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{{About|the present capital of Norway|the former capitals|List of historical capitals of Norway|other uses}}{{About|the city formerly named Christiania or Kristiania (1624–1924)|other uses|Christiania (disambiguation)}}{{pp-move|small=yes}}{{short description|Capital of Norway}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2018}}

style="background:#ccf;" style="background:#edf3fe;"| Alna style="background:#fff;"| Bjerke style="background:#edf3fe;"| Frogner style="background:#fff;"| Gamle Oslo style="background:#edf3fe;"| Grorud style="background:#fff;"| Grünerløkka style="background:#edf3fe;"| Nordre Aker style="background:#fff;" style="background:#edf3fe;"| Sagene style="background:#fff;"| St. Hanshaugen style="background:#edf3fe;"| Stovner style="background:#fff;"| Søndre Nordstrand style="background:#edf3fe;"| Ullern style="background:#fff;"| Vestre Aker style="background:#edf3fe;"| Østensjø style="background:#fff;"| Overall
official_name Oslo

Capital city, Counties of Norway>county and municipality| image_skyline = {hide}multiple image
Left to right, from top: Enerhaugen, Victoria Terrasse, Oslo Opera House with Bjørvika>Bjørvika Barcode, Tjuvholmen with City Hall, Jernbanetorget with Oslo City, and Grünerløkka{edih}| image_flag = Flag of Oslo.svg| image_blank_emblem = Oslo komm.svg| blank_emblem_type = Seal| shield_size = | pushpin_map_caption = Location within Norway##Location within Europe| pushpin_map = Norway#Europe| pushpin_relief = 1590100region:NO-03|display=inline,title}}| subdivision_type = Country| subdivision_name = NorwayDistricts of Norway>DistrictEastern Norway>ØstlandetCounties of Norway>County| subdivision_name2 = OsloList of municipalities of Norway>Municipality| subdivision_name3 = List of mayors of Oslo>MayorMarianne Borgen (Socialist Left Party (Norway)>SV)Governing Mayor of Oslo>Governing mayorRaymond Johansen (Labour Party (Norway)>AP)| established_title = Established| established_date = 1048WEBSITE=KARTVERKET.NOACCESSDATE=13 OCTOBER 2015DEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=19 APRIL 2016, dmy-all, | area_total_km2 = 480.76| area_land_km2 = 454.08| area_water_km2 = 26.68| elevation_m = 23reason=No reference given, not in the arealstatistikk.|date=November 2017}}DATE=19 FEBRUARY 2016 ACCESSDATE=28 MARCH 2016, HTTP://WWW.SSB.NO/EN/BEFOLKNING/STATISTIKKER/BEFTETT/AAR/2015-04-09?FANE=TABELL&SORT=NUMMER&TABELL=222371 >TITLE=POPULATION AND LAND AREA IN URBAN SETTLEMENTS, 1 JANUARY 2014 WORK=STATISTICS NORWAY PUBLISHER=STATISTICS NORWAYDATE=20 AUGUST 2015, | population_as_of = 1 January 2018| population_total = 673,469| population_density_km2 = auto| population_urban = 1,000,467| population_density_urban_km2 = auto| population_metro = 1,588,457LAST=REGIONALDEPARTEMENTETDATE=9 MAY 2003LANGUAGE=NOWORK=SSB.NOLANGUAGE=NN-NO, Central European Time>CET| utc_offset = +1Central European Summer Time>CEST| utc_offset_DST = +2| postal_code_type = Postal codePUBLISHER=, | area_code = (+47) 00Human Development Index>HDI (2017)WEBSITE=HDI.GLOBALDATALAB.ORGACCESS-DATE=2018-09-13, {{colorvery high}} weblink}}| motto = Unanimiter et constanter (Latin) "United and constant"}}

Oslo ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|É’|z|l|oÊŠ}} {{respell|OZ|loh}}, also {{IPAc-en|US|ˈ|É’|s|l|oÊŠ}} {{respell|OSS|loh}},AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY, Oslo, 22 April 2019, WEB,weblink Oslo, Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins, 22 April 2019, {{IPA-no|²ʊʂlÊŠ|lang|Oslo.ogg}}, rarely {{IPA-no|²ʊslÊŠ, ˈʊʂlÊŠ|}}; Southern Sami: Oslove)NEWS,weblink Hovedstaden kan bli Oslove: – Føles nærmere hjertet, 2016-12-23, NRK, 2019-08-01, is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour. It was established as a municipality (formannskapsdistrikt) on 1 January 1838. The city functioned as a co-official capital during the 1814 to 1905 Union between Sweden and Norway. In 1877, the city's name was respelled Kristiania in accordance with an official spelling reform â€“ a change that was taken over by the municipal authorities only in 1897. In 1925 the city, after incorporating the village retaining its former name, was renamed Oslo.Oslo is the economic and governmental centre of Norway. The city is also a hub of Norwegian trade, banking, industry and shipping. It is an important centre for maritime industries and maritime trade in Europe. The city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers and maritime insurance brokers. Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme.Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008.WEB,weblink GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2008,, 13 April 2010, 23 July 2011, It was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine.WEB, Rachel Craig,weblink European Cities and Regions of the Future 2012/13,, 13 February 2012, 12 March 2013, A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo.WEB,weblink Sydney rockets up the list of the world's most expensive cities, ECA International, 8 June 2011, 10 July 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 3 October 2011, In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)'s Worldwide Cost of Living study.NEWS, The world's most expensive cities,weblink 23 February 2014, The Guardian, 14 February 2014, George Arnett, Chris Michael, As of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's urban area of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467.NEWS, NÃ¥ bor det over én million i Stor-Oslo,weblink 11 December 2018, Aftenposten, 2 December 2018, PÃ¥l Vegard Hagesæther, The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million.WEB,weblink Demografi innenfor ti mil fra Oslo. 1. januar 2010 og endringer 2000–2009. Antall og prosent, 15 January 2016, Demographics within a hundred kilometers from Oslo. 1 January 2010 and changes 2000–2009. Number and percent, Statistics Norway, Norwegian, The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.WEB,weblink Oslo europamester i vekst – Nyheter – Oslo,, 3 June 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but also from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population,WEB,weblink Ola og Kari flytter fra innvandrerne – Nyheter – Oslo,, 3 June 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 4 June 2011, dmy-all, and in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included.WEB,weblink Immigration and immigrants,, 1 January 2009, 29 August 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2 September 2009,

Urban region

As of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 658,390. The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus (municipalities of Asker, Bærum, Fet, Enebakk, Rælingen, Lørenskog, Nittedal, Skedsmo, Ski, Sørum, Gjerdrum, Oppegård); the total population of this agglomeration is 1,000,467.WEB,weblink Population, 1 January 2015, 19 February 2015, Statistics Norway, 13 October 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2015, dmy-all, The city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, and southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y" (on maps, satellite pictures, or from high above the city).To the north and east, wide forested hills (Marka) rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre. The urban municipality (bykommune) of Oslo and county [fylke] of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated. Of Oslo's total area, {{convert|130|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} is built-up and {{convert|7|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} is agricultural. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to {{convert|22|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}.{{citation needed|date=September 2015}}The city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842. The rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948 (and simultaneously transferred from Akershus county to Oslo county). Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county.


As defined in January 2004 by the city councilWEB,weblink Bydeler, Norwegian, Districts, 6 September 2015, Oslo Kommune, {{ref label|id4|note|none}}{| class="wikitable sortable"
Boroughs Inhabitants (2015)Befolkningen etter bydel, delbydel, grunnkrets, kjønn og alder. Utviklings- og kompetanseetaten, Oslo kommune (Retrieved 23 October 2015) Area in km² number
48,770 13.7 12
30,502 7.7 9
55,965 8.3 5
49,854 7.5 1
27,283 8.2 10
54,701 4.8 2
49,337 13.6 8
Nordstrand, Norway>Nordstrand 49,428 16.9 14
39,918 3.1 3
36,218 3.6 4
31,669 8.2 11
37,913 18.4 15
32,124 9 6
47,024 16.6 7
49,133 12.2 13
647,676 151.8
{{note label|id4||none}}The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census.

