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Greenland
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{{other uses}}{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{short description|autonomous territory within the Kingdom of Denmark}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2016}}{{Use British English Oxford spelling|date=November 2013}}







factoids
|{{native name|da|Grønland}}}}
|image_flag = Flag of Greenland.svg
|image_coat = Coat of arms Greenland.svg
|national_motto =
|anthems = Nunarput utoqqarsuanngoravit () and Nuna asiilasooq{{efn|1=Nuna asiilasooq has equal status as a regional anthem but is generally used only on the self-government of Greenland.WEB, 03EM/01.25.01-50 Questions to the Home Rule Government: When does the Home Rule Government make a decision on Greenland, 03EM/01.25.01-50 Spørgsmål til Landsstyret: Hvornår fremsætter Landsstyret beslutning om Grønlands,weblink Inatsisartut, Government of Greenland, 13 December 2014, 7 October 2003, }} ()
|image_map = Greenland (orthographic projection).svg
|map_width = 255px
|map_caption = Location of Greenland
|image_map2 = Kingdom of Denmark (orthographic projection).svg
|map2_width = 255px
|map_caption2 = Location of the Kingdom of Denmark consisting of Greenland, the Faroe Islands (circled) and Denmark
|capital = Nuuk
|coordinates = {{Coord|64|10|N|51|44|W|type:city}}
|largest_city = capital
|official_languages = Greenlandic{{ref label|aaa|a}}{{hlist|style=font-size: 85%;|(Kalaallisut|Inuktun|Tunumiisut)}}
|languages_type = Recognised languages
|languages = Danish, English and other languages if necessary{{ref label|aaa|a}}
|ethnic_groups = {{unbulleted list |88% Greenlandic Inuit (including Inuit-Danish mixed) |12% Danes and other Europeans{{ref label|bbb|b}}}}
|demonym = {{unbulleted list |Greenlander |Greenlandic}}
|membership = Kingdom of Denmark
|membership_type = Sovereign state
|government_type = Devolved government within parliamentary constitutional monarchy
|leader_title1 = Monarch
|leader_name1 = Margrethe II
|leader_title2 = High Commissioner
|leader_name2 = Mikaela Engell
|leader_title3 = Premier
|leader_name3 = Kim Kielsen
|leader_title4 = Speaker of the Inatsisartut
|leader_name4 = Vivian Motzfeldt
|legislature = {{nowrap|Inatsisartut}}
|sovereignty_type = Autonomy {{nobold|within the Kingdom of Denmark}}
|established_event1 = {{nowrap|Paleo-Eskimo settlement}}
|established_date1 = 26th century BC
|established_event2 = {{nowrap|Saqqaq expansion}}
|established_date2 = 24th century BC
|established_event3 = {{nowrap|Dorset settlement}}
|established_date3 = 8th century BC
|established_event4 = {{nowrap|Norse colonization}}
|established_date4 = 10th century
|established_event5 = {{nowrap|Arrival of the Inuit}}
|established_date5 = 13th century
|established_event6 = {{nowrap|Unification with Norway{{ref label|bbb|b}}}}
|established_date6 = 1262
|established_event7 = Dano-Norwegian colonies established
|established_date7 = 1721
|established_event8 = Ceded to Denmark{{ref label|ccc|c}}
|established_date8 = 14 January 1814
|established_event9 = Amt status
|established_date9 = 5 June 1953
|established_event10 = Home rule
|established_date10 = 1 May 1979
|established_event11 = Further autonomy and self rule
|established_date11 = 21 June 2009NEWS
, Self-rule introduced in Greenland
,weblink
, BBC News
, 21 June 2009
, 4 May 2010
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100425041746weblink">weblink
, 25 April 2010
, no
,
|area_km2 = 2,166,086
|area_rank =
|area_sq_mi = 836,109
|percent_water = 83.1{{ref label|ddd|d}}
|population_estimate = 55,877 (1 January 2018)"Grønlands Statistik" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171030003528weblink |date=30 October 2017 }}. stat.gl.
|population_census =
|population_estimate_year =
|population_estimate_rank =
|population_census_year =
|population_density_km2 = 0.028
|population_density_sq_mi = 0.069
|population_density_rank = last
|GDP_PPP = $1.8 billionBOOK
, Greenland in Figures 2013
,weblink
, Statistics Greenland
, 978-87-986787-7-9
, 1602-5709
, 2 September 2013
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921054558weblink">weblink
, 21 September 2013
, no
,
|GDP_PPP_year = 2011
|GDP_PPP_rank = {{small|n/a}}
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $37,000
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = {{small|n/a}}
|Gini =
|Gini_year =
|Gini_change =
|Gini_ref =
|Gini_rank =
|HDI = 0.786
|HDI_year = 2010
|HDI_change = increase
|HDI_ref = BOOK, Avakov, Aleksandr Vladimirovich, Quality of Life, Balance of Powers, and Nuclear Weapons (2012): A Statistical Yearbook for Statesmen and Citizens,weblink 2012, Algora Publishing, 978-0-87586-892-9, 51,
|HDI_rank = 61st
|currency = Danish krone
|currency_code = DKK
|utc_offset = ±00:00 to UTC-04:00
|utc_offset_DST =
|time_zone_DST =
|date_format = dd-mm-yyyy
|drives_on = right
|calling_code = +299
|cctld = .gl
|footnote_a = {{note|aaa}} Greenlandic has been the sole official language of Greenland since 2009.{{da icon}} TV 2 Nyhederne – "Grønland går over til selvstyre" TV 2 Nyhederne (TV 2 News) – Ved overgangen til selvstyre, er grønlandsk nu det officielle sprog. Retrieved 22 January 2012.{{da icon}} Law of Greenlandic Selfrule {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120208032617weblink |date=8 February 2012 }} (see chapter 7)
|footnote_b = {{note|bbb}} Danish influence reached Greenland in 1380 with the reign of Olav IV in Norway, son of Haakon VI of Norway and Margaret I of Denmark.
|footnote_c = {{note|ccc}} Although previously under Danish monarchy for four hundred years, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and Iceland were formally Norwegian possessions until 1814.
|footnote_d = {{note|ddd}}As of 2000:{{convert|410449|km2|abbr=on|0}} ice-free;{{convert|1755637|km2|abbr=on|0}} ice-covered.Density: 0.14/km2 (0.36 /sq. mi) for ice-free areas.
|religion = Church of Denmark
}}
Greenland (, {{IPA-kl|kalaːɬit nunaːt|pron}}; , {{IPA-da|ˈkʁɶnˌlænˀ|pron}}) is the world's largest island,{{efn|Australia and Antarctica, both larger than Greenland, are generally considered to be continental landmasses rather than islands.WEB,weblink Joshua Calder's World Island Information, Worldislandinfo.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110423173524weblink">weblink 23 April 2011, live, 6 September 2010, }} located between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. It is an autonomous territory
  • WEB,weblink The working autonomies in Europe, Benedikter, Thomas, 2006-06-19, Society for Threatened Peoples, Denmark has established very specific territorial autonomies with its two island territories,
  • WEB,weblink Greenland, Ackrén, Maria, November 2017, Autonomy Arrangements in the World, Faroese and Greenlandic are seen as official regional languages in the self-governing territories belonging to Denmark.,
  • WEB,weblink Greenland, 2013-06-03, International Cooperation and Development, European Commission, en, 2019-08-27, Greenland [...] is an autonomous territory within the Kingdom of Denmark, within the Kingdom of Denmark. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe (specifically Norway and Denmark, the colonial powers, as well as the nearby island of Iceland) for more than a millennium.The Fate of Greenland's Vikings {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110111090459weblink |date=11 January 2011 }}, by Dale Mackenzie Brown, Archaeological Institute of America, 28 February 2000 The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors migrated from Alaska through Northern Canada, gradually settling across the island by the 13th century.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Robert, Mcghee, Thule Culture,weblink Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Canada, 3 April 2015, 1 June 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151120045928weblink">weblink 20 November 2015, live, Nowadays the population is largely concentrated on the southwest coast of the island while the rest of the island is sparsely populated. Greenland is divided into five municipalities — Sermersooq, Kujalleq, Qeqertalik, Qeqqata, and Avannaata. It has two unincorporated areas — the Northeast Greenland National Park and the Thule Air Base. The last one, even if under Danish control, is administered by the United States Air Force.WEB,weblink Qaasuitsup kommunia, www.qaasuitsup.gl, 11 February 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110721031238weblink">weblink 21 July 2011, live,
Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the only permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480 (2013), it is the least densely populated territory in the world.WEB
, Population density (people per sq. km of land area)
,weblink
, The World Bank
, 3 November 2012
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130605122932weblink">weblink
, 5 June 2013
, no
, About a third of the population live in Nuuk, the capital and largest city. The Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements.
Greenland has been inhabited at intervals over at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada.WEB
, Saqqaq-kulturen kronologi
,weblink
, National Museum of Denmark
, 2 August 2013
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131207035806weblink">weblink
, 7 December 2013
, no
, JOURNAL, Saillard J, Forster P, Lynnerup N, Bandelt HJ, Nørby S, 2000, mtDNA variation among Greenland Eskimos: the edge of the Beringian expansion, American Journal of Human Genetics, 67, 3, 718–26, 10924403, 10.1086/303038, 1287530, Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, having previously settled Iceland to escape persecution from the King of Norway and his central government. These Norsemen would later set sail from Greenland and Iceland, with Leif Erikson becoming the first known European to reach North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached the Caribbean islands. Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262. The Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century when Norway was hit by the Black Death and entered a severe decline. Soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese briefly explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador (later applied to Labrador in Canada).The Portuguese Explorers {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160508193835weblink |date=8 May 2016 }}. Heritage.nf.ca. Retrieved on 21 June 2016.
In the early 18th century, Danish explorers reached Greenland again. To strengthen trading and power, Denmark–Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island. Because of Norway's weak status, it lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved. Greenland became Danish in 1814, and was fully integrated in the Danish state in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark. In 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark. However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC, which was effected in 1985. Greenland contains the world's largest and most northerly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park (Kalaallit Nunaanni nuna eqqissisimatitaq). Established in 1974, and expanded to its present size in 1988, it protects {{convert|972001|km2|}} of the interior and northeastern coast of Greenland and is bigger than all but twenty-nine countries in the world.In 1979, Denmark granted home rule to Greenland, and in 2008, Greenlanders voted in favor of the Self-Government Act, which transferred more power from the Danish government to the local Greenlandic government. Under the new structure, in effect since 21 June 2009,BOOK
, Greenland in Figures 2012
,weblink
, stat.gl
, 978-87-986787-6-2
, 1602-5709
, 10 February 2013
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121113160436weblink">weblink
, 13 November 2012
, no
, Greenland can gradually assume responsibility for policing, judicial system, company law, accounting, and auditing; mineral resource activities; aviation; law of legal capacity, family law and succession law; aliens and border controls; the working environment; and financial regulation and supervision, while the Danish government retains control of foreign affairs and defence. It also retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK 3.4 billion, which is planned to diminish gradually over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources. The capital, Nuuk, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world, mostly coming from hydropower.WEB, Nordic Investment Bank, Hydropower creates clean energy and jobs in Greenland,weblink NIB, Nordic Investment Bank, 2 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161103120028weblink">weblink 3 November 2016, live, {{additional citation needed|date=March 2017}}

