weblink 15 December 2010, "Afghanistan: People living with disabilities call for integration {{webarchive |url= | date=20 September 2011 }} Non-governmental charities such as Save the Children and Mahboba's Promise assist orphans in association with governmental structures.Virginia Haussegger Mahooba's Promise ABC TV 7.30 Report. 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009. {{webarchive |url= | date=26 July 2013 }} Demographic and Health Surveys is working with the Indian Institute of Health Management Research and others to conduct a survey in Afghanistan focusing on maternal death, among other things.WEB,weblink Afghanistan,, 14 November 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 30 December 2013,


(File:UNESCO Institute of Statistics Afghanistan Literacy Rate population plus15 1980-2015.png|thumb|UNESCO Institute of Statistics Afghanistan Literacy Rate population plus15 1980–2015)Education in Afghanistan includes K–12 and higher education, which is overseen by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Higher Education. There are over 16,000 schools in the country and roughly 9 million students. Of this, about 60% are males and 40% females. Over 174,000 students are enrolled in different universities around the country. About 21% of these are females.WEB,weblink Education, United States Agency for International Development, USAID, 26 May 2017, Former Education Minister Ghulam Farooq Wardak had stated that construction of 8,000 schools is required for the remaining children who are deprived of formal learning.WEB,weblink Wardak seeks $3b in aid for school buildings, Pajhwok Afghan News, 18 May 2013, 13 August 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 30 December 2013, The top universities in Afghanistan are the American University of Afghanistan (AUAF) followed by Kabul University (KU), both of which are located in Kabul. The National Military Academy of Afghanistan, modeled after the United States Military Academy at West Point, is a four-year military development institution dedicated to graduating officers for the Afghan Armed Forces. The Afghan Defense University was constructed near Qargha in Kabul. Major universities outside of Kabul include Kandahar University in the south, Herat University in the northwest, Balkh University and Kunduz University in the north, Nangarhar University and Khost University in the east. The United States is building six faculties of education and five provincial teacher training colleges around the country, two large secondary schools in Kabul, and one school in Jalalabad.The literacy rate of the population is 38.2% (males 52% and females 24.2%). The Afghan National Security Forces are provided with mandatory literacy courses.WEB,weblink Rising literacy in Afghanistan ensures transition,, 4 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 9 December 2013,


