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Indo-European languages
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{{About|the family of languages found in much of Europe and Asia||Indo-European (disambiguation){{!}}Indo-European}}{{Multiple issues|{{citation style|date=May 2019}}{{cleanup|date=July 2019|reason= and }}}}{{short description|language family}}







factoids
native speakers}}| familycolor = Indo-Europeanlanguage family>language familiesProto-Indo-European language>Proto-Indo-EuropeanAlbanian language>AlbanianArmenian language>ArmenianBalto-Slavic languages>Balto-Slavic {{smallBaltic languages>Baltic and Slavic languages)}}Celtic languages>CelticGermanic languages>GermanicHellenic languages>Hellenic {{smallGreek language>Greek)}}Indo-Iranian languages>Indo-Iranian {{smallIndo-Aryan languages>Indo-Aryan, Iranian languages, and Nuristani languages>Nuristani)}}Italic languages>Italic {{small|(including Romance languages)}}Anatolian languages>Anatolian {{Extinct}}Illyrian language>Illyrian {{Extinct}}Thracian language>Daco-Thracian {{Extinct}}Tocharian languages>Tocharian {{Extinct}}| iso2 = ine| iso5 = ine| glotto = indo1319| glottorefname = Indo-European| map = Indo-European branches map.svg| mapcaption = Present-day distribution of Indo-European languages, within their homeland of Eurasia:{{legend|#00cdff|Albanian}}{{legend|#800080|Armenian}}{{legend|#00d400|Balto-Slavic (Baltic)}}{{legend|#008000|Balto-Slavic (Slavic)}}{{legend|#ffa600|Celtic}}{{legend|#d40000|Germanic}}{{legend|#FFDD55|Hellenic (Greek)}}{{legend|#000080|Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian, and Nuristani)}}{{legend|#977f12|Italic (Romance)}}{{legend|#c0c0c0|Non-Indo-European languages}}Dotted/striped areas indicate where multilingualism is common| glottoname = Italicized branches mean only one extant language of the branch remains|{{Extinct}} indicates this branch of the language family is extinct}}}}{{Indo-European topics}} The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.JOURNAL,weblink Indo-European demic diffusion model, 2nd, Quiles, Carlos, Universidad de Extremadura, June 2017, Badajoz, March 24, 2018, There are about 445 living Indo-European languages, according to the estimate by Ethnologue, with over two thirds (313) of them belonging to the Indo-Iranian branch.WEB,weblink Ethnologue report for Indo-European, Ethnologue.com, The Indo-European languages with the greatest numbers of native speakers are Spanish, English, Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu), Portuguese, Bengali, Punjabi, and Russian, each with over 100 million speakers, with German, French, Marathi, Italian, and Persian also having more than 50 million. Today, 46% of the world's population (3.2 billion) speaks an Indo-European language as a first language, by far the highest of any language family.The Indo-European family includes most of the modern languages of Europe. The language family is also represented in Asia with the exception of East and Southeast Asia. It was prominent (alongside non- Indo-European languages) in ancient Anatolia (present-day Turkey), the ancient Tarim Basin (present-day Northwest China) and most of Central Asia until the medieval Turkic and Mongol invasions. Outside Eurasia, Indo-European languages are dominant in the Americas and much of Oceania and Africa, having reached there through colonialism during the Age of Discovery and later periods. Indo-European languages are also most commonly present as minority languages or second languages in countries where other families are dominant.With written evidence appearing from the Bronze Age in the form of Mycenaean Greek and the Anatolian languages Hittite and Luwian, the Indo-European family is significant to the field of historical linguistics as possessing the second-longest recorded history, after the Afroasiatic family in the form of the Egyptian language and the Semitic languages of the Near East. In addition, certain extinct language isolates of the Near East and Anatolia, such as Sumerian, Elamite, Hurrian, Hattian, Gutian and Kassite are also recorded earlier than any Indo-European tongue.All Indo-European languages are descendants of a single prehistoric language, reconstructed as Proto-Indo-European, spoken sometime in the Neolithic era. Although no written records remain, aspects of the culture and religion of the Proto-Indo-Europeans can be reconstructed from the related cultures of ancient and modern Indo-European speakers who continue to live in areas where the Proto-Indo-Europeans migrated from their original homeland.BOOK, The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World, Mallory, J. P., Oxford University Press, 2006, 9780 199287918, Oxford, 442, Several disputed proposals link Indo-European to other major language families. Although they are written in the Semitic Old Assyrian language and with the use of the Cuneiform script of Mesopotamia, the Hittite words and names found in the texts of the Assyrian colony of Kültepe in eastern Anatolia are the oldest record of any Indo-European language.BOOK, Bryce, Trevor, 2005, Kingdom of the Hittites: New Edition, Oxford University Press, 37, 978-0-19-928132-9, During the nineteenth century, the linguistic concept of Indo-European languages was frequently used interchangeably with the racial concepts of Aryan and Japhetite.BOOK, Colin Kidd, The Forging of Races: Race and Scripture in the Protestant Atlantic World, 1600–2000, {{Google books, aNT3q1HjY_MC, PA23, yes, |date=2006|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-1-139-45753-8|pages=23–}}

