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Celtic languages
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{{short description|Language family}}{{Use dmy dates|date=February 2012}}







factoids
HTTPS://ACADEMIAPRISCA.ORG/EN/RESOURCES/NORTH-WEST-INDO-EUROPEAN/ PUBLISHER=ACADEMIA PRISCA ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180912131416/HTTPS://ACADEMIAPRISCA.ORG/EN/RESOURCES/NORTH-WEST-INDO-EUROPEAN/ DEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, | fam3 = Italo-Celtic (?)Proto-Celtic language>Proto-CelticContinental Celtic languages>Continental Celtic (extinct)Insular Celtic languages>Insular CelticGallo-Brittonic languages>Gallo-Brittonic| iso2 = cel| iso5 = cel| lingua = 50= (phylozone)| glotto = celt1248| glottorefname = Celtic| map = Celtic expansion in Europe.png| mapcaption = Distribution of Celtic speakers: {{legend|#ffff43|Hallstatt culture area, 6th century BC}}{{legend|#97ffb6|Maximal Celtic expansion, c. 275 BC}}{{legend|#d2ffd2|Lusitanian area; Celtic affiliation unclear}}{{legend|#27c600|Areas where Celtic languages are widely spoken in the 21st century}}}}{{Indo-European topics}}The Celtic languages ({{small|usually}} {{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|ɛ|l|t|ɪ|k}}, {{small|but sometimes}} {{IPAc-en|ˈ|s|ɛ|l|-}})WEB,weblink American Heritage Dictionary. Celtic: kel-tik, sel, Dictionary.reference.com, 19 August 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110808035101weblink">weblink 8 August 2011, no, dmy-all, are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic. They form a branch of the Indo-European language family.The Celtic languages:an overview, Donald MacAulay, The Celtic Languages, ed. Donald MacAulay, (Cambridge University Press, 1992), 3. The term "Celtic" was first used to describe this language group by Edward Lhuyd in 1707,Cunliffe, Barry W. 2003. The Celts: a very short introduction. pg.48 following Paul-Yves Pezron, who made the explicit link between the Celts described by classical writers and the Welsh and Breton languages.Alice Roberts, The Celts (Heron Books 2015)During the 1st millennium BC, Celtic languages were spoken across much of Europe and in Asia Minor. Today, they are restricted to the northwestern fringe of Europe and a few diaspora communities. There are four living languages: Welsh, Breton, Irish and Scottish Gaelic. All are minority languages in their respective countries, though there are continuing efforts at revitalisation. Welsh is an official language in Wales and Irish is an official language of Ireland and of the European Union. Welsh is the only Celtic language not classified as endangered by UNESCO. The Cornish and Manx languages went extinct in modern times. They have been the object of revivals and now each has several hundred second-language speakers.Irish and Scottish form the Goidelic languages, while Welsh and Breton are Brittonic. Beyond that there is no agreement on the subdivisions of the Celtic language family. They may be divided into a Continental group and an Insular group, or else into P-Celtic and Q-Celtic. All the living languages are Insular, since Breton, the only Celtic language spoken in continental Europe, is descended from the language of settlers from Britain. The Continental Celtic languages, such as Celtiberian, Galatian and Gaulish, are all extinct.The Celtic languages have a rich literary tradition. The earliest specimens of written Celtic are Lepontic inscriptions from the 6th century BC in the Alps. Early Continental inscriptions used Italic and Paleohispanic scripts. Between the 4th and 8th centuries, Irish and Pictish were occasionally written in an original script, Ogham, but the Latin alphabet came to be used for all Celtic languages. Welsh has had a continuous literary tradition from the 6th century AD.

Living languages

SIL Ethnologue lists six living Celtic languages, of which four have retained a substantial number of native speakers. These are the Goidelic languages (i.e. Irish and Scottish Gaelic, which are both descended from Middle Irish) and the Brittonic languages (i.e. Welsh and Breton, which are both descended from Common Brittonic).WEB,weblink Celtic Branch {{!, About World Languages|website=aboutworldlanguages.com|language=en-US|access-date=2017-09-18|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170925040807weblink|archive-date=25 September 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}The other two, Cornish (a Brittonic language) and Manx (a Goidelic language), died in modern timesBOOK, Koch, John T., Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, 2006, 34, 365–366, 529, 973, 1053,weblink 15 June 2010, WEB, A brief history of the Cornish language,weblink Maga Kernow, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081225172227weblink">weblink 25 December 2008, dmy-all, BOOK, Beresford Ellis, Peter, The Story of the Cornish Language, 2005, 1990, Tor Mark Press, 0-85025-371-3, 20–22, with their presumed last native speakers in 1777 and 1974 respectively. For both these languages, however, revitalisation movements have led to the adoption of these languages by adults and children and produced some native speakers.WEB, Staff,weblink Fockle ny ghaa: schoolchildren take charge, Iomtoday.co.im, 18 August 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090704115241weblink">weblink 4 July 2009, dmy-all, NEWS, 'South West:TeachingEnglish:British Council:BBC,weblink 9 February 2010, BBC, 2010, BBC/British Council website, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100108190250weblink">weblink 8 January 2010, dmy, Taken together, there were roughly one million native speakers of Celtic languages as of the 2000s.WEB,weblink Celtic Languages, Ethnologue, 9 March 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110716080137weblink">weblink 16 July 2011, no, dmy-all, In 2010, there were more than 1.4 million speakers of Celtic languages.BOOK, Crystal, David, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, 2010, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-73650-3,