Etymology

The early Norse settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter. Along with his extended family and his thralls (i.e. slaves or serfs), he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding a habitable area and settling there, he named it }} (translated as "Greenland"), supposedly in the hope that the pleasant name would attract settlers.BOOK,weblink Eirik the Red's Saga, Gutenberg.org, 8 March 2006, 6 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511061916weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, live, "How Greenland got its name" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120319050912weblink |date=19 March 2012 }}. The Ancient Standard. 17 December 2010.JOURNAL, Grove, Jonathan, 2009,weblink The place of Greenland in medieval Icelandic saga narrative, Journal of the North Atlantic, 2, 30–51, 10.3721/037.002.s206, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120411212816weblink">weblink 11 April 2012, The Saga of Erik the Red states: "In the summer, Erik left to settle in the country he had found, which he called Greenland, as he said people would be attracted there if it had a favorable name."Evans, Andrew. "Is Iceland Really Green and Greenland Really Icy?" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171204222855weblink |date=4 December 2017 }}, National Geographic (June 30, 2016).The name of the country in the indigenous Greenlandic language is ("land of the Kalaallit").Stern, p. 89 The Kalaallit are the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit people who inhabit the country's western region.

History

Early Paleo-Eskimo cultures

File:Arctic cultures 900-1500.png|upright|thumb|Maps showing the different cultures in Greenland, Labrador, Newfoundland and the Canadian arctic islands in the years 900, 1100, 1300 and 1500. Green: Dorset Culture; blue: Thule Culture; red: Norse culture; yellow: Innu; orange: BeothukBeothukIn prehistoric times, Greenland was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo cultures known today primarily through archaeological finds. The earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo into Greenland is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC. From around 2500 BC to 800 BC, southern and western Greenland were inhabited by the Saqqaq culture. Most finds of Saqqaq-period archaeological remains have been around Disko Bay, including the site of Saqqaq, after which the culture is named.JOURNAL, Grønnow, B., 1988, Prehistory in permafrost: Investigations at the Saqqaq site, Qeqertasussuk, Disco Bay, West Greenland, Journal of Danish Archaeology, 7, 1, 24–39, 10.1080/0108464X.1988.10589995, JOURNAL, Møbjerg, T., 1999, New adaptive strategies in the Saqqaq culture of Greenland, c. 1600–1400 BC, World Archaeology, 3, 452–65, 124963, 10.1080/00438243.1999.9980423, 30, From 2400 BC to 1300 BC, the Independence I culture existed in northern Greenland. It was a part of the Arctic small tool tradition.WEB,weblink The history of Greenland – From dog sled to snowmobile, Greenland.com, 10 September 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110927011214weblink">weblink 27 September 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Migration to Greenland – the history of Greenland, Greenland.com, 10 September 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110905074558weblink">weblink 5 September 2011, live, JOURNAL, Rasch, M., Jensen, J. F., 1997, Ancient Eskimo dwelling sites and Holocene relative sea‐level changes in southern Disko Bugt, central West Greenland, Polar Research, 16, 2, 101–15, 10.1111/j.1751-8369.1997.tb00252.x, 1997PolRe..16..101R, Towns, including Deltaterrasserne, started to appear.Around 800 BC, the Saqqaq culture disappeared and the Early Dorset culture emerged in western Greenland and the Independence II culture in northern Greenland.JOURNAL, Ramsden, P., Tuck, J. A., 2001, A Comment on the Pre-Dorset/Dorset Transition in the Eastern Arctic, Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska, New Series, 1, 7–11,weblink The Dorset culture was the first culture to extend throughout the Greenlandic coastal areas, both on the west and east coasts. It lasted until the total onset of the Thule culture in 1500 AD. The Dorset culture population lived primarily from hunting of whales and caribou.JOURNAL, Grønnow, B., 1986, Recent archaeological investigations of West Greenland caribou hunting, 40316103, Arctic Anthropology, 57–80, 23, 1/2, JOURNAL, Rowley, G., 1940, The Dorset culture of the eastern Arctic, 10.1525/aa.1940.42.3.02a00080, American Anthropologist, 42, 3, 490–99, BOOK, Gulløv, H. C., Appelt, M., 2001, Social bonding and shamanism among Late Dorset groups in High Arctic Greenland, The archaeology of shamanism, 146, Routledge, 978-0-415-25255-3, BOOK, Gulløv, H. C., 1996, In search of the Dorset culture in the Thule culture. The Paleo-Eskimo Cultures of Greenland, Copenhagen: Danish Polar Center (Publication No. 1), 201–14,

Norse settlement

From 986, Greenland's west coast was settled by Icelanders and Norwegians, through a contingent of 14 boats led by Erik the Red. They formed three settlements — known as the Eastern Settlement, the Western Settlement and the Middle Settlement — on fjords near the southwesternmost tip of the island.Kudeba, N. (19 April 2014). "Chapter 5 – Norse Explorers from Erik the Red to Leif Erikson", in Canadian Explorers. They shared the island with the late Dorset culture inhabitants who occupied the northern and western parts, and later with the Thule culture that entered from the north. Norse Greenlanders submitted to Norwegian rule in 1261 under the Kingdom of Norway (872–1397). Later the Kingdom of Norway entered into a personal union with Denmark in 1380, and from 1397 was a part of the Kalmar Union.BOOK, Boraas, Tracey, 2002, Sweden, Capstone Press, 24, 978-0-7368-0939-9,weblink File:Gron-rune-kingigtorssuaq.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Kingittorsuaq Runestone from Kingittorsuaq Island (Middle AgesMiddle AgesErik the Red's recruitment of others to settle in Greenland has been characterized recently as a land scam, the scam (and the name) portraying Greenland as better farm land than in Iceland.Grant Oster, "Unseen Property Cons and Land Scams in History" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171222051112weblink |date=22 December 2017 }}, Hankering for History, January 2, 2014. (accessed 15 Dec. 2017).The Norse settlements, such as Brattahlíð, thrived for centuries but disappeared sometime in the 15th century, perhaps at the onset of the Little Ice Age.BOOK, Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Penguin, Harmondsworth [Eng.], 2006, 978-0-14-303655-5, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Jared Diamond, Apart from some runic inscriptions, no contemporary records or historiography survives from the Norse settlements. Medieval Norwegian sagas and historical works mention Greenland's economy as well as the bishops of Gardar and the collection of tithes. A chapter in the Konungs skuggsjá (The King's Mirror) describes Norse Greenland's exports and imports as well as grain cultivation.Icelandic saga accounts of life in Greenland were composed in the 13th century and later, and do not constitute primary sources for the history of early Norse Greenland. Modern understanding therefore mostly depends on the physical data from archeological sites. Interpretation of ice core and clam shell data suggests that between 800 and 1300, the regions around the fjords of southern Greenland experienced a relatively mild climate several degrees Celsius higher than usual in the North Atlantic,Arnold C. (June 2010) "Cold did in the Norse," Earth Magazine. p. 9. with trees and herbaceous plants growing, and livestock being farmed. Barley was grown as a crop up to the 70th parallel.BOOK, Kulturgeschichte des Klimas: Von der Eiszeit zur globalen Erwärmung: Amazon.de: Wolfgang Behringer: Bücher,weblink 9 September 2009, 6 September 2010, 9783406528668, Behringer, Wolfgang, What is verifiable is that the ice cores indicate Greenland has had dramatic temperature shifts many times over the past 100,000 years.JOURNAL, 10.1029/96EO00142, Twin ice cores from Greenland reveal history of climate change, more, Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 77, 22, 209–10, 1996, Alley, R., Mayewski, P., Peel, D., Stauffer, B., 1996EOSTr..77R.209A,weblink 16 August 2019,weblink 14 April 2018, live, Similarly the Icelandic Book of Settlements records famines during the winters, in which "the old and helpless were killed and thrown over cliffs".File:Hvalsey Church.jpg|thumb|left|One of the last contemporary written mentions of the Norse Greenlanders records a marriage which took place in 1408 in the church of Hvalseychurch of HvalseyThese Icelandic settlements vanished during the 14th and early 15th centuries."Why societies collapse {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120802053920weblink |date=2 August 2012 }}". ABC Science. The demise of the Western Settlement coincides with a decrease in summer and winter temperatures. A study of North Atlantic seasonal temperature variability during the Little Ice Age showed a significant decrease in maximum summer temperatures beginning in the late 13th century to early 14th century — as much as {{convert|6|to|8|C-change}} lower than modern summer temperatures.William P. Patterson, Kristin A. Dietrich, Chris Holmden, and John T. Andrews (2010) "Two millennia of North Atlantic seasonality and implications for Norse colonies."weblink The study also found that the lowest winter temperatures of the last 2000 years occurred in the late 14th century and early 15th century. The Eastern Settlement was likely abandoned in the early to mid-15th century, during this cold period.Theories drawn from archeological excavations at Herjolfsnes in the 1920s, suggest that the condition of human bones from this period indicates that the Norse population was malnourished, maybe due to soil erosion resulting from the Norsemen's destruction of natural vegetation in the course of farming, turf-cutting, and wood-cutting. Malnutrition may also have resulted from widespread deaths due to pandemic plague;BOOK, Helge Ingstad, Anne Stine Ingstad, The Viking Discovery of America: The Excavation of a Norse Settlement in L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland,weblink 2000, Breakwater Books, 978-1-55081-158-2, 28–, the decline in temperatures during the Little Ice Age; and armed conflicts with the Skrælings (Norse word for Inuit, meaning "wretches"). In 1379, the Inuit attacked the Eastern Settlement, killed 18 men and captured two boys and a woman. Recent archeological studies somewhat challenge the general assumption that the Norse colonisation had a dramatic negative environmental effect on the vegetation. Data support traces of a possible Norse soil amendment strategy.Bishop, Rosie R., et al. "A charcoal-rich horizon at Ø69, Greenland: evidence for vegetation burning during the Norse landnám?." Journal of Archaeological Science 40.11 (2013): 3890–902 More recent evidence suggests that the Norse, who never numbered more than about 2,500, gradually abandoned the Greenland settlements over the 1400s as walrus ivory,BOOK, Mark P. Leone, Jocelyn E. Knauf, Historical Archaeologies of Capitalism,weblink 2015, Springer, 978-3-319-12760-6, 211, the most valuable export from Greenland, decreased in price due to competition with other sources of higher-quality ivory, and that there was actually little evidence of starvation or difficulties.WEB,weblink Why Did Greenland's Vikings Vanish?, Tim, Folger, 13 March 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170317033211weblink">weblink 17 March 2017, live, Other theories about the disappearance of the Norse settlement have been proposed;
  1. Lack of support from the homeland.
  2. Ship-borne marauders (such as Basque, English, or German pirates) rather than Skraelings, could have plundered and displaced the Greenlanders.BOOK, Bruce G. Trigger, Wilcomb E. Washburn, Richard E. W. Adams, The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas,weblink 1996, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-57393-1, 331,
  3. They were "the victims of hidebound thinking and of a hierarchical society dominated by the Church and the biggest land owners. In their reluctance to see themselves as anything but Europeans, the Greenlanders failed to adopt the kind of apparel that the Inuit employed as protection against the cold and damp or to borrow any of the Eskimo hunting gear."
  4. "Norse society's structure created a conflict between the short-term interests of those in power, and the long-term interests of the society as a whole."