History of Indo-European linguistics

{{See also|Indo-European studies#History}}In the 16th century, European visitors to the Indian subcontinent began to notice similarities among Indo-Aryan, Iranian, and European languages. In 1583, English Jesuit missionary and Konkani scholar Thomas Stephens wrote a letter from Goa to his brother (not published until the 20th century)BOOK, Sylvain, Auroux, History of the Language Sciences, 1156, 978-3-11-016735-1, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, 2000,weblink in which he noted similarities between Indian languages and Greek and Latin.Another account was made by Filippo Sassetti, a merchant born in Florence in 1540, who travelled to the Indian subcontinent. Writing in 1585, he noted some word similarities between Sanskrit and Italian (these included devaḥ/dio "God", sarpaḥ/serpe "serpent", sapta/sette "seven", aṣṭa/otto "eight", and nava/nove "nine"). However, neither Stephens' nor Sassetti's observations led to further scholarly inquiry.In 1647, Dutch linguist and scholar Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn noted the similarity among certain Asian and European languages and theorized that they were derived from a primitive common language which he called Scythian.BOOK, Robert S.P., Beekes, Robert S.P. Beekes, Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An introduction. Second edition,weblink 2011, John Benjamins Publishing, 978-90-272-8500-3, 12, He included in his hypothesis Dutch, Albanian, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, later adding Slavic, Celtic, and Baltic languages. However, Van Boxhorn's suggestions did not become widely known and did not stimulate further research.(File:Franz Bopp (2).jpg|right|thumb|upright=0.75|Franz Bopp, pioneer in the field of comparative linguistic studies.)Ottoman Turkish traveler Evliya Çelebi visited Vienna in 1665–1666 as part of a diplomatic mission and noted a few similarities between words in German and in Persian.Gaston Coeurdoux and others made observations of the same type. Coeurdoux made a thorough comparison of Sanskrit, Latin and Greek conjugations in the late 1760s to suggest a relationship among them. Meanwhile, Mikhail Lomonosov compared different language groups, including Slavic, Baltic ("Kurlandic"), Iranian ("Medic"), Finnish, Chinese, "Hottentot" (Khoekhoe), and others, noting that related languages (including Latin, Greek, German and Russian) must have separated in antiquity from common ancestors.M.V. Lomonosov (drafts for Russian Grammar, published 1755). In: Complete Edition, Moscow, 1952, vol. 7, pp. 652–59:Представимъ долготу времени, которою сіи языки раздѣлились. ... Польской и россійской языкъ коль давно раздѣлились! Подумай же, когда курляндской! Подумай же, когда латинской, греч., нѣм., росс. О глубокая древность! [Imagine the depth of time when these languages separated! ... Polish and Russian separated so long ago! Now think how long ago [this happened to] Kurlandic! Think when [this happened to] Latin, Greek, German, and Russian! Oh, great antiquity!]The hypothesis reappeared in 1786 when Sir William Jones first lectured on the striking similarities among three of the oldest languages known in his time: Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit, to which he tentatively added Gothic, Celtic, and Persian,WEB,weblink Indo-European Practice and Historical Methodology (cited on pp. 14–15)., 2010-08-07, though his classification contained some inaccuracies and omissions.WEB,weblink Archaeology and Language: methods and issues, Roger Blench, May 29, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060517091902weblink">weblink May 17, 2006, dead, In: A Companion To Archaeology. J. Bintliff ed. 52–74. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2004. (He erroneously included Egyptian, Japanese, and Chinese in the Indo-European languages, while omitting Hindi.) In one of the most famous quotations in linguistics, Jones made the following prescient statement in a lecture to the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1786, conjecturing the existence of an earlier ancestor language, which he called "a common source" but did not name:
|author=Sir William Jones
|title=Third Anniversary Discourse delivered 2 February 1786
|source=ELIOHSWEB, The Third Anniversary Discourse, Jones, William,weblink 2 February 1786, Electronic Library of Historiography, Universita degli Studi Firenze, taken from: BOOK, The Works of Sir William Jones. With a Life of the Author, Shore (Lord Teignmouth), John, 1807, III, John Stockdale and John Walker, 24–46, 899731310,
}}Thomas Young first used the term Indo-European in 1813, deriving from the geographical extremes of the language family: from Western Europe to North India.BOOK, Robinson, Andrew, The Last Man Who Knew Everything: Thomas Young, the Anonymous Genius who Proved Newton Wrong and Deciphered the Rosetta Stone, among Other Surprising Feats, Penguin, 2007, 978-0-13-134304-7, registration,weblink In London Quarterly Review X/2 1813.; cf. Szemerényi 1999:12, footnote 6 A synonym is Indo-Germanic (Idg. or IdG.), specifying the family's southeasternmost and northwesternmost branches. This first appeared in French (indo-germanique) in 1810 in the work of Conrad Malte-Brun; in most languages this term is now dated or less common than Indo-European, although in German indogermanisch remains the standard scientific term. A number of other synonymous terms have also been used.Franz Bopp wrote in 1816 On the conjugational system of the Sanskrit language compared with that of Greek, Latin, Persian and GermanicBOOK, Über das Conjugationssystem der Sanskritsprache : in Vergleichung mit jenem der griechischen, lateinischen, persischen und germanischen Sprache, Franz Bopp, Hildesheim, Olms, 2010, 2, Documenta Semiotica : Serie 1, Linguistik, 1816, and between 1833 and 1852 he wrote Comparative Grammar. This marks the beginning of Indo-European studies as an academic discipline. The classical phase of Indo-European comparative linguistics leads from this work to August Schleicher's 1861 Compendium and up to Karl Brugmann's Grundriss, published in the 1880s. Brugmann's neogrammarian reevaluation of the field and Ferdinand de Saussure's development of the laryngeal theory may be considered the beginning of "modern" Indo-European studies. The generation of Indo-Europeanists active in the last third of the 20th century (such as Calvert Watkins, Jochem Schindler, and Helmut Rix) developed a better understanding of morphology and of ablaut in the wake of Kuryłowicz's 1956 Apophony in Indo-European, who in 1927 pointed out the existence of the Hittite consonant ḫ.BOOK, ə indo-européen et ḫ hittite, Taszycki, W., Doroszewski, W., Symbolae grammaticae in honorem Ioannis Rozwadowski, Kurylowicz, Jerzy, 1927, 1, 95–104, Kuryłowicz's discovery supported Ferdinand de Saussure's 1879 proposal of the existence of coefficients sonantiques, elements de Saussure reconstructed to account for vowel length alternations in Indo-European languages. This led to the so-called laryngeal theory, a major step forward in Indo-European linguistics and a confirmation of de Saussure's theory.{{citation needed|date=May 2016}}

Classification

{{See also|Indo-European migrations|List of languages by first written accounts}}The various subgroups of the Indo-European language family include ten major branches, listed below in alphabetical order In addition to the classical ten branches listed above, several extinct and little-known languages and language-groups have existed:
  • Cimmerian: possibly Iranic, Thracian, or Celtic
  • Dacian: possibly very close to Thracian
  • Illyrian: possibly related to Albanian, Messapian, or both
  • Liburnian: doubtful affiliation, features shared with Venetic, Illyrian, and Indo-Hittite, significant transition of the Pre-Indo-European elements
  • Ligurian – possibly close to or part of Celtic.BOOK, Kruta, Venceslas, The Celts, 1991, Thames and Hudson, 54,
  • Lusitanian: possibly related to (or part of) Celtic, Ligurian, or Italic
  • Ancient Macedonian: proposed relationship to Greek.
  • Messapian: not conclusively deciphered
  • Paionian: extinct language once spoken north of Macedon
  • Phrygian: language of the ancient Phrygians
  • Sicel: an ancient language spoken by the Sicels (Greek Sikeloi, Latin Siculi), one of the three indigenous (i.e. pre-Greek and pre-Punic) tribes of Sicily. Proposed relationship to Latin or proto-Illyrian (Pre-Indo-European) at an earlier stage.Fine, John (1985). The ancient Greeks: a critical history. Harvard University Press. p. 72. {{ISBN|978-0-674-03314-6}}. "Most scholars now believe that the Sicans and Sicels, as well as the inhabitants of southern Italy, were basically of Illyrian stock superimposed on an aboriginal 'Mediterranean' population."
  • Sorothaptic: proposed, pre-Celtic, Iberian language
  • Thracian: possibly including Dacian
  • Venetic: shares several similarities with Latin and the Italic languages, but also has some affinities with other IE languages, especially Germanic and Celtic.Michel Lejeune (1974), Manuel de la langue vénète. Heidelberg: Indogermanische Bibliothek, Lehr- und Handbücher.{{page needed|date= May 2017}}Julius Pokorny (1959), Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch. Publisher Bern.{{page needed|date= May 2017}}

Grouping

{{Further|Language families}}(File:IndoEuropeanTree.svg|thumb|upright=1.4|Indo-European family tree in order of first attestation)Membership of languages in the Indo-European language family is determined by genealogical relationships, meaning that all members are presumed descendants of a common ancestor, Proto-Indo-European. Membership in the various branches, groups and subgroups of Indo-European is also genealogical, but here the defining factors are shared innovations among various languages, suggesting a common ancestor that split off from other Indo-European groups. For example, what makes the Germanic languages a branch of Indo-European is that much of their structure and phonology can be stated in rules that apply to all of them. Many of their common features are presumed innovations that took place in Proto-Germanic, the source of all the Germanic languages.

Tree versus wave model

{{See also|Language change}}The "tree model" is considered an appropriate representation of the genealogical history of a language family if communities do not remain in contact after their languages have started to diverge. In this case, subgroups defined by shared innovations form a nested pattern. The tree model is not appropriate in cases where languages remain in contact as they diversify; in such cases subgroups may overlap, and the "wave model" is a more accurate representation.{{Citation
| last = François
| first = Alexandre
| contribution = Trees, Waves and Linkages: Models of Language Diversification
| editor1-last = Bowern
| editor1-first = Claire
| editor2-last = Evans
| editor2-first = Bethwyn
| title = The Routledge Handbook of Historical Linguistics
| series=
| pages = 161–89
| publisher = Routledge
| place = London
| year = 2014
| isbn = 978-0-415-52789-7
| contribution-url =weblink
| ref = francois
}} Most approaches to Indo-European subgrouping to date have assumed that the tree model is by-and-large valid for Indo-European;JOURNAL, From August Schleicher to Sergei Starostin: on the development of the tree-diagram models of the Indo-European languages, Blažek, Václav, Journal of Indo-European Studies, 2007, 35, 1–2, 82–109, however, there is also a long tradition of wave-model approaches.BOOK, Les dialectes indo-européens, Honoré Champion, Meillet, Antoine, 1908, Paris, BOOK, I dialetti indoeuropei, Paideia, Bonfante, Giuliano, 1931, Brescia, {{sfn|Porzig|1954}}
In addition to genealogical changes, many of the early changes in Indo-European languages can be attributed to language contact. It has been asserted, for example, that many of the more striking features shared by Italic languages (Latin, Oscan, Umbrian, etc.) might well be areal features. More certainly, very similar-looking alterations in the systems of long vowels in the West Germanic languages greatly postdate any possible notion of a proto-language innovation (and cannot readily be regarded as "areal", either, because English and continental West Germanic were not a linguistic area). In a similar vein, there are many similar innovations in Germanic and Balto-Slavic that are far more likely areal features than traceable to a common proto-language, such as the uniform development of a high vowel (*u in the case of Germanic, *i/u in the case of Baltic and Slavic) before the PIE syllabic resonants *ṛ,* ḷ, *ṃ, *ṇ, unique to these two groups among IE languages, which is in agreement with the wave model. The Balkan sprachbund even features areal convergence among members of very different branches.An extension to the Ringe-Warnow model of language evolution, suggests that early IE had featured limited contact between distinct lineages, with only the Germanic subfamily exhibiting a less treelike behaviour as it acquired some characteristics from neighbours early in its evolution. The internal diversification of especially West Germanic is cited to have been radically non-treelike.JOURNAL,weblink Perfect Phylogenetic Networks: A New Methodology for Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Natural Languages, Luay, Nakhleh, Don, Ringe, yes, Tandy, Warnow, Tandy Warnow, 2005, Language, 81, 2, 382–420, 10.1353/lan.2005.0078, 10.1.1.65.1791,

