SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

Jainism

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Jainism
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{Redirect|Jain}}{{pp|small=yes}}{{Use dmy dates|date=February 2016}}{{Use Indian English|date=December 2015}}







factoids
{{Jainism}}Jainism ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|dʒ|eɪ|n|ɪ|z|əm}}),{{citation|title="Jainism" (ODE)|url=http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/Jainism|website=Oxford Dictionaries|access-date=5 October 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150924121934weblink|archive-date=24 September 2015|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}} traditionally known as Jain Dharma,{{sfn|Sangave|2006|p=15}} is an ancient Indian religion.{{sfn|Sangave|2001|p=185, Quote: "Jainism is an ancient Indian religion and from ancient times to the present day, it has continued to flourish, along with other religions, in different parts of India".}} Followers of Jainism are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life.Tirthankara: Jainism {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170817043220weblink |date=17 August 2017 }}, Encyclopedia Britannica Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviours and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who according to Jain tradition lived millions of years ago, twenty-third being Parshvanatha in 8th century BC and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology.The main religious premises of Jainism are ahiṃsā (non-violence), anekāntavāda (many-sidedness), aparigraha (non-attachment) and asceticism. Devout Jains take five main vows: ahiṃsā (non-violence), satya (truth), asteya (not stealing), brahmacharya (celibacy or chastity), and aparigraha (non-attachment). These principles have impacted Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles. Parasparopagraho Jīvānām (the function of souls is to help one another) is the motto of Jainism. Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most common and basic prayer in Jainism.{{sfn|Voorst|2015|p=107}}Jainism has two major ancient sub-traditions, Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras; and several smaller sub-traditions that emerged in the 2nd millennium CE. The Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras have different views on ascetic practices, gender and which Jain texts can be considered canonical. Jain mendicants are found in all Jain sub-traditions, with laypersons (śrāvakas) supporting the mendicants' spiritual pursuits with resources.Jainism has between four and five million followers, with most Jains residing in India.{{sfn|Melton|Baumann|2010|p=lix, 1395}} Outside India, some of the largest Jain communities are present in Canada, Europe, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Suriname, Fiji, and the United States. Major Jain festivals include Paryushana and Daslakshana, Mahavir Jayanti, and Diwali.{{TOC limit|3}}

Main principles

Non-violence (ahimsa)

