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secondary school
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{{short description|A building and/or organization where secondary education is provided}}{{pp-pc1|expiry=December 7, 2019}}{{Redirect|High school}}File:Tóth Árpád Gimnázium.JPG|thumb|Tóth Árpád Gimnázium, a secondary school in Debrecen, HungaryHungaryA secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education (levels 2 and 3 of the ISCED scale), but these can also be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system.Secondary schools typically follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16. The organisations, buildings, and terminology are more or less unique in each country.WEB, International Standard Classification of EducationI S C E D 1997,weblink www.unesco.org, 2017-03-12,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170319192113weblink">weblink 2017-03-19, live, WEB, Iwamoto, Wataru, Towards a Convergence of Knowledge Acquisition and Skills Development,weblink uis.unesco.org, UNESCO, 11 March 2017, 2005,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170525154803weblink">weblink 2017-05-25, live, TITLEINTERNATIONAL STANDARD CLASSIFICATION OF EDUCATION 2011, urweblink accessdate25 December 2017, archive-urweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171215111903weblink">weblink archive-date2017-12-15, url-statuslive, ">

Levels of education {| class"wikitable"TITLEINTERNATIONAL STANDARD CLASSIFICATION OF EDUCATION 2011, urweblink accessdate25 December 2017, archive-urweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171215111903weblink">weblink archive-date2017-12-15, url-statuslive,

! Level !! ISCED 2011 !! Description !! Corresponding ISCED 1997 level
| None
| Level 0: Pre-primary education.
| Level 1: Primary education or first stage of basic education.
| Level 2: Lower secondary education or second stage of basic education
| Level 3: Upper secondary education
| Level 4: Post-secondary non-tertiary education
| Level 5B: First stage of tertiary education: typically shorter, more practical/technical/occupationally specific programmes leading to professional qualifications.

Terminology: descriptions of cohorts

Within the English speaking world, there are three widely used systems to describe the age of the child. The first is the 'equivalent ages', then countries that base their education systems on the 'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the 'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as 'grades'. The Irish model is structured similarly to the English model, but have significant differences in terms of labels. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison WEB, Ward, Ken, British and American Systems (Grades),weblink trans4mind.com, 30 March 2017, en,weblink 2017-03-31, live, {| class="wikitable"
!Equivalent ages ||4-5 || 5-6||6-7 ||7-8 ||8-9 ||9-10 || 10-11
|5
| Junior 4
|England (year)|R|1|2|3|4|5|6
|Ireland (Class)|Junior Infants|Senior Infants|1st Class|2nd Class|3rd Class|4th Class|5th Class
|Scotland (primary)|P1|P2|P3|P4|P5|P6|P7
|ISCED level|0|1|1|1|1|1|1
{| class="wikitable"!Equivalent ages ||11-12 ||12-13||13-14 ||14-15 ||15-16||16-17 ||17-18
|12
Freshman>Sophomore>Junior (education)>JuniorSenior
|Upper Sixth
|13
|Ireland (Other Names)||Junior Cycle|Junior Cycle|Junior Cycle|Transition Year|Senior Cycle|Senior Cycle
|Ireland (Class & year)|6th Class|1st Year|2nd Year|3rd Year|4th Year|5th Year|6th Year
|Scotland (secondary)|S1|S2|S3|S4|S5|S6|
|3

Theoretical framework

File:Gymnázium Grösslingová.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|right|High school in Bratislava, Slovakia (GamčaGamčaSchool building design does not happen in isolation. The building (or school campus) needs to accommodate:
  • Curriculum content
  • Teaching methods
  • Costs
  • Education within the political framework
  • Use of school building (also in the community setting)
  • Constraints imposed by the site
  • Design philosophy
Each country will have a different education system and priorities.WEB, Liew Kok-Pun, Michael, Design of secondary schools:Singapore a case study,weblink Educational Building reports, UNESCO, 3 April 2017, 37, 1981, Voume 17,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170404132431weblink">weblink 2017-04-04, live, Schools need to accommodate students, staff, storage, mechanical and electrical systems, storage, support staff, ancillary staff and administration. The number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed.According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m², but 104 m² for 3D textile work. A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on how this can be configured for a 1,200 place secondary (practical specialism).WEB, Baseline designs: 1,200 place secondary (practical specialism) - GOV.UK,weblink www.gov.uk, GOV.UK, 4 April 2017, en,weblink 2017-04-05, live, and 1,850 place secondary school.WEB, Baseline design: 1,850 place secondary school - GOV.UK,weblink www.gov.uk, gov.uk, 4 April 2017, en,weblink 2017-04-05, live,

Building design specifications

(File:First school.jpg|thumb|The first taxpayer-funded public school in the United States was in Dedham.)The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community. It has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms, toilets and showers, electricity and services, preparation and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.WEB, Guidelines relating to planning for public school infrastructure,weblink 3 April 2017, 2012, Department of Basic Education, Republic of South Africa,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150907024942weblink">weblink 2015-09-07, live, An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have:
  • adequately sized classrooms;
  • specialised teaching spaces;
  • a staff preparation room;
  • an administration block;
  • multipurpose classrooms;
  • a general purpose school hall;
  • laboratories for science, technology, mathematics and life sciences, as may be required;
  • adequate equipment;
  • a library or library stocks that are regularly renewed; and
  • computer rooms or media centres.
Government accountants having read the advice then publish minimum guidelines on schools. These enable environmental modelling and establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure that these standards are met but not exceeded. Government ministries continue to press for the 'minimum' space and cost standards to be reduced.The UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² (+ 350m² if there is a sixth form) + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m².WEB, Baseline designs for schools: guidance - GOV.UK,weblink www.gov.uk, Education Funding Agency, 3 April 2017, en, 11 March 2014,weblink 2017-04-04, live,

Secondary schools by country

A secondary school locally may be called high school or senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education (ISCED 2) and (ISCED 3), here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school (ISCED 1) and high school.{{List of names for secondary schools by country}}

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Commons category|High schools and secondary schools}} {{Secondary education by country}}{{Schools}}{{Education stages}}{{Authority control}}

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