Proposed subgroupings

{{Hypothetical Indo-European subfamilies}}Specialists have postulated the existence of higher-order subgroups such as Italo-Celtic, Graeco-Armenian, Graeco-Aryan or Graeco-Armeno-Aryan, and Balto-Slavo-Germanic. However, unlike the ten traditional branches, these are all controversial to a greater or lesser degree.BOOK, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, Mallory, J.P., Adams, D.Q., 1997, London, The Italo-Celtic subgroup was at one point uncontroversial, considered by Antoine Meillet to be even better established than Balto-Slavic.{{sfn|Porzig|1954|p=39}} The main lines of evidence included the genitive suffix -ī; the superlative suffix -m̥mo; the change of /p/ to /kʷ/ before another /kʷ/ in the same word (as in penkʷe > *kʷenkʷe > Latin quīnque, Old Irish cóic); and the subjunctive morpheme -ā-.{{sfn|Fortson|2004|p=247}} This evidence was prominently challenged by Calvert Watkins;ENCYCLOPEDIA, Italo-Celtic revisited, Ancient Indo-European dialects, University of California Press, Watkins, Calvert, Birnbaum, Henrik, Puhvel, Jaan, 1966, Berkeley, 29–50, while Michael Weiss has argued for the subgroup.CONFERENCE, Italo-Celtica: linguistic and cultural points of contact between Italic and Celtic, Proceedings of the 23rd annual UCLA Indo-European Conference, Hempen, Weiss, Michael, Jamison, Stephanie W., Melchert, H. Craig, Vine, Brent, 2012, Bremen, 151–73,weblink 2018-02-19, 978-3-934106-99-4, Evidence for a relationship between Greek and Armenian includes the regular change of the second laryngeal to a at the beginnings of words, as well as terms for "woman" and "sheep".JOURNAL, Review of The linguistic relationship between Armenian and Greek by James Clackson, Greppin, James, Language, 1996, 72, 4, 804–07, 10.2307/416105, 416105, Greek and Indo-Iranian share innovations mainly in verbal morphology and patterns of nominal derivation.BOOK, Indoiranisch-griechische Gemeinsamkeiten der Nominalbildung und deren indogermanische Grundlagen, Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck, Euler, Wolfram, 1979, Innsbruck, Relations have also been proposed between Phrygian and Greek,JOURNAL, Lubotsky, A., The Old Phrygian Areyastis-inscription, Kadmos, 27, 9–26, 1988,weblink 10.1515/kadmos-1988-0103, and between Thracian and Armenian.Kortlandt – The Thraco-Armenian consonant shift, Linguistique Balkanique 31, 71–74, 1988BOOK, Colin Renfrew, Renfrew, Colin, 1987, Archaeology & Language. The Puzzle of the Indo-European Origins, London, Jonathan Cape, 978-0-224-02495-2, Some fundamental shared features, like the aorist (a verb form denoting action without reference to duration or completion) having the perfect active particle -s fixed to the stem, link this group closer to Anatolian languagesEncyclopædia Britannica, vol.22, Helen Hemingway Benton Publisher, Chicago, (15th ed.) 1981, p. 593 and Tocharian. Shared features with Balto-Slavic languages, on the other hand (especially present and preterit formations), might be due to later contacts.George S. Lane, Douglas Q. Adams,Britannica 15th edition 22:667, "The Tocharian problem"The Indo-Hittite hypothesis proposes that the Indo-European language family consists of two main branches: one represented by the Anatolian languages and another branch encompassing all other Indo-European languages. Features that separate Anatolian from all other branches of Indo-European (such as the gender or the verb system) have been interpreted alternately as archaic debris or as innovations due to prolonged isolation. Points proffered in favour of the Indo-Hittite hypothesis are the (non-universal) Indo-European agricultural terminology in AnatoliaThe supposed autochthony of Hittites, the Indo-Hittite hypothesis and migration of agricultural "Indo-European" societies became intrinsically linked together by C. Renfrew. (Renfrew, C 2001a The Anatolian origins of Proto-Indo-European and the autochthony of the Hittites. In R. Drews ed., Greater Anatolia and the Indo-Hittite language family: 36–63. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man). and the preservation of laryngeals.Britannica 15th edition, 22 p. 586 "Indo-European languages, The parent language, Laryngeal theory" – W.C.; pp. 589, 593 "Anatolian languages" – Philo H.J. Houwink ten Cate, H. Craig Melchert and Theo P.J. van den Hout However, in general this hypothesis is considered to attribute too much weight to the Anatolian evidence. According to another view, the Anatolian subgroup left the Indo-European parent language comparatively late, approximately at the same time as Indo-Iranian and later than the Greek or Armenian divisions. A third view, especially prevalent in the so-called French school of Indo-European studies, holds that extant similarities in non-satem languages in general—including Anatolian—might be due to their peripheral location in the Indo-European language-area and to early separation, rather than indicating a special ancestral relationship.Britannica 15th edition, 22 p. 594, "Indo-Hittite hypothesis" Hans J. Holm, based on lexical calculations, arrives at a picture roughly replicating the general scholarly opinion and refuting the Indo-Hittite hypothesis.BOOK,weblink Holm, Hans J., The Distribution of Data in Word Lists and its Impact on the Subgrouping of Languages, Christine, Preisach, Hans, Burkhardt, Lars, Schmidt-Thieme, Reinhold, 3, Decker, Data Analysis, Machine Learning, and Applications. Proc. of the 31st Annual Conference of the German Classification Society (GfKl), University of Freiburg, March 7–9, 2007, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-Berlin, 2008, Studies in Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organization, 978-3-540-78239-1, The result is a partly new chain of separation for the main Indo-European branches, which fits well to the grammatical facts, as well as to the geographical distribution of these branches. In particular it clearly demonstrates that the Anatolian languages did not part as first ones and thereby refutes the Indo-Hittite hypothesis.,

Satem and centum languages

File:Indo-European isoglosses.png|thumb|upright=1.6|Some significant isoglosses in Indo-European daughter languages at around 500 BC.{{Legend|#9fc7f3|Blue: centum languages}}{{Legend|#ef7a6e|Red: satem languages}}{{Legend|#f6a20f|Orange: languages with (Augment (Indo-European)|augment]]}}{{Legend|#a1f091|Green: languages with PIE *-tt- > -ss-}}{{Legend|#f6d3ab|Tan: languages with PIE *-tt- > -st-}}{{Legend|#fdd1d1|Pink: languages with instrumental, dative and ablative plural endings (and some others) in *-m- rather than *-bh-}})The division of the Indo-European languages into satem and centum groups was put forward by Peter von Bradke in 1890, although Karl Brugmann did propose a similar type of division in 1886. In the satem languages, which include the Balto-Slavic and Indo-Iranian branches, as well as (in most respects) Albanian and Armenian, the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European palatovelars remained distinct and were fricativized, while the labiovelars merged with the 'plain velars.' In the centum languages, the palatovelars merged with the plain velars, while the labiovelars remained distinct. The results of these alternative developments are exemplified by the words for "hundred" in Avestan (satem) and Latin (centum)—the initial palatovelar developed into a fricative [s] in the former, but became an ordinary velar [k] in the latter.Rather than being a genealogical separation, the centum–satem division is commonly seen as resulting from innovative changes that spread across PIE dialect-branches over a particular geographical area; the centum–satem isogloss intersects a number of other isoglosses that mark distinctions between features in the early IE branches. It may be that the centum branches in fact reflect the original state of affairs in PIE, and only the satem branches shared a set of innovations, which affected all but the peripheral areas of the PIE dialect continuum.Britannica 15th edition, vol.22, 1981, pp. 588, 594 Kortlandt proposes that the ancestors of Balts and Slavs took part in satemization before being drawn later into the western Indo-European sphere.WEB,weblink Frederik, Kortlandt, The spread of the Indo-Europeans, 1989, 2010-08-07,