{{anchor|ahiṃsā}}File:Ahinsa Parmo Dharm.jpg|thumb|Painting with the message Ahiṃsā Paramo Dharma (non-violence is the highest virtue or religion)]]File:Ahimsa.svg|thumb|The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes Ahiṃsā in Jainism. The word in the middle is ahiṃsā. The wheel represents the dharmachakradharmachakraThe principle of ahimsa (non-violence or non-injury) is a fundamental tenet of Jainism.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=160}} It believes that one must abandon all violent activity, and without such a commitment to non-violence all religious behavior is worthless.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=160}} In Jain theology, it does not matter how correct or defensible the violence may be, one must not kill any being, and "non-violence is one's highest religious duty".{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=160}}{{sfn|Markham|Lohr|2009|p=71}}Jain texts such as Acaranga Sūtra and Tattvarthasūtra state that one must renounce all killing of living beings, whether tiny or large, movable or immovable.{{sfn|Price|2010|p=90}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=160–162}} Its theology teaches that one must neither kill another living being, nor cause another to kill, nor consent to any killing directly or indirectly.{{sfn|Price|2010|p=90}}{{sfn|Markham|Lohr|2009|p=71}} Furthermore, Jainism emphasizes non-violence against all beings not only in action but also in speech and in thought.{{sfn|Price|2010|p=90}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=160–162}} It states that instead of hate or violence against anyone, "all living creatures must help each other".{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=160–162}}{{refn|group=note|This view, however, is not shared by all Jain sub-traditions. For example, the Terapanthi Jain tradition, with about 250,000 followers, considers both good karma such as compassionate charity, and bad karma such as sin, as binding one's soul to worldly morality. It states that any karma leads to a negation of the "absolute non-violence" principle, given man's limited perspective. It recommends that the monk or nun seeking salvation must avoid hurting or helping any being in any form.{{sfn|Flügel|2002|pp=1266–1267}}}} Violence negatively affects and destroys one's soul, particularly when the violence is done with intent, hate or carelessness, or when one indirectly causes or consents to the killing of a human or non-human living being.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=160–162}}The idea of reverence for non-violence (ahiṃsā) is founded in Hindu and Buddhist canonical texts, and it may have origins in more ancient Brahmanical Vedic thoughts.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=160}}John Arapura in K. R. Sundararajan and Bithika Mukerji Ed. (1997), Hindu spirituality: Postclassical and modern, {{ISBN|978-81-208-1937-5}}; Chapter 20, pp. 392–417A Izawa (2008), Empathy for Pain in Vedic Ritual, Journal of the International College for Advanced Buddhist Studies, Kokusai Bukkyōgaku Daigakuin Daigaku, Vol. 12, pp. 78–81 However, no other Indian religion has developed the non-violence doctrine and its implications on everyday life as has Jainism.{{sfn|Sethia|2004|p=2}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=176–177}}{{sfn|Winternitz|1993|pp=408–409}}The theological basis of non-violence as the highest religious duty has been interpreted by some Jain scholars not to "be driven by merit from giving or compassion to other creatures, nor a duty to rescue all creatures", but resulting from "continual self-discipline", a cleansing of the soul that leads to one's own spiritual development which ultimately affects one's salvation and release from rebirths.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=88–89, 257–258}} Causing injury to any being in any form creates bad karma which affects one's rebirth, future well being and suffering.{{sfn|Taylor|2008|pp=892–894}}JOURNAL, The violence of non-violence: a study of some Jain responses to non-Jain religious practices, The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, 15, 1992, 1, Phyllis Granoff,weblink 2 May 2017,weblink 23 April 2017, no, dmy-all, Late medieval Jain scholars re-examined the Ahiṃsā doctrine when one is faced with external threat or violence. For example, they justified violence by monks to protect nuns.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=162–163}}{{sfn|Lorenzen|1978|pp=61–75}} According to Dundas, the Jain scholar Jinadatta Suri wrote during a time of Muslim destruction of temples and persecution that "anybody engaged in a religious activity who was forced to fight and kill somebody would not lose any spiritual merit but instead attain deliverance".{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=163}} However, such examples in Jain texts that condone fighting and killing under certain circumstances are relatively rare.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=162–163}}{{refn|group=note|Jain literature, like Buddhist and Hindu literature, has also debated the aspects of violence and non-violence in food creation.{{sfn|Olson|2014|pp=1–7}}}}

Many-sided reality (anekāntavāda)