Thule culture (1300–present)

(File:Billeder fra Grønland 11441.tif|thumb|Pictures of Greenland, c. 1863)The Thule people are the ancestors of the current Greenlandic population. No genes from the Paleo-Eskimos have been found in the present population of Greenland."Inuit were not the first people to settle in the Arctic" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141109101343weblink |date=9 November 2014 }}, CBC News (Canada), 28 August 2014 The Thule Culture migrated eastward from what is now known as Alaska around 1000, reaching Greenland around 1300. The Thule culture was the first to introduce to Greenland such technological innovations as dog sleds and toggling harpoons.

1500–1814

In 1500, King Manuel I of Portugal sent Gaspar Corte-Real to Greenland in search of a Northwest Passage to Asia which, according to the Treaty of Tordesillas, was part of Portugal's sphere of influence. In 1501, Corte-Real returned with his brother, Miguel Corte-Real. Finding the sea frozen, they headed south and arrived in Labrador and Newfoundland. Upon the brothers' return to Portugal, the cartographic information supplied by Corte-Real was incorporated into a new map of the world which was presented to Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, by Alberto Cantino in 1502. The Cantino planisphere, made in Lisbon, accurately depicts the southern coastline of Greenland.Nebenzahl, Kenneth. Rand McNally Atlas of Columbus and The Great Discoveries (Rand McNally & Company; Genoa, Italy; 1990); The Cantino Planisphere, Lisbon, 1502, pp. 34–37.(File:Old Greenland 1747.jpg|thumb|left|A 1747 map based on Egede's descriptions and misconceptions)In 1605–1607, King Christian IV of Denmark sent a series of expeditions to Greenland and Arctic waterways to locate the lost eastern Norse settlement and assert Danish sovereignty over Greenland. The expeditions were mostly unsuccessful, partly due to leaders who lacked experience with the difficult arctic ice and weather conditions, and partly because the expedition leaders were given instructions to search for the Eastern Settlement on the east coast of Greenland just north of Cape Farewell, which is almost inaccessible due to southward drifting ice. The pilot on all three trips was English explorer James Hall.File:Legende børn, ca. 1878 (8473597948).jpg|thumb|GodthÃ¥b in Greenland, c. 1878]]After the Norse settlements died off, Greenland came under the de facto control of various Inuit groups, but the Danish government never forgot or relinquished the claims to Greenland that it had inherited from the Norse. When it re-established contact with Greenland in the early 17th century, Denmark asserted its sovereignty over the island. In 1721, a joint mercantile and clerical expedition led by Danish-Norwegian missionary Hans Egede was sent to Greenland, not knowing whether a Norse civilization remained there. This expedition is part of the Dano-Norwegian colonization of the Americas. After 15 years in Greenland, Hans Egede left his son Paul Egede in charge of the mission there and returned to Denmark, where he established a Greenland Seminary. This new colony was centred at GodthÃ¥b ("Good Hope") on the southwest coast. Gradually, Greenland was opened up to Danish merchants, and closed to those from other countries.

Treaty of Kiel to World War II

(File:EricTheRedsLand.gif|thumb|upright|Eirik Raudes Land)When the union between the crowns of Denmark and Norway was dissolved in 1814, the Treaty of Kiel severed Norway's former colonies and left them under the control of the Danish monarch. Norway occupied then-uninhabited eastern Greenland as Erik the Red's Land in July 1931, claiming that it constituted terra nullius. Norway and Denmark agreed to submit the matter in 1933 to the Permanent Court of International Justice, which decided against Norway.Legal Status of Eastern Greenland {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110511135249weblink |date=11 May 2011 }}, PCIJ Series A/B No. 53 (1933)Greenland's connection to Denmark was severed on 9 April 1940, early in World War II, after Denmark was occupied by Nazi Germany. On 8 April 1941, the United States occupied Greenland to defend it against a possible invasion by Germany.BOOK,weblink In Danger Undaunted: The Anti-Interventionist Movement of 1940–1941, Justus D. Doenecke, Hoover Press, 8 July 1941, 978-0-8179-8841-8, The United States occupation of Greenland continued until 1945. Greenland was able to buy goods from the United States and Canada by selling cryolite from the mine at Ivittuut. The major air bases were Bluie West-1 at Narsarsuaq and Bluie West-8 at Søndre Strømfjord (Kangerlussuaq), both of which are still used as Greenland's major international airports. Bluie was the military code name for Greenland.During this war, the system of government changed: Governor Eske Brun ruled the island under a law of 1925 that allowed governors to take control under extreme circumstances; Governor Aksel Svane was transferred to the United States to lead the commission to supply Greenland. The Danish Sirius Patrol guarded the northeastern shores of Greenland in 1942 using dogsleds. They detected several German weather stations and alerted American troops, who destroyed the facilities. After the collapse of the Third Reich, Albert Speer briefly considered escaping in a small aeroplane to hide out in Greenland, but changed his mind and decided to surrender to the United States Armed Forces.Speer, Albert. Inside the Third Reich, 1971Greenland had been a protected and very isolated society until 1940. The Danish government had maintained a strict monopoly of Greenlandic trade, allowing only small scale troaking with Scottish whalers. In wartime Greenland developed a sense of self-reliance through self-government and independent communication with the outside world. Despite this change, in 1946 a commission including the highest Greenlandic council, the LandsrÃ¥dene, recommended patience and no radical reform of the system. Two years later, the first step towards a change of government was initiated when a grand commission was established. A final report (G-50) was presented in 1950: Greenland was to be a modern welfare state with Denmark as sponsor and example. In 1953, Greenland was made an equal part of the Danish Kingdom. Home rule was granted in 1979.