Suggested macrofamilies

Some linguists propose that Indo-European languages form part of one of several hypothetical macrofamilies. However, these theories remain highly controversial, not being accepted by most linguists in the field. Some of the smaller proposed macrofamilies include: Other, greater proposed families including Indo-European languages, include: Objections to such groupings are not based on any theoretical claim about the likely historical existence or non-existence of such macrofamilies; it is entirely reasonable to suppose that they might have existed. The serious difficulty lies in identifying the details of actual relationships between language families, because it is very hard to find concrete evidence that transcends chance resemblance, or is not equally likely explained as being due to borrowing (including Wanderwörter, which can travel very long distances). Because the signal-to-noise ratio in historical linguistics declines steadily over time, at great enough time-depths it becomes open to reasonable doubt that one can even distinguish between signal and noise.

Evolution

Proto-Indo-European

File:IE expansion.png|upright=0.9|thumb|Scheme of Indo-European migrations from ca. 4000 to 1000 BC according to the Kurgan hypothesisKurgan hypothesisThe proposed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the reconstructed common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. From the 1960s, knowledge of Anatolian became certain enough to establish its relationship to PIE. Using the method of internal reconstruction an earlier stage, called Pre-Proto-Indo-European, has been proposed.PIE was an inflected language, in which the grammatical relationships between words were signaled through inflectional morphemes (usually endings). The roots of PIE are basic morphemes carrying a lexical meaning. By addition of suffixes, they form stems, and by addition of endings, these form grammatically inflected words (nouns or verbs). The reconstructed Indo-European verb system is complex and, like the noun, exhibits a system of ablaut.

Diversification

{{See also|Indo-European migrations}}{{Gallery|title=Possible expansion of Indo-European languages according to the Kurgan hypothesis height=100|align=center|footer=|File:Indo-european - kurgan - 4000 BC - map.jpg
|alt1=IE languages 4000 BC
|IE languages c. 4000 BC|File:Indo-european language - yamna-culture - 3000 BC - map.jpg
|alt2=IE languages 3000 BC
|IE languages c. 3000 BC|File:Indo-european languages - expansion 2000 BC - map.jpg
|alt3=IE languages 2000 BC
|IE languages c. 2000 BC|File:Indo-european - languages - evolution - 500 BC - map.jpg
|alt4=IE languages 500 BC
|IE languages c. 500 BC
}}{{Gallery|title=Possible expansion of Indo-European languages according to the Kurgan hypothesis (alternative view) height=100|align=center|footer=|File:IE5500BP.png
|alt1=IE languages 3500 BC
|IE languages c. 3500 BC|File:IE4500BP.png
|alt2=IE languages 2500 BC
|IE languages c. 2500 BC|File:IE3500BP.png
|alt3=IE languages 1500 BC
|IE languages c. 1500 BC|File:IE1500BP.png
|alt4=IE languages 500 AD
|IE languages c. 500 AD
}}The diversification of the parent language into the attested branches of daughter languages is historically unattested. The timeline of the evolution of the various daughter languages, on the other hand, is mostly undisputed, quite regardless of the question of Indo-European origins.Using a mathematical analysis borrowed from evolutionary biology, Don Ringe and Tandy Warnow propose the following evolutionary tree of Indo-European branches:{{sfn|Anthony|2007|pp=56–58}}
  • Pre-Anatolian (before 3500 BC)
  • Pre-Tocharian
  • Pre-Italic and Pre-Celtic (before 2500 BC)
  • Pre-Armenian and Pre-Greek (after 2500 BC)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian (2000 BC)
  • Pre-Germanic and Pre-Balto-Slavic;{{sfn|Anthony|2007|pp=56–58}} proto-Germanic c. 500 BC{{sfn|Ringe|2006|p=67}}
David Anthony proposes the following sequence:{{sfn|Anthony|2007|p=100}}
  • Pre-Anatolian (4200 BC)
  • Pre-Tocharian (3700 BC)
  • Pre-Germanic (3300 BC)
  • Pre-Italic and Pre-Celtic (3000 BC)
  • Pre-Armenian (2800 BC)
  • Pre-Balto-Slavic (2800 BC)
  • Pre-Greek (2500 BC)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian (2200 BC); split between Iranian and Old Indic 1800 BC
From 1500 BC the following sequence may be given:

Important languages for reconstruction

In reconstructing the history of the Indo-European languages and the form of the Proto-Indo-European language, some languages have been of particular importance. These generally include the ancient Indo-European languages that are both well-attested and documented at an early date, although some languages from later periods are important if they are particularly linguistically conservative (most notably, Lithuanian). Early poetry is of special significance because of the rigid poetic meter normally employed, which makes it possible to reconstruct a number of features (e.g. vowel length) that were either unwritten or corrupted in the process of transmission down to the earliest extant written manuscripts.Most noticeable of all:BOOK, Robert S.P. Beekes, Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An introduction. Second edition,weblink 2011, John Benjamins Publishing, 978-90-272-8500-3, 30; Skt: 13, Hitt: 20, Gk: 24,
  • Vedic Sanskrit (c. 1500–500 BC). This language is unique in that its source documents were all composed orally, and were passed down through oral tradition (shakha schools) for c. 2,000 years before ever being written down. The oldest documents are all in poetic form; oldest and most important of all is the Rigveda (c. 1500 BC).
  • Ancient Greek (c. 750–400 BC). Mycenaean Greek (c. 1450 BC) is the oldest recorded form, but its value is lessened by the limited material, restricted subject matter, and highly ambiguous writing system. More important is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems (the Iliad and the Odyssey, c. 750 BC).
  • Hittite (c. 1700–1200 BC). This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, and highly divergent from the others due to the early separation of the Anatolian languages from the remainder. It possesses some highly archaic features found only fragmentarily, if at all, in other languages. At the same time, however, it appears to have undergone a large number of early phonological and grammatical changes which, combined with the ambiguities of its writing system, hinder its usefulness somewhat.
Other primary sources:
  • Latin, attested in a huge amount of poetic and prose material in the Classical period (c. 200 BC – 100 AD) and limited older material from as early as c. 600 BC.
  • Gothic (the most archaic well-documented Germanic language, c. 350 AD), along with the combined witness of the other old Germanic languages: most importantly, Old English (c. 800–1000 AD), Old High German (c. 750–1000 AD) and Old Norse (c. 1100–1300 AD, with limited earlier sources dating all the way back to c. 200 AD).
  • Old Avestan (c. 1700–1200 BC) and Younger Avestan (c. 900 BC). Documentation is sparse, but nonetheless quite important due to its highly archaic nature.
  • Modern Lithuanian, with limited records in Old Lithuanian (c. 1500–1700 AD).
  • Old Church Slavonic (c. 900–1000 AD).
Other secondary sources, of lesser value due to poor attestation: Other secondary sources, of lesser value due to extensive phonological changes and relatively limited attestation:BOOK, Robert S.P. Beekes, Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An introduction. Second edition,weblink 2011, John Benjamins Publishing, 978-90-272-8500-3, 30; Toch: 19, Arm: 20, Alb: 25, 124, OIr: 27,
  • Old Irish (c. 700–850 AD).
  • Tocharian (c. 500–800 AD), underwent large phonetic shifts and mergers in the proto-language, and has an almost entirely reworked declension system.
  • Classical Armenian (c. 400–1000 AD).
  • Albanian (c. 1450–current time).

