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{{Short description|Scientific study of language}}{{About|the field of study|publications}}{{Redirect|Linguist}}{{Use Oxford spelling|date=August 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2020}}{{Linguistics}}Linguistics is the scientific study of language.BOOK, Trask, Robert Lawrence, Language and Linguistics: The Key Concepts, 2007, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-415-41359-6, 156,weblink 21 September 2023, en, BOOK, On Language and Linguistics, Michael A. K., Halliday, Michael Halliday, Jonathan Webster, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006, 978-0-8264-8824-4, vii, WEB, What is Linguistics? {{!, Linguistic Society of America|url=|access-date=2022-02-08||archive-date=8 February 2022|archive-url=|url-status=live}} Linguistics is based on a theoretical as well as a descriptive study of language and is also interlinked with the applied fields of language studies and language learning, which entails the study of specific languages. Before the 20th century, linguistics evolved in conjunction with literary study and did not employ scientific methods.BOOK, Crystal, David, Clinical linguistics, 1981, Springer-Verlag, 978-3-7091-4001-7, Wien, 3, 610496980, What are the implications of the term "science" encountered in the definition on p. 1? Four aims of the scientific approach to language, often cited in introductory works on the subject, are comprehensiveness, objectivity, systematicness and precision. The contrast is usually drawn with the essentially non-scientific approach of traditional language studies—by which is meant the whole history of ideas about language from Plato and Aristotle down to the nineteenth century study of language history (comparative philology)., Modern-day linguistics is considered a science because it entails a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise analysis of all aspects of language – i.e., the cognitive, the social, the cultural, the psychological, the environmental, the biological, the literary, the grammatical, the paleographical, and the structural.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopedia Britannica, Linguistics summary (Concepts, origin, and Noam Chomsky's contribution to linguistics), 2022-04-01,weblink 1 April 2022,weblink live, Traditional areas of linguistic analysis correspond to syntax (rules governing the structure of sentences), semantics (meaning), morphology (structure of words), phonetics (speech sounds and equivalent gestures in sign languages), phonology (the abstract sound system of a particular language), and pragmatics (how social context contributes to meaning). Subdisciplines such as biolinguistics (the study of the biological variables and evolution of language) and psycholinguistics (the study of psychological factors in human language) bridge many of these divisions.WEB,weblink Linguistics Program – Linguistics Program | University of South Carolina, 3 June 2022, 6 June 2022,weblink live, Linguistics encompasses many branches and subfields that span both theoretical and practical applications.WEB, Studying Linguistics {{!, Linguistic Society of America |url= |access-date=2022-04-01 | |archive-date=8 March 2022 |archive-url= |url-status=live }} Theoretical linguistics (including traditional descriptive linguistics) is concerned with understanding the universal and fundamental nature of language and developing a general theoretical framework for describing it.WEB,weblink Theoretical Linguistics,, 3 June 2022, 10 February 2023,weblink live, Applied linguistics seeks to utilise the scientific findings of the study of language for practical purposes, such as developing methods of improving language education and literacy.WEB,weblink The Fields of Applied Linguistics, 3 June 2022, 21 May 2022,weblink live, Linguistic features may be studied through a variety of perspectives: synchronically (by describing the shifts in a language at a certain specific point of time) or diachronically (through the historical development of language over several periods of time), in monolinguals or in multilinguals, amongst children or amongst adults, in terms of how it is being learned or how it was acquired, as abstract objects or as cognitive structures, through written texts or through oral elicitation, and finally through mechanical data collection or through practical fieldwork.BOOK, Francis, Alexandre, Theory in Social and Cultural Anthropology: An Encyclopedia, 27 September 2013, SAGE Publishing, 978-1412999632, 184–187, English, Linguistics emerged from the field of philology, of which some branches are more qualitative and holistic in approach. Today, philology and linguistics are now variably described as related fields, subdisciplines, or separate fields of language study but, by and large, linguistics can be seen as an umbrella term.BOOK,weblink The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Philosophy of Linguistics, 2022, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 3 June 2022, 14 December 2022,weblink live, Linguistics is also related to the philosophy of language, stylistics, rhetoric, semiotics, lexicography, and translation.

Major subdisciplines

File:Citation de Ferdinand de Saussure.jpg|thumb|Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure is regarded as the creator of semioticssemiotics

Historical linguistics

Historical linguistics is the study of how language changes in history, particularly with regard to a specific language or a group of languages. Western trends in historical linguistics date back to roughly the late 18th century, when the discipline grew out of philology, the study of ancient texts and oral traditions.BOOK, Historical Linguistics: An Introduction, Campbell, Lyle, Edinburgh University Press, 1998, 978-0-7486-4601-2, Edinburgh, 391, Historical linguistics emerged as one of the first few sub-disciplines in the field, and was most widely practised during the late 19th century."The Idea System of the Early Comparative Grammarians." BOOK, Schools of Thought: The Development of Linguistics from Bopp to Saussure, Amsterdamska, Olga, The Idea System of the Early Comparative Grammarians, 1987,weblink Springer, Dordrecht, 978-94-009-3759-8, 32–62, 10.1007/978-94-009-3759-8_2, 12 December 2020, 15 April 2021,weblink live, Despite a shift in focus in the 20th century towards formalism and generative grammar, which studies the universal properties of language, historical research today still remains a significant field of linguistic inquiry. Subfields of the discipline include language change and grammaticalisation.WEB, Kosur, Heather Marie, 27 April 2013, Subfields of Linguistics Defined: Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics,weblink LinguisticsGirl, Historical linguistics studies language change either diachronically (through a comparison of different time periods in the past and present) or in a synchronic manner (by observing developments between different variations that exist within the current linguistic stage of a language).WEB, Modern Science – Linguistics,weblink The History of Creativity, 3 June 2022, 3 October 2022,weblink live, At first, historical linguistics was the cornerstone of comparative linguistics, which involves a study of the relationship between different languages."Editors' Introduction: Foundations of the new historical linguistics." In: The Routledge Handbook of Historical Linguistics Routledge p. 25. At that time, scholars of historical linguistics were only concerned with creating different categories of language families, and reconstructing prehistoric proto-languages by using both the comparative method and the method of internal reconstruction. Internal reconstruction is the method by which an element that contains a certain meaning is re-used in different contexts or environments where there is a variation in either sound or analogy.{{better source needed|date=December 2020}}The reason for this had been to describe well-known Indo-European languages, many of which had detailed documentation and long written histories. Scholars of historical linguistics also studied Uralic languages, another European language family for which very little written material existed back then. After that, there also followed significant work on the corpora of other languages, such as the Austronesian languages and the Native American language families.The above approach of comparativism in linguistics is now, however, only a small part of the much broader discipline called historical linguistics. The comparative study of specific Indo-European languages is considered a highly specialised field today, while comparative research is carried out over the subsequent internal developments in a language: in particular, over the development of modern standard varieties of languages, and over the development of a language from its standardized form to its varieties.For instance, some scholars also tried to establish super-families, linking, for example, Indo-European, Uralic, and other language families to Nostratic.WEB, Quiles, Carlos, 29 December 2019, Early Uralic – Indo-European contacts within Europe,weblink, 10 June 2022, 7 July 2022,weblink live, While these attempts are still not widely accepted as credible methods, they provide necessary information to establish relatedness in language change. This is generally hard to find for events long ago, due to the occurrence of chance word resemblances and variations between language groups. A limit of around 10,000 years is often assumed for the functional purpose of conducting research.JOURNAL, Baldi, Philip, Philip Baldi, 2012, Historical Linguistics and Cognitive Science,weblink Rheis, International Journal of Linguistics, Philology and Literature, 3, 1, 5–27,weblink" title="">weblink Jul 17, 2022, p. 11. It is also hard to date various proto-languages. Even though several methods are available, these languages can be dated only approximately.NEWS, 11 August 2019, History of Historical Linguistics Essay on History, Linguistics,weblink Essay Examples, 10 June 2022, 2 October 2022,weblink live, Benj, In modern historical linguistics, we examine how languages change over time, focusing on the relationships between dialects within a specific period. This includes studying morphological, syntactical, and phonetic shifts. Connections between dialects in the past and present are also explored.JOURNAL,weblink The definition of the grammatical category in a syntactically oriented morphology, Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation. Madrid: Universidad Autónoma, January 2005, Fábregas, Antonio, 10 June 2022, 10 February 2023,weblink live,

