East Asia

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East Asia
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{{ja icon}} {{ko icon}} {{mn icon}}}}| settlement_type = Subregion of Asia | image_skyline = | image_alt = | image_caption = | image_map = East Asia (orthographic projection).svg| map_alt = State (polity)>StatesA state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory. The population on the Geography of Taiwan and the Penghu islands is governed by Government of the Republic of China>an effective government to the exclusion of others, but the political status is dispute.Dependent territory#Lists of similar entities>Dependencies| subdivision_type3 = Major cities
  • {{CHN{edih}
  • {{JPN}}
  • {{MNG}}
  • {{PRK}}
  • {{ROK}}
  • {{TWN}}
  • {{HKG{edih}
  • {{MAC}}
}} }}| unit_pref = Metric| area_footnotes = The area figure is based on the combined areas of Greater China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea and Japan as listed at List of countries and dependencies by area.| area_total_km2 = 11839074| area_land_km2 = | area_water_km2 = | area_water_percent = | area_note = | dimensions_footnotes = | length_km = | width_km = | blank1_name =   GDP(Nominal)Eastern Asia}}Year}}source}}.List of continents by population#Asia>2nd (World) {edih}| utc_offset1 = | timezone1_DST = | utc_offset1_DST = | blank_name_sec1 = Languages and language families {edih}|population_density_km2 auto}}{{Chinese|t = 東亞/東亞細亞|s = 东亚/东亚细亚|order = st|p = Dōngyà or Dōng Yàxìyà|w = Tung1-ya3|j = dung1 aa3|poj = Tang-a|gan = Tung1 nga3|wuu = tonå¹³ ia去|h = dung24 a31|tib = ཨེ་ཤ་ཡ་ཤར་མ་ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢ}}|monr = Dzuun Azi|uig = شەرقىي ئاسىي|kana = ひがしアジア/とうあ|shinjitai = 東亜細亜(東アジア)/東亜|kyujitai = 東亞細亞/東亞|revhep = Higashi Ajia/Tō-A|kunrei = Higasi Azia/Tou-A|hanja = 東아시아/東亞細亞/東亞|hangul = 동아시아/동아세아/동아|chuhan = 東亞|qn = Đông Á|rr = Dong Asia/Dong Asea/Dong A|rus = Восточная Азия|rusr = Vostochnaja Azija}}File:East Asian Cultural Sphere.png|thumb|320px|China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam are culturally East Asian ]]East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in both geographicalWEB,weblink East Asia, 2008-01-12, Encarta, Microsoft, the countries and regions of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Mongolia, South Korea, North Korea and Japan.,weblink 2009-10-31, dead, and ethno-culturalColumbia University – "East Asian cultural sphere" {{webarchive|url= |date=2008-02-27}} "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.BOOK, East Asia in the World: An Introduction, Prescott, Anne, Routledge, 2015, 978-0765643223, BOOK, Modern East Asia: An Introductory History, Miller, David Y., Routledge, 2007, 978-0765618221, xxi–xxiv, The region includes China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan.BOOK, The Handbook Of East Asia, Kort, Michael, Lerner Publishing Group, 2005, 978-0761326724, 7,weblink WEB,weblink Country Profiles: East Asia, Children and Armed Conflict Unit at the University of Essex, JOURNAL, East Asia,weblink Springer Netherlands, WEB,weblink East Asia,, WEB,weblink China, Korea and Japan: Forgiveness and Mourning, Seybolt, Peter J., Center for Asian Studies, Center for Asian Studies, BOOK, Asian History Module Learning, Rex Bookstore Inc., 2002, 978-9712331244, 186, BOOK, Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology, Salkind, Neil J., Sage Publications, 2008, 978-1412916882, 56, BOOK, A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century, Holcombe, Charles, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 978-0521731645, 3, People indigenous to the region are known as East Asians. China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere.WEB,weblink Central Themes for a Unit on China {{!, Central Themes and Key Points {{!}} Asia for Educators {{!}} Columbia University||access-date=2018-12-01}}The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire.BOOK, Towards a Sustainable Asia: The Cultural Perspectives, Association of Academies of Sciences in Asia, Springer, 2012, 978-3642166686, 17, BOOK, Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia, Minahan, James B., ABC-CLIO, 2014, 978-1610690171, xx–xxvi, East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China largely influenced East Asia (as it was principally the leading civilization in the region), exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors.BOOK, Relational, Networked and Collaborative Approaches to Public Diplomacy: The Connective Mindshift, Zaharna, R.S., Arsenault, Amelia, Fisher, Ali, Routledge, 2013, 978-0415636070, 1st, 2013-05-01, 93, BOOK, A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century, Holcombe, Charles, Cambridge University Press, 2017, 978-1107544895, 13, BOOK, A Companion to Chinese History, Szonyi, Michael, Wiley-Blackwell, 2017, 978-1118624609, 90, Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. The Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from. Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana Buddhism which came via trade routes from India.includes Tibetan Buddhism traditionally prevailing in Tibetan and Mongolian areas), Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion in Greater China, Buddhism and Shintoism in Japan, and Christianity, Buddhism, and Sindoism in Korea. Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongols and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus.Chongho Kim, "Korean Shamanism", 2003 Ashgate PublishingAndreas Anangguru Yewangoe, "Theologia crucis in Asia", 1987 RodopiEast Asians comprise around {{#expr:{{replace|{{UN_Population|Eastern Asia}}|,||}}/1e9 round 1}} billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of any sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is {{convert|133|PD/km2}}, about three times the world average of {{convert|45|/km2|abbr=on}}.