Name and seal

After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour. The old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates. The suburb called Oslo was eventually included in the city proper. In 1925 the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" (literally "the Old town") to avoid confusion.Aftenposten, 12 October 2014, p. 15.Han har kartlagt Christianias karthistorie, Osloby, 8 December 2014weblink The Old Town is an area within the administrative district Gamle Oslo. The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo gate (Oslo street)Knut Are Tvedt, red. (2000). «Oslo gate». Oslo byleksikon (4. utg.). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. page. 324. {{ISBN|82-573-0815-3}}. and Oslo hospital.Pål Abrahamsen et al. (red.): Fra dollhus til moderne psykiatri. Oslo Hospital 1538 – 1988. Selskapet for Oslo bys vel. Oslo 1988.


{{Hatnote|For full article, see History of Oslo's name}}The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate. It is certainly derived from Old Norse and was — in all probability — originally the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists generally interpret the original Óslo, Áslo or Ánslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered equally likely.Cf. Bjorvand, Harald (2008). "Oslo." In: Namn och bygd. Tidskrift för nordisk ortnamnsforskning, vol. 96, 2008.Erroneously, it was once assumed that Oslo meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis first proposed this etymology, but the very name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros (cf. Nidaros).ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Peder Claussøn Friis, Store norske leksikon, Norwegian, Kunnskapsforlaget, Jørgensen, Jon G., Jon Gunnar Jørgensen, Oslo, Helle, Knut, Knut Helle, The name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his [idea about] etymology for Oslo."Alna – elv i Oslo", In: Store Norske Leksikon (in Norwegian).


Oslo is one of very few cities in Norway, besides Bergen and Tønsberg, that does not have a formal coat of arms, but which uses a city seal instead.Government – Oslo kommune {{webarchive |url= |date=14 October 2014 }} The seal of Oslo shows the city's patron saint, St. Hallvard, with his attributes, the millstone and arrows, with a naked woman at his feet. He is seated on a throne with lion decorations, which at the time was also commonly used by the Norwegian kings.WEB,weblink Oslo byvåpen, Heraldry of the World,, 2010, 5 July 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 28 July 2011, yes, dmy-all,


{{Oslo major events timeline}}According to the Norse sagas, Oslo was founded around 1049 by Harald Hardrada.WEB,weblink Inside Oslo : Inside, TripAdvisor, 25 March 2010, Recent archaeological research however has uncovered Christian burials which can be dated to prior to AD 1000, evidence of a preceding urban settlement.{{citation needed|date=May 2012}} This called for the celebration of Oslo's millennium in 2000.It has been regarded as the capital city since the reign of Haakon V of Norway (1299–1319), the first king to reside permanently in the city. He also started the construction of the Akershus Fortress and the Oslo Kongsgård. A century later, Norway was the weaker part in a personal union with Denmark, and Oslo's role was reduced to that of provincial administrative centre, with the monarchs residing in Copenhagen. The fact that the University of Oslo was founded as late as 1811 had an adverse effect on the development of the nation.{{Citation needed|date=May 2012}}Oslo was destroyed several times by fire, and after the fourteenth calamity, in 1624, Christian IV of Denmark and Norway ordered it rebuilt at a new site across the bay, near Akershus Castle and given the name Christiania. Long before this, Christiania had started to establish its stature as a centre of commerce and culture in Norway. The part of the city built starting in 1624 is now often called Kvadraturen because of its orthogonal layout in regular, square blocks. The last Black Death outbreak in Oslo occurred in 1654.WEB,weblink DNMS.NO : Michael: 2005 : 03/2005 : Book review: Black Death and hard facts, Norwegian Medical Society, Øivind Larsen, 11 March 2014, In 1814 Christiania once more became a real capital when the union with Denmark was dissolved.Many landmarks were built in the 19th century, including the Royal Palace (1825–1848), Storting building (the Parliament) (1861–1866), the University, National Theatre and the Stock Exchange. Among the world-famous artists who lived here during this period were Henrik Ibsen and Knut Hamsun (the latter was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature). In 1850, Christiania also overtook Bergen and became the most populous city in the country. In 1877 the city was renamed Kristiania. The original name of Oslo was restored in 1925.WEB,weblink Oslo kommune byarkivet (Oslo City Archives), Oslo Kommune, Bård Alsvik, 23 September 2013,


Under the reign of Olaf III of Norway, Oslo became a cultural centre for Eastern Norway. Hallvard Vebjørnsson became the city's patron saint and is depicted on the city's seal.In 1174, Hovedøya Abbey was built. The churches and abbeys became major owners of large tracts of land, which proved important for the city's economic development, especially before the Black Death.On 25 July 1197, Sverre of Norway and his soldiers attacked Oslo from Hovedøya.NEWS, Leif Gjerland, Kongen som angrep Oslo fra Hovedøya, Aftenposten, 25 July 2014, During the Middle Ages, Oslo reached its heights in the reign of Haakon V of Norway. He started building Akershus Fortress and was also the first king to reside permanently in the city, which helped to make Oslo the capital of Norway.In the end of the 12th century, Hanseatic League traders from Rostock moved into the city and gained major influence in the city. The Black Death came to Norway in 1349 and, like other cities in Europe, the city suffered greatly. The churches' earnings from their land also dropped so much that the Hanseatic traders dominated the city's foreign trade in the 15th century.

17th century

Over the years, fire destroyed major parts of the city many times, as many of the city's buildings were built entirely of wood. After the last fire in 1624, which lasted for three days, Christian IV of Denmark decided that the old city should not be rebuilt again. His men built a network of roads in Akershagen near Akershus Castle. He demanded that all citizens should move their shops and workplaces to the newly built city Christiania, named as an honor to the king.The transformation of the city went slowly for the first hundred years. Outside the city, near Vaterland and Grønland near Old Town, Oslo, a new, unmanaged part of the city grew up filled with citizens of low class status.

18th century

In the 18th century, after the Great Northern War, the city's economy boomed with shipbuilding and trade. The strong economy transformed Christiania into a trading port.

19th century

In 1814 the former provincial town of Christiania became the capital of the independent Kingdom of Norway, in a personal union with Sweden. Several state institutions were established and the city's role as a capital initiated a period of rapidly increasing population. The government of this new state needed buildings for its expanding administration and institutions. Several important buildings were erected – The Bank of Norway (1828), the Royal Palace (1848), and the Storting (1866). Large areas of the surrounding Aker municipality were incorporated in 1839, 1859 an 1878. The 1859 expansion included Grünerløkka, Grønland and Oslo. At that time the area called Oslo (now Gamlebyen or Old Town) was a village or suburb outside the city borders east of Aker river.Boye, Else: Christiania 1814-1905. Oslo: Grøndahl, 1976. The population increased from approximately 10 000 in 1814 to 230 000 in 1900. Christiania expanded its industry from 1840, most importantly around Akerselva. There was a spectacular building boom during the last decades of the 19th century, with many new apartment buildings and renewal of the city center, but the boom collapsed in 1899.


The municipality developed new areas such as Ullevål garden city (1918–1926) and Torshov (1917–1925). City Hall was constructed in the former slum area of Vika from 1931 to 1950. The municipality of Aker was incorporated into Oslo in 1948, and suburbs were developed, such as Lambertseter (from 1951). Aker Brygge was constructed on the site of the former shipyard Akers Mekaniske Verksted, from 1982 to 1998.The city and municipality used the name Kristiania until 1 January 1925 when the name changed to Oslo. Oslo was the name of an eastern suburb - it had been the site of the city centre until the devastating 1624 fire. King Christian IV of Denmark ordered a new city built with his own name; Oslo remained a poor suburb outside the city border. In the early-20th century Norwegians argued that a name memorialising a Danish king was inappropriate as the name of the capital of Norway, which became fully independent in 1905.NEWS,weblink Da Oslo ble Oslo, NRK, NRK, 2018-05-05, nb-NO, In the 2011 Norway terror attacks, Oslo was hit by a bomb blast that ripped through the Government quarter, damaging several buildings including the building that houses the Office of the Prime Minister. Eight people died in the bomb attack.File:Medieval Oslo map.jpg|Map of medieval Oslo,by Amund HellandFile:Harbour of Christiania (JW Edy plate 50).jpg|1800-1820: Port of Christiania,by John William EdyFile:Bridge, at Christiania (JW Edy plate 52).jpg|1800-1820: The old Vaterland Bridge,by John William EdyFile:Christiania Norway in 1814 by MK Tholstrup.jpg|1814: Christiania seen from Ekeberg,by M. K. TholstrupFile:Homannsbyen.jpg|1867: Homansbyen,by Georg Andreas BullFile:Hjula Veveri JWC.240.jpg|1867: Hjula Veveri besides Akerselva,by Carl BaagøeFile:Karl Johan 1880s.jpeg|1880s: Karl Johans gateFile:0133. Christiania, Nationalteatret, 1897 - NB bldsa AL0133 2.jpg|1897: The Christiania Theatre File:2 Universitetet. Kristiania - no-nb digifoto 20151127 00220 bldsa PK09950 (cropped).jpg|1800s-1900s: The University of KristianiaFile:Stortorvet 7, Stortorvet 8 med Kaffistova, Karl Johans gate 15, 1926, Anders Beer Wilse, Oslo Museum, OB.Y2962.jpg|1926: Karl Johans gate 15File:Oslo-oslo-sporveier-sl-2-601737.jpg|1961: Tram (Frogner Line) at Frognerveien