Syntax and morphology

Syntax and morphology are branches of linguistics concerned with the order and structure of meaningful linguistic units such as words and morphemes. Syntacticians study the rules and constraints that govern how speakers of a language can organize words into sentences. Morphologists study similar rules for the order of morphemes—sub-word units such as prefixes and suffixes—and how they may be combined to form words.Words, along with clitics, are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax. But in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language. For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog and dogs are closely related, differentiated only by the plurality morpheme "-s", only found bound to noun phrases. Speakers of English recognize these relations from their innate knowledge of the English language's rules of word formation. They infer intuitively that dog is to dogs as cat is to cats; and, in similar fashion, dog is to dog catcher as dish is to dishwasher. By contrast, Classical Chinese has very little morphology, using almost exclusively unbound morphemes ("free" morphemes) and depending on word order to convey meaning. (Most words in modern Standard Chinese ["Mandarin"], however, are compounds and most roots are bound.) These are understood as grammars that represent the morphology of the language. The rules understood by a speaker reflect specific patterns or regularities in the way words are formed from smaller units in the language they are using, and how those smaller units interact in speech. In this way, morphology is the branch of linguistics that studies patterns of word formation within and across languages and attempts to formulate rules that model the knowledge of the speakers of those languages.WEB,weblink Morphology, Tamesis, Dante, 10 June 2022, 10 February 2023,weblink live, Changes in sound and spelling between a base word and its origin—referred to as orthographic and phonological modifications—may have implications for literacy skills, particularly in morphologically complex words. Research suggests that when a base word undergoes significant alterations in its phonology and orthography, it becomes more challenging to comprehend. Conversely, morphologically complex words are easier to understand when there is consistency between the base word and its origin, without substantial modifications in sound and spelling. Morphologically complex words are easier to comprehend when they include a base word.JOURNAL, Wilson-Fowler, E. B., Apel, K., 2015, Influence of Morphological Awareness on College Students' Literacy Skills: A path Analytic Approach, Journal of Literacy Research, 47, 3, 405–32, 10.1177/1086296x15619730, 142149285, Polysynthetic languages, such as Chukchi, have words composed of many morphemes. The Chukchi word "təmeyŋəlevtpəγtərkən", for example, meaning "I have a fierce headache", is composed of eight morphemes t-ə-meyŋ-ə-levt-pəγt-ə-rkən that may be glossed. The morphology of such languages allows for each consonant and vowel to be understood as morphemes, while the grammar of the language indicates the usage and understanding of each morpheme.{{citation needed|date=August 2023}}The discipline that deals specifically with the sound changes occurring within morphemes is morphophonology.WEB,weblink In linguistics, Emmanuel, Ortese, 10 June 2022, 10 February 2023,weblink live,

Semantics and pragmatics

Semantics and pragmatics are branches of linguistics concerned with meaning. These subfields have traditionally been divided according to aspects of meaning: "semantics" refers to grammatical and lexical meanings, while "pragmatics" is concerned with meaning in context. The framework of formal semantics studies the denotations{{clarify|date=July 2023}} of sentences and how they are composed from the meanings of their constituent expressions. Formal semantics draws heavily on philosophy of language and uses formal tools from logic and computer science. Cognitive semantics ties linguistic meaning to general aspects of cognition, drawing on ideas from cognitive science such as prototype theory.Pragmatics includes features like speech acts, implicature, and talk in interaction.Mey, Jacob L. (1993). Pragmatics: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell (2nd ed. 2001). Unlike semantics, which examines meaning that is conventional or "coded" in a given language, pragmatics studies how the transmission of meaning depends not only on the structural and linguistic knowledge (grammar, lexicon, etc.) of the speaker and listener, but also on the context of the utterance,WEB,weblink Meaning (Semantics and Pragmatics) {{!, Linguistic Society of America||access-date=25 August 2017|archive-date=24 September 2017|archive-url=|url-status=live}} any pre-existing knowledge about those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, and other factors.WEB
, Shaozhong
, Liu
, What is pragmatics?
, 18 March 2009, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 7 March 2009
In that respect, pragmatics explains how language users can overcome apparent ambiguity since meaning relies on the manner, place, time, etc. of an utterance.NEWS,weblink What Is Pragmatics?, ThoughtCo, 11 July 2017, 14 October 2017,weblink live,