Like the Ancient Greeks and Romans and their profound influence on Europe and the Western World, China already possessed an advanced civilization nearly 1500+ years before its neighbors (c. 2000 BC) and through various Chinese dynasties has exerted cultural, economic, technological, political, and military influence across East Asia up to the present.BOOK, Japan (Nations in Focus), Ellington, Lucien, 2009, 21, BOOK, East Asia: A New History, Walker, Hugh Dyson, AuthorHouse, 2012, 119, BOOK, The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America, Penguin Press HC, Amy Chua, Jed Rubenfeld, 2014, 121, 978-1594205460, BOOK, East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade and Tribute, Kang, David C., Columbia University Press, 2012, 978-0231153195, 33–34, BOOK, World History: Journeys from Past to Present, Goucher, Candice, Walton, Linda, Routledge, 2012, 978-0415670029, September 11, 2012, 232, For many centuries, especially between the 7-14th centuries, China stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization, commanding influence across the region up until the early modern period.BOOK, China, Japan, Korea: Culture and Customs, Brown, John, Createspace Independent, 2006, 978-1419648939, 33, China became the first literate nation in East Asia and has also provided Japan, Vietnam, and Korea with many loanwords and linguistic influences rooted in their writing systems (see Chinese characters).BOOK, Chinese, Norman, Jerry, Cambridge University Press, 1988, 978-0521296533, 17, From around 200 BC to 200 AD, the Han dynasty hosted the largest unified population in East Asia, the most literate and urbanized as well as being the most technologically and culturally advanced civilization in the region.BOOK, Day of Empire: How Hyperpowers Rise to Global Dominance--and Why They Fall, Chua, Amy, Anchor, 2009, 978-1400077410, 62,weblink And China has always been the most populous epicenter in East Asia as well.China's impact and influence on Korea began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion in 108 BC when the Han Chinese conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula and established a province called Lelang. Chinese influence would soon take root in Korea through the inclusion of the Chinese writing system, monetary system, rice culture, and Confucian political institutions.BOOK, Maritime Taiwan: Historical Encounters with the East and the West, Tsai, Henry, 2009-02-15, Routledge, 978-0765623287, 3, Jōmon society in ancient Japan incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea.Vietnamese society was greatly impacted by Chinese influence, the northern part of Vietnam was occupied by Chinese empires and states for almost all of the period from 111 BC to 938 AD. In addition to administration, and making Chinese the language of administration, the long period of Chinese domination introduced Chinese techniques of dike construction, rice cultivation, and animal husbandry.Chinese culture, having been established among the elite mandarin class, remained the dominant current among that elite for most of the next 1,000 years (939-1870s) until the temporary loss of independence under French Indochina. This cultural affiliation to China remained true even when militarily defending Vietnam against attempted invasion, such as against the Mongol Kublai Khan. The only significant exceptions to this were the 7 years of the strongly anti-Chinese Hồ dynasty which banned the use of Chinese (among other actions triggering the fourth Chinese invasion), but then after the expulsion of the Ming the rise in vernacular chữ nôm literature.As full-fledged medieval East Asian states were established (Korea by 4th century AD and Japan by the 7th century AD), Korea, Japan, and Vietnam actively began to incorporate Chinese cultural and religious influences such as the Chinese language, Classical Chinese in administration, written Han characters, Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism (introduced from India via China), Chinese style architecture, state institutions, political philosophies like legalism, music, urban planning, and various scientific and technological methods into their culture and society through direct contacts with succeeding Chinese dynasties.BOOK, The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, Fagan, Brian M., Oxford University Press, 1999, 978-0195076189, 362, (See East Asian cultural sphere.)The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular.BOOK, Daily Lives of Civilians in Wartime Asia: From the Taiping Rebellion to the Vietnam War, Lone, Stewart, Greenwood, 2007, 978-0313336843, 3, Warren I. Cohen. East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000. {{ISBN|0231101082}}

The end of the 19th century to present.