The second main principle of Jainism is anekāntavāda or anekantatva,{{sfn|Charitrapragya|2004|pp=75–79}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=229–231}} a word derived from anekānta (not one ended, sided", "many-sidedness" or "manifoldness) and vada (doctrine", "way).{{sfn|Charitrapragya|2004|pp=75–79}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=229–231}}Grimes, John (1996) p. 34; BOOK, Philip C. Almond, Mystical Experience and Religious Doctrine: An Investigation of the Study of Mysticism in World Religions, {{Google books, CBSn4dR087YC, yes, |year=1982|publisher= Walter de Gruyter|isbn=978-90-279-3160-3|page=75}}The anekāntavāda doctrine states that truth and reality is complex and always has multiple aspects. Reality can be experienced, but it is not possible to totally express it with language. Human attempts to communicate is Naya, explained as "partial expression of the truth".{{sfn|Charitrapragya|2004|pp=75–79}} Language is not Truth, but a means and attempt to express Truth. From Truth, according to Mahāvīra, language returns and not the other way round.{{sfn|Charitrapragya|2004|pp=75–79}} One can experience the truth of a taste, but cannot fully express that taste through language. Any attempts to express the experience is syāt, or valid "in some respect" but it remains a "perhaps, just one perspective, incomplete".Jain philosophy {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150221042158weblink |date=21 February 2015 }}, IEP, Mark Owen Webb, Texas Tech University In the same way, spiritual truths are complex, they have multiple aspects, and language cannot express their plurality, yet through effort and appropriate karma they can be experienced.{{sfn|Charitrapragya|2004|pp=75–79}} Since reality is many-sided the great error, according to Jainism, is ekānta (one-sidedness) where some relative truth is treated as an absolute truth to the exclusion of others.BOOK, Schwartz, Wm. Andrew, The Metaphysics of Paradox: Jainism, Absolute Relativity, and Religious Pluralism, 2018, Lexington Books, 978-1-4985-6392-5,weblink 23 August 2018,weblink 24 August 2018, no, dmy-all, The anekāntavāda premise of the Jains is ancient, as evidenced by its mention in Buddhist texts such as the Samaññaphala Sutta. The Jain Agamas suggest that Mahāvīra's approach to answering all metaphysical philosophical questions was a "qualified yes" (syāt).{{sfn|Matilal|1990|pp=301–305}}{{sfn|Balcerowicz|2015|pp=205–218}} These texts identify anekāntavāda doctrine to be one of the key differences between the teachings of the Mahāvīra and those of the Buddha. The Buddha taught the Middle Way, rejecting extremes of the answer "it is" or "it is not" to metaphysical questions. The Mahāvīra, in contrast, taught his followers to accept both "it is", and "it is not", with "perhaps" qualification and with reconciliation to understand the Absolute Reality.{{sfn|Matilal|1998|pp=128–135}} Syādvāda (predication logic) and nayavāda (perspective epistemology) of Jainism expand on the concept of anekāntavāda. Syādvāda recommends the expression of anekānta by prefixing the epithet syād to every phrase or expression describing the "permanent being".{{sfn|Koller|2000|pp=400–407}}{{sfn|Sangave|2006|p=48–51}} There is no creator God in Jainism; existence has neither beginning nor end, and the permanent being is conceptualized as jiva (soul) and ajiva (matter) within a dualistic anekāntavāda framework.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=90–99, 104–105, 229–233}}According to Paul Dundas, in contemporary times the anekāntavāda doctrine has been interpreted by some Jains as intending to "promote a universal religious tolerance", and a teaching of "plurality" and "benign attitude to other [ethical, religious] positions". Dundas states this is problematic and a misreading of Jain historical texts and Mahāvīra's teachings.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=232–234}} The "many pointedness, multiple perspective" teachings of the Mahāvīra is a doctrine about the nature of absolute reality and human existence, and it is sometimes called "non-absolutism" doctrine.{{sfn|Sethia|2004|pp=86–91}} However, it is not a doctrine about tolerating or condoning activities such as sacrificing or killing animals for food, nor violence against disbelievers or any other living being as "perhaps right".{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=232–234}} The five vows for Jain monks and nuns, for example, are strict requirements and there is no "perhaps" or "that is just one perspective" about them.{{sfn|Long|2009|pp=98–106}} Similarly, since ancient times, Jainism co-existed with Buddhism and Hinduism according to Dundas, but Jainism was highly critical of the knowledge systems and ideologies of its rivals, and vice versa.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=233}}

Non-attachment (aparigraha)

{{anchor|aparigraha}}The third main principle in Jainism is aparigraha which means non-attachment to worldly possessions.{{sfn|Natubhai Shah|2004|p=112}} For ascetics, Jainism requires a vow of complete non-possession of any property. For Jain laypersons, it recommends limited possession of property that has been honestly earned, and giving excess property to charity.{{sfn|Natubhai Shah|2004|p=112}} According to Natubhai Shah, aparigraha applies to both the material and the psychic. Material possessions refer to various forms of property. Psychic possessions refer to emotions, likes and dislikes, and attachments of any form. Unchecked attachment to possessions is said to result in direct harm to one's personality.{{sfn|Natubhai Shah|2004|pp=112–113}}Jainism views attachments to material or emotional possessions as what leads to passions, which in turn leads to violence.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=160}} According to the aparigraha principle, a Jain monk or nun is expected to be homeless and family-less with no emotional longings or attachments.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=117, 152}} The ascetic is a wandering mendicant in the Digambara tradition, or a resident mendicant in the Śvētāmbara tradition.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=117, 152}}In addition, Jain texts mention that "attachment to possessions" (parigraha) is of two kinds: attachment to internal possessions (ābhyantara parigraha), and attachment to external possessions (bāhya parigraha).{{sfn|Vijay K. Jain|2012|p=76}} For internal possessions, Jainism identifies four key passions of the mind (kashaya): anger, pride (ego), deceitfulness, and greed. In addition to the four passions of the mind, the remaining ten internal passions are: wrong belief, the three sex-passions (male sex-passion, female sex-passion, neuter sex-passion), and the six defects (laughter, like, dislike, sorrow, fear, disgust).{{sfn|Vijay K. Jain|2012|p=77}}{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=118–119}}