{{See also|Oslo Graben}}(File:Oslo by Sentinel-2.jpg|thumb|Satellite image of Oslo, july 2018.)(File:Tettstedet Oslo 2005.png|thumb|right|upright=1.35|A map of the urban areas of Oslo in 2005. The grey area in the middle indicates Oslo's city centre.)Oslo occupies an arc of land at the northernmost end of the Oslofjord. The fjord, which is nearly bisected by the Nesodden peninsula opposite Oslo, lies to the south; in all other directions Oslo is surrounded by green hills and mountains. There are 40 islands within the city limits, the largest being Malmøya ({{convert|0.56|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|disp=or}}), and scores more around the Oslofjord. Oslo has 343 lakes, the largest being Maridalsvannet ({{convert|3.91|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|disp=or}}). This is also a main source of drinking water for large parts of Oslo.Although Eastern Norway has a number of rivers, none of these flow into the ocean at Oslo. Instead Oslo has two smaller rivers: Akerselva (draining Maridalsvannet, which flows into the fjord in Bjørvika), and Alna. The waterfalls in Akerselva gave power to some of the first modern industry of Norway in the 1840s. Later in the century, the river became the symbol of the stable and consistent economic and social divide of the city into an East End and a West End; the labourers' neighbourhoods lie on both sides of the river, and the divide in reality follows Uelands street a bit further west. River Alna flows through Groruddalen, Oslo's major suburb and industrial area. The highest point is Kirkeberget, at {{convert|629|m}}. Although the city's population is small compared to most European capitals, it occupies an unusually large land area, of which two-thirds are protected areas of forests, hills and lakes. Its boundaries encompass many parks and open areas, giving it an airy and green appearance. {{citation needed|date=May 2012}}{{wide image|Tjuvholmen Aker brygge.jpg|900px|Aker Brygge}}


Oslo has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb)WEB,weblink Climate Oslo: Temperature, Climograph, Climate table for Oslo -,, 2018-06-20, with warm summers and cold winters. Due to oceanic influences, winters are less cold than more continental areas at same latitude. With -3 Â°C isotherm, it is also reasonable for Oslo to be classified as a borderline oceanic climate. Oslo has a significant amount of rainfall during the year. This is true even for the driest month. Because of the city's northern latitude, daylight varies greatly, from more than 18 hours in midsummer, when it never gets completely dark at night (no darker than nautical twilight), to around 6 hours in midwinter.WEB, Oslo Daylight,weblink May 2018 saw hotter than average temperatures throughout the monthweblink 30 May 2018 the city saw temperatures rise to 31.1 Â°C, making it the hottest May temperature on Oslo records.NEWS,weblink Det har aldri noensinne blitt mÃ¥lt høyere temperatur i Norge i mai, 2018-05-30,, 2018-08-13, no, NEWS,weblink Oslo and Bergen set heat records - Norway Today, 2018-05-31, Norway Today, 2018-08-13, en-US, On 27th July 2018 the temperature in Oslo rose to 34.6 C, the hottest ever recorded since 1937, when the weather observations for Oslo have been conducted in the university area at Blindern. In January, three out of four days are below freezing (0 Â°C), on average one out of four days is colder than −10 Â°C.WEB,weblink 10 January 2016, Blindern (Oslo), Norwegian Meteorological Institute, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 15 December 2010, dmy-all, The coldest temperature recorded is {{convert|-29.6|°C|°F|1}}, on 21 January 1841, while the coldest ever recorded at Blindern is {{convert|-26|°C|°F|1}} in January 1941.{{Weather box|location = Oslo Blindern (1981–2010 normals; extremes since 1937)|collapsed = |metric first = Yes|single line = Yes|Jan record high C = 12.5|Feb record high C = 13.8|Mar record high C = 21.5|Apr record high C = 25.4|May record high C = 31.1|Jun record high C = 33.7|Jul record high C = 34.6|Aug record high C = 34.2|Sep record high C = 26.4|Oct record high C = 21.0|Nov record high C = 14.4|Dec record high C = 12.6|year record high C = 34.6|Jan high C = -0.4|Feb high C = 0.5|Mar high C = 4.4|Apr high C = 10.1|May high C = 16.5|Jun high C = 20.0|Jul high C = 22.3|Aug high C = 20.9|Sep high C = 15.7|Oct high C = 9.4|Nov high C = 3.9|Dec high C = 0.0|year high C = 10.3|Jan mean C = -2.9|Feb mean C = -2.4|Mar mean C = 1.0|Apr mean C = 5.9|May mean C = 11.6|Jun mean C = 15.3|Jul mean C = 17.7|Aug mean C = 16.6|Sep mean C = 11.9|Oct mean C = 6.6|Nov mean C = 1.6|Dec mean C = -2.3|year mean C = 6.8|Jan low C = -5.3|Feb low C = -5.3|Mar low C = -2.4|Apr low C = 1.7|May low C = 6.7|Jun low C = 10.5|Jul low C = 13.0|Aug low C = 12.2|Sep low C = 8.0|Oct low C = 3.8|Nov low C = -0.6|Dec low C = -4.7|year low C = 3.2|Jan record low C = -26.0|Feb record low C = -24.9|Mar record low C = -21.3|Apr record low C = -14.9|May record low C = -3.4|Jun record low C = 0.7|Jul record low C = 3.7|Aug record low C = 3.7|Sep record low C = -3.3|Oct record low C = -8.0|Nov record low C = -16.0|Dec record low C = -20.8|year record low C = -26.0|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 54.9|Feb precipitation mm = 41.0|Mar precipitation mm = 50.4|Apr precipitation mm = 46.9|May precipitation mm = 54.1|Jun precipitation mm = 70.5|Jul precipitation mm = 84.7|Aug precipitation mm = 97.8|Sep precipitation mm = 80.6|Oct precipitation mm = 90.4|Nov precipitation mm = 79.1|Dec precipitation mm = 52.4|year precipitation mm = 802.7|Jan precipitation days = 9.8|Feb precipitation days = 7.3|Mar precipitation days = 8.5|Apr precipitation days = 8.1|May precipitation days = 8.5|Jun precipitation days = 10.1|Jul precipitation days = 10.9|Aug precipitation days = 10.9|Sep precipitation days = 9.4|Oct precipitation days = 10.9|Nov precipitation days = 10.7|Dec precipitation days = 9.2|year precipitation days = |Jan sun = 45.7|Feb sun = 78.7|Mar sun = 130.5|Apr sun = 163.8|May sun = 243.5|Jun sun = 229.7|Jul sun = 242.1|Aug sun = 210.9|Sep sun = 147.3|Oct sun = 89.6|Nov sun = 65.9|Dec sun = 39.4|year sun = | Jan uv =0| Feb uv =1| Mar uv =1| Apr uv =3| May uv =4| Jun uv =5| Jul uv =5| Aug uv =4| Sep uv =3| Oct uv =1| Nov uv =0| Dec uv =0LANGUAGE=FRACCESSDATE=15 OCTOBER 2018, HTTP://METEO-CLIMAT-BZH.DYNDNS.ORG/INDEX.PHP?PAGE=STATI&ID=442>TITLE=WEATHER EXTREMES FOR OSLO BLINDERNPUBLISHER=MéTéO CLIMATLAST=D.O.OWEBSITE=WEATHER ATLASACCESS-DATE=2019-07-02, }}