Sound changes

As the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language broke up, its sound system diverged as well, changing according to various sound laws evidenced in the daughter languages.PIE is normally reconstructed with a complex system of 15 stop consonants, including an unusual three-way phonation (voicing) distinction between voiceless, voiced and "voiced aspirated" (i.e. breathy voiced) stops, and a three-way distinction among velar consonants (k-type sounds) between "palatal" ḱ ǵ ǵh, "plain velar" k g gh and labiovelar kʷ gʷ gʷh. (The correctness of the terms palatal and plain velar is disputed; see Proto-Indo-European phonology.) All daughter languages have reduced the number of distinctions among these sounds, often in divergent ways.As an example, in English, one of the Germanic languages, the following are some of the major changes that happened:{{ordered list|1= As in other centum languages, the "plain velar" and "palatal" stops merged, reducing the number of stops from 15 to 12.|2= As in the other Germanic languages, the Germanic sound shift changed the realization of all stop consonants, with each consonant shifting to a different one:
{{PIE|bʰ}} → {{PIE|b}} → {{PIE|p}} → {{PIE|f}} {{PIE|dʰ}} → {{PIE|d}} → {{PIE|t}} → {{PIE|θ}} {{PIE|gʰ}} → {{PIE|g}} → {{PIE|k}} → {{PIE|x}} (Later initial {{PIE|x}} →{{PIE|h}}) {{PIE|gʷʰ}} → {{PIE|gʷ}} → {{PIE|kʷ}} → {{PIE|xʷ}} (Later initial {{PIE|xʷ}} →{{PIE|hʷ}})
Each original consonant shifted one position to the right. For example, original {{PIE|dʰ}} became {{PIE|d}}, while original {{PIE|d}} became {{PIE|t}} and original {{PIE|t}} became {{PIE|θ}} (written th in English). This is the original source of the English sounds written f, th, h and wh. Examples, comparing English with Latin, where the sounds largely remain unshifted:
For PIE p: piscis vs. fish; pēs, pēdis vs. foot; pluvium "rain" vs. flow; pater vs. father For PIE t: trēs vs. three; māter vs. mother For PIE d: decem vs. ten; pēdis vs. foot; quid vs. what For PIE k: centum vs. hund(red); capere "to take" vs. have For PIE kʷ: quid vs. what; quandō vs. when|3= Various further changes affected consonants in the middle or end of a word:
  • The voiced stops resulting from the sound shift were softened to voiced fricatives (or perhaps the sound shift directly generated fricatives in these positions).
  • Verner's law also turned some of the voiceless fricatives resulting from the sound shift into voiced fricatives or stops. This is why the t in Latin centum ends up as d in hund(red) rather than the expected th.
  • Most remaining h sounds disappeared, while remaining f and th became voiced. For example, Latin decem ends up as ten with no h in the middle (but note taíhun "ten" in Gothic, an archaic Germanic language). Similarly, the words seven and have have a voiced v (compare Latin septem, capere), while father and mother have a voiced th, although not spelled differently (compare Latin pater, māter).
}}None of the daughter-language families (except possibly Anatolian, particularly Luvian) reflect the plain velar stops differently from the other two series, and there is even a certain amount of dispute whether this series existed at all in PIE. The major distinction between centum and satem languages corresponds to the outcome of the PIE plain velars: The three-way PIE distinction between voiceless, voiced and voiced aspirated stops is considered extremely unusual from the perspective of linguistic typology—particularly in the existence of voiced aspirated stops without a corresponding series of voiceless aspirated stops. None of the various daughter-language families continue it unchanged, with numerous "solutions" to the apparently unstable PIE situation:
  • The Indo-Aryan languages preserve the three series unchanged but have evolved a fourth series of voiceless aspirated consonants.
  • The Iranian languages probably passed through the same stage, subsequently changing the aspirated stops into fricatives.
  • Greek converted the voiced aspirates into voiceless aspirates.
  • Italic probably passed through the same stage, but reflects the voiced aspirates as voiceless fricatives, especially f (or sometimes plain voiced stops in Latin).
  • Celtic, Balto-Slavic, Anatolian, and Albanian merge the voiced aspirated into plain voiced stops.
  • Germanic and Armenian change all three series in a chain shift (e.g. with bh b p becoming b p f (known as Grimm's law in Germanic).
Among the other notable changes affecting consonants are: The following table shows the basic outcomes of PIE consonants in some of the most important daughter languages for the purposes of reconstruction. For a fuller table, see Indo-European sound laws.{| class=wikitable style="white-space: nowrap;"Reflex (linguistics)>reflexes in selected Indo-European daughter languages! rowspan=2|PIE !! rowspan=2|Skr. !! rowspan=2|O.C.S. !! rowspan=2|Lith. !! rowspan=2|Greek !! rowspan=2|Latin !! rowspan=2|Old Irish !! rowspan=2|Gothic !! rowspan=2|English !! colspan=6|Examples! align=center! PIE !! Eng. !! Skr. !! Gk. !! Lat. !! Lith. etc.!Prs. align=center!{{PIE|*p}}{{PIE>p}}; {{PIE|ph}}H{{PIE|p}}{{PIE>Ø}};'''{{PIE[x]}}{{PIE>f}};`-'''{{PIE[β]}}{{PIE>f}};-{{PIE|v/f}}-*pṓds ~ *ped- >foot >pád- >poús (podós) >pēs (pedis) >| pãdas|Piáde align=center!{{PIE|*t}}{{PIE>t}}; {{PIE|th}}H{{PIE|t}}{{PIE>t}};-'''{{PIE[θ]}}{{PIE>þ}} {{IPA{{PIE>d}}- {{IPA{{PIE>t}}T-{{PIE>th}};`-'''{{PIE-;{{PIE>t}}'''T-*tréyes >three >tráyas>treĩs >trēs >| trỹs|thri (old Persian) align=center!{{PIE|*ḱ}}{{PIE>ś}} {{IPA|[ɕ]}}{{PIE>s}}{{PIE>š}} {{IPA|[ʃ]}}{{PIE|k}}'''{{PIE[k]}}'''{{PIE {{IPA>[k]}};-{{PIE[x]}}'''{{PIE;`-{{PIE>g}}'''- {{IPA|[ɣ]}}'''{{PIE;-{{PIE>Ø}}-;`-{{PIE|y}}'''-*ḱm̥tóm >hund(red) >śatám >he-katón >centum >| šimtas|sad align=center!