Jain ethics and five vows

{{see also|Yamas#Five Yamas}}File:Nishidhi stone with 14th century Old Kannada inscription from Tavanandi forest.JPG|Nishidhi stone, depicting the vow of sallekhana, 14th century, thumbJainism teaches five ethical duties, which it calls five vows. These are called anuvratas (small vows) for Jain laypersons, and mahavratas (great vows) for Jain mendicants.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=228–231}} For both, its moral precepts preface that the Jain has access to a guru (teacher", "counsellor), deva (Jina", "god), doctrine, and that the individual is free from five offences: doubts about the faith, indecisiveness about the truths of Jainism, sincere desire for Jain teachings, recognition of fellow Jains, and admiration for their spiritual pursuits.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=228}} Such a person undertakes the following Five vows of Jainism:
  1. Ahiṃsā, "intentional non-violence" or "noninjury":{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=228}} The first major vow taken by Jains is to cause no harm to other human beings, as well as all living beings (particularly animals).{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=228}} This is the highest ethical duty in Jainism, and it applies not only to one's actions, but demands that one be non-violent in one's speech and thoughts.{{citation |last=Shah |first=Pravin K |title=Five Great Vows (Maha-vratas) of Jainism |url=http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~pluralsm/affiliates/jainism/jainedu/5greatvows.htm |publisher=Harvard University Literature Center |date=2011 |access-date=7 May 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141231033127weblink |archive-date=31 December 2014 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}{{sfn|Vijay K. Jain|2012|p=33}}
  2. Satya, "truth": This vow is to always speak the truth. Neither lie, nor speak what is not true, and do not encourage others or approve anyone who speaks an untruth.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=228–231}}
  3. Asteya, "not stealing": A Jain layperson should not take anything that is not willingly given.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=228}}{{sfn|Vijay K. Jain|2012|p=68}} Additionally, a Jain mendicant should ask for permission to take it if something is being given.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=231}}
  4. Brahmacharya, "celibacy": Abstinence from sex and sensual pleasures is prescribed for Jain monks and nuns. For laypersons, the vow means chastity, faithfulness to one's partner.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=228–231}}
  5. Aparigraha, "non-possessiveness": This includes non-attachment to material and psychological possessions, avoiding craving and greed.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=228–231}} Jain monks and nuns completely renounce property and social relations, own nothing and are attached to no one.{{sfn|Natubhai Shah|2004|p=112}}{{sfn|Long|2009|p=109}}

Practices

Asceticism

Of all the major Indian religions, Jainism has had the strongest austerity-driven ascetic tradition, and it is an essential part of a mendicant's spiritual pursuits.{{sfn|Cort|2001a|pp=118–122}}{{sfn|Caillat|2003b|p=113}}{{sfn|Flügel|2003|pp=169–174, 178–198 with footnotes}} Ascetic life may include nakedness symbolizing non-possession of even clothes, fasting, body mortification, penance, and other austerities, in order to burn away past karma and stop producing new karma, both of which are believed in Jainism to be essential for reaching siddha and moksha (liberation from rebirths", and "salvation).{{sfn|Cort|2001a|pp=118–122}}{{sfn|Fujinaga|2003|pp=205–212 with footnotes}}{{sfn|Balcerowicz|2015|pp=144–150}}Jain texts like Tattvartha Sūtra and Uttaradhyayana Sūtra discuss ascetic austerities to great lengths and formulations. Six outer and six inner practices are most common, and oft-repeated in later Jain texts.{{sfn|Cort|2001a|pp=120–21}} According to John Cort, outer austerities include complete fasting, eating limited amounts, eating restricted items, abstaining from tasty foods, mortifying the flesh, and guarding the flesh (avoiding anything that is a source of temptation).{{sfn|Cort|2001a|pp=120–122}} Inner austerities include expiation, confession, respecting and assisting mendicants, studying, meditation, and ignoring bodily wants in order to abandon the body.{{sfn|Cort|2001a|pp=120–122}}Lists of internal and external austerities in Jainism varies with the text and tradition.{{sfn|Flügel|2003|p=182 with footnote 3}}{{sfn|Johnson|1995|pp=196–197}} Asceticism is viewed as a means to control desires, and a means to purify the jiva (soul).{{sfn|Flügel|2003|pp=169–174, 178–198 with footnotes}} The tirthankaras of Jainism, such as the Mahāvīra (Vardhamana) set an example of leading an ascetic life by performing severe austerities for twelve years.{{sfn|Cort|2001a|pp=121–122}}{{citation|last1=Jain|first1=Shanti Lal|title=ABC of Jainism|year=1998|publisher=Jnanodaya Vidyapeeth |isbn=978-81-7628-000-6|p=51}}{{sfn|Balcerowicz|2015|pp=15–18, 41–43}}