Demographics{| class"wikitable sortable"

! scope="col" | Language! scope="col" | Native name! scope="col" | Grouping! scope="col" | Number of native speakers! scope="col" | Number of people who have one or more skills in the language! scope="col" | Main area(s) in which the language is spoken! scope="col" | Regulated by/language body! scope="col" | Estimated number of speakers in major cities! scope="row" | WelshBrittonic languages>BrittonicPUBLISHER=WELSH GOVERNMENT ACCESSDATE=13 NOVEMBER 2015 ARCHIVE-DATE=17 NOVEMBER 2015 DF=DMY-ALL, Office for National Statistics 2011weblink {{Webarchiveweblink >date=5 June 2013 }}947,700 (2011) total speakers— Wales: 788,000 speakers, 26.7% of the population of Wales,— England: 150,000UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES TITLE=WORLD DIRECTORY OF MINORITIES AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES – UK: WELSH ACCESSDATE=23 MAY 2010 ARCHIVE-DATE=20 MAY 2011 DF=DMY-ALL, — Chubut Province, Argentina: 5,000WALES AND ARGENTINA >URL=HTTP://WWW.WALES.COM/EN/CONTENT/CMS/ENGLISH/INTERNATIONAL_LINKS/WALES_AND_THE_WORLD/WALES_AND_ARGENTINA/WALES_AND_ARGENTINA.ASPX WELSH ASSEMBLY GOVERNMENT >YEAR=2008 WORK=WALES.COM WEBSITE ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20121016085047/HTTP://WWW.WALES.COM/EN/CONTENT/CMS/ENGLISH/INTERNATIONAL_LINKS/WALES_AND_THE_WORLD/WALES_AND_ARGENTINA/WALES_AND_ARGENTINA.ASPX DF=DMY, — United States: 2,500TABLE 1. DETAILED LANGUAGES SPOKEN AT HOME AND ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH FOR THE POPULATION 5 YEARS AND OVER FOR THE UNITED STATES: 2006–2008 RELEASE DATE: APRIL 2010 >URL=HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/HHES/SOCDEMO/LANGUAGE/DATA/OTHER/DETAILED-LANG-TABLES.XLS ACCESSDATE=2 JANUARY 2011 UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU >DATE=27 APRIL 2010 ARCHIVE-DATE=22 SEPTEMBER 2014 DF=DMY-ALL, — Canada: 2,2002006 CENSUS OF CANADA: TOPIC BASED TABULATIONS: VARIOUS LANGUAGES SPOKEN (147), AGE GROUPS (17A) AND SEX (3) FOR THE POPULATION OF CANADA, PROVINCES, TERRITORIES, CENSUS METROPOLITAN AREAS AND CENSUS AGGLOMERATIONS, 2006 CENSUS – 20% SAMPLE DATA >URL=HTTP://WWW12.STATCAN.GC.CA:80/CENSUS-RECENSEMENT/2006/DP-PD/TBT/RP-ENG.CFM?A=R&APATH=3&D1=0&D2=0&D3=0&D4=0&D5=0&D6=0&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=01&GID=837928&GK=1&GRP=1&LANG=E&O=D&PID=89189&PRID=0&PTYPE=88971%2C97154&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&TABID=1&THEME=70&TEMPORAL=2006&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF= PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110826154809/HTTP://WWW12.STATCAN.GC.CA/CENSUS-RECENSEMENT/2006/DP-PD/TBT/RP-ENG.CFM?A=R&APATH=3&D1=0&D2=0&D3=0&D4=0&D5=0&D6=0&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=01&GID=837928&GK=1&GRP=1&LANG=E&O=D&PID=89189&PRID=0&PTYPE=88971%2C97154&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&TABID=1&THEME=70&TEMPORAL=2006&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF= DEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, Wales;Y Wladfa, Chubut Province>ChubutWelsh Language Commissioner — The Welsh Government(previously the Welsh Language Board, )Cardiff: 54,504Swansea: 45,085Newport, Wales>Newport: 18,490STATSWALES >URL=HTTPS://STATSWALES.WALES.GOV.UK/CATALOGUE/WELSH-LANGUAGE/WELSHLANGUAGESKILLS-BY-LOCALAUTHORITY-GENDER-DETAILEDAGEGROUPS-2011CENSUS PUBLISHER=WELSH GOVERNMENT ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20151231222127/HTTPS://STATSWALES.WALES.GOV.UK/CATALOGUE/WELSH-LANGUAGE/WELSHLANGUAGESKILLS-BY-LOCALAUTHORITY-GENDER-DETAILEDAGEGROUPS-2011CENSUS DEAD-URL=YES Bangor, Gwynedd>Bangor: 7,190! scope="row" | IrishGoidelicPUBLISHER=ARCHIVES.TCM.IE ACCESSDATE=19 AUGUST 2011 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20050119114400/HTTP://ARCHIVES.TCM.IE/IRISHEXAMINER/2004/11/24/STORY517225942.ASP DF=DMY-ALL, LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN MULTILINGUAL SETTINGS: IMPLICATIONS FOR LANGUAGE POLICIES >LAST=CHRISTINA BRATT PAULSTON PAGE=81 FIRST=DAVID PUBLISHER=CORK UNIVERSITY PRESS ISBN=1-85918-208-9, Ó HÉALLAITHE >FIRST=DONNCHA JOURNAL=CUISLE, In the Republic of Ireland, 94,000 people use Irish daily outside the education system.HTTP://WWW.CSO.IE/EN/MEDIA/CSOIE/CENSUS/DOCUMENTS/CENSUS2011PDR/PDF%208%20TABLES.PDF >TITLE=WWW.CSO.IE CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE, CENSUS 