Parks and recreation areas

File:Frogner Park with Vigeland Sculpture Arrangement.jpg|thumb|Frogner ParkFrogner ParkOslo has a large number of parks and green areas within the city core, as well as outside it.
  • Frogner Park is a large park located a few minutes' walk away from the city centre. This is the biggest and best-known park in Norway, with a large collection of sculptures by Gustav Vigeland.
  • Bygdøy is a large green area, commonly called the Museum Peninsula of Oslo. The area is surrounded by the sea and is one of the most expensive districts in Norway.{{citation needed|date=October 2013}}
  • Ekebergparken Sculpture Park is a sculpture park and a national heritage park with a panoramic view of the city at Ekeberg in the southeast of the city.
  • St. Hanshaugen Park is an old public park on a high hill in central Oslo. "St. Hanshaugen" is also the name of the surrounding neighbourhood as well as the larger administrative district (borough) that includes major parts of central Oslo.City of Oslo parks {{no icon}}
  • Tøyen Park stretches out behind the Munch Museum, and is a vast, grassy expanse. In the north, there is a lookout point known as Ola Narr. The Tøyen area also includes the Botanical Garden and Museum belonging to the University of Oslo.City of Oslo parks {{no icon}}
Oslo (with neighbouring Sandvika-Asker) is built in a horseshoe shape on the shores of the Oslofjord and limited in most directions by hills and forests. As a result, any point within the city is relatively close to the forest. There are two major forests bordering the city: Østmarka (literally "Eastern Forest", on the eastern perimeter of the city), and the very large Nordmarka (literally "Northern Forest", stretching from the northern perimeter of the city deep into the hinterland).
  • Sognsvann is a lake in Oslomarka, located at the land border, just north of Oslo. Sognsvann was drinking water for Oslo from 1876 to 1967.
The lake's altitude above sea level is 183 metres. The water is in a popular hiking area. Near the water itself, it is great for barbecues, swimming, beach volleyball and other activities.The municipality operates eight public swimming pools.WEB,weblink Municipal swimming pools,, 16 June 2010, 27 June 2010, Tøyenbadet is the largest indoor swimming facility in Oslo and one of the few pools in Norway offering a 50-metre main pool. Another in that size is the outdoor pool Frognerbadet.


{{multiple image |align=right |image1=Holmenkollen Jump Tower 01.jpg |width1=190 |caption1=Holmenkollen ski jump |width2=190 |caption2=(:no:Bryggetorget|Bryggetorget) |image2=Bryggetorget1.JPG}}Oslo's cityscape is being redeveloped as a modern city with various access-points, an extensive metro-system with a new financial district and a cultural city. In 2008, an exhibition was held in London presenting the award-winning Oslo Opera House, the urban regeneration scheme of Oslo's seafront, Munch/Stenersen and the new Deichman Library. Most of the buildings in the city and in neighbouring communities are low in height with only the Plaza, Posthuset and the highrises at Bjørvika considerably taller.WEB,weblink Oslo’s developing waterfront, in a photo collage,


{{See also|Architecture of Norway}}File:Fjordbyen.gif|left|thumb|Fjordbyen is a large construction project in the seaside of central Oslo, stretching from Bygdøy in the west to Ormøya in the east. Some areas include: Bjørvika, Aker brygge, Tjuvholmen, the cental station area]]Oslo's architecture is very diverse. The architect Carl Frederik Stanley (1769–1805), who was educated in Copenhagen, spent some years in Norway around the turn of the 19th century. He did minor works for wealthy patrons in and around Oslo, but his major achievement was the renovation of the Oslo Katedralskole, completed in 1800.WEB,weblink OSLO TOURIST GUIDE — A hive of Art & Architecture, OSLO TOURIST GUIDE, en-US, 2019-04-09, He added a classical portico to the front of an older structure, and a semicircular auditorium that was sequestered by Parliament in 1814 as a temporary place to assemble, now preserved at Norsk Folkemuseum as a national monument.When Christiania was made capital of Norway in 1814, there were practically no buildings suitable for the many new government institutions. An ambitious building program was initiated, but realised very slowly because of economic constraints. The first major undertaking was the Royal Palace, designed by Hans Linstow and built between 1824 and 1848. Linstow also planned Karl Johans gate, the avenue connecting the Palace and the city, with a monumental square halfway to be surrounded by buildings for University, the Parliament (Storting) and other institutions. Only the university buildings were realised according to this plan. Christian Heinrich Grosch, one of the first architects educated completely within Norway, designed the original building for the Oslo Stock Exchange (1826–1828), the local branch of the Bank of Norway (1828), Christiania Theatre (1836–1837), and the first campus for the University of Oslo (1841–1856). For the university buildings, he sought the assistance of the renowned German architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel. German architectural influence persisted in Norway, and many wooden buildings followed the principles of Neoclassicism. In Oslo, the German architect Alexis de Chateauneuf designed Trefoldighetskirken, the first neo-gothic church, completed by von Hanno in 1858.A number of landmark buildings, particularly in Oslo, were built in the Functionalist style (better known in the US and Britain as Modernist), the first being Skansen restaurant (1925–1927) by Lars Backer, demolished in 1970. Backer also designed the restaurant at Ekeberg, which opened in 1929. Kunstnernes Hus art gallery by Gudolf Blakstad and Herman Munthe-Kaas (1930) still shows the influence of the preceding classicist trend of the 1920s. The redevelopment of Oslo Airport (by the Aviaplan consortium) at Gardermoen, which opened in 1998, was Norway's largest construction project to date.File:14-09-02-oslo-RalfR-393.jpg|Oslo HarbourFile:Bjørvika TRS 060605.jpg|Oslo Central StationFile:Oslo Opera House seen from Langkaia.JPG|Oslo Opera HouseFile:Akershus festning.jpg|Akershus fortressFile:Oslo (11634147396).jpg|A typical city block of OsloFile:Oslo Sentralstasjon.JPG|JernbanetorgetFile:Astrup Fearnley 009.JPG|Art gallery of Astrup Fearnley MuseumFile:Bydel Bjerke, Linderud %26 Veitvet fra Kalbakken.jpg|Highly populated urban area of BjerkeFile:Bjorvika mars2013.JPG|Downtown Oslo skylineFile:Königliches Schloss, Oslo.jpg|Royal Palace

Politics and government

{| class="wikitable" style="float:right;" Oslo city council 2015–2019Norwegian Labour Party>Labour Party20 (+0)Conservative Party (Norway)>Conservative Party19 {{0}}(−3)Green Party (Norway)>Green Party{{0}}5 (+4)Liberal Party (Norway)>Liberal Party{{0}}4 (−1)Progress Party (Norway)>Progress Party{{0}}4 (+0)Socialist Left Party (Norway)>Socialist Left Party {{0}}3 (−1)Red Party (Norway)>Red Party {{0}}3 (+1)Christian Democratic Party (Norway)>Christian Democratic Party {{0}}1 {{0}}(+0)Total >59Resultater valg 2015 Norwegian broadcasting corporation>NRK {{no icon}}Oslo is the capital of Norway, and as such is the seat of Norway's national government. Most government offices, including that of the Prime Minister, are gathered at Regjeringskvartalet, a cluster of buildings close to the national Parliament, the Storting.Constituting both a municipality and a county of Norway, the city of Oslo is represented in the Storting by nineteen members of parliament. The Conservative Party is the most represented party in Oslo with six members, the Labour Party has five, the Progress Party, the Liberals and the Socialist Left Party have two each ; the Green Party and the Red Party have one each.The combined municipality and county of Oslo has had a parliamentary system of government since 1986. The supreme authority of the city is the City Council (Bystyret), which currently has 59 seats. Representatives are popularly elected every four years. The City Council has five standing committees, each having its own areas of responsibility. The largest parties in the City Council after the 2015-elections are the Labour Party and the Conservatives, with 20 and 19 representatives respectively.