Food and fasting

The practice of non-violence towards all living beings has led to Jain culture being vegetarian. Devout Jains practice lacto-vegetarianism, that is eat no eggs, but accept dairy products if there is no violence against animals during their production. Veganism is encouraged if there are concerns about animal welfare.{{sfn|Voorst|2015|p=105}} Jain monks and nuns do not eat root vegetables such as potatoes, onions and garlic because tiny organisms are injured when the plant is pulled up, and because a bulb or tuber's ability to sprout is seen as characteristic of a higher living being.{{sfn|Sangave|1980|p=260}}{{refn|group=note|In Jainism, the ahiṃsā precept for a mendicant requires avoidance of touching or disturbing any living being including plants. It also mandates never swimming in water, nor lighting or fire or extinguish one, nor thrashing arms in the air as such actions can torment or hurt other beings that live in those states of matter.{{sfn|Taylor|2008|pp=892–894}}}}Jains fast on different occasions throughout the year, particularly during festivals.{{sfn|Wiley|2009|p=85}} This practice is called upavasa, tapasya or vrata.{{sfn|Wiley|2009|pp=85–86}} According to Singh, this takes on various forms and may be practised based on one's ability.{{sfn|Ram Bhushan Prasad Singh|2008|pp=92–94}} Some examples include Digambara fasting for Dasa-laksana-parvan where a Jain layperson eats only one or two meals per day, drinking only boiled water for ten days, or fasting completely on the first and last day of the festival.{{sfn|Wiley|2009|p=72}} With these practices the layperson mimics the practices of a Jain mendicant during the festival.{{sfn|Wiley|2009|p=72}} A similar practice is found among Śvētāmbara Jains on eight day paryusana with samvatsari-pratikramana.{{sfn|Wiley|2009|pp=72, 85–86}}The fasting practice is believed to remove karma from one's soul and allow one to gain merit (punya).{{sfn|Wiley|2009|p=85}} A "one day" fast in Jain tradition lasts about 36 hours, starting at sunset before the day of the fast and ending 48 minutes after the sunrise the day after.{{sfn|Wiley|2009|p=85}} Among laypeople, fasting is more commonly observed by women, where it is believed that this shows her piety, religious purity, gains her and her family prestige, leads to merit earning and helps ensure future well-being for her family. Some religious fasts are observed as a group where Jain women bond socially and support each other.{{sfn|Wiley|2009|p=86}} Long fasts are celebrated by friends and families with special ceremonies.{{sfn|Wiley|2009|p=86}}

Meditation

{{multiple image| image1 = Jain meditation.jpg| width1 = 200| image2 = Shravanabelagola_Bahubali_wideframe.jpg| width2 = 180| footer = Left: Jain nuns meditating, Right: 10th century Gommateshwara statue depicting standing meditation (Kayotsarga posture)}}Jainism considers meditation (dhyana) a necessary practice, but its goals are very different from those in Buddhism and Hinduism.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=166–169}} In Jainism, meditation is concerned more with stopping karmic attachments and activity, not as a means to transformational insights or self-realization in other Indian religions.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=166–169}} Meditation in early Jain literature is a form of austerity and ascetic practice in Jainism, while in late medieval era the practice adopted ideas from other Indian traditions. According to Paul Dundas, this lack of meditative practices in early Jain texts may be because substantial portions of ancient Jain texts were lost.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=166–169}}{{anchor|samayika}}According to Padmanabh Jaini, Sāmāyika is a practice of "brief periods in meditation" in Jainism that is a part of siksavrata (ritual restraint).{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=180–181}} The goal of Sāmāyika is to achieve equanimity, and it is the second siksavrata.{{refn|group=note|The first is desavakasika (staying in a restrained surrounding, cutting down worldly activities). The third is posadhopavasa (fasting on the 8th and 14th days on lunar waxing and waning cycles). The fourth is dana (giving alms to Jain monks, nuns or spiritual people).{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=180–181}}}} The samayika ritual is practiced at least three times a day by mendicants, while a layperson includes it with other ritual practices such as Puja in a Jain temple and doing charity work.{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=180–182}}{{sfn|S.A. Jain|1992|p=261}}{{sfn|Natubhai Shah|2004|pp=128–131}} According to Johnson, as well as Jaini, samayika connotes more than meditation, and for a Jain householder is the voluntary ritual practice of "assuming temporary ascetic status".{{sfn|Johnson|1995|pp=189–190}}{{refn|group=note|According to Dundas, samayika seems to have meant "correct behavior" in early Jainism.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=170}}}}The Digambara Jain scholar Kundakunda, in his Pravacanasara states that a Jain mendicant should meditate on "I, the pure self". Anyone who considers his body or possessions as "I am this, this is mine" is on the wrong road, while one who meditates, thinking the antithesis and "I am not others, they are not mine, I am one knowledge" is on the right road to meditating on the "soul, the pure self".{{sfn|Johnson|1995|pp=137–143}}{{refn|group=note|This meditative focus contrasts with the anatta focus of Buddhism, and the atman focus in various vedanta schools of Hinduism such as advaita and vishistadvaita schools.{{sfn|Bronkhorst|1993| pp=74, 102, Part I: 1–3, 10–11, 24, Part II: 20–28}}{{sfn|Mahony|1997|pp= 171–177, 222}}}}