Phonetics and phonology

Phonetics and phonology are branches of linguistics concerned with sounds (or the equivalent aspects of sign languages). Phonetics is largely concerned with the physical aspects of sounds such as their articulation, acoustics, production, and perception. Phonology is concerned with the linguistic abstractions and categorizations of sounds, and it tells us what sounds are in a language, how they do and can combine into words, and explains why certain phonetic features are important to identifying a word.{{citation |url= |title=Introduction to Linguistic Theory – Phonology: The Sound Patterns of Language |last=Szczegielniak |first=Adam |publisher=Harvard University |access-date=11 May 2023 |archive-date=22 March 2023 |archive-url= |url-status=live }}


{{excerpt|Linguistic typology|only=paragraph}}


{{Unreferenced section|date=January 2019}}Linguistic structures are pairings of meaning and form. Any particular pairing of meaning and form is a Saussurean linguistic sign. For instance, the meaning "cat" is represented worldwide with a wide variety of different sound patterns (in oral languages), movements of the hands and face (in sign languages), and written symbols (in written languages). Linguistic patterns have proven their importance for the knowledge engineering field especially with the ever-increasing amount of available data.Linguists focusing on structure attempt to understand the rules regarding language use that native speakers know (not always consciously). All linguistic structures can be broken down into component parts that are combined according to (sub)conscious rules, over multiple levels of analysis. For instance, consider the structure of the word "tenth" on two different levels of analysis. On the level of internal word structure (known as morphology), the word "tenth" is made up of one linguistic form indicating a number and another form indicating ordinality. The rule governing the combination of these forms ensures that the ordinality marker "th" follows the number "ten." On the level of sound structure (known as phonology), structural analysis shows that the "n" sound in "tenth" is made differently from the "n" sound in "ten" spoken alone. Although most speakers of English are consciously aware of the rules governing internal structure of the word pieces of "tenth", they are less often aware of the rule governing its sound structure. Linguists focused on structure find and analyze rules such as these, which govern how native speakers use language.


Grammar is a system of rules which governs the production and use of utterances in a given language. These rules apply to soundAll references in this article to the study of sound should be taken to include the manual and non-manual signs used in sign languages. as well as meaning, and include componential subsets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences).BOOK, Linguistics, 2010, The MIT Press, 978-0-262-51370-8,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 14 December 2012, 6th, Akmajian, Adrian, Richard A. Demers, Ann K. Farmer, Robert M. Harnish, 25 July 2012, Modern frameworks that deal with the principles of grammar include structural and functional linguistics, and generative linguistics.Syntax: A Generative Introduction (2nd ed.), 2013. Andrew Carnie. Blackwell Publishing.Sub-fields that focus on a grammatical study of language include the following:
  • Phonetics, the study of the physical properties of speech sound production and perception, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties
  • Phonology, the study of sounds as abstract elements in the speaker's mind that distinguish meaning (phonemes)
  • Morphology, the study of morphemes, or the internal structures of words and how they can be modified
  • Syntax, the study of how words combine to form grammatical phrases and sentences
  • Semantics, the study of lexical and grammatical aspects of meaningBOOK, Meaning and Grammar: An Introduction to Semantics, 2000, Chierchia, Gennaro, Sally McConnell-Ginet, amp, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 978-0-262-53164-1,
  • Pragmatics, the study of how utterances are used in communicative acts, and the role played by situational context and non-linguistic knowledge in the transmission of meaning
  • Discourse analysis, the analysis of language use in texts (spoken, written, or signed)
  • Stylistics, the study of linguistic factors (rhetoric, diction, stress) that place a discourse in context
  • Semiotics, the study of signs and sign processes (semiosis), indication, designation, likeness, analogy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication


Discourse is language as social practice (Baynham, 1995) and is a multilayered concept. As a social practice, discourse embodies different ideologies through written and spoken texts. Discourse analysis can examine or expose these ideologies. Discourse influences genre, which is chosen in response to different situations and finally, at micro level, discourse influences language as text (spoken or written) at the phonological or lexico-grammatical level. Grammar and discourse are linked as parts of a system.JOURNAL, Ariel, Mira, 2009, Discourse, grammar, discourse, 24049745, Discourse Studies, 11, 1, 5–36, 10.1177/1461445608098496, 62686879, A particular discourse becomes a language variety when it is used in this way for a particular purpose, and is referred to as a register.Leckie-Tarry, Helen (1995). Language and Context: a Functional Linguistic Theory of Register, Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 6. {{ISBN|1-85567-272-3}} There may be certain lexical additions (new words) that are brought into play because of the expertise of the community of people within a certain domain of specialization. Registers and discourses therefore differentiate themselves through the use of vocabulary, and at times through the use of style too. People in the medical fraternity, for example, may use some medical terminology in their communication that is specialized to the field of medicine. This is often referred to as being part of the "medical discourse", and so on.


The lexicon is a catalogue of words and terms that are stored in a speaker's mind. The lexicon consists of words and bound morphemes, which are parts of words that can not stand alone, like affixes. In some analyses, compound words and certain classes of idiomatic expressions and other collocations are also considered to be part of the lexicon. Dictionaries represent attempts at listing, in alphabetical order, the lexicon of a given language; usually, however, bound morphemes are not included. Lexicography, closely linked with the domain of semantics, is the science of mapping the words into an encyclopedia or a dictionary. The creation and addition of new words (into the lexicon) is called coining or neologization,BOOK, Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Zuckermann, Ghil'ad, 2003,weblink Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-1-4039-1723-2, 2ff, 15 August 2016, 27 August 2016,weblink" title="">weblink live, and the new words are called neologisms.It is often believed that a speaker's capacity for language lies in the quantity of words stored in the lexicon. However, this is often considered a myth by linguists. The capacity for the use of language is considered by many linguists to lie primarily in the domain of grammar, and to be linked with competence, rather than with the growth of vocabulary. Even a very small lexicon is theoretically capable of producing an infinite number of sentences.