As East Asia's connections with Europe and the Western world strengthened during the late 19th century, China's power began to decline. U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry forced Japan to open up.BOOK, America: A Narrative History, Tindall, George Brown, Shi, David E., W. W. Norton & Company, 2009, 978-0393934083, 1st, November 16, 2009, 926, BOOK, Diversity: New Realities in a Changing World, April, K., Shockley, M., Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 978-0230001336, February 6, 2007, 163,weblink After the 1860s, Japan modernized rapidly with the Meiji Restoration, transforming itself from an isolated feudal samurai state into East Asia's first industrialized nation.VIDEO, Japan's War in Colour, 2005-01-17, Batty, David, documentary, TWI, By the early 1900s, the Japanese empire succeeded in asserting itself as East Asia's first modern power. Japan defeated the stagnant Qing dynasty during the First Sino-Japanese War, thereafter annexing Korea and Taiwan from China.In 1905 Japan also vanquished its imperial rival Russia in the Russo-Japanese War. It was the first major military victory in the modern era of an East Asian power over a European one and shocked the West.WEB,weblink The Japanese Economy, Walk Japan, In prelude to WW2, Japan launched an invasion of mainland China in the Second Sino-Japanese War. It annexed Manchuria and absorbed more and more of the eastern coast, committing atrocities like Unit 731 and Nanjing Massacre along the way.Japan's ultimate imperial dream was the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, which would incorporate Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China and Manchuria, Hong Kong, Vietnam, and Southeast Asia under its hegemonic control, establishing itself as a maritime colonial power in East Asia.BOOK, America: A Narrative History, Tindall, George Brown, Shi, David E., W. W. Norton & Company, 2009, 978-0393934083, 1st, November 16, 2009, 1147, After nearly a century of exploitation by the European and Japanese colonialists, the US nuked Japan twice, leading to Allied victory in WW2 and the defeat and occupation of Japan.The US and the Soviet Union also took control of Japan's former colony, Korea and divided their own respective ideologies, resulting in the division of Korea.During the Chinese Civil War, the Republic of China lost Mainland China to the People's Republic of China and later fled to Taiwan.In his 2009 book When China Rules the World, Martin Jacques says that Japan is currently a vassal state of the US, since Japan has no right to wage war and relies on the US military. He also refers to South Korea and Taiwan as vassals of the US.BOOK, When china rules the world : the end of the western world and the birth of a new global order, Jacques, Martin, 2014, Penguin Books, 9781101151457, 14–16, 883334381, During the latter half of the twentieth century, Japan has experienced a post war economic miracle. South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan have emerged as Tiger economies. China opened up, entered the World Trade Organization, rose to the 2nd largest economy in the world (1st by PPP), and is starting to reclaim its historical status as a regional and world superpower.BOOK, Encyclopedia of World Trade: From Ancient Times to the Present, Northrup, Cynthia Clark, Bentley, Jerry H., Eckes Jr., Alfred E., Routledge, 2004, 978-0765680587, 297, Although there were no wars in the region for decades, the stability of the region remains fragile because of North Korea's nuclear program.


China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam are commonly seen as the core encompassed by the East Asian cultural sphere (as opposed to neighboring nations also within East Asia).R. Keith Schopper's East Asia: Identities and Change in the Modern WorldJoshua A. Fogel (UC Santa Barbara/University of Indiana) Nationalism, the Rise of the Vernacular, and the Conceptualization of Modernization in East Asian Comparative PerspectiveUnited Nations Environment Programme (mentions sinosphere countries) Approaches to Solution of Eutrophication weblink Sometimes Mongolia is added to this core as well.Gilbet Rozman (2004), Northeast asia's stunted regionalism: bilateral distrust in the shadow of globalization. Cambridge University Press, pp. 3-4."Northeast Asia dominates patent filing growth." Retrieved on August 8, 2001."Paper: Economic Integration in Northeast Asia." Retrieved on August 8, 2011.BOOK, Wastewater Sludge, Spinosa, Ludovico, Iwa Publishing, 2007, 978-1843391425, 57, BOOK, Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Multicultural Approach, Kim, Johnny S., Sage Publications, 2013, 978-1452256672, 55, CJKV share a common written language, culture, as well as sharing Confucian philosophical tenets and the Confucian societal value system once instituted by Imperial China.BOOK, Economic Development in Twentieth-Century East Asia: The International Context, Ikeo, Aiko, Routledge, 1996, 978-0415149006, 1, BOOK, Comparing Institution-Building in East Asia: Power Politics, Governance, and Critical Junctures, Yoshimatsu, H., Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, 978-1137370549, 1, BOOK, Routledge Handbook of Memory and Reconciliation in East Asia, Kim, Mikyoung, Routledge, 2015, 978-0415835138, BOOK, Building Area Studies Collections, Hazen, Dan, Spohrer, James H., Otto Harrassowitz, 2005, 978-3447055123, 2005-12-31, 1, Other usages cite geographic proximity as well as historical and modern cultural and economic ties, particularly with Japan and Korea having strong cultural influences that originated from China.BOOK, Economic Development: A Regional, Institutional, and Historical Approach, Grabowski, Richard, Self, Sharmistha, Shields, William, Routledge, 2012, 978-0765633538, 2nd, September 25, 2012, 59, WEB,weblink East Asia is the World's Largest Economy at $29.6 Trillion USD, Including 4 of the Top 25 Countries Globally, Ng, Arden, Blueback, 2017-08-04, BOOK, Through the Eyes of the Pack, Currie, Lorenzo, Xlibris Corp, 2013, 978-1493145171, 163, BOOK, Handbook for Asian Studies Specialists: A Guide to Research Materials and Collection Building Tools, Asato, Noriko, Libraries Unlimited, 2013, 978-1598848427, 1, Some scholars include Vietnam as part of East Asia as it has been considered part of the greater sphere of Chinese influence, though some classify Vietnam as a Southeast Asian country.BOOK, Modern East Asia: An Introductory History, Miller, David Y., Routledge, 2007, 978-0765618221, xi, Mongolia is geographically north of China yet Confucianism and the Chinese writing system and culture currently have less of an impact in Mongolia's historically nomadic society (however Mongolia was controlled by China during the Han, Tang, and Qing dynasties). Mongolia is sometimes grouped with Central Asian countries such as Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan.Broader and looser definitions by international organizations such as the World Bank refer to the "three major Northeast Asian economies, i.e. China, Japan, and South Korea", as well as Mongolia, North Korea, the Russian Far East and Siberia.WEB, Integration of Markets vs. Integration by Agreements, Nathalie, Aminian, K.C., Fung, Francis, Ng, Policy Research Working Paper, 4546, World Bank,weblink The Council on Foreign Relations includes the Russia Far East, Mongolia, and Nepal."Northeast Asia." Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on August 10, 2009. The World Bank also acknowledges the roles of sub-national or de facto states, such as Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia defines the region as "China, Japan, the Koreas, Nepal, Mongolia, and eastern regions of the Russian Federation".BOOK, Japan and Russia in Northeast Asia: Partners in the 21st Century, Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999, 248, (File:East Asia map of Köppen climate classification.svg|thumb|upright=1.15|East Asia map of Köppen climate classification.)File:Location-Asia-UNsubregions.png|thumb|upright=1.15|right|UNSD geoscheme for Asia based on statistic considerations "to obtain greater homogeneity in population, demographic circumstances and accuracy of demographic statistics"WEB, Standard country or area codes for statistical use (M49) - Geographic Regions,weblink United Nations Statistics Division, 4 September 2019, The list of geographic regions presents the composition of geographical regions used by the Statistics Division in its publications and databases. Each country or area is shown in one region only. These geographic regions are based on continental regions; which are further subdivided into sub-regions and intermediary regions drawn as to obtain greater homogeneity in sizes of population, demographic circumstances and accuracy of demographic statistics., WEB,weblink United Nations Statistics Division – Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49), United Nations Statistics Division, 2010-07-24, 2015-05-06, {{legend|#0000E0|North Asia}}{{legend|#E000E0|Central Asia}}{{legend|#00E000|Western Asia}}{{legend|#E00000|South Asia}}{{legend|#FFFF20|East Asia}}{{legend|#FFC000|Southeast AsiaSoutheast AsiaThe UNSD division of East Asia is "to obtain greater homogeneity in population, demographic circumstances and accuracy of demographic statistics",WEB, Geographic Regions,weblink UNSD Methodology: Standard country or area codes (M49), 31 July 2019, but also other common definitions of East Asia contain Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan.WEB, Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings, United Nations Statistics Division, 11 February 2013,weblink 28 May 2013,