Home rule and self-rule

{{See also|Greenlandic independence}}File:Golfbane Nuuk.JPG|thumb|The orthography and vocabulary of the Greenlandic language is governed by Oqaasileriffik, the Greenlandic language secretariat, located in the Ilimmarfik University of Greenland, NuukNuukFollowing World War II, the United States developed a geopolitical interest in Greenland, and in 1946 the United States offered to buy the island from Denmark for $100,000,000. Denmark refused to sell it.NEWS,weblink Time, 27 January 1947, Deepfreeze Defense, 14 May 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090221020734weblink">weblink 21 February 2009, live, NEWS,weblink 7 May 2001, Let's Buy Greenland! — A complete missile-defense plan, John J., Miller, National Review, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100107010850weblink">weblink 7 January 2010, Historically this repeated an interest by Secretary of State William H. Seward. In 1867 he worked with former senator Robert J. Walker to explore the possibility of buying Greenland and perhaps Iceland. Opposition in Congress ended this project.WEB,weblink Robert J. Walker on Acquiring Greenland and Iceland, 16 August 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190816182349weblink">weblink 16 August 2019, live, In the 21st century, the United States, according to WikiLeaks, remains interested in investing in the resource base of Greenland and in tapping hydrocarbons off the Greenlandic coast.Keil, Kathrin (29 August 2011) weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150113180223weblink">"U.S. Interests in Greenland – On a Path Towards Full Independence?", The Arctic InstituteAndrews Kurth LLP, "Oil and Gas in Greenland – Still on Ice?" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151019102737weblink |date=19 October 2015}}, Andrewskurth.com. Retrieved on 21 June 2016. In August 2019, the American president Donald Trump again proposed to buy the territory, prompting premier Kim Kielsen to issue the statement, “Greenland is not for sale and cannot be sold, but Greenland is open for trade and cooperation with other countries — including the United States.” NEWS, Selsoe Sorensen, Martin, 'Greenland Is Not for Sale': Trump's Talk of a Purchase Draws Derision,weblink 21 August 2019, New York Times, 16 August 2019, In 1950, Denmark agreed to allow the US to reestablish Thule Air Base in Greenland; it was greatly expanded between 1951 and 1953 as part of a unified NATO Cold War defense strategy. The local population of three nearby villages was moved more than 100 kilometres (62 mi) away in the winter. The United States tried to construct a subterranean network of secret nuclear missile launch sites in the Greenlandic ice cap, named Project Iceworm. It managed this project from Camp Century from 1960 to 1966 before abandoning it as unworkable.NEWS, A Radioactive Cold War Military Base Will Soon Emerge From Greenland's Melting Ice,weblink Smithsonian, 5 August 2016, 20 August 2019,weblink 20 August 2019, live, The Danish government did not become aware of the program's mission until 1997, when they discovered it while looking for records related to the crash of a nuclear-equipped B-52 bomber at Thule in 1968.File:Thule air base above.jpeg|thumb|left|The U.S. has operated Thule Air BaseThule Air BaseWith the 1953 Danish constitution, Greenland's colonial status ended as the island was incorporated into the Danish realm as an amt (county). Danish citizenship was extended to Greenlanders. Danish policies toward Greenland consisted of a strategy of cultural assimilation — or de-Greenlandification. During this period, the Danish government promoted the exclusive use of the Danish language in official matters, and required Greenlanders to go to Denmark for their post-secondary education. Many Greenlandic children grew up in boarding schools in southern Denmark, and a number lost their cultural ties to Greenland. While the policies "succeeded" in the sense of shifting Greenlanders from being primarily subsistence hunters into being urbanized wage earners, the Greenlandic elite began to reassert a Greenlandic cultural identity. A movement developed in favour of independence, reaching its peak in the 1970s.Loukacheva, Natalia (2007). The Arctic Promise: Legal and Political Autonomy of Greenland and Nunavut {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160413025807weblink |date=13 April 2016 }}. University of Toronto Press, p. 25 {{ISBN|9780802094865}} As a consequence of political complications in relation to Denmark's entry into the European Common Market in 1972, Denmark began to seek a different status for Greenland, resulting in the Home Rule Act of 1979.File:20190626 Harbor 0308 (48480740237).jpg|thumb|Greenland has more than 60 settlements. Pictured SermiligaaqSermiligaaqThis gave Greenland limited autonomy with its own legislature taking control of some internal policies, while the Parliament of Denmark maintained full control of external policies, security, and natural resources. The law came into effect on 1 May 1979. The Queen of Denmark, Margrethe II, remains Greenland's head of state. In 1985, Greenland left the European Economic Community (EEC) upon achieving self-rule, as it did not agree with the EEC's commercial fishing regulations and an EEC ban on seal skin products.Stern, pp. 55–56 Greenland voters approved a referendum on greater autonomy on 25 November 2008.NEWS
, Alan
, Cowell
, Greenland Vote Favors Independence
,weblink
, The New York Times
, 26 November 2008
, 4 May 2010
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090417043301weblink">weblink
, 17 April 2009
, no
, WEB
,weblink
, Vejledende folkeafstemning om selvstyre ? 25-11-2008
, SermitValg
, 26 November 2008
, 26 November 2008
, Kalaallisut
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081208143857weblink">weblink
, 8 December 2008
, no
, According to one study, the 2008 vote created what "can be seen as a system between home rule and full independence."WEB,weblink CIDOB – Secession and Counter-secession. An International Relations Perspective, CIDOB, 70,weblink 27 January 2018, live, 2018-05-19, On 21 June 2009, Greenland gained self-rule with provisions for assuming responsibility for self-government of judicial affairs, policing, and natural resources. Also, Greenlanders were recognized as a separate people under international law.Description of the Greenlandic Self-Government Act on the webpage of the Danish Ministry of State {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140922104912weblink |date=22 September 2014 }}"The Self-Government Act provides for the Self-Government authorities to assume a number of new fields of responsibility, such as administration of justice, including the establishment of courts of law; the prison and probation service; the police; the field relating to company law, accounting and auditing; mineral resource activities; aviation; law of legal capacity, family law and succession law; aliens and border controls; the working environment; as well as financial regulation and supervision, cf. Schedule I and II in the Annex to the Self-Government Act." Denmark maintains control of foreign affairs and defence matters. Denmark upholds the annual block grant of 3.2 billion Danish kroner, but as Greenland begins to collect revenues of its natural resources, the grant will gradually be diminished. This is generally considered to be a step toward eventual full independence from Denmark.Greenland takes step toward independence from Denmark {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180718214954weblink |date=18 July 2018 }}. The Daily Telegraph (21 June 2009). Retrieved 29 September 2012. Greenlandic was declared the sole official language of Greenland at the historic ceremony.NEWS
, Nearly independent day
,weblink
, The Economist
, 20 June 2009
, 20 June 2009
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090625014014weblink">weblink
, 25 June 2009
, no
, WEB
, Greenland set for self-rule
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090624151256weblink">weblink
, dead
, 24 June 2009
, The Australian
, 19 June 2009
, 20 June 2009
,
, WEB, Boswell, Randy, Greenland takes big step towards full independence,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090624150211weblink">weblink dead, 24 June 2009, Canwest News Services, Canada.com, 19 June 2009, 20 June 2009, dmy-all,

Geography and climate

{{See also|Administrative divisions of Greenland|Territorial claims in the Arctic|Climate of the Arctic#Greenland|}}(File:Greenland ice sheet AMSL thickness map-en.png|thumb|upright|Map of Greenland)(File:Topographic map of Greenland bedrock.jpg|thumb|upright|Topographic map of Greenland|Greenland bedrock, at current elevation above sea level)Greenland is the world's largest non-continental islandWEB, The Island of Greenland,weblink Hidden Journeys – explore the world from the air, 8 July 2014, dead,weblink 14 July 2014, dmy, and the third largest area in North America.JOURNAL
, Demographic Yearbook – Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area, and density
,weblink
, United Nations Statistics Division
, 2008
, 24 September 2010
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101224062814weblink">weblink
, 24 December 2010
, no
, It is between latitudes 59° and 83°N, and longitudes 11° and 74°W. Greenland is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Greenland Sea to the east, the North Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, the Davis Strait to the southwest, Baffin Bay to the west, and the Nares Strait to the northwest. The nearest countries are Canada, to the west and southwest across Nares Strait and Baffin Bay; and Iceland, southeast of Greenland in the Atlantic Ocean. Greenland also contains the world's largest national park, and it is the largest dependent territory by area in the world, as well as the fourth largest country subdivision in the world, after Sakha Republic in Russia, Australia's state of Western Australia, and Russia's Krasnoyarsk Krai, and the largest in North America.(File:17-08-islcanus-RalfR-DSC 3282.jpg|thumb|left|Southeast coast of Greenland)The average daily temperature of Nuuk varies over the seasons from {{convert|-5.1|to|9.9|C|F|0|abbr=}}WEB,weblink Nuuk, Greenland - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast, d.o.o, Yu Media Group, Weather Atlas, en, 2019-08-17,weblink 17 August 2019, live, The total area of Greenland is {{convert|2166086|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}} (including other offshore minor islands), of which the Greenland ice sheet covers {{convert|1755637|km2|0|abbr=on}} (81%) and has a volume of approximately {{convert|2850000|km3|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink IPCC Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis, Grida.no, 6 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071216235037weblink">weblink 16 December 2007, The highest point on Greenland is Gunnbjørn Fjeld at {{convert|3700|m|abbr=on|0}} of the Watkins Range (East Greenland mountain range). The majority of Greenland, however, is less than {{convert|1500|m|abbr=on|0}} in elevation.The weight of the ice sheet has depressed the central land area to form a basin lying more than {{convert|300|m|0|abbr=on}} below sea level,WEB,weblink map (map on p. 4), 6 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110718165137weblink">weblink 18 July 2011, live, DK Atlas, 2001. while elevations rise suddenly and steeply near the coast.WEB,weblink American Scientist Online â€” Greenland or Whiteland?, 3 March 2008, Sigma Xi, Schneider D., 2003,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510013154weblink">weblink 10 May 2011, live, The ice flows generally to the coast from the centre of the island. A survey led by French scientist Paul-Emile Victor in 1951 concluded that, under the ice sheet, Greenland is composed of three large islands."Find Greenland Icecap Bridges Three Islands {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160412192018weblink |date=12 April 2016 }}", Ellensburg Daily Record, 24 October 1951, p. 6. Retrieved 13 May 2012. This is disputed, but if it is so, they would be separated by narrow straits, reaching the sea at Ilulissat Icefjord, at Greenland's Grand Canyon and south of Nordostrundingen.All towns and settlements of Greenland are situated along the ice-free coast, with the population being concentrated along the west coast. The northeastern part of Greenland is not part of any municipality, but it is the site of the world's largest national park, Northeast Greenland National Park.WEB,weblink The National Park, Greenland.com, 18 June 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130627011801weblink">weblink 27 June 2013, dmy-all, (File:Greenlandmountains.jpg|thumb|upright|View of mountains on Greenland from the air)At least four scientific expedition stations and camps had been established on the ice sheet in the ice-covered central part of Greenland (indicated as pale blue in the adjacent map): Eismitte, North Ice, North GRIP Camp and The Raven Skiway. There is a year-round station Summit Camp on the ice sheet, established in 1989. The radio station Jørgen Brønlund Fjord was, until 1950, the northernmost permanent outpost in the world.File:Vatnahverfi.jpg|thumb|left|Southern Greenland is suitable for agriculture. Hay is harvested in Igaliku, KujalleqKujalleqThe extreme north of Greenland, Peary Land, is not covered by an ice sheet, because the air there is too dry to produce snow, which is essential in the production and maintenance of an ice sheet. If the Greenland ice sheet were to melt away completely, the world's sea level would rise by more than {{convert|7|m|0|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Greenland Melt May Swamp LA, Other Cities, Study Says, National Geographic, 6 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510010100weblink">weblink 10 May 2011, live, In 2003, a small island, {{convert|35|x|15|m|abbr=off}} in length and width, was discovered by arctic explorer Dennis Schmitt and his team at the coordinates of 83-42. Whether this island is permanent is not yet confirmed. If it is, it is the northernmost permanent known land on Earth.In 2007, the existence of a new island was announced. Named "Uunartoq Qeqertaq" (English: Warming Island), this island has always been present off the coast of Greenland, but was covered by a glacier. This glacier was discovered in 2002 to be shrinking rapidly, and by 2007 had completely melted away, leaving the exposed island.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080830030612weblink">weblink 30 August 2008, The Independent, London, An island made by global warming, Michael, McCarthy, 24 April 2007, 4 May 2010, The island was named Place of the Year by the Oxford Atlas of the World in 2007.WEB,weblink Place of the Year, Blog.oup.com, 3 December 2007, 6 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091015151345weblink">weblink 15 October 2009, live, Ben Keene, the atlas's editor, commented: "In the last two or three decades, global warming has reduced the size of glaciers throughout the Arctic and earlier this year, news sources confirmed what climate scientists already knew: water, not rock, lay beneath this ice bridge on the east coast of Greenland. More islets are likely to appear as the sheet of frozen water covering the world's largest island continues to melt".Publications, Usa Int'L Business. Denmark Company Laws and Regulations Handbook: Strategic Information and Basic Laws. Place of Publication Not Identified: Intl Business Pubns Usa, 2015. 20–21. Print. Some controversy surrounds the history of the island, specifically over whether the island might have been revealed during a brief warm period in Greenland during the mid-20th century.WEB, Revkin, Andrew C.,weblink Arctic Explorer Rebuts 'Warming Island' Critique, New York Times, 28 April 2008, 6 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100927055552weblink">weblink 27 September 2010, live,