2011 – THIS IS IRELAND – SEE TABLE 33A ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130525115907/HTTP://WWW.CSO.IE/EN/MEDIA/CSOIE/CENSUS/DOCUMENTS/CENSUS2011PDR/PDF%208%20TABLES.PDF DEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, | 1,887,437Republic of Ireland:1,774,437United Kingdom:95,000United States:18,000| IrelandDublin: 184,140Galway: 37,614Cork (city)>Cork: 57,318CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE >URL=HTTP://WWW.CSO.IE/PX/PXEIRESTAT/STATIRE/SELECTVARVAL/DEFINE.ASP?MAINTABLE=C0905&PLANGUAGE=0 PUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF IRELAND ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160307112148/HTTP://WWW.CSO.IE/PX/PXEIRESTAT/STATIRE/SELECTVARVAL/DEFINE.ASP?MAINTABLE=C0905&PLANGUAGE=0 DEAD-URL=NO Belfast: 30,360DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE AND PERSONNEL TITLE=CENSUS 2011 KEY STATISTICS FOR NORTHERN IRELAND ACCESSDATE=6 MARCH 2016 ARCHIVE-DATE=24 DECEMBER 2012 DF=DMY-ALL, ! scope="row" | BretonBrittonic languages>Brittonic| 206,000Données clés sur breton, Ofis ar Brezhoneg {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120315110648weblink |date=15 March 2012 }}| BrittanyRennes: 7,000Brest, France>Brest: 40,000Nantes: 4,000POLE ÉTUDES ET DéVELOPPEMENT OBSERVATOIRE DES PRATIQUES LINGUISTIQUES >URL=HTTP://WWW.FR.BREZHONEG.BZH/46-SITUATION-DE-LA-LANGUE.HTM PUBLISHER=OFFICE PUBLIC DE LA LANGUE BRETONNE ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160305122618/HTTP://WWW.FR.BREZHONEG.BZH/46-SITUATION-DE-LA-LANGUE.HTM DEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, ! scope="row" | Scottish GaelicGoidelic2011 Scotland Census {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140604200212weblink Scotland as well as 1,275 (2011) in Nova ScotiaHTTP://WWW12.STATCAN.GC.CA/NHS-ENM/2011/DP-PD/PROF/DETAILS/PAGE.CFM?LANG=E&GEO1=PR&CODE1=12&DATA=COUNT&SEARCHTEXT=NOVA%20SCOTIA&SEARCHTYPE=BEGINS&SEARCHPR=01&A1=ALL&B1=ALL&GEOLEVEL=PR&GEOCODE=12 PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA ACCESSDATE=7 JUNE 2014 ARCHIVE-DATE=13 MAY 2014 DF=DMY-ALL, | 87,056 (2011) in Scotland| ScotlandGlasgow: 5,726Edinburgh: 3,220SCOTLAND'S CENSUS TITLE=STANDARD OUTPUTS ACCESSDATE=6 MARCH 2016 ARCHIVE-DATE=5 OCTOBER 2016 DF=DMY-ALL, Aberdeen: 1,397ALISON CAMPSIE >URL=HTTPS://WWW.PRESSANDJOURNAL.CO.UK/FP/UNCATEGORIZED/48308/NEW-BID-TO-GET-US-SPEAKING-IN-GAELIC/ PUBLISHER=THE PRESS AND JOURNAL ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160310172949/HTTPS://WWW.PRESSANDJOURNAL.CO.UK/FP/UNCATEGORIZED/48308/NEW-BID-TO-GET-US-SPEAKING-IN-GAELIC/ DEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, ! scope="row" | CornishBrittonic languages>BrittonicCornish language#Geographic distribution and number of speakers>Number of Cornish speakers 3,000Around 2,000 fluent speakers. 'SOUTH WEST:TEACHINGENGLISH:BRITISH COUNCIL:BBC >URL=HTTP://WWW.TEACHINGENGLISH.ORG.UK/UK-LANGUAGES/SOUTH-WEST PUBLISHER=BBC WORK=BBC/BRITISH COUNCIL WEBSITE ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100108190250/HTTP://WWW.TEACHINGENGLISH.ORG.UK/UK-LANGUAGES/SOUTH-WEST DF=DMY-ALL, | CornwallCornish Language Partnership ()Truro: 118EQUALITIES AND WELLBEING DIVISION TITLE=LANGUAGE IN ENGLAND AND WALES: 2011 ACCESSDATE=6 MARCH 2016 ARCHIVE-DATE=7 MARCH 2016 DF=DMY-ALL, ! scope="row" | ManxGoidelicPUBLISHER=INDEPENDENT.CO.UK ACCESSDATE=2011-08-19 ARCHIVE-DATE=11 SEPTEMBER 2011 DF=DMY-ALL, including a small number of children who are new native speakersHTTP://WWW.SIL.ORG/ISO639-3/DOCUMENTATION.ASP?ID=GLV >TITLE=DOCUMENTATION FOR ISO 639 IDENTIFIER: GLV DATE=14 JANUARY 2008 DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=28 JULY 2011, dmy, PUBLISHER=ECONOMIC AFFAIRS DIVISION, ISLE OF MAN GOVERNMENT TREASURY FORMAT=PDF ACCESSDATE=9 JUNE 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20131105003928/HTTP://WWW.GOV.IM/LIB/DOCS/TREASURY/ECONOMIC/CENSUS/CENSUS2011REPORTFINALRESIZED.PDF DF=DMY, | Isle of ManDouglas, Isle of Man>Douglas: 507SARAH WHITEHEAD >URL=HTTPS://WWW.THEGUARDIAN.COM/EDUCATION/2015/APR/02/HOW-MANX-LANGUAGE-CAME-BACK-FROM-DEAD-ISLE-OF-MAN WORK=THE GUARDIAN ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160305020940/HTTP://WWW.THEGUARDIAN.COM/EDUCATION/2015/APR/02/HOW-MANX-LANGUAGE-CAME-BACK-FROM-DEAD-ISLE-OF-MAN DEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all,