Stylistics also involves the study of written, signed, or spoken discourse through varying speech communities, genres, and editorial or narrative formats in the mass media.WEB,weblink "Stylistics" by Joybrato Mukherjee. Chapter 49. Encyclopedia of Linguistics., 4 October 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 4 October 2013, dead, It involves the study and interpretation of texts for aspects of their linguistic and tonal style. Stylistic analysis entails the analysis of description of particular dialects and registers used by speech communities. Stylistic features include rhetoric,BOOK, The Philosophy of Rhetoric, Richards, I. A., 1965, Oxford University Press (New York), diction, stress, satire, irony, dialogue, and other forms of phonetic variations. Stylistic analysis can also include the study of language in canonical works of literature, popular fiction, news, advertisements, and other forms of communication in popular culture as well. It is usually seen as a variation in communication that changes from speaker to speaker and community to community. In short, Stylistics is the interpretation of text.In the 1960s, Jacques Derrida, for instance, further distinguished between speech and writing, by proposing that written language be studied as a linguistic medium of communication in itself.Derrida, Jacques (1967). Writing and Difference and Of Grammatology. Palaeography is therefore the discipline that studies the evolution of written scripts (as signs and symbols) in language.Chapter 1, section 1.1 in BOOK, Trends in Linguistics: Runes and Germanic Linguistics, 2002, Mouton de Gruyter, 978-3-11-017462-5,weblink 6th, Antonsen, Elmer H., The formal study of language also led to the growth of fields like psycholinguistics, which explores the representation and function of language in the mind; neurolinguistics, which studies language processing in the brain; biolinguistics, which studies the biology and evolution of language; and language acquisition, which investigates how children and adults acquire the knowledge of one or more languages.


{{See also|Theory of language}}


The fundamental principle of humanistic linguistics, especially rational and logical grammar, is that language is an invention created by people. A semiotic tradition of linguistic research considers language a sign system which arises from the interaction of meaning and form.BOOK, Nöth, Winfried, Handbook of Semiotics, Indiana University Press, 1990, 978-0-253-20959-7, Winfried Nöth, The organisation of linguistic levels is considered computational.BOOK, Hjelmslev, Louis, Prolegomena to a Theory of Language, University of Wisconsin Press, 1969, First published 1943, 0-299-02470-9, Louis Hjelmslev, Linguistics is essentially seen as relating to social and cultural studies because different languages are shaped in social interaction by the speech community.BOOK, de Saussure, Ferdinand, Course in General Linguistics, New York, The Philosophical Library, Inc., 1959, First published 1916,weblink 978-0-231-15727-8,weblink 8 August 2019, Ferdinand de Saussure, Frameworks representing the humanistic view of language include structural linguistics, among others.JOURNAL, Austin, Patrik, 2021, Theory of language: a taxonomy, SN Social Sciences, 1, 3, 10.1007/s43545-021-00085-x, free, 10138/349772, free, Structural analysis means dissecting each linguistic level: phonetic, morphological, syntactic, and discourse, to the smallest units. These are collected into inventories (e.g. phoneme, morpheme, lexical classes, phrase types) to study their interconnectedness within a hierarchy of structures and layers.BOOK, Schäfer, Roland, Einführung in die grammatische Beschreibung des Deutschen (2nd ed.), Berlin, Language Science Press, 2016,weblink 978-1-537504-95-7, 16 January 2020, 28 July 2017,weblink" title="">weblink live, Functional analysis adds to structural analysis the assignment of semantic and other functional roles that each unit may have. For example, a noun phrase may function as the subject or object of the sentence; or the agent or patient.BOOK, Halliday, M. A. K., Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M., An Introduction to Functional Grammar (3rd ed.), London, Hodder, 2004,weblink 0-340-76167-9, M. A. K. Halliday, 16 January 2020, 3 March 2021,weblink" title="">weblink live, Functional linguistics, or functional grammar, is a branch of structural linguistics. In the humanistic reference, the terms structuralism and functionalism are related to their meaning in other human sciences. The difference between formal and functional structuralism lies in the way that the two approaches explain why languages have the properties they have. Functional explanation entails the idea that language is a tool for communication, or that communication is the primary function of language. Linguistic forms are consequently explained by an appeal to their functional value, or usefulness. Other structuralist approaches take the perspective that form follows from the inner mechanisms of the bilateral and multilayered language system.BOOK, Daneš, František, Dirven, R., Fried, V., Functionalism in Linguistics, John Benjamins, 1987, 3–38, On Prague school functionalism in linguistics, 978-90-272-1524-6,


{{further|Biolinguistics|Biosemiotics}}Approaches such as cognitive linguistics and generative grammar study linguistic cognition with a view towards uncovering the biological underpinnings of language. In Generative Grammar, these underpinning are understood as including innate domain-specific grammatical knowledge. Thus, one of the central concerns of the approach is to discover what aspects of linguistic knowledge are innate and which are not.JOURNAL, Everaert, Martin, Huybregts, Marinus A. C., Chomsky, Noam, Berwick, Robert C., Bolhuis, Johan J., 3648651, 2015, Structures, not strings: linguistics as part of the cognitive sciences,weblink Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19, 12, 729–743, 10.1016/j.tics.2015.09.008, 26564247, 1874/329610, 5 January 2020, 26 April 2021,weblink live, BOOK, Chomsky, Noam, The Minimalist Program (2nd ed.), MIT Press, 2015, 978-0-262-52734-7, Noam Chomsky, Cognitive linguistics, in contrast, rejects the notion of innate grammar, and studies how the human mind creates linguistic constructions from event schemas,BOOK, Arbib, Michael A., MacWhinney and O'Grady, Handbook of Language Emergence, Wiley, 2015, 81–109, Language evolution – an emergentist perspective, 978-1-118-34613-6, and the impact of cognitive constraints and biases on human language.BOOK, Tobin, Vera, Borkent, Language and the Creative Mind, Chicago University Press, 2014, 347–363, Where do cognitive biases fit into cognitive linguistics?,weblink 978-90-272-8643-7, {{Dead link|date=March 2022 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} In cognitive linguistics, language is approached via the senses.JOURNAL, Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide, Iraide Ibarretxe-Antuñano, 2002, MIND-AS-BODY as a Cross-linguistic Conceptual Metaphor,weblink Miscelánea, 25, 1, 93–119, 2020-07-15, 27 April 2021,weblink live, JOURNAL, Gibbs, R. W., Colston, H., 1995, The cognitive psychological reality of image schemas and their transformations, Cognitive Linguistics, 6, 4, 347–378, 10.1515/cogl.1995.6.4.347, 144424435, A closely related approach is evolutionary linguisticsJOURNAL, Pleyer, Michael, Winters, James, 2014, Integrating cognitive linguistics and language evolution research,weblink Theoria et Historia Scientiarum, 11, 19–44, 10.12775/ths-2014-002, 16 January 2020, 9 March 2021,weblink live, free, which includes the study of linguistic units as cultural replicators.BOOK, Evans, Vyvyan, Green, Melanie, Cognitive Linguistics. An Introduction, Routledge, 2006, 0-7486-1831-7, JOURNAL, Croft, William, 2008, Evolutionary linguistics,weblink Annual Review of Anthropology, 37, 219–234, 16 January 2020, 10.1146/annurev.anthro.37.081407.085156, William Croft, 25 February 2021,weblink" title="">weblink live, It is possible to study how language replicates and adapts to the mind of the individual or the speech community.JOURNAL, Cornish, Hanna, Tamariz, Monica, Kirby, Simon, 2009, Complex adaptive systems and the origins of adaptive structure: what experiments can tell us,weblink Language Learning, 59, 187–205, 16 January 2020, 10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00540.x, 56199987, Simon Kirby, 12 November 2020,weblink live, JOURNAL, Sinnemäki, Kaius, Di Garbo, Francesca, 2018, Language Structures May Adapt to the Sociolinguistic Environment, but It Matters What and How You Count: A Typological Study of Verbal and Nominal Complexity, Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 187–205, 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01141, 30154738, 6102949, free, Construction grammar is a framework which applies the meme concept to the study of syntax.JOURNAL, Dahl, Östen, 2001, Grammaticalization and the life cycles of constructions, RASK – Internationalt Tidsskrift for Sprog og Kommunikation, 14, 91–134, BOOK, Kirby, Simon, Transitions: The Evolution of Linguistic Replicators,weblink The Language Phenomenon, Springer, 2013, Binder, 121–138, The Frontiers Collection, 10.1007/978-3-642-36086-2_6, 978-3-642-36085-5, 2020-03-04, Smith, 26 June 2021,weblink" title="">weblink live, BOOK, Zehentner, Eva, Competition in Language Change: the Rise of the English Dative Alternation, De Gruyter Mouton, 2019, 978-3-11-063385-6, BOOK, MacWhinney, Brian, Handbook of Language Emergence, 2015, Wiley, 978-1-118-34613-6, MacWhinney, Brian, 1–31, Introduction – language emergence, O'Grady, William, The generative versus evolutionary approach are sometimes called formalism and functionalism, respectively.BOOK, Nettle, Daniel, Darnell, Functionalism and Formalism in linguistics, 1, 41, John Benjamins, 1999, 445–468, Functionalism and its difficulties in biology and linguistics, 978-1-55619-927-1, 10.1075/slcs.41.21net, Daniel Nettle, Studies in Language Companion Series, This reference is however different from the use of the terms in human sciences.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Croft, William, Functional Approaches to Grammar, William Croft, International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2nd, 2015, Elsevier, 9, 978-0-08-097087-5, 10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.53009-8, 6323–6330,