2015 elections

{{multiple image |align=left |image1=Stortinget, Oslo, Norway.jpg |width1=200 |caption1=Parliament of Norway |width2=200 |caption2=Oslo City Hall |image2=Oslo rådhus (by alexao).jpg}}The Mayor of Oslo is the head of the City Council and the highest ranking representative of the city. This used to be the most powerful political position in Oslo, but following the implementation of parliamentarism, the mayor has had more of a ceremonial role, similar to that of the President of the Storting at the national level. The current Mayor of Oslo is Marianne Borgen.Since the local elections of 2015, the city government has been a coalition of the Labour Party, the Green Party and the Socialist Left. Based mostly on support from the Red Party, the coalition maintains a workable majority in the City Council.The Governing Mayor of Oslo is the head of the City government. The post was created with the implementation of parliamentarism in Oslo and is similar to the role of the prime minister at the national level. The current governing mayor is Raymond Johansen.Slik blir den nye byregjeringen i Oslo NRK {{no icon}}


File:Oslo at night.jpg|thumb|Office buildings and apartments in Bjørvika, part of the redesign of former dock and industrial land in Oslo known as The Barcode Project.]]Oslo has a varied and strong economy and was ranked number one among European large cities in economic potential in the fDi Magazine report European Cities of the Future 2012. It was ranked 2nd in the category of business friendliness, behind Amsterdam.Oslo is an important centre of maritime knowledge in Europe and is home to approximately 1980 companies and 8,500 employees within the maritime sector. Some of them are the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers, and insurance brokers.Oslo Teknopol Mal {{webarchive|url=|date=22 August 2006}} Det Norske Veritas, headquartered at Høvik outside Oslo, is one of the three major maritime classification societies in the world, with 16.5% of the world fleet to class in its register.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 6 August 2006, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 29 July 2012, dmy-all, The city's port is the largest general cargo port in the country and its leading passenger gateway. Close to 6,000 ships dock at the Port of Oslo annually with a total of 6 million tonnes of cargo and over five million passengers.The GDP of Oslo totalled €64 billion(€96,000 per capita) in 2016, which amounted to 20% of the national GDPweblink This compares with NOK166 billion (US$17 billion) in 1995. The metropolitan area, bar Moss and Drammen, contributed 25% of the national GDP in 2003 and was also responsible for more than one quarter of tax revenues. In comparison, total tax revenues from the oil and gas industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf amounted to about 16%.WEB,weblink Norwegian Tax Administration Annual Report 2003, PDF, 8 July 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 18 March 2009, Oslo is one of the most expensive cities in the world.NEWS,weblink Oslo 'priciest city in the world', BBC News, 1 February 2006, 21 June 2010, {{As of|2006}}, it is ranked tenth according to the Worldwide Cost of Living Survey provided by Mercer Human Resource ConsultingWEB,weblink Mercer: Consulting. Outsourcing. Investments,, 10 June 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 16 May 2008, and first according to the Economist Intelligence Unit. The reason for this discrepancy is that the EIU omits certain factors from its final index calculation, most notably housing. In the 2015 updateWEB,weblink Worldwide Cost of Living February 2015 – The Economist Intelligence Unit, EIU digital solutions, of the EIU’s Worldwide Cost of Living survey, Oslo now ranks as the third most expensive city in the world.NEWS,weblink These are the world's most expensive cities, CNBC, 2 March 2015, 12 March 2015, Although Oslo does have the most expensive housing market in Norway, it is comparably cheaper than other cities on the list in that regard. Meanwhile, prices on goods and services remain some of the highest of any city. Oslo hosts 2654 of the largest companies in Norway. Within the ranking of Europe's largest cities ordered by their number of companies Oslo is in fifth position. A whole group of oil and gas companies is situated in Oslo.According to a report compiled by Swiss bank UBS in the month of August 2006,Yahoo! News {{webarchive |url= |date=11 August 2006 }} Oslo and London were the world's most expensive cities.


Oslo is a compact city. It is easy to move around by public transportation and rentable city bikes are accessible to all, all over the city centre. In 2003, Oslo received The European Sustainable City Award and in 2007 Reader's Digest ranked Oslo as number two on a list of the world's greenest, most liveable cities.WEB, polymorphing,weblink Sustainable Cities And Towns Campaign,, 21 June 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, WEB, Kahn, Matthew,weblink Living Green: Ranking the best (and worst) countries, Reader's Digest Australia, 21 June 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 20 December 2010, dmy-all,


(File:Universitetet i Oslo sentrum.jpg|thumb|right|The faculty of Law, University of Oslo.)(File:BI Norwegian School of Management Nydalen Oslo.jpg|thumb|right|Norwegian School of Management (BI) main building.)(File:UiO 004.jpg|thumb|University of Oslo Library)

Institutions of higher education

The level of education and productivity in the workforce is high in Norway. Nearly half of those with education at tertiary level in Norway live in the Oslo region, placing it among Europe's top three regions in relation to education.In 2008, the total workforce in the greater Oslo region (5 counties) numbered 1,020,000 people. The greater Oslo region has several higher educational institutions and is home to more than 73,000 students. The University of Oslo is the largest institution for higher education in Norway with 27,400 students and 7,028 employees in total.WEB,weblink UiO i tall,, 22 March 2012,


Oslo has a large and varied number of , which include several buildings containing artwork from Edvard Munch and various other international artists but also several Norwegian artists. Several world-famous writers have either lived or been born in Oslo. Examples are Knut Hamsun and Henrik Ibsen. The government has recently invested large amounts of money in cultural installations, facilities, buildings and festivals in the City of Oslo. Bygdøy, outside the city centre is the centre for history and the Norwegian Vikings' history. The area contains a large number of parks and seasites and many museums. Examples are the Fram Museum, Vikingskiphuset and the Kon-Tiki Museum. Oslo hosts the annual Oslo Freedom Forum, a conference described by The Economist as "on its way to becoming a human-rights equivalent of the Davos economic forum."NEWS,weblink The Economist, A crowded field, 27 May 2010, Oslo is also known for giving out the Nobel Peace Prize every year.


{{Expand section|date=August 2017}}Grønland, the central areas around Youngstorget and Torggata, Karl Johans gate (the main pedestrian thoroughfare), Aker Brygge and Tjuvholmen, Sørenga, and the boroughs of Frogner, Majorstuen, St. Hanshaugen / Bislett, and Grünerløkka all have a high concentration of cafes and restaurants. There are several food markets, the largest being Mathallen Food Hall at Vulkan with more than 30 specialty shops, cafés, and eateries.WEB,weblink Oslo: The City of Art, Fountains, Flowers, and Sculptures,, 27 July 2017, As of March 2018 six Oslo restaurants were mentioned in the Michelin Guide. Maaemo is the only Norwegian restaurant ever to have been awarded three Michelin stars. Statholdergaarden, Kontrast, and Galt each have one star. Only two restaurants in Oslo have a BIB gourmand mention: Restaurant Eik and Smalhans.{{citation needed|date=March 2018}}

Museums, galleries

File:Munch-museet-jody.JPG|thumb|Munch MuseumMunch MuseumOslo houses several major museums and galleries. The Munch Museum contains The Scream and other works by Edvard Munch, who donated all his work to the city after his death.WEB,weblink Edvard Munch» Edvard Munch Biography 3,, 3 June 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, yes, dmy-all, The city council is currently planning a new Munch Museum which is most likely to be built in Bjørvika, in the southeast of the city.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 29 November 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 29 May 2012, The museum will be named Munch/Stenersen. 50 different museums are located around the city.WEB, Tone:,weblink Attractions: Museums and sights of Oslo, Norway,, 3 June 2011, Folkemuseet is located on the Bygdøy peninsula and is dedicated to Folk art, Folk Dress, Sami culture and the viking culture. The outdoor museum contains 155 authentic old buildings from all parts of Norway, including a Stave Church.WEB,weblink Oslo Museums,, 18 March 2005, 3 June 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, yes, dmy-all, The Vigeland Museum located in the large Frogner Park, is free to access and contains over 212 sculptures by Gustav Vigeland including an obelisk and the Wheel of Life.WEB,weblink Frognerparken and Vigeland Park – Oslo, Cosmotourist, 3 June 2011, Another popular sculpture is Sinnataggen, a baby boy stamping his foot in fury. This statue is very well known as an icon in the city.WEB,weblink Sinnataggen,, 3 June 2011, There is also a newer landscaped sculpture park, Ekebergparken Sculpture Park, with works by Norwegian and international artists such as Salvador Dalí.Ekebergparken Sculpture Park Homepage {{en icon}}File:Telemarkstunet Norsk Folkemuseum 0.jpg|right|thumb|Historic buildings at Norsk FolkemuseumNorsk FolkemuseumThe Viking Ship Museum features three Viking ships found at Oseberg, Gokstad and Tune and several other unique items from the Viking age.WEB, Norway dot com,weblink The Viking Ship Museum (Vikingskipshuset), Museums, Oslo Norway Directory,, 3 June 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 May 2011, The Oslo City Museum holds a permanent exhibition about the people in Oslo and the history of the city.WEB, Norway dot com,weblink Oslo City Museum, Museums, Oslo Norway Directory,, 3 June 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, The Kon-Tiki Museum houses Thor Heyerdahl's Kontiki and Ra2.WEB,weblink The Kon-Tiki Museum – Norway official travel guide,, 3 June 2011, The National Museum holds and preserves, exhibits and promotes public knowledge about Norway's most extensive collection of art.WEB,weblink About the National Museum : Nasjonalmuseet,, 3 June 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 15 May 2011, The Museum shows permanent exhibitions of works from its own collections but also temporary exhibitions that incorporate work loaned from elsewhere. The National Museums exhibition avenues are the National Gallery, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the National Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts and the National Museum of Architecture. A new National Museum in Oslo will open in 2020 located at Vestbanen behind the Nobel Peace Center.WEB,weblink The National Museum at Vestbanen : Nasjonalmuseet,, 3 June 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 15 May 2011, The Nobel Peace Center is an independent organisation opened on 11 June 2005 by the King Harald V as part of the celebrations to mark Norway's centenary as an independent country.WEB,weblink Nobel Peace Center Opens in Oslo,, 3 June 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 8 June 2011, The building houses a permanent exhibition, expanding every year when a new Nobel Peace Prize winner is announced, containing information of every winner in history. The building is mainly used as a communication centre.