Mixed languages

  • Shelta, based largely on Irish with influence from an undocumented source (some 86,000 speakers in 2009).WEB,weblink Shelta, Ethnologue, 9 March 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100629003323weblink">weblink 29 June 2010, no, dmy-all,
  • Some forms of Welsh-Romani or Kååle also combined Romany itself with Welsh language and English language forms (extinct).WEB,weblink ROMLEX: Romani dialects, Romani.uni-graz.at, 19 August 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110827061815weblink">weblink 27 August 2011, no, dmy-all,
  • Beurla Reagaird, Highland travellers' language

Classification

(File:Celtic language family tree.svg|thumb|Classification of Celtic languages according to Insular vs. Continental hypothesis. (click to enlarge))(File:IndoEuropeanTree.svg|thumb|Classification of Indo-European languages. (click to enlarge))Celtic is divided into various branches:
  • Lepontic, the oldest attested Celtic language (from the 6th century BC). Anciently spoken in Switzerland and in Northern-Central Italy, from the Alps to Umbria. Coins with Lepontic inscriptions have been found in Noricum and Gallia Narbonensis.BOOK, Percivaldi, Elena, I Celti: una civiltà europea, 2003, Giunti Editore, 82, BOOK, Stifter, David, Old Celtic Languages, 2008, 12,weblink 19 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121002035607weblink">weblink 2 October 2012, no, dmy-all, MORANDI 2004, pp. 702-703, n. 277
File:Bronce de Botorrita II.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|The second of the four (Botorrita plaque]]s. The third plaque is the longest text discovered in any ancient Celtic language. This, the second plaque, is inscribed in Latin however.Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia John T. Koch, Vol 1, p. 233)
  • Northeastern Hispano-Celtic/Eastern Hispano-Celtic or Celtiberian, anciently spoken in the Iberian peninsula, (File:Greek and Phoenician Colonies in The Iberian Peninsula.png|thumb|Pre-Roman map of The Iberian Peninsula) in the eastern part of Old Castile and south of Aragon. Modern provinces of Segovia, Burgos, Soria, Guadalajara, Cuenca, Zaragoza and Teruel. The relationship of Celtiberian with Gallaecian, in the northwest of the peninsula, is uncertain.BOOK, Prósper, B.M., Lenguas y religiones prerromanas del occidente de la península ibérica, 2002, Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 84-7800-818-7, 422–27, Villar F., B. M. Prósper. (2005). Vascos, Celtas e Indoeuropeos: genes y lenguas. Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca. pgs. 333–350. {{ISBN|84-7800-530-7}}.
  • Northwestern Hispano-Celtic/Western Hispano-Celtic, anciently spoken in the northwest of the peninsula (modern northern Portugal, Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria and parts of modern Old Castile)."In the northwest of the Iberian Peninula, and more specifically between the west and north Atlantic coasts and an imaginary line running north-south and linking Oviedo and Merida, there is a corpus of Latin inscriptions with particular characteristics of its own. This corpus contains some linguistic features that are clearly Celtic and others that in our opinion are not Celtic. The former we shall group, for the moment, under the label northwestern Hispano-Celtic. The latter are the same features found in well-documented contemporary inscriptions in the region occupied by the Lusitanians, and therefore belonging to the variety known as LUSITANIAN, or more broadly as GALLO-LUSITANIAN. As we have already said, we do not consider this variety to belong to the Celtic language family." Jordán Colera 2007: p.750
  • Gaulish languages, including Galatian and possibly Noric. These languages were once spoken in a wide arc from Belgium to Turkey. They are now all extinct.
  • Brittonic, including the living languages Breton, Cornish, and Welsh, and the extinct languages Cumbric, and Pictish though Pictish may be a sister language rather than a daughter of Common Brittonic.Kenneth H. Jackson suggested that there were two Pictish languages, a pre-Indo-European one and a Pritenic Celtic one. This has been challenged by some scholars. See Katherine Forsyth's "Language in Pictland: the case against 'non-Indo-European Pictish'" WEB,weblink Etext, 20 January 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060219054300weblink">weblink 19 February 2006, no, dmy-all,  {{small|(27.8 MB)}}. See also the introduction by James & Taylor to the "Index of Celtic and Other Elements in W. J. Watson's 'The History of the Celtic Place-names of Scotland'" WEB,weblink Etext, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060220054951weblink">weblink 20 February 2006, dmy,  {{small|(172 KB )}}. Compare also the treatment of Pictish in Price's The Languages of Britain (1984) with his Languages in Britain & Ireland (2000). Before the arrival of Scotti on the Isle of Man in the 9th century, there may have been a Brittonic language on the Isle of Man.
  • Goidelic, including the living languages Irish, Manx, and Scottish Gaelic.