{{PIE|*k}}'''{{PIE; {{PIE>c}}'''E {{IPA{{PIE>kh}}H'''{{PIE;{{PIE>č}}'''E {{IPA{{PIE>c}}E' {{IPA|[ts]}}{{PIE|k}}*kreuh₂ "raw meat" >hrēaw raw >kravíṣ- >kréas >cruor >| kraûjas|xoreš align=center!rowspan=2|{{PIE|*kʷ}}'''{{PIE;{{PIE>t}}E;{{PIE|k}}'''(u)'''{{PIE {{IPA>[kʷ]}};{{PIE[k]}}'''{{PIE {{IPA>[ʍ]}};`-{{PIE|gw/w}}'''-'''{{PIE;`-{{PIE>w}}'''-*kʷid, kʷod >what >kím >tí >quid, quod >|kas, kad|ce, ci align=center*kʷekʷlom >wheel >cakrá- >kúklos >| kãklas|carx align=center!{{PIE|*b}}{{PIE>b}}; {{PIE|bh}}H{{PIE|b}}{{PIE>b}} {{IPA{{IPA>[β]}}-{{PIE|p}} align=center!{{PIE|*d}}{{PIE>d}}; {{PIE|dh}}H{{PIE|d}}{{PIE>d}} {{IPA[ð]}}-{{PIE|t}}*déḱm̥(t) >ten,Gothic language>Goth. taíhun dáśa déka decem dẽšimt|dah align=center!{{PIE|*ǵ}}{{PIE>j}} {{IPA{{PIE>h}}H {{IPA|[ɦ]}}{{PIE>z}}{{PIE>ž}} {{IPA|[ʒ]}}{{PIE|g}}'''{{PIE[ɡ]}};-{{IPA|[ɣ]}}-{{PIE|k}}'''{{PIE;{{PIE>ch}}'''E'*ǵénu, *ǵnéu- >cnēo knee >jā́nu >gónu >genu >||zánu align=center!{{PIE|*g}}'''{{PIE; {{PIE>j}}'''E {{IPA{{PIE>gh}}H; '''{{PIE[ɦ]}}'''{{PIE;{{PIE>ž}}'''E {{IPA{{PIE>dz}}E'{{PIE|g}}*yugóm >yoke >yugám >zugón >iugum >| jùngas|yugh align=center!{{PIE|*gʷ}}{{PIE>b}};'''{{PIEe;{{PIE>g}}'''(u){{PIE>u}} {{IPA v]}};{{PIE>gu}}n− {{IPA|[ɡʷ]}}'''{{PIE[b]}};-{{IPA|[β]}}-{{PIE>q}} {{IPA|[kʷ]}}{{PIE>qu}}*gʷīw- >quick"alive" >jīvá- >bíos,bíotos >vīvus >| gývas|ze- align=center!{{PIE|*bʰ}}{{PIE>bh}}; {{PIE|b}}..Ch{{PIE|b}}{{PIE>ph}}; {{PIE|p}}..Ch{{PIE>f}}-;{{PIE|b}}{{PIE>b}} {{IPA[β]}}-;-{{PIE|f}}{{PIE>b}};-{{PIE|v/f}}-(rl)*bʰerō >bear "carry" >bhar- >phérō >ferō >Old Church Slavonic>OCS berǫ|bar- align=center!{{PIE|*dʰ}}{{PIE>dh}}; {{PIE|d}}..Ch{{PIE|d}}{{PIE>th}}; {{PIE|t}}..Ch{{PIE>f}}-;'''{{PIE;{{PIE>b}}'''(r),l,u-{{PIE>d}} {{IPA[ð]}}-{{PIE>d}} {{IPA[ð]}}-;-{{PIE|þ}}{{PIE>d}}*dʰwer-, dʰur- >door >dhvā́raḥ >thurā́ >forēs >| dùrys|dar align=center!{{PIE|*ǵʰ}}{{PIE>h}} {{IPA{{PIE>j}}..Ch{{PIE>z}}{{PIE>ž}} {{IPA|[ʒ]}}'''{{PIE; {{PIE>k}}'''..Ch'''{{PIE;{{PIE>h/g}}'''R'''{{PIE[ɡ]}};-{{IPA|[ɣ]}}-'''{{PIE;-{{PIE>g}}'''- {{IPA{{PIE>g}} {{IPA|[x]}}'''{{PIE;-{{PIE>y/w}}'''-(rl)*ǵʰans- >goose, Old High German>OHG gans haṁsáḥ khḗn (h)ānser žąsìs|gház align=center!{{PIE|*gʰ}}'''{{PIE;{{PIE>h}}'''E {{IPA{{PIE>g}}..Ch; {{PIE|j}}E..Ch'''{{PIE;{{PIE>ž}}'''E {{IPA{{PIE>dz}}E'{{PIE|g}} align=center!rowspan=2|{{PIE|*gʷʰ}}'''{{PIE;{{PIE>th}}E;{{PIE(u); {{PIE>p}}..Ch;{{PIEE..Ch;{{PIE>k}}'''(u)..Ch'''{{PIE-;{{PIE>g}} /-{{PIE- {{IPA>[w]}};n{{PIE[ɡʷ]}}'''{{PIE;{{PIE>b}}-;-{{PIE-;n{{PIE>gw}}''''''{{PIE;{{PIE>b}}-;-{{PIE|w}}'''-*sneigʷʰ- >snow >sneha- >nípha >nivis >| sniẽgas|barf align=center*gʷʰerm- >warm >gharmáḥ >thermós >formus >Latvian language>Latv. gar̂me|garm align=center! rowspan="2"|{{PIE|*s}}{{PIE|s}}'''{{PIE-;-{{PIE>s}};{{PIE(T);-{{PIE>Ø}}'''-;{{IPA|[¯]}}(R)'''{{PIE;-{{PIE>r}}'''-'''{{PIE[s]}};-{{IPA|[h]}}-'''{{PIE;`-{{PIE>z}}'''-'''{{PIE;`-{{PIE>r}}'''-*septḿ̥ >seven >saptá >heptá >septem >| septynì|haft align=center{{PIE>ṣ}}ruki- {{IPA|[ʂ]}}{{PIE>x}}ruki- {{IPA|[x]}}{{PIE>š}}ruki- {{IPA|[ʃ]}}*h₂eusōs"dawn" >east >uṣā́ḥ >āṓs >aurōra >| aušra|báxtar align=center! {{PIE|*m}}{{PIE|m}}{{PIE>m}} {{IPA[w̃]}}-{{PIE|m}}*mūs >mouse >mū́ṣ- >mũs >mūs >Old Church Slavonic>OCS myšĭ|muš align=center! {{PIE|*-m}}{{PIE>m}}{{PIE>˛}} {{IPA|[˜]}} -{{PIE|n}}{{PIE>m}}{{PIE>n}} -{{PIE|Ø}}*ḱm̥tóm >hund(red) >śatám >(he)katón >centum >Old Prussian>OPrus simtan|sad align=center! {{PIE|*n}}{{PIE>n}}{{PIE>n}};-'''{{PIE[˜]}}{{PIE|n}}*nokʷt- >night >nákt- >núkt- >noct- >| naktis|náštá align=center! {{PIE|*l}}{{PIE>r}} (dial. {{PIE|l}}){{PIE|l}}*leuk- >light >rócate >leukós >lūx >| laũkas|ruz align=center! {{PIE|*r}}{{PIE|r}}*h₁reudʰ- >red >rudhirá- >eruthrós >ruber >| raũdas|sorx align=center! {{PIE|*i̯}}{{PIE>y}} {{IPA|[j]}}'''{{PIE[j]}}{{PIE>z}} {{IPA zd, z]}} /{{PIE>h}};-{{PIE|Ø}}-{{PIE>i}} {{IPA{{PIE>Ø}}-{{PIE>Ø}}{{PIE>j}}{{PIE>y}}*yugóm >yoke >yugám >zugón >iugum >| jùngas|yugh align=center! {{PIE|*u̯}}{{PIE>v}} {{IPA|[ʋ]}}{{PIE>v}}{{PIE>v}} {{IPA|[ʋ]}}{{PIE>w > h / Ø}}{{PIE>u}} {{IPA|[w > v]}}{{PIE>f}};-{{PIE|Ø}}-{{PIE|w}}*h₂weh₁n̥to- >wind >vā́taḥ >áenta >ventus >| vėtra|bád! PIE !! Skr. !! O.C.S. !! Lith. !! Greek !! Latin !! Old Irish !! Gothic !! English
Notes:
  • C- At the beginning of a word.
  • -C- Between vowels.
  • -C At the end of a word.
  • `-C- Following an unstressed vowel (Verner's law).
  • -C-(rl) Between vowels, or between a vowel and {{PIE|r, l}} (on either side).
  • CT Before a (PIE) stop ({{PIE|p, t, k}}).
  • CT− After a (PIE) obstruent ({{PIE|p, t, k}}, etc.; {{PIE|s}}).
  • C(T) Before or after an obstruent ({{PIE|p, t, k}}, etc.; {{PIE|s}}).
  • CH Before an original laryngeal.
  • CE Before a (PIE) front vowel ({{PIE|i, e}}).
  • CE' Before secondary (post-PIE) front-vowels.
  • Ce Before {{PIE|e}}.
  • C(u) Before or after a (PIE) {{PIE|u}} (boukólos rule).
  • C(O) Before or after a (PIE) {{PIE|o, u}} (boukólos rule).
  • Cn− After {{PIE|n}}.
  • CR Before a sonorant ({{PIE|r, l, m, n}}).
  • C(R) Before or after a sonorant ({{PIE|r, l, m, n}}).
  • C(r),l,u− Before {{PIE|r, l}} or after {{PIE|r, u}}.
  • Cruki− After {{PIE|r, u, k, i}} (Ruki sound law).
  • C..Ch Before an aspirated consonant in the next syllable (Grassmann's law, also known as dissimilation of aspirates).
  • CE..Ch Before a (PIE) front vowel ({{PIE|i, e}}) as well as before an aspirated consonant in the next syllable (Grassmann's law, also known as dissimilation of aspirates).
  • C(u)..Ch Before or after a (PIE) {{PIE|u}} as well as before an aspirated consonant in the next syllable (Grassmann's law, also known as dissimilation of aspirates).