File:Grupka Pasztunów - Qajsār - 001620s.jpg|thumb|upright|left|upright=1.15|Men wearing traditional Afghan (Pashtun) dress in Faryab ProvinceFaryab ProvinceFile:Afghan girls in traditional clothes-May 2011.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Ethnic Tajik girls in traditional clothing in Mazar-i-SharifMazar-i-SharifAfghanistan is a predominantly tribal society, with different regions of the country having their own cultures. In the southern and eastern region, the people live according to the Pashtun culture by following Pashtunwali (the Pashtun way).US Library of Congress: Afghanistan â€“ Ethnic Groups (Pashtun) {{Webarchive|url= |date=14 July 2012 }} Key tenets of Pashtunwali include hospitality, the provision of sanctuary to those seeking refuge, and revenge for the shedding of blood.{{sfn|Dupree|1997|page=126}} The Pashtuns (and Baloch) are largely connected to the culture of South Asia. The remaining Afghans are culturally Persian and Turkic. Some non-Pashtuns who live in proximity with Pashtuns have adopted Pashtunwali in a process called Pashtunization, while some Pashtuns have been Persianized. Those who have lived in Pakistan and Iran over the last 30 years have been further influenced by the cultures of those neighboring nations.Afghans, particularly Pashtuns, are noted for their tribal solidarity and high regard for personal honor.{{sfn|Barfield|2012|page=59}} One writer considers the tribal system to be the best way of organizing large groups of people in a country that is geographically difficult, and in a society that, from a materialistic point of view, has an uncomplicated lifestyle.Heathcote, Tony (1980, 2003) "The Afghan Wars 1839–1919", Sellmount Staplehurst. There are various Afghan tribes, and an estimated 2–3 million nomads."Afghanistan: Kuchi nomads seek a better deal". IRIN Asia. 18 February 2008. {{webarchive |url= | date=10 September 2011 }} Afghan culture is deeply Islamic,{{sfn|Barfield|2012|page=40–41}} but pre-Islamic practices persist.{{sfn|Dupree|1997|page=104}} One example is bacha bazi, a term for activities involving sexual relations between older men and younger adolescent men, or boys.NEWS, Qobil, Rustam,weblink The sexually abused dancing boys of Afghanistan, BBC News, September 7, 2010, 20 September 2019, The nation has a complex history that has survived either in its current cultures or in the form of various languages and monuments. However, many of its historic monuments have been damaged in modern times.G.V. Brandolini. Afghanistan cultural heritage. Orizzonte terra, Bergamo. 2007. p. 64. The two famous Buddhas of Bamiyan were destroyed by the Taliban, who regarded them as idolatrous. Despite that, archaeologists are still finding Buddhist relics in different parts of the country, some of them dating back to the 2nd century.WEB,weblink Afghan archaeologists find Buddhist site as war rages, 16 August 2010, Sayed Salahuddin, News Daily, 17 August 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 18 August 2010, dead, WEB,weblink Buddhist remains found in Afghanistan, 16 August 2010, Press TV, 17 August 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 20 August 2010, live, This indicates that Buddhism was widespread in Afghanistan. Other historical places include the cities of Herat, Kandahar, Ghazni, Mazar-i-Sharif, and Zaranj. The Minaret of Jam in the Hari River valley is a UNESCO World Heritage site. A cloak reputedly worn by Islam's prophet Muhammad is kept inside the Shrine of the Cloak in Kandahar, a city founded by Alexander and the first capital of Afghanistan. The citadel of Alexander in the western city of Herat has been renovated in recent years and is a popular attraction for tourists. In the north of the country is the Shrine of Ali, believed by many to be the location where Ali was buried.{{sfn|Dupree|1997|page=115}} The National Museum of Afghanistan is located in Kabul.


According to Global Rights, almost 90% of women in Afghanistan experience physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse or forced marriage. The perpetrators of these crimes are the families of the victim.WEB,weblink Afghanistan: No Country for Women {{!, International Women's Day {{!}} Al Jazeera||access-date=5 January 2019}} A 2009 proposal for a law against the violence of women could only be passed through a presidential decree.In 2012, Afghanistan recorded 240 cases of honor killing, but the total number is believed to be much higher. Of the reported honor killings, 21% were committed by the victims’ husbands, 7% by their brothers, 4% by their fathers, and the rest by other relatives.WEB,weblink 240 cases of honor killing recorded in Afghanistan, 9 June 2013,, 23 December 2013, WEB,weblink AIHRC: 400 rape, honor killings registered in Afghanistan in 2 years, 10 June 2013,,weblink" title="">weblink 14 February 2015, dead, 23 December 2013, Child marriage is prevalent in Afghanistan.JOURNAL, Bahgam, S, Mukhatari, Study on Child Marriage in Afghanistan, Medica Mondiale, 2004, 1–20,weblink 15 March 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 May 2012, The legal age for marriage is 16.WEB, Afghanistan Has a Tougher Law on Child Marriage than Florida,weblink Human Rights Watch, October 20, 2017, 2019-03-31, In Afghanistan girls can marry at 16, or at 15 with permission from their father or a judge., The most preferred marriage in Afghan society is to one's parallel cousin, and the groom is often expected to pay a bride price.{{sfn|Dupree|1997|page=122, 198}}