Scholarly handling of the Celtic languages has been contentious owing to scarceness of primary source data. Some scholars (such as Cowgill 1975; McCone 1991, 1992; and Schrijver 1995) distinguish Continental Celtic and Insular Celtic, arguing that the differences between the Goidelic and Brittonic languages arose after these split off from the Continental Celtic languages.NEWS,weblink What are the Celtic Languages? — Celtic Studies Resources, Celtic Studies Resources, 2017-09-18, en-US,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171010203551weblink">weblink 10 October 2017, no, dmy-all, Other scholars (such as Schmidt 1988) distinguish between P-Celtic and Q-Celtic, putting most of the Gaulish and Brittonic languages in the former group and the Goidelic and Celtiberian languages in the latter. The P-Celtic languages (also called Gallo-Brittonic) are sometimes seen (for example by Koch 1992) as a central innovating area as opposed to the more conservative peripheral Q-Celtic languages.The Breton language is Brittonic, not Gaulish, though there may be some input from the latter,BOOK, Barbour and Carmichael, Stephen and Cathie, Language and nationalism in Europe, 2000, Oxford University Press, 56,weblink 978-0-19-823671-9, having been introduced from Southwestern regions of Britain in the post-Roman era and having evolved into Breton.In the P/Q classification schema, the first language to split off from Proto-Celtic was Gaelic. It has characteristics that some scholars see as archaic, but others see as also being in the Brittonic languages (see Schmidt). In the Insular/Continental classification schema, the split of the former into Gaelic and Brittonic is seen as being late.The distinction of Celtic into these four sub-families most likely occurred about 900 BC according to Gray and AtkinsonJOURNAL, 10.1038/nature02029, Gray and Atkinson, RD, Atkinson, QD, Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin, Nature, 426, 6965, 435–439, 2003, 14647380, 2003Natur.426..435G, JOURNAL, 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2003.tb00299.x, Rexova, K., Frynta, D, Zrzavy, J., 2003, Cladistic analysis of languages: Indo-European classification based on lexicostatistical data, Cladistics, 19, 2, 120–127, but, because of estimation uncertainty, it could be any time between 1200 and 800 BC. However, they only considered Gaelic and Brythonic. The controversial paper by Forster and TothJOURNAL, Forster, Peter, Toth, Alfred, 2003, Toward a phylogenetic chronology of ancient Gaulish, Celtic, and Indo-European, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100, 15, 9079–9084, 12837934, 10.1073/pnas.1331158100, 166441, 2003PNAS..100.9079F, included Gaulish and put the break-up much earlier at 3200 BC ± 1500 years. They support the Insular Celtic hypothesis. The early Celts were commonly associated with the archaeological Urnfield culture, the Hallstatt culture, and the La Tène culture, though the earlier assumption of association between language and culture is now considered to be less strong.BOOK, Renfrew, Colin, Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins, 1987, Jonathan Cape, London, 0224024957, BOOK, James, Simon, The Atlantic Celts: Ancient People or Modern Invention?, 1999, British Museum Press, London, 0714121657, File:Map of Celtic Nations-flag shades.svg|right|thumb|upright=0.8|The Celtic nations, where Celtic languages are spoken today, or were spoken into the modern era:{{legend|#009E60|Ireland (Irish)}}{{legend|#0072C6|Scotland (Scottish Gaelic)}}{{legend|#D3B04A|Isle of Man (Manx)}}{{legend|red|Wales (Welsh)}}{{legend|#FFD700|Cornwall (Cornish)}}{{legend|black|Brittany (Breton)}}]]There are legitimate scholarly arguments in favour of both the Insular Celtic hypothesis and the P-Celtic/Q-Celtic hypothesis. Proponents of each schema dispute the accuracy and usefulness of the other's categories. However, since the 1970s the division into Insular and Continental Celtic has become the more widely held view (Cowgill 1975; McCone 1991, 1992; Schrijver 1995), but in the middle of the 1980s, the P-Celtic/Q-Celtic hypothesis found new supporters (Lambert 1994), because of the inscription on the Larzac piece of lead (1983), the analysis of which reveals another common phonetical innovation -nm- > -nu (Gaelic ainm / Gaulish anuana, Old Welsh enuein "names"), that is less accidental than only one. The discovery of a third common innovation would allow the specialists to come to the conclusion of a Gallo-Brittonic dialect (Schmidt 1986; Fleuriot 1986).The interpretation of this and further evidence is still quite contested, and the main argument in favour of Insular Celtic is connected with the development of the verbal morphology and the syntax in Irish and British Celtic, which Schumacher regards as convincing, while he considers the P-Celtic/Q-Celtic division unimportant and treats Gallo-Brittonic as an outdated hypothesis.BOOK, Schumacher, Stefan, Schulze-Thulin, Britta, aan de Wiel, Caroline, Die keltischen Primärverben. Ein vergleichendes, etymologisches und morphologisches Lexikon, 2004, Institut für Sprachen und Kulturen der Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, 3-85124-692-6, 84–87, German, Stifter affirms that the Gallo-Brittonic view is "out of favour" in the scholarly community as of 2008 and the Insular Celtic hypothesis "widely accepted".BOOK, Stifter, David, Old Celtic Languages, 2008, 11,weblink 19 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121002035607weblink">weblink 2 October 2012, no, dmy-all, When referring only to the modern Celtic languages, since no Continental Celtic language has living descendants, "Q-Celtic" is equivalent to "Goidelic" and "P-Celtic" is equivalent to "Brittonic".Within the Indo-European family, the Celtic languages have sometimes been placed with the Italic languages in a common Italo-Celtic subfamily, a hypothesis that is now largely discarded, in favour of the assumption of language contact between pre-Celtic and pre-Italic communities.{{citation needed|date = August 2014}}How the family tree of the Celtic languages is ordered depends on which hypothesis is used:{{col-begin|width=40%}}{{col-2}}"Insular Celtic hypothesis" {{col-break}}"P-Celtic hypothesis" {{col-end}}