Climate change

{{See also|Climate change in the Arctic|Retreat of glaciers since 1850#Greenland|Greenland's Grand Canyon}}Between 1989 and 1993, US and European climate researchers drilled into the summit of Greenland's ice sheet, obtaining a pair of {{convert|3|km|1|abbr=on}} long ice cores. Analysis of the layering and chemical composition of the cores has provided a revolutionary new record of climate change in the Northern Hemisphere going back about 100,000 years and illustrated that the world's weather and temperature have often shifted rapidly from one seemingly stable state to another, with worldwide consequences.Alley, Richard B. The Two-Mile Time Machine: Ice Cores, Abrupt Climate Change, and Our Future. Princeton University Press, 2000, {{ISBN|0-691-00493-5}}. The glaciers of Greenland are also contributing to a rise in the global sea level faster than was previously believed.WEB, Roach, John, Greenland Glaciers Losing Ice Much Faster, Study Says, National Geographic Society, National Geographic, 16 February 2006,weblink 13 September 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060910161513weblink">weblink 10 September 2006, live, Between 1991 and 2004, monitoring of the weather at one location (Swiss Camp) showed that the average winter temperature had risen almost {{convert|6|C-change|0|abbr=on}}.Climate variability and trends along the western slope of the Greenland ice sheet during 1991–2004 {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070614071743weblink |date=14 June 2007 }}, Konrad Steffen, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA Nicloas Cullen, and Russell Huff University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Other research has shown that higher snowfalls from the North Atlantic oscillation caused the interior of the ice cap to thicken by an average of {{convert|6|cm|in|2|abbr=on|disp=or}}/y between 1994 and 2005.Satellite shows Greenland's ice sheets getting thicker {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170901014546weblink |date=1 September 2017 }}, The Register, 7 November 2005.File:Scoresby-sund view hg.jpg|thumb|upright=2|View of Kangertittivaq in eastern Greenland, one of the largest sund-fjordfjord

Postglacial glacier advances on Nuussuaq peninsula

{{Clarify section|reason=Too technical|small=no|date=July 2019}}The 1,310 meter-high Qaqugdluit mountain land on the south side of Nuussuaq peninsula, situated {{convert|50|km|mi|abbr=off}} west of the Greenland inland ice at {{coord|70|7|50|N|51|44|30|W}}, is exemplary of the numerous mountain areas of west Greenland. Up to the year 1979 (Stage 0) it shows Historical to Holocene, i.e. Postglacial glacier stages dating back at least 7,000 and at most about 10,000 years.JOURNAL, Heim, A., 1911, Über die Petrographie und Geologie der Umgebung von Karsuarsuk, Nordseite der Halbinsel Nugsuak, W. Grönland, Meddr. Grönland, 47, 3,weblink 5 April 2015,weblink 8 April 2016, live, JOURNAL, Weidick, A., 1968, Observations on some Holocene Glacial Fluctuations in West Greenland, Meddr. Grönland, 165, 6, 1–202, In 1979 the glacier tongues came to an end – according to the extent and height of the glacier nourishing area – between {{convert|660|and|140|m|ft|abbr=off}} above sea level. The pertinent climatic glacier snowline (ELA) ran at about {{convert|800|m|ft|abbr=off}} in height. The snowline of the oldest (VII) of the three Holocene glacier stages (V–VII) ran about {{convert|230|m|ft|abbr=off}} deeper, i.e. at about {{convert|570|m|ft|abbr=off}} in height.Kuhle, M. (1983): Postglacial Glacier Stades of Nugssuaq Peninsula, Westgreenland (70°03'–70°10'N). In: Schroeder-Lanz, H. (ed.): Colloquium Trier 15.-17.5.1980: Late- and Postglacial Oscillations of Glaciers: Glacial and Periglacial Forms, Rotterdam: 325–355 (Im memoriam Hans Kinzl). The four youngest glacier stages (IV-I) are of a Historical age. They have to be classified as belonging to the global glacier advances in the years 1811 to 1850 and 1880 to 1900 ("Little Ice Age"), 1910 to 1930, 1948 and 1953. Their snowlines rose step by step up to the level of 1979. The current snowline (Stage 0) runs nearly unchanged. During the oldest Postglacial Stage VII an ice-stream network from valley glaciers joining each other, has completely covered the landscape. Its nourishing areas consisted of high-lying plateau glaciers and local ice caps. Due to the uplift of the snowline about {{convert|230|m|ft|abbr=off}} – what corresponds to a warming about {{convert|1.5|C-change}}, since 1979 there exists a plateau-glaciation with small glacier tongues hanging down on the margins that nearly did not reach the main valley bottoms any more.

