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Eurasia
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{{short description|The combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2017}}{{other uses}}{{redirect| Eurasian|people of mixed European and Asian ancestry|Eurasian (mixed ancestry)}}{{pp-move-indef}}







factoids
WEBSITE=WWW.WORLDOMETERS.INFOWEBSITE=WWW.WORLDOMETERS.INFO, 30 March 2018, 93/sqmi|abbr=on}}|demonym = EurasianList of sovereign states and dependent territories in Eurasia#Sovereign states>93 countries|list_countries =List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Eurasia#Dependent territories>9 dependenciesUTC−1) to UTC+12}}Eurasia {{IPAc-en|j|ʊəˈr|eɪ|ʒ|ə}} is the largest continent on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia.WEB, Nield, Ted, Continental Divide,weblink Geological Society, 8 August 2012, WEB,weblink How many continents are there?, National Geographic Society, By convention there are seven continents: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Europe, Australia (continent), Australia, and Antarctica. Some geographers list only six continents, combining Europe and Asia into Eurasia. In parts of the world, students learn that there are just five continents: Eurasia, Australia (Oceania), Africa, Antarctica, and the Americas., 27 July 2017, Located primarily in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Arctic Ocean to the north, and by Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Indian Ocean to the south.WEB, What is Eurasia?,weblink geography.about.com, 17 December 2012, The division between Europe and Asia as two different continents is a historical social construct, with no clear physical separation between them; thus, in some parts of the world, Eurasia is recognized as the largest of the six, five, or even four continents on Earth. In geology, Eurasia is often considered as a single rigid megablock. However, the rigidity of Eurasia is debated based on paleomagnetic data.JOURNAL, Pavlov, V.E., 2012, Siberian Paleomagnetic Data and the Problem of Rigidity of the Northern Eurasian Continent in the Post Paleozoic, Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth, 48, 9–10, 721–737, 10.1134/S1069351312080022, JOURNAL, Li, Yong-Xiang, Shu, Liangshu, Wen, Bin, Yang, Zhenyu, Ali, Jason R., 1 September 2013, Magnetic inclination shallowing problem and the issue of Eurasia's rigidity: insights following a palaeomagnetic study of upper Cretaceous basalts and redbeds from SE China,weblink Geophysical Journal International, en, 194, 3, 1374–1389, 10.1093/gji/ggt181, 0956-540X, Eurasia covers around {{convert|55,000,000|km2|mi2}}, or around 36.2% of the Earth's total land area. The landmass contains well over 5 billion people, equating to approximately 70% of the human population. Humans first settled in Eurasia between 60,000 and 125,000 years ago. Some major islands, including Great Britain, Iceland, and Ireland, and those of Japan, the Philippines and Indonesia, are often included under the popular definition of Eurasia, in spite of being separate from the contiguous landmass.Physiographically, Eurasia is a single continent. The concepts of Europe and Asia as distinct continents date back to antiquity and their borders are geologically arbitrary. In ancient times the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, along with their associated straits, were seen as separating the continents, but today the Ural and Caucasus ranges are more seen as the main delimiters between the two. Eurasia is connected to Africa at the Suez Canal, and Eurasia is sometimes combined with Africa to make the largest contiguous landmass on Earth called Afro-Eurasia.BOOK, 'continents' – Encyclopedia of World Geography, Volume 1,weblink R. W. McColl, 2005, Golson Books Ltd., 9780816072293, 215, 26 June 2012, And since Africa and Asia are connected at the Suez Peninsula, Europe, Africa, and Asia are sometimes combined as Afro-Eurasia or Eurafrasia., Due to the vast landmass and differences in latitude, Eurasia exhibits all types of climate under the Köppen classification, including the harshest types of hot and cold temperatures, high and low precipitation and various types of ecosystems.

History

{{Further information|Laurasia| Foreign interactions with Europe}}File:Mongols-map.png|thumb|right|The boundary of 13th century Mongol Empire and location of today's MongolsMongolsEurasia formed 375 to 325 million years ago with the merging of Siberia, Kazakhstania, and Baltica, which was joined to Laurentia, now North America, to form Euramerica. Chinese cratons collided with Siberia's southern coast.Eurasia has been the host of many ancient civilizations, including those based in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley and China. In the Axial Age (mid-first millennium BC), a continuous belt of civilizations stretched through the Eurasian subtropical zone from the Atlantic to the Pacific. This belt became the mainstream of world history for two millennia.