Music and events

File:Nobel peace center.jpg|thumb|Nobel Peace CenterNobel Peace CenterA large number of festivals are held in Oslo, such as Oslo Jazz festival, a six-day jazz festival which has been held annually in August for the past 25 years.WEB,weblink Oslo Jazzfestival, OJF,, 2011, 5 July 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 1 July 2011, Oslo's biggest rock festival is Øyafestivalen or simply "Øya". It draws about 60,000 people to the Tøyen Park east in Oslo and lasts for four days.WEB,weblink Øyafestivalen, The Oslo International Church Music FestivalWEB,weblink Oslo Internasjonale kirkemusikkfestival,, 12 March 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 17 May 2013, yes, dmy-all, has been held annually since 2000. The Oslo World Music Festival showcases people who are stars in their own country but strangers in Norway. The Oslo Chamber Music Festival is held in August every year and world-class chambers and soloists gather in Oslo to perform at this festival. The Norwegian Wood Rock Festival is held every year in June in Oslo.The Nobel Peace Prize Ceremony is headed by the Institute; the award ceremony is held annually in The City Hall on 10 December.WEB,weblink The Nobel Peace Prize Award Ceremony 2010, NobelPrize.Org,, 2011, 5 July 2011, Even though Sami land is far away from the capital, the Norwegian Museum of Cultural History marks the Sami National Day with a series of activities and entertainment.The World Cup Biathlon in Holmenkollen is held every year and here male and female competitors compete against each other in Sprint, Pursuit and Mass Start disciplines.WEB,weblink World Cup Biathlon – Official Travel & Visitor's Guide to Oslo, Norway, VisitOslo.Com,, 2011, 5 July 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 17 September 2011, Other examples of annual events in Oslo are Desucon, a convention focusing on Japanese cultureWEB,weblink Desu, Desu.No,, 2011, Norwegian, 5 July 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 3 August 2011, and Færderseilasen, the world's largest overnight regatta with more than 1100 boats taking part every year.WEB,weblink Fokus Bank Færderseilasen – KNS, KNS.No,, 2011, 5 July 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 6 July 2011, Rikard Nordraak, composer of the national anthem of Norway, was born in Oslo in 1842.Norway's principal orchestra is the Oslo Philharmonic, based at the Oslo Concert Hall since 1977. Although it was founded in 1919, the Oslo Philharmonic can trace its roots to the founding of the Christiania Musikerforening (Christiania Musicians Society) by Edvard Grieg and Johan Svendsen in 1879.WEB,weblink Filharmonien, Oslo-Filharmonien,, 2011, 5 July 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 14 August 2011, Oslo has hosted the Eurovision Song Contest twice, in 1996 and 2010.

Performing arts

File:Nationaltheatret Oslo Front at Night.jpg|thumb|The (National Theatre (Oslo)|National Theatre]] is the largest theatre in NorwayWEB,weblink Nationaltheatret – National Theatre: Photos and videos on Google Maps, the WIKI-way, 59.914386,10.7342595,, 3 June 2011, )Oslo houses over 20 theatres, such as the Norwegian Theatre and the National Theatre located at Karl Johan Street. The National Theatre is the largest theatre in Norway and is situated between the royal palace and the parliament building, Stortinget.The names of Ludvig Holberg, Henrik Ibsen and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson are engraved on the façade of the building over the main entrance. This theatre represents the actors and play-writers of the country but the songwriters, singers and dancers are represented in the form of a newly opened Oslo Opera House, situated in Bjørvika. The Opera was opened in 2008 and is a national landmark, designed by the Norwegian architectural firm, Snøhetta. There are two houses, together containing over 2000 seats. The building cost 500 million euro to build and took five years to build and is known for being the first Opera House in the world to let people walk on the roof of the building. The foyer and the roof are also used for concerts as well as the three stages.WEB,weblink 7 of the Best Tourist Attractions in Oslo, Norway, Globe Tales, 3 June 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011,


Most great Norwegian authors have lived in Oslo for some period in their life. For instance, Nobel Prize-winning author Sigrid Undset grew up in Oslo, and described her life there in the autobiographical novel Elleve år (1934; translated as The longest years; New York 1971).The playwright Henrik Ibsen is probably the most famous Norwegian author. Ibsen wrote plays such as Hedda Gabler, Peer Gynt, A Doll's House and The Lady from the Sea. The Ibsen Quotes project completed in 2008 is a work of art consisting of 69 Ibsen quotations in stainless steel lettering which have been set into the granite sidewalks of the city's central streets.WEB, Ibsen som jålete graffiti,weblink Økland, Ingunn, 10 September 2008, Aftenposten, Norwegian, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 4 May 2011, dmy-all, In recent years, novelists like Lars Saabye Christensen, Tove Nilsen, Jo Nesbø and Roy Jacobsen have described the city and its people in their novels. Early 20th-century literature from Oslo include poets Rudolf Nilsen and André Bjerke.


The newspapers Aftenposten, Dagbladet, Verdens Gang, Dagens Næringsliv, Finansavisen, Dagsavisen, Morgenbladet, Vårt Land, Nationen and Klassekampen are published in Oslo. The main office of the national broadcasting company NRK is located at Marienlyst in Oslo, near Majorstuen, and NRK also has regional services via both radio and television. TVNorge (TVNorway) is also located in Oslo, while TV 2 (based in Bergen) and TV3 (based in London) operate branch offices in central Oslo. There is also a variety of specialty publications and smaller media companies. A number of magazines are produced in Oslo. The two dominant companies are Aller Media and Hjemmet Mortensen AB.


File:LIverpool VS Lyn Bislett Stadion.jpg|left|thumb|Bislett Stadium during a friendly between Lyn Oslo and Liverpool F.C.Liverpool F.C.(File:Kavringen brygge, Oslo.jpg|thumb|Public beach within the city)Oslo is home to the Holmenkollen National Arena and Holmenkollbakken, the country's main biathlon and Nordic skiing venues. It hosts annual world cup tournaments, including the Holmenkollen Ski Festival. Oslo hosted the Biathlon World Championships in 1986, 1990, 2000, 2002 and 2016. FIS Nordic World Ski Championships have been hosted in 1930, 1966, 1982 and 2011, as well as the 1952 Winter Olympics.Oslo is the home of several football clubs in the Norwegian league system. Vålerenga, Lyn and Skeid have won both the league and the cup, while Mercantile SFK and Frigg have won the cup.Ullevål Stadion is the home arena for the Norway national team and the Football Cup Final. The stadium has previously hosted the finals of the UEFA Women's Championship in 1987 and 1997, and the 2002 UEFA European Under-19 Football Championship.WEB,weblink Ullevaal Stadion, Historikk, 10 June 2009, Norwegian, Røa IL is Oslo's only team in the women's league, Toppserien. Each year, the international youth football tournament Norway Cup is held on Ekebergsletta and other places in the city.Due to the cold climate and proximity to major forests bordering the city, skiing is a popular recreational activity in Oslo. The Tryvann Ski Resort is the most used ski resort in Norway.ENCYCLOPEDIA, 2010, Tryvann Vinterpark, Oslo byleksikon, 5th, Tvedt, Knut Are, Kunnskapsforlaget, Oslo, 582, 978-82-573-1760-7, Norwegian, The most successful ice hockey team in Norway, Vålerenga Ishockey, is based in Oslo. Manglerud Star is another Oslo-team who play in the top league.Bislett Stadium is the city's main track and field venue, and hosts the annual Bislett Games, part of IAAF Diamond League. Bjerke Travbane is the main venue for harness racing in the country. Oslo Spektrum is used for large ice hockey and handball matches. Nordstrand HE and Oppsal IF plays in the women's GRUNDIGligaen in handball, while Bækkelaget HE plays in the men's league. Jordal Amfi, the home of the ice hockey team Vålerenga Ishockey, and the national team. The 1999 IIHF World Championship in ice hockey were held in Oslo, as have three Bandy World Championships, in 1961, 1977 and 1985. The UCI Road World Championships in bicycle road racing were hosted 1993.Oslo was bidding to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, but later withdrew on 2 October 2014.