Media and entertainment

File:TOLOnews Studio .jpg|thumb|Studio of TOLOnewsTOLOnewsAfghanistan has around 350 radio stations and over 200 television stations.NEWS, Suspects Sentenced To Death For Killing Journalist In Kandahar,weblink TOLOnews, April 16, 2019, 2019-04-16, which includes the state-owned RTA TV and various private channels such as TOLO and Shamshad TV. The first Afghan newspaper was published in 1906,BOOK, Amin Saikal, Modern Afghanistan: A History of Struggle and Survival,weblink 27 August 2004, I.B.Tauris, 978-0-85771-478-7, 41–42, and there are hundreds of print outlets today. By the 1920s, Radio Kabul was broadcasting local radio services.BOOK, Monica Whitlock, Land Beyond the River: The Untold Story of Central Asia,weblink 24 October 2003, St. Martin's Press, 978-0-312-27727-7, 127–, Television programs began airing in the early 1970s. Voice of America, BBC, and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) broadcast in both of Afghanistan's official languages.WEB,weblink Freedom of the Press 2016: Afghanistan, Freedom House, 2016, 28 July 2016, Since 2002, press restrictions have been gradually relaxed and private media diversified. Freedom of expression and the press is promoted in the 2004 constitution, and censorship is banned, although defaming individuals or producing material contrary to the principles of Islam is prohibited. In 2019, Reporters Without Borders listed the media environment of Afghanistan as 121st out of 179 on its Press Freedom Index, with 1st being most free.NEWS,weblink Afghanistan, 2019-04-16, Reporters Without Borders, NEWS, Afghanistan Descends 3 Points On Press Freedom Index,weblink TOLOnews, April 19, 2019, 2019-04-19, The city of Kabul has been home to many musicians who were masters of both traditional and modern Afghan music. Traditional music is especially popular during the Nowruz (New Year) and National Independence Day celebrations. Ahmad Zahir, Nashenas, Ustad Sarahang, Sarban, Ubaidullah Jan, Farhad Darya, and Naghma are some of the notable Afghan musicians, but there are many others.WEB,weblink Artist Biographies,, 17 October 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2013, Afghans have long been accustomed to watching Indian Bollywood films and listening to its filmi songs. Many Bollywood film stars have roots in Afghanistan, including Salman Khan, Saif Ali Khan, Shah Rukh Khan, Aamir Khan, Feroz Khan, Kader Khan, Naseeruddin Shah, Zarine Khan, Celina Jaitly, and a number of others. Several Bollywood films have been shot inside Afghanistan, including Dharmatma, Khuda Gawah, Escape from Taliban, and Kabul Express.


Telecommunication services in Afghanistan are provided by Afghan Telecom, Afghan Wireless, Etisalat, MTN Group, and Roshan. The country uses its own space satellite called Afghansat 1, which provides services to millions of phone, internet, and television subscribers. By 2001 following years of civil war, telecommunications was virtually a non-existent sector, but by 2016 it had grown to a $2 billion industry, with 22 million mobile phone subscribers and 5 million internet users. The sector employs at least 120,000 people nationwide.WEB,weblink Connecting Afghanistan: The rise of technology in governance and society – The Embassy of Afghanistan in London,,


(File:Afghan cuisine.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|right|Some of the popular Afghan dishes)Afghan cuisine is largely based upon the nation's chief crops, such as wheat, maize, barley and rice. Accompanying these staples are native fruits and vegetables as well as dairy products such as milk, yogurt and whey. Kabuli palaw is the national dish of Afghanistan.WEB,weblink Everything You Need To Know About Afghan Food, 31 July 2012, 2014-02-19, foodrepublic, Tanveer, Ali, dead,weblink 13 February 2013, The nation's culinary specialties reflect its ethnic and geographic diversity.BOOK, Brittin, Helen, The Food and Culture Around the World Handbook, 2011, Prentice Hall, Boston, 20–21, Afghanistan is known for its high quality pomegranates, grapes, and sweet melons.WEB,weblink Rare Heirloom Seeds – Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds, Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds, 2013-10-28,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-03-04, dead,