Biodiversity

{{See also|Flora and fauna of Greenland|Reindeer hunting in Greenland|Fishing industry in Greenland|Whaling#Greenland}}File:Greenland-musk-ox hg.jpg|thumb|upright=1.2|MuskoxMuskoxThere are approximately 700 known species of insects in Greenland, which is low compared with other countries (over one million species have been described worldwide). The sea is rich in fish and invertebrates, especially in the milder West Greenland Current; a large part of the Greenland fauna is associated with marine-based food chains, including large colonies of seabirds. The few native land mammals in Greenland include the polar bear, reindeer (introduced by Europeans), arctic fox, arctic hare, musk ox, collared lemming, ermine, and arctic wolf. The last four are found naturally only in East Greenland, having immigrated from Ellesmere Island. There are dozens of species of seals and whales along the coast. Land fauna consists predominantly of animals which have spread from North America or, in the case of many birds and insects, from Europe. There are no native or free-living reptiles or amphibians on the island.WEB,weblink Greenland Wildlife, 2014, Redaction, The Great Danish Encyclopedia, 8 October 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160313204254weblink">weblink 13 March 2016, live, Phytogeographically, Greenland belongs to the Arctic province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. The island is sparsely populated in vegetation; plant life consists mainly of grassland and small shrubs, which are regularly grazed by livestock. The most common tree native to Greenland is the European white birch (Betula pubescens) along with gray-leaf willow (Salix glauca), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), common juniper (Juniperus communis) and other smaller trees, mainly willows.Greenland's flora consists of about 500 species of "higher" plants, i.e. flowering plants, ferns, horsetails and lycopodiophyta. Of the other groups, the lichens are the most diverse, with about 950 species; there are 600-700 species of fungi; mosses and bryophytes are also found. Most of Greenland's higher plants have (wikt:Special:Search/circumpolar|circumpolar) or circumboreal distributions; only a dozen species of saxifrage and hawkweed are endemic. A few plant species were introduced by the Norsemen, such as cow vetch.File:Greenland 377 (34999131992).jpg|thumb|upright=1.2|The Greenland DogGreenland DogThe terrestrial vertebrates of Greenland include the Greenland dog, which was introduced by the Inuit, as well as European-introduced species such as Greenlandic sheep, goats, cattle, reindeer, horse, chicken and sheepdog, all descendants of animals imported by Europeans.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}} Marine mammals include the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) as well as the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)."Greenland". Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition. Whales frequently pass very close to Greenland's shores in the late summer and early autumn. Whale species include the beluga whale, blue whale, Greenland whale, fin whale, humpback whale, minke whale, narwhal, pilot whale, sperm whale.WEB,weblink Animal life in Greenland – an introduction by the tourist board, Greenland Guide, Narsaq Tourist Office, 1 May 2012, n.d.,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120427231950weblink">weblink 27 April 2012, live, As of 2009, approximately 269 species of fish from over 80 different families are known from the waters surrounding Greenland;BOOK, A checklist of the fish fauna of Greenland waters, 2010, Magnolia Press, Moller, Peter R., 9781869774677, Auckland, N.Z., 551668689, the fishing industry is the primary industry of Greenland's economy, accounting for the majority of the country's total exports.WEB,weblink Economy and Industry in Greenland - Naalakkersuisut, naalakkersuisut.gl, 2019-08-17,weblink 2 April 2019, live, Birds, particularly seabirds, are an important part of Greenland's animal life; breeding populations of auks, puffins, skuas, and kittiwakes are found on steep mountainsides.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}} Greenland's ducks include eiders, long-tailed ducks, king eider, white-fronted goose, pink-footed goose and barnacle goose. Breeding migratory birds include the snow bunting, lapland bunting, ringed plover, red-throated loon and red-necked phalarope. Non-migratory land birds include the arctic redpoll, ptarmigan, short-eared owl, snowy owl, gyrfalcon and white-tailed eagle.

Politics

{{See also|Politics of Denmark|Politics of the Faroe Islands|Greenland–European Union relations}}{{multiple image
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|image1 = Drottning Margrethe av Danmark crop.jpg
|caption1 = Margrethe II, Queen since 1972
|image2 = Mette Frederiksen - 2010.jpg
|caption2 = Mette Frederiksen, Prime Minister since 2019
|image3 = Kim Kielsen. Nordiska raoedets session i Helsingfors 2012.jpg
|caption3 = Kim Kielsen, Premier since 2014
}}(File:Nuuk-centrum.jpg|thumb|Nuuk is Greenland's capital and the seat of the government)File:EU OCT and OMR map en.png|thumb|The special territories of the European Union ]]The Kingdom of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, in which Queen Margrethe II is the head of state. The monarch officially retains executive power and presides over the Council of State (privy council)."The executive power is vested in the King." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 3. {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110710092702weblink |date=10 July 2011 }}"The body of Ministers shall form the Council of State, in which the Successor to the Throne shall have a seat when he is of age. The Council of State shall be presided over by the King..." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 17. {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110710092702weblink |date=10 July 2011 }} However, following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the monarch have since become strictly representative and ceremonial,The Monarchy today {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150215082552weblink |date=15 February 2015 }} – The Danish Monarchy (kongehuset.dk). Access date: 16 June 2012 such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers in the executive government. The monarch is not answerable for his or her actions, and the monarch's person is sacrosanct."The King shall not be answerable for his actions; his person shall be sacrosanct." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 13. {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110710092702weblink |date=10 July 2011 }}

Political system

The party system is dominated by the social-democratic Forward Party, and the democratic socialist Inuit Community Party, both of which broadly argue for greater independence from Denmark. While the 2009 election saw the unionist — and largely Danish — Democrat Party (two MPs) decline greatly, the 2013 election consolidated the power of the two main parties at the expense of the smaller groups, and saw the eco-socialist Inuit Party elected to the Parliament for the first time. The dominance of the Forward and Inuit Community parties began to wane after the snap 2014 and 2018 elections.The non-binding 2008 referendum on self-governance favoured increased self-governance by 21,355 votes to 6,663.In 1985, Greenland left the European Economic Community (EEC), unlike Denmark, which remains a member. The EEC later became the European Union (EU, renamed and expanded in scope in 1992). Greenland retains some ties with the EU via Denmark. However, EU law largely does not apply to Greenland except in the area of trade.

Government

(File:Greenland-municipalities-2018.svg|thumb|upright|Municipalities of Greenland)Greenland's head of state is Margrethe II, Queen regnant of Denmark. The Queen's government in Denmark appoints a High Commissioner (Rigsombudsmand) to represent it on the island. The commissioner is Mikaela Engell.Greenlanders elect two representatives to the Folketing, Denmark's parliament, out of a total of 179. The representatives are Aleqa Hammond of the Siumut Party and Aaja Chemnitz Larsen of the Inuit Community Party.Folketinget – Folketinget.dk {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150628025221weblink |date=28 June 2015 }}. Ft.dk. Retrieved on 21 June 2016.Greenland also has its own Parliament, which has 31 members. The government is the Naalakkersuisut whose members are appointed by the Premier. The head of government is the Premier, usually the leader of the majority party in Parliament. The Premier is Kim Kielsen of the Siumut Party.

Military

Several American and Danish military bases are located in Greenland, including the Thule Air Base, which is home to the 21st Space Wing's global network of sensors providing missile warning, space surveillance and space control to North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC).NEWS, Trump reportedly wants to 'buy' Greenland. This is what it's like at the US's Arctic base there,weblink Business Insider, 16 August 2019, 19 August 2019,weblink 19 August 2019, live, In 1995, a political scandal resulted in Denmark after a report revealed the government had given tacit permission for nuclear weapons to be located in Greenland, in contravention of Denmark's 1957 nuclear-free zone policy.WEB,weblink Danish Prime Minister Gives Tacit Go-Ahead For U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Greenland, Hansen, H. C., H. C. Hansen, 16 November 1957, The Nautilus Institute, harv, 20 March 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071106145717weblink">weblink 6 November 2007, NEWS, Cataclysmic cargo: The hunt for four missing nuclear bombs after a B-52 crash,weblink The Washington Post, 21 January 2018, The United States built a secret nuclear powered base, called Camp Century, in the Greenland ice sheet.NEWS, A Top-Secret US Military Base Will Melt Out of the Greenland Ice Sheet,weblink VICE Magazine, 9 March 2019, 20 August 2019,weblink 20 August 2019, live, On 21 January 1968, a B-52G, with four nuclear bombs aboard as part of Operation Chrome Dome, crashed on the ice of the North Star Bay while attempting an emergency landing at Thule Air Base.NEWS, The Cold War's Missing Atom Bombs,weblink Der Spiegel, 14 November 2008, 20 August 2019,weblink 27 June 2019, live, The resulting fire caused extensive radioactive contamination.NEWS, US B-52 nuclear bomber crash in Greenland 51 years ago has ill Danes seeking compensation,weblink Fox News, 3 June 2019, 20 August 2019,weblink 8 June 2019, live, One of the H-bombs remains lost.NEWS, Gordon, Corera, Mystery of lost US nuclear bomb,weblink BBC News, 10 November 2008, NEWS, US left nuclear weapon under ice in Greenland,weblink The Daily Telegraph, 11 November 2008, 20 August 2019,weblink 20 August 2019, live,

Administrative divisions

Formerly consisting of three counties comprising a total of 18 municipalities, Greenland abolished these in 2009 and has since been divided into large territories known as "municipalities" (, ): Sermersooq ("Much Ice") around the capital Nuuk and also including all East Coast communities; Kujalleq ("South") around Cape Farewell; Qeqqata ("Centre") north of the capital along the Davis Strait; Qeqertalik ("The one with islands") surrounding Disko Bay; and Avannaata ("Northern") in the northwest; the latter two having come into being as a result of the Qaasuitsup municipality, one of the original four, being partitioned in 2018. The northeast of the island composes the unincorporated Northeast Greenland National Park. Thule Air Base is also unincorporated, an enclave within Avannaata municipality administered by the United States Air Force. During its construction, there were as many as 12,000 American residents but in recent years the number has been below 1,000.

Economy

(File:Greenland Exports Treemap 2017.svg|thumb|Graphical depiction of Greenland's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories)The Greenlandic economy is highly dependent on fishing. Fishing accounts for more than 90% of Greenland's exports.NEWS,weblink 'You can't live in a museum': the battle for Greenland's uranium, Walsh, Maurice, 2017-01-28, The Guardian, 0261-3077, 2017-01-28,weblink 29 January 2017, live, The shrimp and fish industry is by far the largest income earner.Greenland is abundant in minerals. Mining of ruby deposits began in 2007. Other mineral prospects are improving as prices are increasing. These include iron, uranium, aluminium, nickel, platinum, tungsten, titanium, and copper. Despite resumption{{when|date=January 2014}} of several hydrocarbon and mineral exploration activities, it will take several years before hydrocarbon production can materialize. The state oil company Nunaoil was created to help develop the hydrocarbon industry in Greenland. The state company Nunamineral has been launched on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange to raise more capital to increase the production of gold, started in 2007.File:Tasiilaq - Greenland summer 2009.jpg|thumb|Tasiilaq is a town in the SermersooqSermersooqFile:Royal-Greenland-akamalik-vessel-sisimiut.jpg|thumb|left|Royal Greenland fishing vessel "Akamalik", anchored at SisimiutSisimiutElectricity has traditionally been generated by oil or diesel power plants, even if there is a large surplus of potential hydropower. There is a programme to build hydro power plants. The first, and still the largest, is Buksefjord hydroelectric power plant.There are also plans to build a large aluminium smelter, using hydropower to create an exportable product. It is expected that much of the labour needed will be imported.JOURNAL
, Greenland's red hot labour market
,weblink
, Nordic Labour Journal
, 12 October 2011
, 10 February 2013
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130201145836weblink">weblink
, 1 February 2013
, no
, The European Union has urged Greenland to restrict People's Republic of China development of rare-earth projects, as China accounts for 95% of the world's current supply. In early 2013, the Greenland government said that it had no plans to impose such restrictions.Chinese Workers—in Greenland? {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130213141927weblink |date=13 February 2013 }} 10 February 2013 BusinessWeek.The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays a dominant role in Greenland's economy. About half the government revenues come from grants from the Danish government, an important supplement to the gross domestic product (GDP). Gross domestic product per capita is equivalent to that of the average economies of Europe.Greenland suffered an economic contraction in the early 1990s. But, since 1993, the economy has improved. The Greenland Home Rule Government (GHRG) has pursued a tight fiscal policy since the late 1980s, which has helped create surpluses in the public budget and low inflation. Since 1990, Greenland has registered a foreign-trade deficit following the closure of the last remaining lead and zinc mine that year. In 2017, new sources of ruby in Greenland have been discovered, promising to bring new industry and a new export from the country.WEB,weblink Greenland Rubies: What We Know At This Point {{!, National Jeweler|website=www.nationaljeweler.com|access-date=2019-08-17|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190817153630weblink|archive-date=17 August 2019|url-status=live}} (See Gemstone industry in Greenland).