Rituals and worship

File:Shravanbelgola Gomateshvara feet prayer1.jpg|thumb|Praying at the feet of a statue of BahubaliBahubaliThere are many rituals in Jainism's various sects. According to Dundas, the ritualistic lay path among Śvētāmbara Jains is "heavily imbued with ascetic values", where the rituals either revere or celebrate the ascetic life of Tirthankaras, or mendicants, or progressively get closer to psychologically and physically living ever more like an ascetic.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=187–189}}{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=162–165, 295–296}} The ultimate ritual is sallekhana, a religious death through ascetic abandonment of food and drinks.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=187–189}} The Digambara Jains follow the same theme, but the details differ from Śvētāmbaras, and according to Dundas, the life cycle and religious rituals are closer to the liturgy found among Hindu traditions.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=187–189}} The overlap in Jain and Hindu rituals is largely in the life cycle (rites-of-passage) rituals, according to Padmanabh Jaini, and likely one that developed over time because Jains and Hindus societies overlapped, and rituals were viewed as necessary and secular ceremonies.{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=291–299}}{{sfn|Wiley|2009|pp=186–187}}Jains do not believe in a creator god, but do ritually worship numerous deities.{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=162–165, 295–296}} The Jinas are prominent and a large focus of this ritualism, but they are not the only deva in Jainism. A Jina as deva is not an avatar (incarnation) in Jainism, but the highest state of omniscience that an ascetic tirthankara achieved.{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=295–299}} Out of the 24 Tirthankaras, Jain devotional worship is predominantly addressed to four: Mahāvīra, Parshvanatha, Neminatha and Rishabhanatha.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=40}} Among the non-tirthankara saints, devotional worship is common for Bahubali among the Digambaras.{{sfn|Cort|2010|pp=182–184}} Some of Jaina rituals remember the five life events of the tirthankaras, called the Panch Kalyanaka, are rituals such as the Panch Kalyanaka Pratishtha Mahotsava, Panch Kalyanaka Puja and Snatrapuja.{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=196, 343, 347}}{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=196–199}}(File:A Jain ritual offerings and puja recital at a temple, worship in Jainism.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.8|Jain worship may include ritual offerings and recitals.{{sfn|Wiley|2009|pp=45–46, 215}})The basic worship ritual practised by Jains is darsana (seeing) of deva, which includes Jina,{{sfn|Lindsay Jones|2005|p=4771}} or other yaksas, gods and goddesses such as Brahmadeva, 52 Viras, Padmavati, Ambika and 16 Vidyadevis (Sarasvati, Lakshmi, others).{{sfn|Wiley|2009|pp=33, 59, 92, 138, 191}}{{sfn|Cort|1987|pp=235–255}}{{sfn|Mishra|Ray|2016|pp=141–148}} The Terapanthi sub-tradition of Digambaras do not worship many of the deities popular among mainstream Digambaras, and they limit their ritual worship to Tirthankaras.{{sfn|Dalal|2010a|p=365}} The worship ritual is called the devapuja, is found in all Jaina sub traditions, which share common features.{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=199–200}} Typically, the Jaina layperson enters the temple inner sanctum in simple clothing and bare feet, with a plate filled with offerings, bows down, says the namaskara, completes his or her litany and prayers, sometimes is assisted by the temple priest, leaves the offerings and then departs.{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=199–200}}Jain practices include performing abhisheka (ceremonial bath) of the images.{{sfn|Pal|1986|p=29}} Some Jain sects employ a pujari (also called upadhye) for rituals, who may be a non-Jain (a Hindu), to perform special rituals and other priestly duties at the temple.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=204–205}}{{sfn|Salvadori|1989|pp=169–170}} More elaborate worship includes ritual offerings such as rice, fresh and dry fruits, flowers, coconut, sweets, and money. Some may light up a lamp with camphor and make auspicious marks with sandalwood paste. Devotees also recite Jain texts, particularly the life stories of the tirthankaras.{{sfn|Babb|1996|pp=32–33}}{{sfn|Wiley|2009|pp=45–46, 215}}The traditional Jains, like Buddhists and Hindus, believe in the efficacy of mantras and that certain sounds and words are inherently auspicious, powerful and spiritual.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=81–82}}Nayanar (2005b), p.{{nbsp}}35 Gāthā 1.29 The most famous of the mantras, broadly accepted in various sects of Jainism, is the "five homage" (panca namaskara) mantra which is believed to be eternal and existent since the first ford-maker's time.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=81–82}} The medieval era Jain worship practices, according to Ellen Gough, also developed tantric diagrams of the Rishi-mandala where the tirthankaras are portrayed.Ellen Gough (2012), Shades of Enlightenment: A Jain Tantric Diagram and the Colours of the Tirthankaras, International Journal of Jaina Studies, Volume 8, Number 1, pp. 1–47; Summary Archive: Studying Jainism and its Tantric Ritual Diagrams in India, Ellen Gough {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170130065533weblink |date=30 January 2017 }} The Tantric traditions within Jainism use mantra and rituals that are believed to accrue merit for rebirth realms.{{sfn|Cort|2001b|pp=417–419}}