In 2018 Oslo is named one of Lonely Planet's Top Ten Cities. The travel guide's best-selling yearbook Best in Travel has selected Oslo as one of the ten best cities in the world to visit in 2018, citing the Norwegian capital's "innovative architecture and unmissable museums alongside cool bars, bistros and cafés"weblink


(File:Norges Høyesterett Supreme Court of Norway.jpg|thumb|Norway Supreme Court)Oslo Police District is Norway's largest police district with over 2,300 employees. Over 1,700 of those are police officers, nearly 140 police lawyers and 500 civilian employees. Oslo Police District has five police stations located around the city at Grønland, Sentrum, Stovner, Majorstuen and Manglerud. The National Criminal Investigation Service is located in Oslo, which is a Norwegian special police division under the NMJP. PST is also located in the Oslo District. PST is a security agency which was established in 1936 and is one of the non-secret agencies in Norway.{{undue weight section|date=January 2017}}Oslo police stated that the capital is one of Europe's safest. Statistics have shown that crime in Oslo is on the rise,{{when|date=January 2017}} and some media have reported that there are four times as many thefts and robberies in Oslo than in New York City per capita.NEWS, Redaksjon, Fire ganger mer krim i Oslo enn i New York,weblink 28 August 2012,, 7 March 2008, Norwegian, NEWS, Oslo, Politidistrikt, Kriminaliteten i Oslo,weblink 25 August 2012,, Norwegian,weblink 15 October 2013, According to the Oslo Police, they receive more than 15,000 reports of petty thefts annually. Fewer than one in a hundred cases get solved.NEWS, Norsk Telegrambyrå, Oslo har like mange lommetyverier som Berlin,weblink 9 October 2012,, 9 October 2012, Norwegian, On 22 July 2011, Oslo was the site of one of two terrorist attacks: the bombing of Oslo government offices.WEB,weblink 7 Dead in Oslo Explosion; 80 Killed in Shooting at Camp, PBS, 23 July 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 22 July 2011, ">

Transport {| class"wikitable" style"float:right;"

!Airports around Oslo!Airport!IATA/ICAO!Passengers (2013)150px)Oslo-Gardermoen>Gardermoen|OSL/ENGM|22,956,540150px)Oslo-Torp>Torp|TRF/ENTO|1,856,897150px)Oslo-Rygge>Rygge {{small|(closed 2016)}}|RYG/ENRY|1,849,294File:Oslo S aerial.jpg|left|thumb|Oslo Central Station ]]Oslo has Norway's most extensive public transport system, managed by Ruter.WEB,weblink Om Ruter, Ruter, 1 December 2010, Norwegian, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 7 March 2010, dmy-all, This includes the six-line Oslo Metro,WEB,weblink T-banen – forstadsbane og storbymetro, Ruter, 1 December 2010, Norwegian, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 6 December 2010, the world's most extensive metro per resident, the six-line Oslo TramwayWEB,weblink Trikk, Ruter, 1 December 2010, Norwegian, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 6 December 2010, and the eight-line Oslo Commuter Rail.WEB,weblink Network map commuter trains, Norwegian State Railways, 1 December 2010, Norwegian, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 29 October 2013, The tramway operates within the areas close to the city centre, while the metro, which runs underground through the city centre, operates to suburbs further away; this includes two lines that operate to Bærum, and the Ring Line which loops to areas north of the centre.WEB,weblink T-baneringen, Oslo Package 2, 1 December 2010, Norwegian, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, Oslo is also covered by a bus network consisting of 32 city lines, as well as regional buses to the neighboring county of Akershus.WEB,weblink City Bus Network Map, 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 24 January 2013, Oslo Central Station acts as the central hub,WEB,weblink Norwegian Railway Directorate, CONCEPT STUDY OSLO HUB, 1 May 2019, {{cbignore|bot=medic}} and offers rail services to most major cities in southern Norway as well as Stockholm and Gothenburg in Sweden.WEB,weblink Network map, Norwegian State Railways, 1 December 2010, Norwegian, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 August 2010, The Airport Express Train operates along the high-speed Gardermoen Line. The Drammen Line runs under the city centre in the Oslo Tunnel.BOOK, Bjørn, Holøs, Stasjoner i sentrum, 1990, Gyldendal Norsk Forlagg, Oslo, Norwegian, 82-05-19082-8, 182, Some of the city islands and the neighbouring municipality of Nesodden are connected by ferry.WEB,weblink Båt til jobb og skole, eller bad og utflukt, Ruter, 1 December 2010, Norwegian, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 11 December 2010, Daily cruiseferry services operate to Copenhagen and Frederikshavn in Denmark, and to Kiel in Germany.WEB,weblink Passasjer/turist, Port of Oslo, 1 December 2010, Norwegian, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, dmy-all, Many of the motorways pass through the downtown and other parts of the city in tunnels. The construction of the roads is partially supported through a toll ring. The major motorways through Oslo are European Route E6 and E18. There are three beltways, the innermost which are streets and the outermost, Ring 3 which is an expressway.The main airport serving the city is Gardermoen Airport, located in Ullensaker, {{convert|47|km}} from the city centre of Oslo.WEB,weblink Administration, Oslo Lufthavn, 19 January 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 24 January 2010, dmy-all, It acts as the main international gateway to Norway,WEB,weblink Market, Oslo Lufthavn, 19 January 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 24 November 2009, and is the sixth-largest domestic airport in Europe.WEB,weblink Economic crisis stops air transport growth, Eurostat, 18 January 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 30 September 2010, dmy-all, Gardermoen is a hub for Scandinavian Airlines, Norwegian Air Shuttle and Widerøe. Oslo is also served by a secondary airport, which serve some low-cost carriers, such as Ryanair: Torp Airport, {{convert|110|km}} from the city.WEB,weblink How do I get to Sandefjord Airport Torp?, Sandefjord Lufthavn, 24 October 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 16 March 2009, File:GMB BFM 71104 1.jpg|Flytoget – the Airport Express Train – a high-speed rail service connecting the city with its main airport at GardermoenFile:Nationaltheatret station Oslo.jpg|A Metro train leaving Nationaltheatret StationFile:Postgirobygget fra Gunerius.jpg|Posthuset at Oslo Central StationFile:CyclePickandDrop.jpg|A rental bicycle station in the city centerFile:Akrobaten gang og sykkelbro.jpg|"Akrobaten" (The Acrobat) Bridge over Oslo Central StationFile:14-09-02-oslo-RalfR-457.jpg|Buses at Jernbanetorget