Eska (2010)

Eska (2010)Joseph F. Eska (2010) "The emergence of the Celtic languages". In Martin J. Ball and Nicole Müller (eds.), The Celtic languages. Routledge. evaluates the evidence as supporting the following tree, based on shared innovations, though it is not always clear that the innovations are not areal features. It seems likely that Celtiberian split off before Cisalpine Celtic, but the evidence for this is not robust. On the other hand, the unity of Gaulish, Goidelic, and Brittonic is reasonably secure. Schumacher (2004, p. 86) had already cautiously considered this grouping to be likely genetic, based, among others, on the shared reformation of the sentence-initial, fully inflecting relative pronoun *i̯os, *i̯ā, *i̯od into an uninflected enclitic particle. Eska sees Cisalpine Gaulish as more akin to Lepontic than to Transalpine Gaulish. Transalpine Gaulish† ("Transalpine Celtic") Insular Celtic* Goidelic* BrittonicEska considers a division of Transalpine–Goidelic–Brittonic into Transalpine and Insular Celtic to be most probable because of the greater number of innovations in Insular Celtic than in P-Celtic, and because the Insular Celtic languages were probably not in great enough contact for those innovations to spread as part of a sprachbund. However, if they have another explanation (such as an SOV substratum language), then it is possible that P-Celtic is a valid clade, and the top branching would be:

Characteristics

Although there are many differences between the individual Celtic languages, they do show many family resemblances.
  • consonant mutations (Insular Celtic only)
  • inflected prepositions (Insular Celtic only)
  • two grammatical genders (modern Insular Celtic only; Old Irish and the Continental languages had three genders, although Gaulish may have merged the neuter and masculine in its later forms)BOOK,weblink The Celts: History, Life, and Culture, Koch, John T., Minard, Antone, 2012-08-08, ABC-CLIO, 9781598849646, en, 18 September 2017,weblink 10 October 2017, no, dmy-all, {{citation needed|date=September 2012}}
  • a vigesimal number system (counting by twenties)
    • Cornish "fifty-six" (literally "sixteen and two twenty")
  • verb–subject–object (VSO) word order (probably Insular Celtic only)
  • an interplay between the subjunctive, future, imperfect, and habitual, to the point that some tenses and moods have ousted others
  • an impersonal or autonomous verb form serving as a passive or intransitive
    • Welsh ' "I teach" vs. ' "is taught, one teaches"
    • Irish ' "I teach" vs. ' "is taught, one teaches"
  • no infinitives, replaced by a quasi-nominal verb form called the verbal noun or verbnoun
  • frequent use of vowel mutation as a morphological device, e.g. formation of plurals, verbal stems, etc.
  • use of preverbal particles to signal either subordination or illocutionary force of the following clause
    • mutation-distinguished subordinators/relativisers
    • particles for negation, interrogation, and occasionally for affirmative declarations
  • infixed pronouns positioned between particles and verbs
  • lack of simple verb for the imperfective "have" process, with possession conveyed by a composite structure, usually BE + preposition
    • Cornish "I have a cat", literally "there is a cat to me"
    • Welsh "I have a cat", literally "a cat is with me"
  • use of periphrastic constructions to express verbal tense, voice, or aspectual distinctions
  • distinction by function of the two versions of BE verbs traditionally labelled substantive (or existential) and copula
  • bifurcated demonstrative structure
  • suffixed pronominal supplements, called confirming or supplementary pronouns
  • use of singulars or special forms of counted nouns, and use of a singulative suffix to make singular forms from plurals, where older singulars have disappeared
Examples:
: (Literal translation) Don't bother with son the beggar's and not will-bother son the beggar's with-you. * ' is the genitive of '. The ' the result of affection; the ' is the lenited form of . * ' is the second person singular inflected form of the preposition '. * The order is verb–subject–object (VSO) in the second half. Compare this to English or French (and possibly Continental Celtic) which are normally subject–verb–object in word order.
: (Literally) four on fifteen and four twenties * ' is a mutated form of ', which is ' ("five") plus ' ("ten"). Likewise, ' is a mutated form of '. * The multiples of ten are .*