Classic Persian and Pashto poetry are a cherished part of Afghan culture. Thursdays are traditionally "poetry night" in the city of Herat when men, women and children gather and recite both ancient and modern poems.WEB,weblink Afghanistan: 10 facts you may not know, 6 July 2011,, Poetry has always been one of the major educational pillars in the region, to the level that it has integrated itself into culture. Some notable poets include Rumi, Rabi'a Balkhi, Sanai, Jami, Khushal Khan Khattak, Rahman Baba, Khalilullah Khalili, and Parween Pazhwak.WEB,weblink Classical Dari and Pashto Poets,, 4 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 12 April 2014,


File:Zohib Islam Amiri (in red uniform) vs Jeje Lalpekhlua (in blue uniform).jpg|thumb|The Afghanistan national football team (in red uniforms) before its first win over India (in blue) during the 2011 SAFF Championship2011 SAFF ChampionshipFile:Nowruz Buzkashi Match in Mazar (5778806122).jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|right|The traditional national sport of Afghanistan, BuzkashiBuzkashiSport in Afghanistan is managed by the Afghan Sports Federation. Cricket and association football are the two most popular sports in the country.WEB,weblink Cricket is now the biggest sport in Afghanistan, The Hindu, 4 July 2019, 11 January 2016, Uthra Ganesan, WEB,weblink Sport in Afghanistan, 4 July 2019, Top End Sports, The Afghan Sports Federation promotes cricket, association football, basketball, volleyball, golf, handball, boxing, taekwondo, weightlifting, bodybuilding, track and field, skating, bowling, snooker, chess, and other sports.Afghanistan's sports teams are increasingly celebrating titles at international events. Its basketball team won the first team sports title at the 2010 South Asian Games.NEWS,weblink South Asian Games: Shooters, swimmers shine as India consolidate dominance, Times Of India, 5 February 2010, 28 May 2019, Later that year, the country's cricket team followed as it won the 2009–10 ICC Intercontinental Cup.WEB,weblink 2009–10 Intercontinental Cup, CricketEurope, 28 May 2019, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 February 2013, In 2012, the country's 3x3 basketball team won the gold medal at the 2012 Asian Beach Games. In 2013, Afghanistan's football team followed as it won the SAFF Championship.NEWS, Lyse, Doucet,weblink Precious moments of unity touch Afghans after football triumph, BBC News, September 12, 2013, 2013-09-13, The Afghan national cricket team, which was formed in 2001, participated in the 2009 ICC World Cup Qualifier, 2010 ICC World Cricket League Division One and the 2010 ICC World Twenty20. It won the ACC Twenty20 Cup in 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2013. The team eventually made it and played in the 2015 Cricket World Cup.WEB,weblink Afghanistan Makes History in Cricket World Cup, Despite Debut Loss to Bangladesh, 28 May 2019, The Afghanistan Cricket Board (ACB) is the official governing body of the sport and is headquartered in Kabul. The Alokozay Kabul International Cricket Ground serves as the nation's main cricket stadium. There are several other stadiums throughout the country, including the Ghazi Amanullah Khan International Cricket Stadium near Jalalabad. Domestically, cricket is played between teams from different provinces.The Afghanistan national football team has been competing in international football since 1941.WEB,weblink Statistics: Iran, 28 May 2019, Team Melli, The national team plays its home games at the Ghazi Stadium in Kabul, while football in Afghanistan is governed by the Afghanistan Football Federation. The national team has never competed or qualified for the FIFA World Cup but has recently won an international football trophy in 2013. The country also has a national team in the sport of futsal, a 5-a-side variation of football.The traditional and the national sport of Afghanistan is buzkashi, mainly popular among the northern Afghans. It is similar to polo, played by horsemen in two teams, each trying to grab and hold a goat carcass.NEWS, Abi-Habib, Maria, Fazly, Walid, In Afghanistan's National Pastime, It's Better to Be a Hero Than a Goat,weblink 13 April 2011, The Wall Street Journal, 13 April 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 2015-05-26, live, The Afghan Hound (a type of running dog) originated in Afghanistan and was formerly used in wolf hunting. In 2002, traveler Rory Stewart reported that dogs were still used for wolf hunting in remote areas.BOOK, Rory, Stewart, Rory Stewart, The Places in Between,weblink 2007, HMH Books, 978-0-15-603593-4, 100,