{{More citations needed section|date=February 2024}}Modern linguistics is primarily descriptive.BOOK, Elements of General Linguistics, Martinet, André, André Martinet, Elisabeth Palmer Rubbert, Studies in General Linguistics, vol. i., London, Faber, 1960, 15, Linguists describe and explain features of language without making subjective judgments on whether a particular feature or usage is "good" or "bad". This is analogous to practice in other sciences: a zoologist studies the animal kingdom without making subjective judgments on whether a particular species is "better" or "worse" than another.WEB,weblink Linguistics | PDF | Lexicon | Linguistics, 10 June 2022, 10 June 2022,weblink live, Prescription, on the other hand, is an attempt to promote particular linguistic usages over others, often favouring a particular dialect or "acrolect". This may have the aim of establishing a linguistic standard, which can aid communication over large geographical areas. It may also, however, be an attempt by speakers of one language or dialect to exert influence over speakers of other languages or dialects (see Linguistic imperialism). An extreme version of prescriptivism can be found among censors, who attempt to eradicate words and structures that they consider to be destructive to society. Prescription, however, may be practised appropriately in language instruction, like in ELT, where certain fundamental grammatical rules and lexical items need to be introduced to a second-language speaker who is attempting to acquire the language.{{citation needed|date=May 2023}}


Most contemporary linguists work under the assumption that spoken data and signed data are more fundamental than written data. This is because
  • Speech appears to be universal to all human beings capable of producing and perceiving it, while there have been many cultures and speech communities that lack written communication;
  • Features appear in speech which are not always recorded in writing, including phonological rules, sound changes, and speech errors;
  • All natural writing systems reflect a spoken language (or potentially a signed one), even with pictographic scripts like Dongba writing Naxi homophones with the same pictogram, and text in writing systems used for two languages changing to fit the spoken language being recorded;
  • Speech evolved before human beings invented writing;
  • Individuals learn to speak and process spoken language more easily and earlier than they do with writing.
Nonetheless, linguists agree that the study of written language can be worthwhile and valuable. For research that relies on corpus linguistics and computational linguistics, written language is often much more convenient for processing large amounts of linguistic data. Large corpora of spoken language are difficult to create and hard to find, and are typically transcribed and written. In addition, linguists have turned to text-based discourse occurring in various formats of computer-mediated communication as a viable site for linguistic inquiry.The study of writing systems themselves, graphemics, is, in any case, considered a branch of linguistics.


Before the 20th century, linguists analysed language on a diachronic plane, which was historical in focus. This meant that they would compare linguistic features and try to analyse language from the point of view of how it had changed between then and later. However, with the rise of Saussurean linguistics in the 20th century, the focus shifted to a more synchronic approach, where the study was geared towards analysis and comparison between different language variations, which existed at the same given point of time.At another level, the syntagmatic plane of linguistic analysis entails the comparison between the way words are sequenced, within the syntax of a sentence. For example, the article "the" is followed by a noun, because of the syntagmatic relation between the words. The paradigmatic plane, on the other hand, focuses on an analysis that is based on the paradigms or concepts that are embedded in a given text. In this case, words of the same type or class may be replaced in the text with each other to achieve the same conceptual understanding.