{{See also|East End and West End of Oslo}}(File:Oslo population.svg|left|thumb|Population of Oslo from 1801–2006, with yearly data from 1950–2006.){{Historical populations Source: Statistics Norway.HTTP://STATBANK.SSB.NO/STATISTIKKBANKEN/DEFAULT_FR.ASP?PXSID=0&NVL=TRUE&PLANGUAGE=0&TILSIDE=SELECTTABLE/HOVEDTABELLHJEM.ASP&KORTNAVNWEB=FOLKFRAM DEAD-URL=YES TITLE=PROJECTED POPULATION – STATISTICS NORWAY ACCESSDATE=23 JULY 2011, |shading= off|cols=22500893131715151239434365475663481548452023461644508726599230672061}}{|class="infobox" style="float:right;"Number of minorities (1st and 2nd gen.) in Oslo by country of origin in 2017HTTPS://WWW.SSB.NO/STATISTIKKBANKEN/SELECTVARVAL/DEFINE.ASP?SUBJECTCODE=&PRODUCTID=&MAINTABLE=FOLKINNVKATLAND&NVL=&PLANGUAGE=1&NYTMPVAR=TRUE&CMSSUBJECTAREA=BEFOLKNING&KORTNAVNWEB=INNVBEF&STATVARIANT=&CHECKED=TRUE >TITLE= IMMIGRANTS AND NORWEGIAN-BORN TO IMMIGRANT PARENTS, BY IMMIGRATION CATEGORY, COUNTRY BACKGROUND AND PERCENTAGES OF THE POPULATIONACCESSDATE=26 JUNE 2017, ! Nationality ||Population (2017)Pakistan}} 23,010Poland}} 16,624Somalia}} 15,137Sweden}} 13,018Iraq}} including Iraqi Kurdistan >|8,215Sri Lanka}} 7,064Morocco}} 6,830Iran}} including Kurdistan Province >|6,306Turkey}} 6,298Vietnam}} 6,276Philippines}} 6,164India}} 5,671Afghanistan}} 3,852Germany}} 3,813Russia}} 3,802Denmark}} 3,787Bosnia-Herzegovina}} 3,436Ethiopia}} 3,346Eritrea}} 3,277United Kingdom}} 3,059Lithuania}} 3,057China}} 2,988Romania}} 2,941Kosovo}} 2,876France}} 2,315The population of Oslo was by 2010 increasing at a record rate of nearly 2% annually (17% over the last 15 years), making it the fastest-growing Scandinavian capital.WEB, Ole Kristian Nordengen Hanne Waaler Lier Pål V. Hagesæther,weblink Om 15 år kan det bo 100 000 flere i Oslo,, 27 June 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 4 May 2011, dmy-all, In 2015, according to Statistics Norway annual report, there were 647,676 permanent residents in the Oslo municipality, of which 628,719 resided in the city proper. There were also 1,000,467 in the city's urban area and an estimated 1.71 million in the Greater Oslo Region, within {{convert|100|km|0|abbr=on}} of the city centre.According to the most recent census 432,000 Oslo residents (70.4% of the population) were ethnically Norwegian, an increase of 6% since 2002 (409,000) Oslo has the largest population of immigrants and Norwegians born to immigrant parents in Norway, both in relative and absolute figures. Of Oslo's 624,000 inhabitants, 189,400 were immigrants or born to immigrant parents, representing 30.4 percent of the capital's population. All suburbs in Oslo were above the national average of 14.1 percent. The suburbs with the highest proportions of people of immigrant origin were Søndre Nordstrand, Stovner and Alna, where they formed around 50 percent of the population.Kristoffer Fredriksen: Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, 1 January 2013 SSB, January 2013Pakistanis make up the single largest ethnic minority, followed by Poles, Somalis, and Swedes. Other large immigrant groups are people from Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Turkey, Morocco, Iraq & Kurdistan region and Iran & Kordestan province.{{no icon}} 25 prosent av alle som bor i Oslo er innvandrere – Nyheter – Oslo – {{webarchive|url= |date=9 July 2008 }}WEB,weblink Polakker den største innvandrergruppen, no,, 27 June 2010, WEB,weblink Tabell 11 Innvandrere og norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre, etter landbakgrunn (de 20 største gruppene). Utvalgte kommuner. 1. januar 2009, no,, 22 January 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 28 June 2011, {{webarchive|url= |date=9 June 2007 }} {{no icon}}In 2013, 40% of Oslo's primary school pupils were registered as having a first language other than Norwegian or Sami.WEB,weblink Minoritetsspråklige elever i Osloskolen 2012/2013, Undervisningsetaten, 4 January 2013, Oslo kommune, Undervisningsetaten, The western part of the city is predominantly ethnic Norwegian, with several schools having less than 5% pupils with an immigrant background.{{citation needed|date=April 2016}} The eastern part of Oslo is more mixed, with some schools up to 97% of immigrant background.WEB, Avhilde Lundgaard,weblink Foreldre flytter barna til "hvitere" skoler – Nyheter – Innenriks,, 25 March 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 26 August 2009, dmy-all, Schools are also increasingly divided by ethnicity, with white flight being present in some of the northeastern suburbs of the city.WEB,weblink Rømmer til hvitere skoler, Dagsavisen, 2 June 2009, Bredeveien, Jo Moen, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2009, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Foreldre flytter barna til "hvitere" skoler, Aftenposten, 22 August 2009, Lundgaard, Hilde, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 26 August 2009, dmy-all, In the borough of Groruddalen in 2008 for instance, the ethnic Norwegian population decreased by 1,500, while the immigrant population increased by 1,600.WEB,weblink Ola og Kari flytter fra innvandrerne, Aftenposten, 15 December 2009, Slettholm, Andreas, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 4 June 2011, dmy-all, {{bar box LANGUAGE=NO ACCESSDATE=9 JUNE 2018, HTTP://STATISTIKKBANKEN.OSLO.KOMMUNE.NO/WEBVIEW/VELOCITY?V=2&MODE=CUBE&CUBE=HTTP%3A%2F%2FSTATISTIKKBANKEN.OSLO.KOMMUNE.NO%3A80%2FOBJ%2FFCUBE%2FBE01-BEFOLKNINGEN-ETTER-BYDEL-KJONN-OG-ALDER-SSB_C1&STUDY=HTTP%3A%2F%2FSTATISTIKKBANKEN.OSLO.KOMMUNE.NO%3A80%2FOBJ%2FFSTUDY%2FBE01-BEFOLKNINGEN-ETTER-BYDEL-KJONN-OG-ALDER-SSB >TITLE=FOLKEMENGDEN ETTER KJøNN OG ALDER (B) (2004–2018) PUBLISHER=OSLO KOMMUNE STATISTIKKBANKEN, 9 June 2018, |titlebar=#ddd|left1=religion|right1=percent|float=left|bars={{bar percent|Church of Norway|Blue|50.0}}{{bar percent|Other Christian denominations|Purple|8.1}}{{bar percent|Islam|Green|8.7}}{{bar percent|Buddhism|Yellow|0.5}}{{bar percent|Other religions|Red|0.9}}{{bar percent|Life stance communities|Orange|2.9}}{{bar percent|Unaffiliated|Aquamarine|28.9}}}}Oslo has numerous religious communities. In 2017, 50.0% of the population were members of the Church of Norway, lower than the national average of 70.6%.Church of Norway - main figures 9 June 2018 Statistics Norway Members of other Christian denominations make up 8.1% of the population. Islam was followed by 8.7% and Buddhism by 0.5% of the population. Adherents of other religions formed 0.9% of the population. Life stance communities, mainly the Norwegian Humanist Association, were represented by 2.9% of the population. 28.9% of the Oslo population were unaffiliated with any religion or life stance community.{{clear|left}}

Notable residents

{{Columns-list|colwidth=30em| }}

International relations

Twin towns – partner cities – and regions

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Norway}}Oslo has cooperation agreements with the following cities/regions:WEB,weblink Co-operating cities and regions, Oslo Kommune, 12 February 2012,, 6 April 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 7 April 2014, dmy-all, {{col-begin}}{{col-2}} {{col-2}} {{col-end}}Oslo was formerly twinned with Madison, Wisconsin, Tel Aviv and Vilnius, but has since abolished the concept of twin cities.

Christmas trees as gifts

Oslo has a tradition of sending a Christmas tree every year to the cities of Washington, D.C.; New York; London; Edinburgh; Rotterdam; Antwerp and Reykjavík.Juletrær til utland Ordføreren, Oslo kommune (Municipality of Oslo Website, Mare's office), published november 2013, accessed 7 April 2014. Since 1947, Oslo has sent a {{convert|65|to|80|ft|m|abbr=off|adj=mid|-high}}, 50 to 100-year-old spruce, as an expression of gratitude toward Britain for its support of Norway during World War II.Her tennes juletreet i London, VG, 3 December 2009.WEB,weblink juletre, Ina Louise Stovner, Store norske leksikon, 12 February 2016,

See also



Further reading

{{See also|Timeline of Oslo#Bibliography|l1=Bibliography of the history of Oslo}}

External links

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