Comparison of conjugations

The following table presents a comparison of conjugations of the thematic present indicative of the verbal root *{{PIE|bʰer-}} of the English verb (wikt:bear|to bear) and its reflexes in various early attested IE languages and their modern descendants or relatives, showing that all languages had in the early stage an inflectional verb system.{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"|+!! Proto-Indo-European (*{{PIE|(wikt:Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/bʰer-|bʰer-)}} 'to carry, to bear')! I (1st sg.)bʰéroh₂}}! You (2nd sg.)bʰéresi}}! He/She/It (3rd sg.)bʰéreti}}! We (1st dual)bʰérowos}}! You (2nd dual)bʰéreth₁es}}! They (3rd dual)bʰéretes}}! We (1st pl.)bʰéromos}}! You (2nd pl.)bʰérete}}! They (3rd pl.)bʰéronti}}{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"|+! rowspan="2" | Major subgroup! rowspan="2" | Hellenic! colspan="2" | Indo-Iranian! rowspan="2" | Italic! rowspan="2" | Celtic! rowspan="2" | Armenian! rowspan="2" | Germanic! colspan="2" | Balto-Slavic! rowspan="2" | Albanian! Indo-Aryan! Iranian! Baltic! Slavic! Ancient representative! Ancient Greek! Vedic Sanskrit! Avestan! Latin! Old Irish! Classical Arm.! Gothic! Old Prussian! Old Church Sl.! Old Albanian! I (1st sg.)phérō)| bhárāmi| barāferō)| biru; berim| berem| baíra /bɛra/| *bera| berǫ| *berja! You (2nd sg.)| phéreis| bhárasi| barahi| fers| biri; berir| beres| baíris| *bera| bereši| *berje! He/She/It (3rd sg.)| phérei| bhárati| baraiti| fert| berid| berē| baíriþ| *bera| beretъ| *berjet! We (1st dual)| —| bhárāvas| barāvahi| —| —| —| baíros|| berevě|! You (2nd dual)| phéreton| bhárathas| —| —| —| —| baírats|| bereta|! They (3rd dual)| phéreton| bháratas| baratō| —| —| —| —|| berete|! We (1st pl.)| phéromen| bhárāmas| barāmahi| ferimus| bermai| beremk`| baíram| *beramai| beremъ| *berjame! You (2nd pl.)| phérete| bháratha| baraϑa| fertis| beirthe| berēk`| baíriþ| *beratei| berete| *berjeju! They (3rd pl.)| phérousi| bháranti| barəṇti| ferunt| berait| beren| baírand| *bera| berǫtъ| *berjanti! Modern representative! Modern Greek! Hindustani! Persian!! Irish! Armenian (Eastern; Western)! German! Lithuanian! Czech! Albanian! I (1st sg.)| férno| (maiṃ) bharūṃ| (man) {mi}baram|beirim)| berum em; g'perem| (ich) {ge}bäre| beriuberu)| (unë) bie! You (2nd sg.)| férnis| (tū) bhare| (tu) {mi}bari|| beirir| berum es; g'peres| (du) {ge}bierst| beri| bereš| (ti) bie! He/She/It (3rd sg.)| férni| (vah) bhare| (ān) {mi}barad|| beireann; %beiridh| berum ē; g'perē| (er)(sie)(es) {ge}biert| beria| bere| (ai/ajo) bie! We (1st dual)|||||||| beriava||! You (2nd dual)||||||||beriata||! They (3rd dual)|||||||| beria||! We (1st pl.)| férnume| (ham) bhareṃ| (mā) {mi}barim|| beirimid; beiream| berum enk`; g'perenk`| (wir) {ge}bären| beriame| berem(e)| (ne) biem! You (2nd pl.)| férnete| (tum) bharo| (šomā) {mi}barid|| beireann sibh; %beirthaoi| berum ek`; g'perek`| (ihr) {ge}bärt| beriate| berete| (ju) bini! They (3rd pl.)| férnun| (ve) bhareṃ| (ānān) {mi}barand|| beirid| berum en; g'peren| (sie) {ge}bären| beria| berou| (ata/ato) bienWhile similarities are still visible between the modern descendants and relatives of these ancient languages, the differences have increased over time. Some IE languages have moved from synthetic verb systems to largely periphrastic systems. In addition, the pronouns of periphrastic forms are in brackets when they appear. Some of these verbs have undergone a change in meaning as well.
  • In Modern Irish beir usually only carries the meaning to bear in the sense of bearing a child; its common meanings are to catch, grab.
  • The Hindi verb bharnā, the continuation of the Sanskrit verb, can have a variety of meanings, but the most common is "to fill". The forms given in the table, although etymologically derived from the present indicative, now have the meaning of subjunctive. The present indicative is conjugated periphrastically, using a participle (etymologically the Sanskrit present participle bharant-) and an auxiliary: maiṃ bhartā hūṃ, tÅ« bhartā hai, vah bhartā hai, ham bharte haiṃ, tum bharte ho, ve bharte haiṃ (masculine forms).
  • German is not directly descended from Gothic, but the Gothic forms are a close approximation of what the early West Germanic forms of c. 400 AD would have looked like. The cognate of Germanic beranan (English bear) survives in German only in the compound gebären, meaning "bear (a child)".
  • The Latin verb ferre is irregular, and not a good representative of a normal thematic verb. In most Romance Languages such as French, other verbs now mean "to carry" (e.g. Fr. porter < Lat. portare) and ferre was only borrowed and nativized in compounds such as souffrir "to suffer" (from Latin sub- and ferre) and "to confer" (from Latin "con-" and "ferre").
  • In Modern Greek, phero φέρω (modern transliteration fero) "to bear" is still used but only in specific contexts and is most common in such compounds as αναφέρω, διαφέρω, εισφέρω, εκφέρω, καταφέρω, προφέρω, προαναφέρω, προσφέρω etc. The form that is (very) common today is pherno φέρνω (modern transliteration ferno) meaning "to bring". Additionally, the perfective form of pherno (used for the subjunctive voice and also for the future tense) is also phero.
  • In Modern Russian брать (brat') carries the meaning to take. Бремя (br'em'a) means burden, as something heavy to bear, and derivative беременность (b'er'em'ennost') means pregnancy.

Comparison of cognates

{{See also|Proto-Indo-European numerals|List of numbers in various languages}}

Present distribution

(File:Indo-European-speaking world.png|thumb|left|upright=1.55|{{legend|#013857|Official or Primary Language}}{{legend|#0371b0|Secondary Official Language}}{{legend|#80a4c0|Recognized}}{{legend|#ccd2e8|Significant}}{{legend|#e5e5e5|No use}})File:Languages of North America.svg|thumb|upright=0.95|The approximate present-day distribution of Indo-European languages within the Americas by country:Romance:{{legend|#3EBA00|Spanish}}{{legend|#EA6500|Portuguese–Galician}}{{legend|#001E96|French}}Germanic:{{legend|#C60000|English}}{{legend|#FFD000|Dutch}} ]]Today, Indo-European languages are spoken by 3.2 billion native speakers across all inhabited continents,WEB,weblink Ethnologue list of language families, Ethnologue.com, 22th, 2019-07-02, the largest number by far for any recognised language family. Of the 20 languages with the largest numbers of native speakers according to Ethnologue, 10 are Indo-European: Spanish, English, Hindustani, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, Punjabi, German, French and Marathi, accounting for over 1.7 billion native speakers.WEB,weblink Ethnologue list of languages by number of speakers, Ethnologue.com, 2010-08-07, Additionally, hundreds of millions of persons worldwide study Indo-European languages as secondary or tertiary languages, including in cultures which have completely different language families and historical backgrounds—there are between 600 millionWEB,weblink English, Ethnologue, January 17, 2017, and one billionWEB,weblink Ten Things You Might Not Have Known About the English Language, Oxford Dictionary, 2015-08-12, L2 learners of English alone.The success of the language family, including the large number of speakers and the vast portions of the Earth that they inhabit, is due to several factors. The ancient Indo-European migrations and widespread dissemination of Indo-European culture throughout Eurasia, including that of the Proto-Indo-Europeans themselves, and that of their daughter cultures including the Indo-Aryans, Iranian peoples, Celts, Greeks, Romans, Germanic peoples, and Slavs, led to these peoples' branches of the language family already taking a dominant foothold in virtually all of Eurasia except for swathes of the Near East, North and East Asia, replacing many (but not all) of the previously-spoken pre-Indo-European languages of this extensive area. However Semitic languages remain dominant in much of the Middle East and North Africa, and Caucasian languages in much of the Caucasus region. Similarly in Europe and the Urals the Uralic languages (such as Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian etc) remain, as does Basque, a pre-Indo-European Isolate.Despite being unaware of their common linguistic origin, diverse groups of Indo-European speakers continued to culturally dominate and often replace the indigenous languages of the western two-thirds of Eurasia. By the beginning of the Common Era, Indo-European peoples controlled almost the entirety of this area: the Celts western and central Europe, the Romans southern Europe, the Germanic peoples northern Europe, the Slavs eastern Europe, the Iranian peoples most of western and central Asia and parts of eastern Europe, and the Indo-Aryan peoples in the Indian subcontinent, with the Tocharians inhabiting the Indo-European frontier in western China. By the medieval period, only the Semitic, Dravidian, Caucasian and Uralic languages, and the language isolate Basque remained of the (relatively) indigenous languages of Europe and the western half of Asia.Despite medieval invasions by Eurasian nomads, a group to which the Proto-Indo-Europeans had once belonged, Indo-European expansion reached another peak in the early modern period with the dramatic increase in the population of the Indian subcontinent and European expansionism throughout the globe during the Age of Discovery, as well as the continued replacement and assimilation of surrounding non-Indo-European languages and peoples due to increased state centralization and nationalism. These trends compounded throughout the modern period due to the general global population growth and the results of European colonization of the Western Hemisphere and Oceania, leading to an explosion in the number of Indo-European speakers as well as the territories inhabited by them.Due to colonization and the modern dominance of Indo-European languages in the fields of politics, global science, technology, education, finance, and sports, even many modern countries whose populations largely speak non-Indo-European languages have Indo-European languages as official languages, and the majority of the global population speaks at least one Indo-European language. The overwhelming majority of languages used on the Internet are Indo-European, with English continuing to lead the group; English in general has in many respects become the lingua franca of global communication.{{Clear}}