Alternative definitions

There are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should be considered in East Asia or not. In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to a wide geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, Greater China, Japan and Korea. However, in this context, the term "Far East" is used by the Europeans to cover ASEAN countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term "Asia Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia as well as Oceania.Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia to refer to the greater China area, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia covering the ten ASEAN countries. This usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia".BOOK, Christopher M. Dent, 2008, East Asian regionalism, London: Routledge, 1–8, Charles Harvie, Fukunari Kimura, and Hyun-Hoon Lee (2005), New East Asian regionalism. Cheltenham and Northamton: Edward Elgar, pp. 3–6.Peter J. Katzenstein and Takashi Shiraishi (2006), Beyond Japan: the dynamics of East Asian regionalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 1–33


{| class="wikitable sortable"!class="unsortable" | Customs territory! data-sort-type="number" | GDP nominalbillions of USD (2017)WEB,weblink World Economic Outlook Database, April 2018, IMF, ! data-sort-type="number" | GDP nominal per capitaUSD (2017)! data-sort-type="number" | GDP PPPbillions of USD (2017)! data-sort-type="number" | GDP PPP per capitaUSD (2017)| {{CHN}} 12,014.610 8,643.107 23,159.107 16,660.269| {{HKG}}Listed as "Hong Kong SAR" by IMF 341.659 46,109.124 454.912 61,393.316| {{MAC}}Listed as "Macao SAR" by IMF 49.802 77,451.287 71.778 111,629.024| {{JPN}} 4,872.135 38,439.517 5,428.813 42,831.523| {{MNG}} 11.135 3,639.894 39.704 12,978.557| {{PRK}} N/A N/A N/A N/A| {{KOR}} 1,538.030 29,891.255 2,029.032 39,433.779Taiwan, China>Taiwan Province of China" by the IMF 579.302 24,576.665 1,185.480 50,293.541

Territorial and regional data

Etymology{| classwikitable

! rowspan=2 | Flag !! colspan=2 | Common Name !! colspan=2 | Official Name !! colspan=4 | ISO 3166 Country CodesWEB,weblink Country codes,, ! Exonym !! Endonym !! Exonym !! Endonym !! ISO Short Name !! Alpha-2 Code !! Alpha-3 Code !! NumericCHN}} China align=center People's Republic of China China CN CHN 156HKG}} Hong Kong align=center Hong Kong Special Administrative Regionof the People's Republic of China Hong Kong HK HKG 344MAC}} Macau align=center Macao Special Administrative Regionof the People's Republic of China Macao MO MAC 446JPN}} Japan align=center State of Japan Japan JP JPN 392MNG}} Mongolia align=center ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠤᠯᠤᠰ}}) Mongolia MG MNG 496PRK}} North Korea align=center Democratic People's Republic of Korea Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of) KP PRK 408KOR}} South Korea align=center Republic of Korea Korea (the Republic of) KR KOR 410TWN}} TaiwanFrom 1949 to 1971, the ROC was referred as "China" or "Nationalist China". align=center WEBSITE=ISO.ORG, TW TWN 158

Demographics{| class"wikitable sortable" style"text-align:center"