See also

{{Wikipedia books}}


{{notelist|refs={{efn|name=fn1|The phoneme {{IPA|/f/}} ف occurs only in loanwords in Pashto, it tends to be replaced with {{IPA|/p/}} پ. {{IPA|[b]}} is also an allophone of {{IPA|/p/}} before voiced consonants; {{IPA|[v]}} is an allophone of {{IPA|/f/}} before voiced consonants in loanwords.}}}}




Books{{div col|content=
  • BOOK, harv, Barfield, Thomas, Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History,weblink 2012, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-15441-1,
  • BOOK, Bleaney, C. H, Gallego, María Ángeles, {{Google books, yes, qCh41lAvg8oC, |title=Afghanistan: a bibliography |publisher=BRILL |year=2006 |isbn=978-90-04-14532-0|archiveurl= |archivedate=12 January 2014 }}
  • BOOK, Clements, Frank, {{Google books, yes, bv4hzxpo424C, |title=Conflict in Afghanistan: a Historical Encyclopedia |publisher=ABC-CLIO |year=2003 |isbn=978-1-85109-402-8|archiveurl= |archivedate=12 January 2014 }}
  • BOOK, harv, Dupree, Louis, Louis Dupree (professor), Afghanistan, Oxford Pakistan Paperbacks, 2nd, 1997, 978-0-19-577634-8,
  • BOOK, harv, Afghanistan: A Short History of Its People and Politics, Ewans, Martin, Curzon Press, 2002, 0060505087,
  • BOOK, Fowler, Corinne, {{Google books, yes, o4IrhX7n66YC, |title=Chasing Tales: Travel Writing, Journalism and the History of British Ideas About Afghanistan |publisher=Rodopi |year=2007 |isbn=978-90-420-2262-1|archiveurl= |archivedate=12 January 2014 }}
  • BOOK, Griffiths, John C, {{Google books, yes, M7nMtaXdAS8C, |title=Afghanistan: a History of Conflict |publisher=Carlton Books |year=2001 |isbn=978-1-84222-597-4|archiveurl= |archivedate=12 January 2014 }}
  • BOOK, Habibi, Abdul Hai, Abdul Hai Habibi, 2003, Afghanistan: an Abridged History, Fenestra Books, 978-1-58736-169-2,
  • BOOK, Hopkins, B.D., {{Google books, yes, FOMUAQAAIAAJ, |title=The Making of Modern Afghanistan |publisher=Palgrave Macmillan |year=2008 |isbn=978-0-230-55421-4|archiveurl= |archivedate=12 January 2014 }}
  • BOOK, Johnson, Robert, The Afghan Way of War: How and Why They Fight, 2011, {{Google books, yes, lNuH5YQJr6UC, |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0-19-979856-8}}
  • BOOK, Levi, Peter,weblink The Light Garden of the Angel King: Journeys in Afghanistan, Collins, 1972, 978-0-00-211042-6,weblink 12 January 2014,
  • BOOK, Malleson, George Bruce, George Bruce Malleson,weblink History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878, Elibron Classic Replica, Adamant Media Corporation, 2005, 978-1-4021-7278-6,weblink 2 January 2014,
  • BOOK, Olson, Gillia M,weblink Afghanistan, Capstone Press, 2005, 978-0-7368-2685-3,weblink 12 January 2014,
  • BOOK, Omrani, Bijan, Leeming, Matthew,weblink Afghanistan: A Companion and Guide, Odyssey Publications, 2nd, 2011, 978-962-217-816-8,
  • BOOK, Reddy, L.R.,weblink Inside Afghanistan: End of the Taliban Era?, APH Publishing, 2002, 978-81-7648-319-3,
  • BOOK, harv, Runion, Meredith L.,weblink The History of Afghanistan, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007, 978-0-313-33798-7,

External links

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