See also

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Notes

{{NoteFoot}}

References

Citations

{{Reflist}}

Sources

  • BOOK, Anthony, David W., The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World, Princeton University Press, 2007, 978-0-691-05887-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Auroux, Sylvain, History of the Language Sciences, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 2000, 978-3-11-016735-1,
  • BOOK, Fortson, Benjamin W., Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, Malden, Massachusetts, Blackwell, 2004, 978-1-4051-0315-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Grundriss der Vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen, Karl, Brugmann, Karl Brugmann, de, Erster Band, Strassburg, Karl J. Trübner, 1886,
  • BOOK, Houwink ten Cate, H.J., Melchert, H. Craig, yes, van den Hout, Theo P.J., Indo-European languages, The parent language, Laryngeal theory, Encyclopædia Britannica, 22, Helen Hemingway Benton, Chicago, 15th, 1981,
  • BOOK, Holm, Hans J., The Distribution of Data in Word Lists and its Impact on the Subgrouping of Languages, Christine, Preisach, Hans, Burkhardt, Lars, Schmidt-Thieme, Reinhold, 3, Decker, Data Analysis, Machine Learning, and Applications, Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the German Classification Society (GfKl), University of Freiburg, March 7–9, 2007, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-Berlin, 2008, 978-3-540-78239-1,
  • JOURNAL, Kortlandt, Frederik, 1990, The Spread of the Indo-Europeans, Journal of Indo-European Studies, 18, 1–2, 131–40,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Lubotsky, A., The Old Phrygian Areyastis-inscription, Kadmos, 27, 9–26, 1988,weblink 10.1515/kadmos-1988-0103,
  • JOURNAL, Kortlandt, Frederik, The Thraco-Armenian consonant shift, Linguistique Balkanique, 31, 71–74, 1988,
  • BOOK, Lane, George S., Adams, Douglas Q., The Tocharian problem, Encyclopædia Britannica, 22, Helen Hemingway Benton, Chicago, 15th, 1981,
  • BOOK, Porzig, Walter, 1954, Die Gliederung des indogermanischen Sprachgebiets, Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, Heidelberg, harv,
  • BOOK, Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn, Renfrew, C., The Anatolian origins of Proto-Indo-European and the autochthony of the Hittites, R., Drews, Robert Drews, Greater Anatolia and the Indo-Hittite language family, Institute for the Study of Man, Washington, DC, 2001, 978-0-941694-77-3,
  • BOOK, Compendium der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen, August, Schleicher, August Schleicher, German, 1861, Weimar, Böhlau (reprinted by Minerva GmbH, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag), 978-3-8102-1071-5,
  • BOOK, Szemerényi, Oswald, Oswald Szemerényi, David, Jones, Irene, Jones, Introduction to Indo-European Linguistics, Oxford University Press, 1999, 978-0-19-823870-6,
  • BOOK, Ãœber Methode und Ergebnisse der arischen (indogermanischen) Alterthumswissenshaft, Peter, von Bradke, de, 1890, Giessen, J. Ricker'che Buchhandlung, CITEREFvon Bradke1890,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Beekes, Robert S.P., Robert S. P. Beekes location=Amsterdam
year=1995,
  • BOOK, Byomkes Chakrabarti, Chakrabarti, Byomkes, 1994, A comparative study of Santali and Bengali, Calcutta, K.P. Bagchi & Co., 978-81-7074-128-2,
  • BOOK, Collinge, N.E., The Laws of Indo-European, Amsterdam, John Benjamins, 1985,
  • BOOK, J.P. Mallory, Mallory, J.P., 1989, In Search of the Indo-Europeans, London, Thames and Hudson, 978-0-500-27616-7,
  • BOOK, Colin Renfrew, Renfrew, Colin, 1987, Archaeology & Language. The Puzzle of the Indo-European Origins, London, Jonathan Cape, 978-0-224-02495-2,
  • Meillet, Antoine. Esquisse d'une grammaire comparée de l'arménien classique, 1903.
  • BOOK, Ramat, Paolo, Ramat, Anna Giacalone, 1998, The Indo-European languages, Routledge,
  • Schleicher, August, A Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European Languages (1861/62).
  • BOOK, Strazny, Philip, Trask, R.L., Larry Trask, 2000, Dictionary of Historical and Comparative Linguistics, Routledge, 1, 978-1-57958-218-0,
  • JOURNAL, Oswald Szemerényi, Szemerényi, Oswald, The problem of Balto-Slav unity, Kratylos, 1957, 2, 97–123,
  • BOOK, Watkins, Calvert, The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, Houghton Mifflin, 2000, 978-0-618-08250-6,
  • Remys, Edmund, General distinguishing features of various Indo-European languages and their relationship to Lithuanian. Berlin, New York: Indogermanische Forschungen, Vol. 112, 2007.
  • P. Chantraine (1968), Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque, Klincksieck, Paris.

External links

{{commons category|Indo-European languages}}{{wikinews|New research shows over 400 languages originated in Turkey}}{{EB1911 Poster|Indo-European Languages}}{hide}Library resources box |by=no |onlinebooks=yes |others=yes |about=yes |label=Indo-European languages
|viaf= |lccn= |lcheading= |wikititle= {edih}

Databases

  • WEB, Comparative Indo-European,weblink Isidore, Dyen, Joseph, Kruskal, Paul, Black, 1997, 13 December 2009, wordgumbo,
  • WEB, Indo-European,weblink LLOW Languages of the World, 14 December 2009,
  • WEB, Indo-European Documentation Center,weblink Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 2009, 14 December 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090903062241weblink">weblink 3 September 2009,
  • BOOK, Lewis, M. Paul, 2009, Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Online version, Sixteenth, Dallas, Tex., SIL International, Language Family Trees: Indo-European,weblink .
  • WEB, Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien: TITUS,weblink 2003, TITUS, University of Frankfurt, German, 13 December 2009,
  • WEB, Indo-European Lexical Cognacy Database (IELex),weblink Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen,

Lexica

  • WEB, Indo-European Etymological Dictionary (IEED),weblink Department of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands, 14 December 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060207135952weblink">weblink 7 February 2006,
  • BOOK, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth, 2000, Indo-European Roots Index, August 22, 2008, Internet Archive: Wayback Machine,weblink 9 December 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090217023123weblink">weblink February 17, 2009,
  • BOOK, Köbler, Gerhard, Indogermanisches Wörterbuch,weblink 5th, 2014, Gerhard Köbler, German, 29 March 2015,
  • WEB, Lexicon of Early Indo-European Loanwords Preserved in Finnish,weblink Johan, Schalin, Johan Schalin, 2009, 9 December 2009,
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