Festivals

File:Das Lakshana (Paryusana) celebrations, New York City Jain temple 2.JPG|thumb|Celebrating Das Lakshana (Paryusana), Jain Center of AmericaJain Center of AmericaJains celebrate many annual festivals. Many of the major festivals in Jainism fall in and around the comasu (Sanskrit: chaturmasa) period of the calendar. {{sfn|Cort|2001a|pp=146–147}} It is the four month monsoon period when the Jain ascetics are mandated to remain in residence at one place in the Jain tradition, rather than be traveling or going around Indian villages and towns and never staying in one place for more than a month. The comasu period allows the four orders of the Jain community to be together and participate in the festive remembrances.The most important annual Jain festival is called the Paryushana by Svetambaras and Dasa lakshana parva by the Digambaras. It is celebrated from the 12th day of waning moon in the traditional luni-solar month of Bhadrapada in the Indian calendar. This typically falls in August or September of the Gregorian calendar.{{sfn|Dalal|2010a|pp=164, 284}}{{sfn|Melton|2011|p=673}} It lasts eight days for Svetambaras, and ten days among the Digambaras.{{sfn|Dalal|2010a|pp=164, 284}} It is a time when lay people fast and pray. The five vows are emphasized during this time.{{sfn|Melton|2011|p=673}} Svetambaras recite the Kalpasūtras, while Digambaras read their own texts. The festival is an occasion where Jains make active effort to stop cruelty towards other life forms, freeing animals in captivity and preventing slaughter of animals.{{sfn|Dalal|2010a|pp=164, 284}}
|bgcolor=#FFDDBB
|align = left
}}The last day involves a focused prayer/meditation session known as Samvatsari. Jains consider this as a day of atonement, granting forgiveness to others, seeking forgiveness from all living beings, physically or mentally asking for forgiveness and resolving to treat everyone in the world as friends.{{sfn|Dalal|2010a|pp=164, 284}} Forgiveness is asked by saying "Micchami Dukkadam" or "Khamat Khamna" to others. This means, "If I have offended you in any way, knowingly or unknowingly, in thought, word or action, then I seek your forgiveness." The literal meaning of Paryushana is "abiding" or "coming together".{{sfn|Cort|1995|p=160}}Mahavir Jayanti celebrates the birth of Mahāvīra. It is celebrated on the 13th day of the luni-solar month of Chaitra in the traditional Indian calendar. This typically falls in March or April of the Gregorian calendar.{{sfn|Dalal|2010a|p=220}}{{sfn|Natubhai Shah|2004|p=211}} The festivities include visiting Jain temples, pilgrimages to shrines, reading Jain texts and processions of Mahāvīra by the community. At his legendary birthplace of Kundagrama in Bihar, north of Patna, special events are held by Jains.{{sfn|Dalal|2010a|p=220}}Diwali is observed by Jains as the anniversary of Mahāvīra's attainment of moksha.{{sfn|Pechilis|Raj|2013|p=86}} The Hindu festival of Diwali is also celebrated on the same date (Kartika Amavasya). Jain temples, homes, offices, and shops are decorated with lights and diyas (small oil lamps). The lights are symbolic of knowledge or removal of ignorance. Sweets are often distributed. On Diwali morning, Nirvan Ladoo is offered after praying to Mahāvīra in all Jain temples across the world. The Jain new year starts right after Diwali.{{sfn|Pechilis|Raj|2013|p=86}} Some other festivals celebrated by Jains are Akshaya Tritiya and Raksha Bandhan, similar to those in the Hindu communities.{{sfn|Pechilis|Raj|2013|p=85}}{{sfn|Dalal|2010a|p=164}}