Transportation

File:AirGreenland Airbus (11832722805).jpg|thumb|Air Greenland Airbus A330-200A330-200File:The Town of Ilulissat, Greenland, as Seen From Secretary Kerry's Plane (27795542865).jpg|thumb|The port of IlulissatIlulissatAir transportation exists both within Greenland and between the island and other nations. There is also scheduled boat traffic, but the long distances lead to long travel times and low frequency. There are virtually no roads between cities because the coast has many fjords that would require ferry service to connect a road network. The only exception is a gravel road of 3 miles length between Kangilinnguit and the now abandoned former cryolite mining town of Ivittuut.WEB,weblink Greenland — Transportation, www.iexplore.com, 10 October 2018,weblink 10 October 2018, live, In addition, the lack of agriculture, forestry and similar countryside activities has meant that very few countryside roads have been built.All civil aviation matters are handled by the Danish Transport Authority. Most airports including Nuuk Airport have short runways and can only be served by special fairly small aircraft on fairly short flights. Kangerlussuaq Airport around {{convert|100|km|abbr=off}} inland from the west coast is the major airport of Greenland and the hub for domestic flights. Intercontinental flights connect mainly to Copenhagen. Travel between international destinations (except Iceland) and any city in Greenland requires a plane change.Air Iceland operates flights from Reykjavík to a number of airports in Greenland, and the company promotes the service as a day-trip option from Iceland for tourists.WEB, Perrin, Wendy, Greenland Day Trip from Iceland: Is it Worth It?,weblink Wendy Perrin, 25 December 2017, 2015-07-21,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171226025555weblink">weblink 26 December 2017, live, There are no direct flights to the United States or Canada, although there have been flights Kangerlussuaq – Baltimore,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081006075245weblink">weblink 6 October 2008, Historical Maiden Flight US-Greenland – Official national guide by Greenland Tourism and Business Council, Greenland.com, 24 May 2007, 6 September 2010, and Nuuk – Iqaluit,NEWS,weblink Air Greenland teams with First Air for Iqaluit flights, CBC News, 7 June 2012, 19 August 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120610195403weblink">weblink 10 June 2012, live, which were cancelled because of too few passengers and financial losses.WEB,weblink The Baltimore route is to close, Air Greenland, 12 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130518074701weblink">weblink 18 May 2013, An alternative between Greenland and the United States/Canada is Air Iceland/Icelandair with a plane change in Iceland.WEB, 4 Ways to Get to Greenland,weblink Fodor's, 25 December 2017, 2014-02-26,weblink 26 December 2017, live, Sea passenger and freight transport is served by the coastal ferries operated by Arctic Umiaq Line. It makes a single round trip per week, taking 80 hours each direction.{{citation needed|date=August 2019}}

Population

Demographics

{{See also|List of Greenlanders}}
File:Kulusuk, Inuit couple (6822265499).jpg|thumb|Tunumiit Inuit couple from KulusukKulusukGreenland has a population of 56,370 (January 2013 estimate), of whom 88% are Greenlandic Inuit (including Danish-Inuit mixed). The remaining 12% of people are of European descent, mainly Greenland Danes. Several thousand Greenlandic Inuit reside in Denmark proper. The majority of the population is Lutheran. Nearly all Greenlanders live along the fjords in the south-west of the main island, which has a relatively mild climate.WEB,weblink Greenland, Stalvik.com, 6 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100923001626weblink">weblink 23 September 2010, live, More than 17,000 people reside in Nuuk, the capital city. Greenland's warmest climates such as the vegetated area around Narsarsuaq are sparsely populated, whereas the majority of the population lives north of 64°N in colder coastal climates.{{Largest cities of Greenland}}

Languages

(File:Parkverbot Grönland.jpg|thumb|A bilingual sign in Nuuk, displaying the Danish and Kalaallisut for "Parking forbidden for all vehicles")Both Greenlandic (an Eskimo–Aleut language) and Danish have been used in public affairs since the establishment of home rule in 1979; the majority of the population can speak both languages. Greenlandic became the sole official language in June 2009,NEWS
, Danish doubts over Greenland vote
,weblink
, BBC News
, 27 November 2008
, 10 February 2013
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121207121546weblink">weblink
, 7 December 2012
, no
, In practice, Danish is still widely used in the administration and in higher education, as well as remaining the first or only language for some Danish immigrants in Nuuk and other larger towns. Debate about the roles of Greenlandic and Danish in the country's future is ongoing. The orthography of Greenlandic was established in 1851Kleinschmidt, Samuel 1968 (1851): Grammatik der grønlændischen Sprache : mit teilweisem Einschluss des Labradordialekts. Hildesheim : Olms, 1968. and revised in 1973. The country has a 100% literacy rate.WEB
, Greenland
,weblink
, The World Factbook, CIA World Factbook
, 15 May 2007
,weblink
, 13 October 2013
, live
,
A majority of the population speaks Greenlandic, most of them bilingually. It is spoken by about 50,000 people, making it the most populous of the Eskimo–Aleut language family, spoken by more people than all the other languages of the family combined.Kalaallisut is the Greenlandic dialect of West Greenland, which has long been the most populous area of the island. This has led to its de facto status as the official "Greenlandic" language, although the northern dialect Inuktun remains spoken by 1,000 or so people around Qaanaaq, and the eastern dialect Tunumiisut by around 3,000.Mennecier, Philippe (1978). Le tunumiisut, dialecte inuit du Groenland oriental: description et analyse, Collection linguistique, 78, Societé de linguistique de Paris. Each of these dialects is almost unintelligible to the speakers of the other and are considered by some linguists to be separate languages.{{Citation needed|date=May 2012}} A UNESCO report has labelled the other dialects as endangered, and measures are now being considered to protect the East Greenlandic dialects.WEB
,weblink
, Sermersooq will secure Eastern Greenlandic
, Kalaallit Nunaata Radioa
, 6 January 2010
, Danish
, 19 May 2010
,weblink
, 16 May 2016
, no
, About 12% of the population speak Danish as a first or sole language, particularly Danish immigrants in Greenland, many of whom fill positions such as administrators, professionals, academics, or skilled tradesmen. While Greenlandic is dominant in all smaller settlements, a part of the population of Inuit or mixed ancestry, especially in towns, speaks Danish. Most of the Inuit population speaks Danish as a second language. In larger towns, especially Nuuk and in the higher social strata, this is still a large group. While one strategy aims at promoting Greenlandic in public life and education, developing its vocabulary and suitability for all complex contexts, there are opponents of this.WEB,weblink A Nuuk plan to marginalize the Danish language in Greenland worries Copenhagen, McGwin, Kevin, 2018-05-09, Arctic Today, en-US, 2019-08-17,weblink 17 August 2019, live, English is another important language for Greenland, taught in schools from the first school year.WEB,weblink Travelling in Greenland, Greenland Representation to the EU, Greenland Home Rule Government, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140516025948weblink">weblink 16 May 2014,

Education

Education is organised in a similar way to Denmark. There is ten year mandatory primary school. There is also a secondary school, with either work education or preparatory for university education. There is one university, the University of Greenland in Nuuk. Many Greenlanders attend universities in Denmark or elsewhere.