The earliest activities in the description of language have been attributed to the 6th-century-BC Indian grammarian PāṇiniBOOK, A New History of the Humanities: The Search for Principles and Patterns from Antiquity to the Present, Rens Bod, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-966521-1, 2014,weblink BOOK, Chapter VI: Sanskrit Literature, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 2, 1908, 263,weblink who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his {{IAST|Aṣṭādhyāyī}}.WEB, Aṣṭādhyāyī 2.0,weblink 2021-02-27,, 15 April 2021,weblink" title="">weblink live, BOOK, The Ashtadhyayi of Panini (2 Vols.), S.C. Vasu (Tr.), Vedic Books, 1996, 978-81-208-0409-8,weblink 17 September 2012, 27 March 2014,weblink" title="">weblink live, Today, modern-day theories on grammar employ many of the principles that were laid down then.JOURNAL, On Panini and the Generative Capacity of Contextualised Replacement Systems, Gerald, Penn, Paul, Kiparski,weblink Proceedings of COLING 2012,weblink 15 April 2021, 943–950,


Before the 20th century, the term philology, first attested in 1716,{{OEtymD|philology|accessdate=5 March 2018}} was commonly used to refer to the study of language, which was then predominantly historical in focus.JOURNAL, Introduction: Philology in a Manuscript Culture, Stephen G., Nichols, Speculum, 65, 1, 1990, 1–10, 2864468, 10.2307/2864468, 154631850, BOOK, McMahon, A.M.S., 1994, Understanding Language Change, Cambridge University Press, 9, 19, 978-0-521-44665-5, Since Ferdinand de Saussure's insistence on the importance of synchronic analysis, however, this focus has shifted and the term philology is now generally used for the "study of a language's grammar, history, and literary tradition", especially in the United StatesBOOK, A., Morpurgo Davies, History of Linguistics, 1998, 4, Nineteenth-Century Linguistics, (where philology has never been very popularly considered as the "science of language").Although the term linguist in the sense of "a student of language" dates from 1641, the term linguistics is first attested in 1847.{{OEtymD|linguist|accessdate=5 March 2018}} It is now the usual term in English for the scientific study of language,WEB, Shahhoseiny, Hajar, Differences between Language and Linguistic in the ELT Classroom,weblink Theory and Practice in Language Studies, December 10, 2023, 2013, WEB, What is Linguistics?,weblink Birmingham City University, December 10, 2023, though linguistic science is sometimes used.Linguistics is a multi-disciplinary field of research that combines tools from natural sciences, social sciences, formal sciences, and the humanities.BOOK,weblink The Handbook of Educational Linguistics, Spolsky, Bernard, Hult, Francis M., February 2010, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-4443-3104-2, en, BOOK,weblink Concise Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, Berns, Margie, 20 March 2010, Elsevier, 978-0-08-096503-1, 23–25, en, WEB,weblink The Science of Linguistics, Linguistic Society of America, 17 April 2018, Modern linguists approach their work with a scientific perspective, although they use methods that used to be thought of as solely an academic discipline of the humanities. Contrary to previous belief, linguistics is multidisciplinary. It overlaps each of the human sciences including psychology, neurology, anthropology, and sociology. Linguists conduct formal studies of sound structure, grammar and meaning, but they also investigate the history of language families, and research language acquisition., 17 April 2018,weblink live, Behme, Christina; Neef, Martin. Essays on Linguistic Realism (2018). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 7–20 Many linguists, such as David Crystal, conceptualize the field as being primarily scientific.BOOK, Linguistics, Crystal, David, Penguin Books, 1990, 978-0-14-013531-2, David Crystal, The term linguist applies to someone who studies language or is a researcher within the field, or to someone who uses the tools of the discipline to describe and analyse specific languages.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Linguist, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2000, 978-0-395-82517-4,weblink

Early grammarians

{{further|Philology|Grammarian (Greco-Roman)}}An early formal study of language was in India with Pāṇini, the 6th century BC grammarian who formulated 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology. Pāṇini's systematic classification of the sounds of Sanskrit into consonants and vowels, and word classes, such as nouns and verbs, was the first known instance of its kind. In the Middle East, Sibawayh, a Persian, made a detailed description of Arabic in AD 760 in his monumental work, Al-kitab fii an-naħw (, The Book on Grammar), the first known author to distinguish between sounds and phonemes (sounds as units of a linguistic system). Western interest in the study of languages began somewhat later than in the East,{{harvnb|Bloomfield|1983|p=307}}. but the grammarians of the classical languages did not use the same methods or reach the same conclusions as their contemporaries in the Indic world. Early interest in language in the West was a part of philosophy, not of grammatical description. The first insights into semantic theory were made by Plato in his Cratylus dialogue, where he argues that words denote concepts that are eternal and exist in the world of ideas. This work is the first to use the word etymology to describe the history of a word's meaning. Around 280 BC, one of Alexander the Great's successors founded a university (see Musaeum) in Alexandria, where a school of philologists studied the ancient texts in Greek, and taught Greek to speakers of other languages. While this school was the first to use the word "grammar" in its modern sense, Plato had used the word in its original meaning as "téchnē grammatikḗ" ({{script|Greek|Τέχνη Γραμματική}}), the "art of writing", which is also the title of one of the most important works of the Alexandrine school by Dionysius Thrax.BOOK, Seuren, Pieter A. M., 1998, Western linguistics: An historical introduction, Wiley-Blackwell, 978-0-631-20891-4, 2–24, Throughout the Middle Ages, the study of language was subsumed under the topic of philology, the study of ancient languages and texts, practised by such educators as Roger Ascham, Wolfgang Ratke, and John Amos Comenius.{{harvnb|Bloomfield|1983|p=308}}.

Comparative philology

In the 18th century, the first use of the comparative method by William Jones sparked the rise of comparative linguistics.{{harvnb|Bloomfield|1983|p=310}}. Bloomfield attributes "the first great scientific linguistic work of the world" to Jacob Grimm, who wrote Deutsche Grammatik.{{harvnb|Bloomfield|1983|p=311}}. It was soon followed by other authors writing similar comparative studies on other language groups of Europe. The study of language was broadened from Indo-European to language in general by Wilhelm von Humboldt, of whom Bloomfield asserts:{{blockquote|This study received its foundation at the hands of the Prussian statesman and scholar Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767–1835), especially in the first volume of his work on Kavi, the literary language of Java, entitled (On the Variety of the Structure of Human Language and its Influence upon the Mental Development of the Human Race).}}