Comparison table

The lexical similarity between the different Celtic languages is apparent in their core vocabulary, especially in terms of the actual pronunciation of the words. Moreover, the phonetic differences between languages are often the product of regular sound change (i.e. lenition of /b/ into /v/ or Ø).The table below contains words in the modern languages that were inherited directly from Proto-Celtic, as well as a few old borrowings from Latin that made their way into all the daughter languages. Among the modern languages, there is often a closer match between Welsh, Breton, and Cornish on one hand, and Irish, Gaelic and Manx on the other. For a fuller list of comparisons, see the (wiktionary:Appendix:Celtic Swadesh lists|Swadesh list for Celtic).{| class="wikitable sortable"!English! Welsh !! BretonWEB,weblink Dictionnaires bretons parlants, !! Cornish !! IrishWEB,weblink Trinity College Phonetics and Speech Lab, !! Scottish GaelicWEB,weblink Learn Gaelic Dictionary, !! Manx| bee | big |dogarchaic cú | fish | full | goat | house | lip (anatomical) | mouth of a river | four | night | number††† | three | milk† | you (sg) | star | today|tooth| (to) fall| (to) smoke| (to) whistle† Borrowings from Latin.

Examples

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Possibly Celtic languages

It has been suggested that several poorly-documented languages may possibly have been Celtic.
  • Camunic is an extinct language which was spoken in the first millennium BC in the Valcamonica and Valtellina valleys of the Central Alps. It has most recently been proposed to be a Celtic language.BOOK, Markey, Thomas, Shared Symbolics, Genre Diffusion, Token Perception and Late Literacy in North-Western Europe, 2008, NOWELE,
  • Ligurian was spoken in the Northern Mediterranean Coast straddling the southeast French and northwest Italian coasts, including parts of Tuscany, Elba island and Corsica. Xavier Delamarre argues that Ligurian was a Celtic language, similar to, but not the same as Gaulish.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2015-03-04, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130518143426weblink">weblink 18 May 2013, dmy, The Ligurian-Celtic question is also discussed by Barruol (1999). Ancient Ligurian is either listed as Celtic (epigraphic),BOOK, Kruta, Venceslas, The Celts, 1991, Thames and Hudson, 54, or Para-Celtic (onomastic).BOOK, Kruta, Venceslas, The Celts, 1991, Thames and Hudson, 55,
  • Lusitanian was spoken in the area between the Douro and Tagus rivers of western Iberia (a region straddling the present border of Portugal and Spain). It is known from only five inscriptions and various place names. It is an Indo-European language and some scholars have proposed that it may be a para-Celtic language, which evolved alongside Celtic or formed a dialect continuum or sprachbund with Tartessian and Gallaecian. This is tied to a theory of an Iberian origin for the Celtic languages.BOOK, Wodtko, Dagmar S, Celtic from the West Chapter 11: The Problem of Lusitanian, 2010, Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK, 978-1-84217-410-4, 360–361, JOURNAL, Ballester, X., "Páramo" o del problema del la /p/ en celtoide, Studi Celtici, 2004, 3, 45–56,