! class="unsortable" | State/Territory! Area km2! Population{{UN_Population|ref}} ({{UN_Population|Year}})! Population density per km2! HDIWEB,weblink {{!, Human Development Reports||language=en|access-date=2018-10-14}}! class="unsortable" | Capital/Administrative Center {{flagname=China}} 9,640,011Includes all area which under PRC's government control (excluding "South Tibet" and disputed islands). {{UN_Population|China}}A note by the United Nations: "For statistical purposes, the data for China do not include Hong Kong and Macao, Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China, and Taiwan Province of China." 138 0.752 Beijing {{HKG}} 1,104 {{UN_Population|China, Hong Kong SAR}} 6,390 0.933 Hong Kong {{MAC}} 30 {{UN_Population|China, Macao SAR}} 18,662 0.909 Macao {{JPN}} 377,930 {{UN_Population|Japan}} 337 0.909 Tokyo {{MNG}} 1,564,100 {{UN_Population|Mongolia}} 2 0.741 Ulaanbaatar {{PRK}} 120,538 {{UN_Population|Dem. People's Republic of Korea}} 198 0.733 PyongyangSeoul was the de jure capital of the DPRK from 1948 to 1972. {{KOR}} 100,210 {{UN_Population|Republic of Korea}} 500 0.903 Seoul {{TWN}} 36,188 {{UN_Population|China, Taiwan Province of China}} 639 0.907 TaipeiTaipei is the ROC's seat of government by regulation. Constitutionally, there is no official capital appointed for the ROC.

Ethnic groups

{| class="wikitable sortable"! class="unsortable" | Ethnicity! class="unsortable" | Native name! Population! class="unsortable" | Language(s)! class="unsortable" | Writing system(s)! class="unsortable" | Major states/territories*! class="unsortable" | Physical appearanceHan Chinese>Han/Chinese 1,260,000,000CIA Factbook: "Han Chinese 91.6%" out of a reported population of 1,379 billion (July 2017 est.)Chinese language>Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, Cantonese, Shanghainese, Hokkien, Hakka Chinese>Hakka, Gan language, Hsiang language>Hsiang, etc.| Simplified Han characters, Traditional Han charactersCHN}} {{flagiconMAC}} {{flagiconJPN}} {{flagicon|ROK}}upright=0.45|thumb)Yamato people>Yamato/Japanese 125,117,000HTTP://WWW.STAT.GO.JP/DATA/JINSUI/PDF/201612.PDF > SCRIPT-TITLE =JA:人口推計 – 平成 28年 12月 報 WEBSITE=, Japanese language>Japanese| Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, HiraganaJPN}}upright=0.45|thumb)Joseon/Korean people>Korean 79,432,225{{citation needed|date=July 2018}}Korean language>Korean| Hangul, Han characters (Hanja)ROK}} {{flagiconCHN}} {{flagicon|JPN}}upright=0.45|thumb)Bai people>Bai 1,858,063Bai language>Bai, Southwestern Mandarin| Simplified Han characters, Latin scriptCHN}}upright=0.45|thumb)Hui people>Hui 10,586,087{{citation needed|date=July 2018}}| Northwestern Mandarin, other Chinese Dialects, Huihui language, etc.| Simplified Han charactersThe Hui people also use the Arabic alphabet in the religious field.CHN}}upright=0.45|thumb)| Mongolsᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ}}Монгол/{{MongolUnicode|ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ}} 8,942,528Mongolian language>Mongolian| Mongol script, Cyrillic scriptCHN}} {{flagicon|MGL}}upright=0.45|thumb)Zhuang people>Zhuang 18,000,000Zhuang languages>Zhuang, Southwestern Mandarin, etc.| Simplified Han characters, Latin scriptCHN}}upright=0.45|thumb)| UyghursUyghur language>Uighur| Arabic alphabet, Cyrillic scriptCHN}}The Khotons also in {{flagicon|MGL}}.upright=0.45|thumb)| Manchusᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ}} 10,422,873{{citation needed|date=July 2018}}Northeastern Mandarin, Manchu language>Manchurian (endangered), etc.| Simplified Han characters, Mongol scriptCHN}}upright=0.45|thumb)Hmong people>Hmong/Miao 9,426,007{{citation needed|date=July 2018}}| Hmong, Southwestern Mandarin| Latin script, Simplified Han charactersCHN}}upright=0.45|thumb)| Tibetansབོད་པ་}} 6,500,000| Tibetan, Rgyal Rong, Rgu, etc.| Tibetan scriptCHN}}upright=0.45|thumb)Yi people>Yi 8,714,393Loloish languages>Loloish, Southwestern Mandarin| Yi script, Simplified Han charactersCHN}}upright=0.45|thumb)Tujia people>Tujia 8,353,912| Northern Tujia, Southern Tujia| Simplified Han charactersCHN}}upright=0.45|thumb)Kam people>Kam 2,879,974| Gaeml| Simplified Han characters, Latin scriptCHN}}upright=0.45|thumb)Tu people>Tu 289,565Monguor language>Tu, Northwestern Mandarin| Simplified Han charactersCHN}}upright=0.45|thumb)Daur people>Daurᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ}} 131,992Daur language>Daur, Northeastern Mandarin| Mongol script, Simplified Han charactersCHN}} {{flagicon|MGL}}upright=0.45|thumb)Austronesian Taiwanese>Taiwanese Aborigines 533,600Austronesian languages (Amis language>Amis, Yami), etc.| Latin script, Traditional Han charactersTWN}}upright=0.45|thumb)Ryukyuan people>Ryukyuan 1,900,000Japanese language>JapaneseRyukyuan| Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, HiraganaJPN}} ({{flagiconTWN}} upright=0.45|thumb)Ainu people>Ainu 200,000Japanese language>Japanese Ainu languagesGORDON YEAR=2005 EDITION=15TH PUBLISHER=SIL INTERNATIONAL OCLC=224749653, | Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, HiraganaJPN}} upright=0.45|thumb)
  • Note: The order of states/territories follows the population ranking of each ethnicity, within East Asia only.