20th-century developments

There was a shift of focus from historical and comparative linguistics to synchronic analysis in early 20th century. Structural analysis was improved by Leonard Bloomfield, Louis Hjelmslev; and Zellig Harris who also developed methods of discourse analysis. Functional analysis was developed by the Prague linguistic circle and André Martinet. As sound recording devices became commonplace in the 1960s, dialectal recordings were made and archived, and the audio-lingual method provided a technological solution to foreign language learning. The 1960s also saw a new rise of comparative linguistics: the study of language universals in linguistic typology. Towards the end of the century the field of linguistics became divided into further areas of interest with the advent of language technology and digitalised corpora.JOURNAL, Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard, Linguistics in the digital humanities: (computational) corpus linguistics,weblink Mediekultur: Journal of Media and Communication Research, December 10, 2023, December 19, 2014, 30, 57, 10.7146/mediekultur.v30i57.15968, free, JOURNAL, McEnery, Tony, Corpus Linguistics, Learner Corpora, and SLA: Employing Technology to Analyze Language Use, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, Cambridge University Press, 2019, 39, 74–92, 10.1017/S0267190519000096, free, {{Citation |last=Hunston |first=S. |title=Corpus Linguistics |date=2006-01-01 |url= |encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics (Second Edition) |pages=234–248 |editor-last=Brown |editor-first=Keith |access-date=2023-10-31 |place=Oxford |publisher=Elsevier |doi=10.1016/b0-08-044854-2/00944-5 |isbn=978-0-08-044854-1}}

Areas of research

{{more citations needed|section|date=August 2021}}


Sociolinguistics is the study of how language is shaped by social factors. This sub-discipline focuses on the synchronic approach of linguistics, and looks at how a language in general, or a set of languages, display variation and varieties at a given point in time. The study of language variation and the different varieties of language through dialects, registers, and idiolects can be tackled through a study of style, as well as through analysis of discourse. Sociolinguists research both style and discourse in language, as well as the theoretical factors that are at play between language and society.

Developmental linguistics

Developmental linguistics is the study of the development of linguistic ability in individuals, particularly the acquisition of language in childhood. Some of the questions that developmental linguistics looks into are how children acquire different languages, how adults can acquire a second language, and what the process of language acquisition is.JOURNAL, Bailey, Charles-James N., Folia Linguistica, 1981-01-01, Developmental Linguistics,weblink en, 15, 1–2, 29–38, 10.1515/flin.1981.15.1-2.29, 1614-7308,


Neurolinguistics is the study of the structures in the human brain that underlie grammar and communication. Researchers are drawn to the field from a variety of backgrounds, bringing along a variety of experimental techniques as well as widely varying theoretical perspectives. Much work in neurolinguistics is informed by models in psycholinguistics and theoretical linguistics, and is focused on investigating how the brain can implement the processes that theoretical and psycholinguistics propose are necessary in producing and comprehending language. Neurolinguists study the physiological mechanisms by which the brain processes information related to language, and evaluate linguistic and psycholinguistic theories, using aphasiology, brain imaging, electrophysiology, and computer modelling. Amongst the structures of the brain involved in the mechanisms of neurolinguistics, the cerebellum which contains the highest numbers of neurons has a major role in terms of predictions required to produce language.JOURNAL, Mariën, Peter, Manto, Mario, 25 October 2017, Cerebellum as a Master-Piece for Linguistic Predictability, Cerebellum (London, England), 17, 2, 101–03, 10.1007/s12311-017-0894-1, 1473-4230, 29071518, free,

Applied linguistics

Linguists are largely concerned with finding and describing the generalities and varieties both within particular languages and among all languages. Applied linguistics takes the results of those findings and "applies" them to other areas. Linguistic research is commonly applied to areas such as language education, lexicography, translation, language planning, which involves governmental policy implementation related to language use, and natural language processing. "Applied linguistics" has been argued to be something of a misnomer.BOOK, Controversies in Applied Linguistics (pp. 288), Barbara Seidlhofer, Oxford University Press, 2003, 978-0-19-437444-6, Applied linguists actually focus on making sense of and engineering solutions for real-world linguistic problems, and not literally "applying" existing technical knowledge from linguistics. Moreover, they commonly apply technical knowledge from multiple sources, such as sociology (e.g., conversation analysis) and anthropology. (Constructed language fits under Applied linguistics.)Today, computers are widely used in many areas of applied linguistics. Speech synthesis and speech recognition use phonetic and phonemic knowledge to provide voice interfaces to computers. Applications of computational linguistics in machine translation, computer-assisted translation, and natural language processing are areas of applied linguistics that have come to the forefront. Their influence has had an effect on theories of syntax and semantics, as modelling syntactic and semantic theories on computers constraints.Linguistic analysis is a sub-discipline of applied linguistics used by many governments to verify the claimed nationality of people seeking asylum who do not hold the necessary documentation to prove their claim.JOURNAL, Applied Linguistics and Language Analysis in Asylum Seeker Cases, Eades, Diana, Applied Linguistics, 2005, 26, 4, 503–26, 10.1093/applin/ami021,weblink 31 January 2009, 27 March 2009,weblink" title="">weblink dead, This often takes the form of an interview by personnel in an immigration department. Depending on the country, this interview is conducted either in the asylum seeker's native language through an interpreter or in an international lingua franca like English. Australia uses the former method, while Germany employs the latter; the Netherlands uses either method depending on the languages involved. Tape recordings of the interview then undergo language analysis, which can be done either by private contractors or within a department of the government. In this analysis, linguistic features of the asylum seeker are used by analysts to make a determination about the speaker's nationality. The reported findings of the linguistic analysis can play a critical role in the government's decision on the refugee status of the asylum seeker.

Language documentation

Language documentation combines anthropological inquiry (into the history and culture of language) with linguistic inquiry, in order to describe languages and their grammars. Lexicography involves the documentation of words that form a vocabulary. Such a documentation of a linguistic vocabulary from a particular language is usually compiled in a dictionary. Computational linguistics is concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. Specific knowledge of language is applied by speakers during the act of translation and interpretation, as well as in language education – the teaching of a second or foreign language. Policy makers work with governments to implement new plans in education and teaching which are based on linguistic research.Since the inception of the discipline of linguistics, linguists have been concerned with describing and analysing previously undocumented languages. Starting with Franz Boas in the early 1900s, this became the main focus of American linguistics until the rise of formal linguistics in the mid-20th century. This focus on language documentation was partly motivated by a concern to document the rapidly disappearing languages of indigenous peoples. The ethnographic dimension of the Boasian approach to language description played a role in the development of disciplines such as sociolinguistics, anthropological linguistics, and linguistic anthropology, which investigate the relations between language, culture, and society.The emphasis on linguistic description and documentation has also gained prominence outside North America, with the documentation of rapidly dying indigenous languages becoming a focus in some university programmes in linguistics. Language description is a work-intensive endeavour, usually requiring years of field work in the language concerned, so as to equip the linguist to write a sufficiently accurate reference grammar. Further, the task of documentation requires the linguist to collect a substantial corpus in the language in question, consisting of texts and recordings, both sound and video, which can be stored in an accessible format within open repositories, and used for further research.Himmelman, Nikolaus "Language documentation: What is it and what is it good for?" in P. Gippert, Jost, Nikolaus P Himmelmann & Ulrike Mosel. (2006) Essentials of Language documentation. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin & New York.