Geopolitics

Originally, “Eurasia” is a geographical notion: in this sense, it is simply the biggest continent; the combined landmass of Europe and Asia. However, geopolitically, the word has several different meanings, reflecting the specific geopolitical interests of each nation.WEB, Andreen, Finn, The Concept of Eurasia,weblink Blogger.com /, Comment and Outlook, 6 June 2014, 2014-04-15, “Eurasia” is one of the most important geopolitical concepts; as Zbigniew Brzezinski observed:}}The Russian concept of “Eurasia” corresponded initially more or less to the land area of Imperial Russia in 1914, including parts of Eastern Europe.BOOK, Nartov, N. A., Geopolitika : [učebnik], 2004, Edinstvo, Moskva, 978-5238006826, Part 2.4, p. 50, 3rd, One of Russia's main geopolitical interests lies in ever closer integration with those countries that it considers part of “Eurasia.”WEB, Andreen, Finn, The Concept of Eurasia,weblink Blogger.com, Commentary and Outlook, 6 June 2014, This concept is further integrated with communist eschatology by author Alexander Dugin as the guiding principle of "self-sufficiency of a large space" during expansion.WEB, Dugin, Alexander, Eurasia: A Special Worldview,weblink The Fourth Political Theory, 30 April 2017, 2017-03-21, The term Eurasia gained geopolitical reputation as one of the three superstates in 1984, BOOK, Tovy, Tal, 2015, The changing nature of geostrategy, 1900-2000: the evolution of a new paradigm,weblink Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, Air University Press. Air Force Research Institute, 19, 978-1-58566-253-1, George Orwell'sWEB,weblink The Maps are Too Small: Geography, Strategy and the National Interest, Porter, Patrick, 27 February 2012, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Government Digital Service, 8 March 2019, novel where constant surveillance and propaganda are strategic elements (introduced as reflexive antagonists) of the heterogeneous dispositif such metapolitical constructs use in order to control and exercise power.JOURNAL, Ingram, Alan, 2017, Art, Geopolitics and Metapolitics at Tate Galleries London,weblink Geopolitics, 22, 3, 10.1080/14650045.2016.1263186, File:EEA CES.PNG|thumb|right|upright=1.75|Single markets in European and post Soviet countries; European Economic Area and Common Economic Space ]]

Regional organisations and alliances

Across Eurasia, several single markets have emerged including the Eurasian Economic Space, European Single Market, ASEAN Economic Community and the Gulf Cooperation Council. There are also several international organizations and initiatives which seek to promote integration throughout Eurasia, including:File:ASEM.PNG|thumb|upright=1.15|ASEM Partners]]

Asia-Europe Meeting

  • Every two years since 1996 a meeting of most Asian and European countries is organised as the Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM).

Commonwealth of Independent States

  • The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is a political and economic association of 10 post-Soviet republics in Eurasia formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It has an estimated population of 239,796,010. The CIS encourages cooperation in economical, political and military affairs and has certain powers to coordinate trade, finance, lawmaking and security. In addition, six members of the CIS have joined the Collective Security Treaty Organization, an intergovernmental military alliance that was founded in 1992.
(File:Eurasian Economic Union.svg|thumb|300px|{{legend|#307030|Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union}}{{legend|#a0d020|Observer states}}{{legend|#0080ff|Other candidate states}})

Eurasian Union

{{See also|Enlargement of the Eurasian Economic Union}}
  • Similar in concept to the European Union, the Eurasian Union is an economic union established in 2015 including Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova and some of their neighbors, headquartered in Moscow, Russia and Minsk, Belarus. The union promotes economic integration among members and is theoretically open to enlargement of any country in Europe or Asia.

Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges

  • The Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges (FEAS) is an international organization comprising the main stock exchanges in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. The purpose of the Federation is to contribute to the cooperation, development, support and promotion of capital markets in the Eurasian region.
File:Eur lisbon vladivostok.PNG|thumb|right|upright=1.25|Area from Lisbon to Vladivostok with all European and CIS countries]]

Russia-EU Common Spaces

  • The Russia - EU Four Common Spaces Initiative, is a joint European Union and Russian agreement with the aim to closer integrate Russia and the EU, remove barriers to trade and investment and promote reforms and competitiveness. In 2010, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin called for common economic space, free-trade area or more advanced economic integration, stretching from Lisbon to Vladivostok. However, no significant progress was made and the project was put on hold after Russia-EU relations deteriorated following the Ukrainian crisis in 2013.

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

  • The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation is a Eurasian political, economic and security alliance, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China. It is the largest regional organisation in the world in terms of geographical coverage and population, covering three-fifths of the Eurasian continent and nearly half of the human population.

Use of term

History of the Europe–Asia division

(File:Asia-map.png|thumb|Physical map of Asia)In ancient times, the Greeks classified Europe (derived from the mythological Phoenician princess Europa) and Asia (derived from Asia, a woman in Greek mythology) as separate "lands". Where to draw the dividing line between the two regions is still a matter of discussion. Especially whether the Kuma-Manych Depression or the Caucasus Mountains form the southeast boundary is disputed, since Mount Elbrus would be part of Europe in the latter case, making it (and not Mont Blanc) Europe's highest mountain. Most accepted is probably the boundary as defined by Philip Johan von Strahlenberg in the 18th century. He defined the dividing line along the Aegean Sea, Dardanelles, Sea of Marmara, Bosporus, Black Sea, Kuma–Manych Depression, Caspian Sea, Ural River, and Ural Mountains.