The culture of East Asia has largely been influenced by China, as it was the civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages that ultimately laid the foundation for East Asian civilization.BOOK, Asia Civilizations: Ancient to 1800 AD, Lim, SK, ASIAPAC, 978-9812295941, 56, 2011-11-01, The vast knowledge and ingenuity of Chinese civilization and the classics of Chinese literature and culture were seen as the foundations for a civilized life in East Asia. Imperial China served as a vehicle through which the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, Chinese calendar system, political and legal systems, architectural style, diet, terminology, institutions, religious beliefs, imperial examinations that emphasized a knowledge of Chinese classics, political philosophy and cultural value systems, as well as historically sharing a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan and Korea.BOOK, The Penguin History of Modern Vietnam: A History, Goscha, Christopher, Allen Lane, 2016, 978-1846143106, BOOK, The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America, Penguin Press HC, Amy Chua, Jed Rubenfeld, 2014, 122, 978-1594205460, BOOK, East Asia: A New History, Walker, Hugh Dyson, AuthorHouse, 2012, 2, BOOK, China's Cosmopolitan Empire: The Tang Dynasty, Lewis, Mark Edward, Belknap Press, 2012, 978-0674064010, April 9, 2012, 156, Edwin O. Reischauer, "The Sinic World in Perspective," Foreign Affairs 52.2 (January 1974): 341—348. JSTORBOOK, Asia Civilizations: Ancient to 1800 AD, Lim, SK, ASIAPAC, 978-9812295941, 89, 2011-11-01, BOOK, Redesigning Asian Business: In the Aftermath of Crisis, Richter, Frank-Jurgen, Quorum Books, 2002, 978-1567205251, 15, The Imperial Chinese tributary system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China and its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties of Imperial China facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that influenced the cultures of Japan and Korea and drew them into a Chinese international order.{{harvnb|Vohra|1999|p=22}}BOOK, The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America, Penguin Press HC, Amy Chua, Jed Rubenfeld, 2014, 121–122, 978-1594205460, The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular. The relationship between China and its cultural influence on East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization on Europe and the Western World.


{| class="wikitable sortable"! class="unsortable" | Religion! class="unsortable" | Native name! class="unsortable" | Denomination! class="unsortable" | Major book! class="unsortable" | Type! Est. Followers! class="unsortable" | Ethnic groups! class="unsortable" | States/territoriesReligion in China>Chinese religionChinese salvationist religions>folk salvationist sects, Chinese shamanism, Nuo folk religion>NuoChinese classics, Huangdi Sijing, baojuan>precious scrolls, etc.| Pantheism/polytheism ~900,000,000WENZEL-TEUBER >FIRST=KATHARINA TITLE=PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: RELIGIONS AND CHURCHES STATISTICAL OVERVIEW 2011 VOLUME=II PAGES=29–54 ISSN=2192-9289 ARCHIVE-DATE=21 APRIL 2017, WENZEL-TEUBER >FIRST=KATHARINA TITLE=STATISTICS ON RELIGIONS AND CHURCHES IN THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA – UPDATE FOR THE YEAR 2016 VOLUME=VII PAGES=26–53 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170722112103/HTTP://WWW.CHINA-ZENTRUM.DE/FILEADMIN/DOWNLOADS/RCTC/2017-2/RCTC_2017-2.26-53_WENZEL-TEUBER__STATISTICS_ON_RELIGIONS_AND_CHURCHES_IN_THE_PRC_%E2%80%93_UPDATE_FOR_THE_YEAR_2016.PDF, 22 July 2017, Miao folk religion>Hmong, Qiang, Tujia (worship of the same ancestor-gods)CHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagicon|TWN}}| TaoismTao Te Ching| Pantheism/polytheism ~20,000,000| Han, Zhuang, Hmong, Yao, Qiang, TujiaCHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagicon|TWN}}| East Asian BuddhismDiamond Sutra| Non-God ~300,000,000| Han, Korean, Yamato CHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagiconKOR}} {{flagicon|TWN}}| Tibetan Buddhismབོད་བརྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན།}}| Mahayana| Anuttarayoga Tantra| Non-God ~10,000,000| Tibetans, Manchus, MongolsCHN}} {{flagicon|MNG}}Shamanismalmost Manchu shamanism>Manchu, Mongolian N/A| Manchus, Mongols, OroqenCHN}} {{flagicon|MNG}}| ShintoismShinto sects and schools>Shinto sects| Kojiki, Nihon Shoki| Polytheism/pantheism N/A| YamatoJPN}}Korean Shamanism>Sindo/Muism N/A| KoreanKOR}}| Ryukyuan religion N/A| RyukyuanJPN}} ({{flagicon|Okinawa}})

Festivals{| class"wikitable"