Religion

{{Pie chart|thumb = right
WEBSITE=THEARDA.COM ACCESSDATE=2016-06-18 ARCHIVE-DATE=24 SEPTEMBER 2017 DATE=2011-12-19 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170511124911/HTTP://WWW.PEWFORUM.ORG/2011/12/19/TABLE-CHRISTIAN-POPULATION-AS-PERCENTAGES-OF-TOTAL-POPULATION-BY-COUNTRY/ URL-STATUS=LIVE, |label1 = Protestantism|value1 = 95.5|color1 = DodgerBlue|label2 = Roman Catholicism|value2 = 0.2|color2 = DarkOrchidChristianity>Christian|value3 = 0.4|color3 = Turquoise|label4 = Inuit spiritual beliefs|value4 = 0.8|color4 = Red|label5 = Agnostic|value5 = 2.3|color5 = Honeydew|label6 = Atheist|value6 = 0.2|color6 = Grey|label7 = Other Religion|value7 = 0.6|color7 = Yellow}}File:Nanortalik church.jpg|thumb|Most Greenlandic villages, including NanortalikNanortalikThe nomadic Inuit people were traditionally shamanistic, with a well-developed mythology primarily concerned with appeasing a vengeful and fingerless sea goddess who controlled the success of the seal and whale hunts.The first Norse colonists worshipped the Norse gods, but Erik the Red's son Leif was converted to Christianity by King Olaf Trygvesson on a trip to Norway in 999 and sent missionaries back to Greenland. These swiftly established sixteen parishes, some monasteries, and a bishopric at Garðar.Rediscovering these colonists and spreading ideas of the Protestant Reformation among them was one of the primary reasons for the Danish recolonization in the 18th century. Under the patronage of the Royal Mission College in Copenhagen, Norwegian and Danish Lutherans and German Moravian missionaries searched for the missing Norse settlements, but no Norse were found, and instead they began preaching to the Inuit. The principal figures in the Christianization of Greenland were Hans and Poul Egede and Matthias Stach. The New Testament was translated piecemeal from the time of the very first settlement on Kangeq Island, but the first translation of the whole Bible was not completed until 1900. An improved translation using the modern orthography was completed in 2000.WEB, Sørensen, Leif Kiil,weblink Grønlandsk bibel præsenteret | Kristeligt Dagblad, Kristeligt-dagblad.dk, 29 November 2000, 6 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511084103weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, live, Today, the major religion is Protestant Christianity, represented mainly by the Church of Denmark, which is Lutheran in orientation. While there are no official census data on religion in Greenland, the Bishop of Greenland Sofie Petersenweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120325215706weblink">"Bells ring a wake-up call for climate justice." World Council of Churches. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010 estimates that 85% of the Greenlandic population are members of her congregation.WEB,weblink Grønland, Grundloven og Gejstligheden, 30 April 2012, dead,weblink 25 April 2012, dmy, The Church of Denmark is the established church through the Constitution of Denmark.WEB,weblink Constitution of Denmark – Section IV, The Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the Established Church of Denmark, and, as such, it shall be supported by the State., 22 September 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160301205429weblink">weblink 1 March 2016, live, The Roman Catholic minority is pastorally served by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Copenhagen. There are still Christian missionaries on the island, but mainly from charismatic movements proselytizing fellow Christians.WEB, Faheem, Ramadan in Greenland,weblink Masjids.in, 7 May 2012, dead,weblink 22 October 2013, dmy, NEWS, Muslim in Greenland who Fasts for 21 hours,weblink 7 May 2012, Malaysia News Hub, 13 August 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140228082117weblink">weblink 28 February 2014, WEB, Wetaka, Ahmed, The only Muslim in Greenland who fasts for 21 hours,weblink Uganda Muslims, 7 May 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120630040921weblink">weblink 30 June 2012, dmy-all, NEWS, Ramadan in Greenland: The only Muslim in the island fasts for 21 hours,weblink 7 May 2012, Ummid.com, 12 August 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120419193750weblink">weblink 19 April 2012, live,

Social issues

The rate of suicide in Greenland is very high. According to a 2010 census, Greenland holds the highest suicide rate in the world.JOURNAL, The Suicide Capital of the World, Slate,weblink 13 March 2013, 2009-10-09,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130304003350weblink">weblink 4 March 2013, live, WEB, Rising suicide rate baffles Greenland,weblink 13 March 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130323061827weblink">weblink 23 March 2013, live, Other significant social issues faced by Greenland are high rates of unemployment, alcoholism, and HIV/AIDS."Greenland profile – Overview" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180918032735weblink |date=18 September 2018 }}. BBC News. Alcohol consumption rates in Greenland reached their height in the 1980s, when it was twice as high as in Denmark, and had by 2010 fallen slightly below the average level of consumption in Denmark (which is the 12th highest in the world). However, at the same time, alcohol prices are far higher, meaning that consumption has a large social impact.JOURNAL, Aage, H., 2012, Alcohol in Greenland 1951–2010: consumption, mortality, prices, International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 71, 18444, 10.3402/ijch.v71i0.18444, 23256091, 3525923, JOURNAL, Madsen, M. H., Grønbæk, M., Bjerregaard, P., Becker, U., 2005, Urbanization, migration and alcohol use in a population of Greenland Inuit, International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 64, 3, 234–45, 16050317, 10.3402/ijch.v64i3.17987,

Culture

File:Nive Nielsen Rudolstadt 01.jpg|thumb| Nive NielsenNive NielsenFile:Inuk Silis Høegh, Tommi Kainulainen - WOMEX 15, Budapest, 2015.10.22 (1).JPG|thumb| Panel discussion with Greenlandic movie maker Inuk Silis Høegh at the launch of his movie about groundbreaking Greenlandic band Sumé. Journalist and Sumé's record producer Karsten Sommer is speaking.]]Today Greenlandic culture is a blending of traditional Inuit (Kalaallit) and Scandinavian culture. Inuit, or Kalaallit, culture has a strong artistic tradition, dating back thousands of years. The Kalaallit are known for an art form of figures called tupilak or a "spirit object." Traditional art-making practices thrive in the Ammassalik.Hessel, p. 20 Sperm whale ivory remains a valued medium for carving.Hessel, p. 21Greenland also has a successful, albeit small, music culture. Some popular Greenlandic bands and artists include Sume (classic rock), Chilly Friday (rock), Nanook (rock), Siissisoq (rock), Nuuk Posse (hip hop) and Rasmus Lyberth (folk), who performed in the Danish national final for the 1979 Eurovision Song Contest, performing in Greenlandic. The singer-songwriter Simon Lynge is the first musical artist from Greenland to have an album released across the United Kingdom, and to perform at the UK's Glastonbury Festival. The music culture of Greenland also includes traditional Inuit music, largely revolving around singing and drums.

Sport

Sport is an important part of Greenlandic culture, as the population is generally quite active.Wilcox and Latif, p. 109 Popular sports include association football, track and field, handball and skiing. Handball is often referred to as the national sport,Wilcox and Latif, p. 110 and Greenland's men's national team was ranked among the top 20 in the world in 2001.Greenland has excellent conditions for skiing, fishing, snowboarding, ice climbing and rock climbing, although mountain climbing and hiking are preferred by the general public. Although the environment is generally ill-suited for golf, there are golf courses on the island.

Cuisine

The national dish of Greenland is suaasat. Meat from marine mammals, game, birds, and fish play a large role in the Greenlandic diet. Due to the glacial landscape, most ingredients come from the ocean.WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100414020510weblink">weblink Greenland - Greenlandic cuisine - Official Greenland Travel Guide, 2010-04-14, web.archive.org, 2019-07-16, Spices are seldom used besides salt and pepper.WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100327215022weblink">weblink Greenland - Traditional Greenlandic food - Official Greenland Travel Guide, 2010-03-27, web.archive.org, 2019-07-16, Greenlandic coffee is a "flaming" dessert coffee (set alight before serving) made with coffee, whiskey, Kahlúa, Grand Marnier, and whipped cream. It is stronger than the familiar Irish desert coffee .WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100330004520weblink">weblink Greenland - Greenlandic coffee - Official Greenland Travel Guide, 2010-03-30, web.archive.org, 2019-07-28,

See also

Notes

{{notelist}}{{clear}}

References

{{Reflist}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, Hessel, Hessel, Ingo, Arctic Spirit, Vancouver, BC, Douglas and McIntyre, 2006, 978-1-55365-189-5,
  • BOOK, Stern, Stern, Pamela, Historical Dictionary of the Inuit, 2004, The Scarecrow Press, Inc., Lanham, Maryland, 978-0-8108-5058-3, 54768167,
  • BOOK, Wilcox, Wilcox, Jonathan, Latif, Zawiah Abdul, Cultures of the World: Iceland,weblink 2007, Marshall Cavendish, 978-0-7614-2074-3,

Works cited

  • Bardarson, I. (ed. Jónsson, F.) "Det gamle Grønlands beskrivelse af Ívar Bárðarson (Ivar BÃ¥rdssön)", (Copenhagen, 1930).
  • CIA World Factbook, 2000.
  • Conkling, P. W. et al. 2011. The Fate of Greenland: Lessons from Abrupt Climate Change, co-authored with Richard Alley, Wallace Broecker and George Denton, with photographs by Gary Comer, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  • JOURNAL, Lund S, 1959, The Marine Algae of East Greenland. 1. Taxonomical Part, Meddr Gronland, 156, 1, 1–245,
  • JOURNAL, Lund S, 1959, The Marine Algae of East Greenland. 11. Geographic Distribution, Meddr Gronland, 156, 1–70,
  • Steffen, Konrad, N. Cullen, and R. Huff (2005). "Climate variability and trends along the western slope of the Greenland Ice Sheet during 1991–2004", Proceedings of the 85th American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting (San Diego).
  • JOURNAL, Sowa F, 2013, Indigenous Peoples and the Institutionalization of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Greenland., Arctic Anthropology, 50, 1, 72–88, 10.3368/aa.50.1.72,
  • Sowa, F. 2013. Relations of Power & Domination in a World Polity: The Politics of Indigeneity & National Identity in Greenland. In: Heininen, L. Arctic Yearbook 2013. The Arctic of regions vs. the globalized Arctic. Akureyri: Northern Research Forum, pp. 184–198.www.arcticyearbook.com/ay2013
  • Sowa, F. 2014. Greenland. in: Hund, A. Antarctica and the Arctic Circle: A Geographic Encyclopedia of the Earth's Polar Regions. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, pp. 312–316.

External links

{{external links|date=July 2019}}{{Sister project links|Greenland|voy=Greenland|d=Q223|c=Grønland - Kalaallit Nunaat|n=Category:Greenland|q=no|s=Portal:Greenland|b=no|v=Comparative law and justice/Greenland}}

Overviews and data

Government

Trade

Travel

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