Geography

{{See also|Eastern Eurasia}}In modern usage, the term "Eurasian" is a demonym usually meaning "of or relating to Eurasia" or "a native or inhabitant of Eurasia".American Heritage Dictionary It is also used to describe people of combined "Asian" and "European" descent.Located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres, Eurasia is considered a supercontinent, part of the supercontinent of Afro-Eurasia or simply a continent in its own right.WEB, Pangaea Supercontinent,weblink Geology.com, 19 February 2011, In plate tectonics, the Eurasian Plate includes Europe and most of Asia but not the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian Peninsula or the area of the Russian Far East east of the Chersky Range.From the point of view of history and culture, Eurasia can be loosely subdivided into Western and Eastern Eurasia."Anthropologically, historically and linguistically Eurasia is more appropriately, though vaguely subdivided into West Eurasia (often including North Africa) and East Eurasia", Anita Sengupta, Heartlands of Eurasia: The Geopolitics of Political Space, Lexington Books, 2009, p.25

Soviet states after decentralization

File:Cold War border changes.png|thumb|upright=1.182|Changes in national boundaries after the collapse of the Eastern BlocEastern BlocNineteenth-century Russian philosopher Nikolai Danilevsky defined Eurasia as an entity separate from Europe and Asia, bounded by the Himalayas, the Caucasus, the Alps, the Arctic, the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, a definition that has been influential in Russia and other parts of the former Soviet Union.JOURNAL, Schmidt, Matthew, Is Putin Pursuing a Policy of Eurasianism?, Demokratizatsiya, 2005, 1, 13, 90, Nowadays, partly inspired by this usage, the term Eurasia is sometimes used to refer to the post-Soviet space – in particular Russia, the Central Asian republics, and the Transcaucasian republics – and sometimes also adjacent regions such as Turkey, Mongolia, Afghanistan and Xinjiang. The word "Eurasia" is often used in Kazakhstan to describe its location. Numerous Kazakh institutions have the term in their names, like the L. N. Gumilev Eurasian National University (; )WEB,weblink L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Emu.kz, 29 July 2010, 7 August 2010, (Lev Gumilev's Eurasianism ideas having been popularized in Kazakhstan by Olzhas Suleimenov), the Eurasian Media Forum,WEB,weblink The Eurasian Media Forum, Eamedia.org, 7 August 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100409212419weblink">weblink 9 April 2010, yes, the Eurasian Cultural Foundation (), the Eurasian Development Bank (),WEB,weblink Eurasian Development Bank, Eabr.org, 7 August 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100524164422weblink">weblink 24 May 2010, dmy-all, and the Eurasian Bank.WEB,weblink Eurasian Bank, Eurasian-bank.kz, 7 August 2010, In 2007 Kazakhstan's President, Nursultan Nazarbayev, proposed building a "Eurasia Canal" to connect the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea via Russia's Kuma-Manych Depression in order to provide Kazakhstan and other Caspian-basin countries with a more efficient path to the ocean than the existing Volga-Don Canal.Canal will link Caspian Sea to world (The Times, 29 June 2007) This usage can also be seen in the names of Eurasianet,WEB, Eurasianet,weblink 13 March 2017, The Journal of Eurasian Studies,BOOK, Journal of Eurasian Studies,weblink Elsevier, 13 March 2017, and the Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies,WEB, About ASEEES,weblink Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies, 13 March 2017, as well as the titles of numerous academic programmes at US universities.WEB, Slavic and Eurasian Studies,weblink Duke Graduate School, 13 March 2017, WEB, Russian and Eurasian Studies,weblink George Mason University, 13 March 2017, WEB, Department of Slavic and Eurasian Studies,weblink University of Texas at Austin, 13 March 2017, WEB, Center for Russian, East European and Eurasian Studies,weblink Stanford University, 13 March 2017, WEB, Institute of Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies,weblink University of California, Berkeley, 13 March 2017, This usage is comparable to how Americans use "Western Hemisphere" to describe concepts and organizations dealing with the Americas (e.g., Council on Hemispheric Affairs, Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation).

See also

Further reading

  • The Dawn of Eurasia: On the Trail of the New World Order by Bruno Maçães, Publisher: Allen Lane
  • D. Lane, V. Samokhvalov, The Eurasian Project and Europe Regional Discontinuities and Geopolitics, Palgrave: Basingstoke (2015)
  • V. Samokhvalov, The new Eurasia: post-Soviet space between Russia, Europe and China, European Politics and Society, Volume 17, 2016 – Issue sup1: The Eurasian Project in Global Perspective (Journal homepage)

References

{{Wikivoyage}}{{wiktionary}}{{Commons}}{{Reflist|colwidth=30em}}{{Continents of the world}}{{Regions of the world}}{{coord|50|N|80|E|dim:30000000_source:wikidata|display=title}}{{Authority control}}

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