! Festival! Native Name! Other name! Calendar! Date! Gregorian date! Activity! Religious practices! Food! Major ethnicities! Major states/territories| Chinese New YearChinese calendar>Chinese| Month 1 Day 1| 21 Jan–20 Feb| Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks| Worship the King of Gods| Jiaozi| Han, Manchus etc.CHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagiconTWN}}| Korean New YearKorean calendar>Korean| Month 1 Day 1| 21 Jan–20 Feb| Ancestors Worship, Family Reunion, Tomb Sweeping| N/A| Tteokguk| KoreanPRK}} {{flagicon|KOR}}| Losar or Tsagaan Sarལོ་གསར་}} or | White MoonTibetan calendar>Tibetan, Mongolian| Month 1 Day 1| 25 Jan – 2 Mar| Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks| N/A| Chhaang or BuuzTu people>Tu etc.CHN}} {{flagicon|MNG}}| New YearCHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagiconMNG}} {{flagiconKOR}} {{flagicon|TWN}}| Lantern FestivalCHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagicon|TWN}}*| DaeboreumKorean calendar>Korean| Month 1 Day 15| 4 Feb – 6 Mar Jwibulnori, eating Nut (fruit)>nuts (Bureom)| Bonfires (daljip taeugi)| Ogok-bap, namul, nuts| KoreanPRK}} {{flagicon|KOR}}Qingming Festival / Cold Food Festival>Hanshi FestivalMarch equinox / Day 105 after Winter solstice| 4–6 April| Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping| Burning Hell money(Only Qingming Festival)| Cold Food| Han, Korean, MongolsCHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagiconKOR}} {{flagicon|TWN}}| Dragon Boat FestivalDano (Korean festival)>Dano (Surit-nal)Chinese calendar>Chinese / Korean| Month 5 Day 5|| Driving poisons & plague away. (China - Dragon Boat Race, Wearing colored lines, Hanging felon herb on the front door.) / (Korea - Washing hair with iris water, ssireum) | Worship various Gods| Zongzi / Surichwitteok (rice cake with herbs)| Han, Korean, YamatoCHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagiconKOR}} {{flagiconTWN}}*| Ghost FestivalCHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagiconKOR}} {{flagiconTWN}}*| Mid-Autumn FestivalMooncake| HanCHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagicon|TWN}}*| ChuseokKorean calendar>Korean| Month 8 Day 15|| Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Enjoying Moon view| N/A| Songpyeon, Torantang (Taro soup)| KoreanPRK}} {{flagicon|KOR}} | Double Ninth FestivalCHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagiconKOR}} {{flagiconTWN}}*| Lower Yuan FestivalCHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagicon|TWN}}| Dongzhi FestivalTangyuan (food)>Tangyuan, Patjuk| Han, KoreanCHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagiconKOR}} {{flagicon|TWN}}| Small New Yeartanggua| Han, MongolsCHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagiconTWN}}| International Labor Day| N/A| N/A| Gregorian| 1 May| 1 May| N/A| N/A| N/A| N/ACHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagiconTWN}}| International Women's Day| N/A| N/A| Gregorian| 8 Mar| 8 Mar| Taking care of women| N/A| N/A| N/A| All
  • Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4.


East Asian Youth Games

Formerly the East Asian Games, it is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), as well as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of the Oceania National Olympic Committees.It is one of five Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the Central Asian Games, the Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games), the South Asian Games and the West Asian Games.

Free trade agreements{| class"wikitable"

! Name of agreement! Parties! Leaders at the time! Negotiation begins! Signing date! Starting time! Current status| China–South Korea FTACHN}} {{flagicon|KOR}}| Xi Jinping, Park Geun-hye| May, 2012| Jun 01, 2015| Dec 30, 2015| Enforced| China–Japan–South Korea FTACHN}} {{flagiconKOR}}| Xi Jinping, Shinzō Abe, Park Geun-hye| Mar 26, 2013| N/A| N/A| 10 round negotiation| Japan-Mongolia EPAJPN}} {{flagicon|MNG}}| Shinzō Abe, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj| -| Feb 10, 2015| -| Enforced| China-Mongolia FTACHN}} {{flagicon|MNG}}| Xi Jinping, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj| N/A| N/A| N/A| Officially proposed| China-HK CEPACHN}} {{flagicon|HKG}}| Jiang Zemin, Tung Chee-hwa| -| Jun 29, 2003| -| Enforced| China-Macau CEPACHN}} {{flagicon|MAC}}Jiang Zemin, Edmund Ho>Edmund Ho Hau-wah| -| Oct 18, 2003| -| Enforced| Hong Kong-Macau CEPAHKG}} {{flagicon|MAC}}| Carrie Lam, Fernando Chui| Oct 09, 2015| N/A| N/A| NegotiatingEconomic Cooperation Framework Agreement>ECFACHN}} {{flagicon|TWN}}| Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou| Jan 26, 2010| Jun 29, 2010| Aug 17, 2010| Enforced| CSSTA (Based on ECFA)CHN}} {{flagicon|TWN}}| Xi Jinping, Ma Ying-jeou| Mar, 2011| Jun 21, 2013| N/A| Abolished| CSGTA (Based on ECFA)CHN}} {{flagicon|TWN}}| Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou| Feb 22, 2011| N/A| N/A| Suspended

Military alliances{| class"wikitable"