It is also possible that the Q-Celtic languages alone, including Goidelic, originated in western Iberia (a theory that was first put forward by Edward Lhuyd in 1707) or shared a common linguistic ancestor with Lusitanian.Unity in Diversity, Volume 2: Cultural and Linguistic Markers of the Concept Editors: Sabine Asmus and Barbara Braid. Google Books. Secondary evidence for this hypothesis has been found in research by biological scientists, who have identified (firstly) deep-rooted similarities in human DNA found precisely in both the former Lusitania and Ireland,JOURNAL, Hill, E. W., Jobling, M. A., Bradley, D. G., 2000, Y chromosome variation and Irish origins, Nature, 404, 351–352, 10.1038/35006158, 10746711, JOURNAL, McEvoy, B., Richards, M., Forster, P., Bradley, D. G., 2004, The longue durée of genetic ancestry: multiple genetic marker systems and Celtic origins on the Atlantic facade of Europe, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 75, 693–702, 10.1086/424697, 15309688, 1182057, and; (secondly) the so-called "Lusitanian distribution" of animals and plants unique to western Iberia and Ireland. Both of these phenomena are now generally believed to have resulted from human emigration from Iberia to Ireland, during the late Paleolithic or early Mesolithic eras.JOURNAL, Masheretti, S., Rogatcheva, M. B., Gündüz, I., Fredga, K., Searle, J. B., 2003, How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences, Proc. R. Soc. B, 270, 1593–1599,weblink 10.1098/rspb.2003.2406, 1691416, {{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Other scholars see greater linguistic affinities between Lusitanian, proto-Italic and Old European.BOOK, Villar, Francisco, Indoeuropeos y no indoeuropeos en la Hispania Prerromana, 2000, Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, 84-7800-968-X, 1st,weblink 22 September 2014, Spanish, The inscription of Cabeço das Fráguas revisited. Lusitanian and Alteuropäisch populations in the West of the Iberian Peninsula Transactions of the Philological Society vol. 97 (2003)
  • Pictish was for a long time thought to be a pre-Celtic, non-Indo-European language of Scotland. Some believe it was an Insular Celtic language allied to the P-Celtic language Brittonic (descendants Welsh, Cornish, Cumbric, Breton).{{harvnb|Forsyth|2006|p=1447}}; {{harvnb|Forsyth|1997}}; {{harvnb|Fraser|2009|pp=52–53}}; {{harvnb|Woolf|2007|pp=322–340}}
  • Rhaetian was spoken in central parts of present-day Switzerland, Tyrol in Austria, and the Alpine regions of northeastern Italy. It is documented by a limited number of short inscriptions (found through Northern Italy and Western Austria) in two variants of the Etruscan alphabet. Its linguistic categorization is not clearly established, and it presents a confusing mixture of what appear to be Etruscan, Indo-European, and uncertain other elements. Howard Hayes Scullard argues that Rhaetian was also a Celtic language.BOOK, Scullard, HH, The Etruscan Cities and Rome, 1967, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY,
  • Tartessian, spoken in the southwest of the Iberia Peninsula (mainly southern Portugal and southwestern Spain).BOOK, Koch, John T, Celtic from the West Chapter 9: Paradigm Shift? Interpreting Tartessian as Celtic, 2010, Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK, 978-1-84217-410-4, 292–293, Tartessian is known by 95 inscriptions, with the longest having 82 readable signs.BOOK, Cunliffe, Barry, The Celts – A Very Short Introduction – see figure 7, 2003, Oxford University Press, 0-19-280418-9, 51–52, JOURNAL, Cólera, Carlos Jordán, The Celts in the Iberian Peninsula:Celtiberian, e-Keltoi, March 16, 2007, 6, 749–750,weblink 16 June 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110624081159weblink">weblink 24 June 2011, no, dmy-all, BOOK, Koch, John T, Tartessian 2: The Inscription of Mesas do Castelinho ro and the Verbal Complex. Preliminaries to Historical Phonology, 2011,weblinkLocation/Oxbow, Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK, 978-1-907029-07-3, 1–198, yes, https:web.archive.org/web/20110723195518weblink 23 July 2011, dmy-all, John T. Koch argues that Tartessian was also a Celtic language.
  • '''Ivernic

See also

Notes

{{Reflist|30em}}

References

  • Ball, Martin J. & James Fife (ed.) (1993). The Celtic Languages. London: Routledge. {{ISBN|0-415-01035-7}}.
  • Borsley, Robert D. & Ian Roberts (ed.) (1996). The Syntax of the Celtic Languages: A Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. {{ISBN|0521481600}}.
  • BOOK, Cowgill, Warren, Warren Cowgill, 1975, The origins of the Insular Celtic conjunct and absolute verbal endings, H. Rix, Flexion und Wortbildung: Akten der V. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, Regensburg, 9.–14. September 1973, Wiesbaden, 40–70, Reichert, 3-920153-40-5,
  • Celtic Linguistics, 1700–1850 (2000). London; New York: Routledge. 8 vols comprising 15 texts originally published between 1706 and 1844.
  • JOURNAL, Forster, Peter, Toth, Alfred, Toward a phylogenetic chronology of ancient Gaulish, Celtic, and Indo-European, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 100, 15, 9079–84, July 2003, 12837934, 166441, 10.1073/pnas.1331158100,weblink 2003PNAS..100.9079F,
  • JOURNAL, Gray, Russell D., Atkinson, Quintin D., Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin, Nature, 426, 6965, 435–39, November 2003, 14647380, 10.1038/nature02029, 2003Natur.426..435G,
  • BOOK, Hindley, Reg, The Death of the Irish Language: A Qualified Obituary, Routledge, 1990, 0-415-04339-5,
  • Lewis, Henry & Holger Pedersen (1989). A Concise Comparative Celtic Grammar. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. {{ISBN|3-525-26102-0}}.
  • JOURNAL, McCone, Kim, 1991, The PIE stops and syllabic nasals in Celtic, Studia Celtica Japonica, 4, 37–69,
  • BOOK, McCone, Kim, 1992, Relative Chronologie: Keltisch, Rekonstruktion und relative Chronologie: Akten Der VIII. Fachtagung Der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, Leiden, 31 August – 4 September 1987, R. Beekes, A. Lubotsky, J. Weitenberg, 12–39, Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck, 3-85124-613-6,
  • BOOK, McCone, K., 1996, Towards a Relative Chronology of Ancient and Medieval Celtic Sound Change, Maynooth, Department of Old and Middle Irish, St. Patrick's College, 0-901519-40-5,
  • BOOK, Russell, Paul, An Introduction to the Celtic Languages, Longman, 1995, 0582100828,
  • BOOK, Schmidt, K.H., 1988, On the reconstruction of Proto-Celtic, G. W. MacLennan, Proceedings of the First North American Congress of Celtic Studies, Ottawa 1986, 231–48, Ottawa, Chair of Celtic Studies, 0-09-693260-0,
  • BOOK, Schrijver, Peter, 1995, Studies in British Celtic historical phonology, Amsterdam, Rodopi, 90-5183-820-4,
  • BOOK, Schumacher, Stefan, Schulze-Thulin, Britta, aan de Wiel, Caroline, Die keltischen Primärverben. Ein vergleichendes, etymologisches und morphologisches Lexikon, 2004, Institut für Sprachen und Kulturen der Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, 3-85124-692-6, German,

External links

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