The sub-field of translation includes the translation of written and spoken texts across media, from digital to print and spoken. To translate literally means to transmute the meaning from one language into another. Translators are often employed by organizations such as travel agencies and governmental embassies to facilitate communication between two speakers who do not know each other's language. Translators are also employed to work within computational linguistics setups like Google Translate, which is an automated program to translate words and phrases between any two or more given languages. Translation is also conducted by publishing houses, which convert works of writing from one language to another in order to reach varied audiences. Cross-national and cross-cultural survey research studies employ translation to collect comparable data among multilingual populations.JOURNAL, Behr, Dorothée, Sha, Mandy, 2018-07-25, Introduction: Translation of questionnaires in cross-national and cross-cultural research,weblink Translation & Interpreting, en, 10, 2, 1–4, 10.12807/ti.110202.2018.a01, 1836-9324, free, BOOK, Pan, Yuling,weblink The Sociolinguistics of Survey Translation, Sha, Mandy, 2019-07-09, Routledge, 978-0-429-29491-4, London, 10.4324/9780429294914, 198632812, Academic translators specialize in or are familiar with various other disciplines such as technology, science, law, economics, etc.

Clinical linguistics

Clinical linguistics is the application of linguistic theory to the field of speech-language pathology. Speech language pathologists work on corrective measures to treat communication and swallowing disorders.

Computational linguistics

Computational linguistics is the study of linguistic issues in a way that is "computationally responsible", i.e., taking careful note of computational consideration of algorithmic specification and computational complexity, so that the linguistic theories devised can be shown to exhibit certain desirable computational properties and their implementations. Computational linguists also work on computer language and software development.

Evolutionary linguistics

Evolutionary linguistics is a sociobiological approach to analyzing the emergence of the language faculty through human evolution, and also the application of evolutionary theory to the study of cultural evolution among different languages. It is also a study of the dispersal of various languages across the globe, through movements among ancient communities.JOURNAL, Croft, William, October 2008, Evolutionary Linguistics, Annual Review of Anthropology, 37, 219–34, 10.1146/annurev.anthro.37.081407.085156,

Forensic linguistics

Forensic linguistics is the application of linguistic analysis to forensics. Forensic analysis investigates the style, language, lexical use, and other linguistic and grammatical features used in the legal context to provide evidence in courts of law. Forensic linguists have also used their expertise in the framework of criminal cases.Olsson, John. "What is Forensic Linguistics?" (PDF). Forensic Linguistics Intelligence.WEB, what is forensic linguistics?,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2010-09-27, 2024-02-01, CFL at Aston University,

See also

{{div col}}
  • {{Annotated link |Articulatory synthesis}}
  • {{Annotated link |Axiom of categoricity}}
  • {{Annotated link |Critical discourse analysis}}
  • {{Annotated link |Cryptanalysis}}
  • {{Annotated link |Decipherment}}
  • {{Annotated link |Global language system}}
  • {{Annotated link |Hermeneutics}}
  • {{Annotated link |Integrational linguistics}}
  • {{Annotated link |Integrationism}}
  • {{Annotated link |Interlinguistics}}
  • {{Annotated link |Language engineering}}
  • {{Annotated link |Language geography}}
  • {{Annotated link |Linguistic rights}}
  • {{Annotated link |Metalinguistics}}
  • {{Annotated link |Metacommunicative competence}}
  • {{Annotated link |Microlinguistics}}
  • {{Annotated link |Onomastics}}
  • {{Annotated link |Reading}}
  • {{Annotated link |Speech processing}}
  • {{Annotated link |Stratificational linguistics}}
  • Outline and lists
    • {{Annotated link |Index of linguistics articles}}
    • {{Annotated link |List of departments of linguistics}}
    • {{Annotated link |List of summer schools of linguistics}}
    • {{Annotated link |List of schools of linguistics}}
{{div col end}}




  • BOOK, Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication, The MIT Press, Akmajian, Adrian, Demers, Richard, Farmer, Ann, Harnish, Robert, 2010, Cambridge, MA, 978-0-262-51370-8,
  • BOOK, The handbook of linguistics, Blackwell, Aronoff, Mark, Rees-Miller, Janie, 2000, Oxford,
  • BOOK, Bloomfield, Leonard, An Introduction to the Study of Language, New,weblink 1983, John Benjamins Publishing, Amsterdam, 978-90-272-8047-3, 1914,
  • BOOK, Noam, Chomsky, On Language, 1998, The New Press, New York, 978-1-56584-475-9,weblink
  • BOOK, David, Crystal, Linguistics, 1990, Penguin Books, 978-0-14-013531-2,
  • BOOK, Jacques, Derrida, Of Grammatology, 1967, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 978-0-8018-5830-7,weblink
  • BOOK, Christopher, Hall, An Introduction to Language and Linguistics: Breaking the Language Spell, 2005, Routledge, 978-0-8264-8734-6,
  • BOOK, Daniela, Isac, Charles Reiss, I-language: An Introduction to Linguistics as Cognitive Science, 2nd,weblink 2013, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-966017-9, 17 May 2013, 6 July 2011,weblink" title="">weblink dead,
  • BOOK, Steven, Pinker, The Language Instinct, 1994, William Morrow and Company, 978-0-14-017529-5,

External links

{{Library resources box|by=no|onlinebooks=no|wikititle=linguistics}}
  • The Linguist List, a global online linguistics community with news and information updated daily
  • Glossary of linguistic terms {{Webarchive|url= |date=10 February 2013 }} by SIL International (last updated 2004)
  • Glottopedia, MediaWiki-based encyclopedia of linguistics, under construction
  • weblink" title="">Linguistic sub-fields – according to the Linguistic Society of America
  • Linguistics and language-related wiki articles on Scholarpedia and Citizendium
  • "Linguistics" section – A Bibliography of Literary Theory, Criticism and Philology, ed. J.A. García Landa (University of Zaragoza, Spain)
  • BOOK, Daniela, Isac, Charles Reiss, I-language: An Introduction to Linguistics as Cognitive Science, 2nd,weblink 2013, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-953420-3,
  • {{curlie|Science/Social_Sciences/Linguistics}}
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