! Name! Abbr.! Parties within the region| Shanghai Cooperation Organisation| SCOCHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagicon|RUS}}| General Security of Military Information Agreement| GSOMIAJPN}} {{flagicon|KOR}}| Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty| -CHN}} ({{flagiconMAC}}) {{flagicon|PRK}}| Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan| -USA}} ({{flagiconMNP}}) {{flagicon|JPN}}| Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea| -USA}} ({{flagiconMNP}}) {{flagicon|KOR}}| Taiwan Relations Act (Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty before 1980)| TRA (SAMDT)USA}} ({{flagiconMNP}}) {{flagicon|TWN}}Major non-NATO ally (Foreign relations of NATO>Global Partners of NATO)| -NATO}} {{flagiconGUM}} {{flagiconAUS}} {{flagiconKOR}} {{flagiconURL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=FJSHHOZO_J8C&PG=PA52PUBLISHER=DIANE PUBLISHINGPAGE=52,

Cities and towns

{{Largest urban areas of East Asia}}File:Taipei_skyline_sunset_2017.jpg|Taipei is the capital of the Republic of China and anchors a major high-tech industrial area in Taiwan.File:Kaohsiung_Tuntex_Sky_Tower_Innen_Bild_2_(2).jpg|Kaohsiung is the Harbor Capital and largest city in southern Taiwan.File:The Forbidden City - View from Coal Hill.jpg|Beijing is the capital of the People's Republic of China and the largest metropolis in northern China.File:Shanghai skyline at night, panoramic. China, East Asia-2.jpg|Shanghai is the largest city in China and one of the largest in the world, and is a global financial centre and transport hub with the world's busiest container port.File:Guangzhou dusk panorama.jpg|Guangzhou is one of the most important cities in southern China. It has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub today.File:XiAn qujiang.jpg|Xi'an or Chang'an is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties. It has a significant cultural influence in East Asia.File:Hong Kong Night Skyline2.jpg|Hong Kong is one of the world's leading global financial centres and is known as a cosmopolitan metropolis.File:Shibuya District at Night 2015-04 (17806976882).jpg|Tokyo is the capital of Japan and one of the largest cities in the world, both in metropolitan population and economy.File:Osaka Castle 02bs3200.jpg|Osaka is the second largest metropolitan area in Japan.File:150124 At Yasakakamimachi Kyoto Japan01n.jpg|Kyoto was the Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years.File:Gangnam Seoul January 2009.jpg|Seoul is the capital of South Korea, one of the largest cities in the world and a leading global technology hub.File:Pyonyang from Yanggakdo.jpg|Pyongyang is the capital of North Korea, and is a significant metropolis on the Korean Peninsula.File:Gandan Monastery 24.JPG|Ulaanbaatar is the capital of Mongolia with a population of 1 million as of 2008.File:Pass over Eastern Asia to Philippine Sea and Guam.ogv|thumb|upright=1.35|Pass of the ISS over Mongolia, looking out west towards the Pacific Ocean, China, and Japan. As the video progresses, you can see major cities along the coast and the Japanese islands on the Philippine Sea. The island of GuamGuam

See also





Further reading

  • Church, Peter. A short history of South-East Asia (John Wiley & Sons, 2017).
  • Clyde, Paul H., and Burton F. Beers. The Far East: A History of Western Impacts and Eastern Responses, 1830-1975 (1975) online 3rd edition 1958
  • Crofts, Alfred, and Percy Buchanan. A history of the Far East (1958).
  • Dennett, Tyler. Americans in Eastern Asia (1922) online free
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, and Anne Walthall. East Asia: A cultural, social, and political history (Cengage Learning, 2013).
  • Flynn, Matthew J. China Contested: Western Powers in East Asia (2006), for secondary schools
  • Green, Michael J. By more than providence: grand strategy and American power in the Asia Pacific since 1783 (2017) a major scholarly survey excerpt
  • Hall, D.G.E. History of South East Asia (Macmillan International Higher Education, 1981).
  • Holcombe, Charles. A History of East Asia (2d ed. Cambridge UP, 2017). excerpt
  • Jensen, Richard, Jon Davidann, and Yoneyuki Sugita, eds. Trans-Pacific Relations: America, Europe, and Asia in the Twentieth Century (Praeger, 2003), 304 pp online review
  • Keay, John. Empire's End: A History of the Far East from High Colonialism to Hong Kong (1997).
  • Mackerras, Colin. Eastern Asia: an introductory history (Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1992).
  • Macnair, Harley F. & Donald Lach. Modern Far Eastern International Relations. (2nd ed 1955) 1950 edition online free, 780pp; focus on 1900-1950.
  • Murphey, Rhoads. East Asia: A New History (1996)
  • Miller, David Y. Modern East Asia: An Introductory History (Routledge, 2007)
  • Ricklefs, Merle C. A History of Modern Indonesia: c. 1300 to the Present (Macmillan, 1981).
  • Steiger, G. Nye. A history of the Far East (1936).
  • Vinacke, Harold M. A History of the Far East in Modem Times (1950).

External links

{{commons category|Eastern Asia}}{{Wiktionary}}
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{{-}}{{Asia topics}}{{East Asian topics |state = expanded}}{{Geographic location| Centre = East Asia| North = North Asia| Northeast = North AsiaPacific Ocean| East = Pacific Ocean| Southeast = South China Sea| South = South AsiaSoutheast Asia| Southwest = South Asia| West = Central Asia| Northwest = North AsiaCentral Asia}}{{Authority control}}

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Eastern Philosophy
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