Monasticism

{{multiple image| image1 = Ellora, cave 33, Digambar Jain guru (9841591645).jpg|width1 =110| caption1 = Digambara monk| image2 = Acharya Vijayavallabhasuri.jpg|width2=142| caption2 = Śvētāmbara-Deravasi monk}}Jainism monastic organization is a part of Jain society called sangh.{{sfn|Cort|2001a|pp=48–49}} A sangh has a four-fold order, or caturvidh, sakal sangh.{{sfn|Cort|2001a|pp=48–49}} This consists of sadhu (male ascetics, muni), sadhvi (female ascetics, aryika), śrāvaka (laymen), and śrāvikā (laywoman).{{sfn|Balcerowicz|2009|p=17}}{{sfn|Natubhai Shah|2004|pp=2–3}} The latter two support the ascetics and their monastic organizations called gacch or samuday, in autonomous regional Jain congregations.{{sfn|Cort|2001a|pp=48–49}}Digambar tradition has two main monastic orders Mula Sangh and the Kashtha Sangh, both led by Bhattarakas. Other notable monastic orders include the Digambara Terapanth which emerged in the 17th century.John E. Cort "A Tale of Two Cities: On the Origins of Digambara Sectarianism in North India." L. A. Babb, V. Joshi, and M. W. Meister (eds.), Multiple Histories: Culture and Society in the Study of Rajasthan, 39–83. Jaipur: Rawat, 2002. Śvētāmbaras have their own sanghs, but unlike Digambaras which have had predominantly sadhu sanghs (male monastic organizations), they have major sadhu and sadhvi sanghs (monks and nuns).{{sfn|Cort|2001a|pp=48–59}}{{multiple image| align = left| image1 = Jain 1.jpg| caption1 = A Śvētāmbara nun (early 20th-century)| width1 = 110| image2 = Viramati Mataji.jpg| caption2 = A Digambara nun| width2 = 165}}According to Śvētāmbara Jain texts, from Kalpasūtras onwards, its monastic community has had more sadhvis than sadhus (female than male mendicants). In Tapa Gacch of the modern era, the ratio of sadhvis to sadhus (nuns to monks) is about 3.5 to 1.{{sfn|Cort|2001a|p=47}} In contrast to Śvētāmbara, the Digambara sect monastic community has been predominantly male.{{sfn|Flügel|2006|pp=314–331, 353–361}} In the Digambara tradition, a male human being is considered closest to the apex with the potential to achieve his soul's liberation from rebirths through asceticism. Women must gain karmic merit, to be reborn as man, and only then can they achieve spiritual liberation in the Digambara sect of Jainism.{{sfn|Long|2013|pp=36–37}}{{sfn|Harvey|2016|pp=182–183}} The Śvētāmbaras disagree with the Digambaras, believing that women can also achieve liberation from Saṃsāra through ascetic practices.{{sfn|Harvey|2016|pp=182–183}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=55–59}}The Jain monastic organization shares many parallels with those found in Buddhist and Brahmanical-Hindu monasticism.{{sfn|Johnston|2000|pp=681–683}}{{sfn|Caillat|2003a|pp=30–34 with footnote 28}} They all have similar rules, hierarchical structure, practices such as not traveling during the four-month monsoon season and celibacy.{{sfn|Caillat|2003a|pp=30–34 with footnote 28}} According to William Johnston, this is not likely from mutual borrowing of ideas, but because these traditions emerged from the same ancient Indian monastic traditions that preceded the Buddha and the Mahāvīra.{{sfn|Johnston|2000|pp=681–683}} There are some differences. For example, the Jain and Hindu monastic community has been traditionally more mobile and had an itinerant lifestyle, while Buddhist monks have favored belonging to a sangha (monastery) and staying in its premises.{{sfn|Hirakawa|1993|pp=4–7}} Buddhist monastic rules forbid a monk to go outside without wearing the sangha's distinctive ruddy robe, or to use wooden bowls.{{sfn|Johnston|2000|pp=681–683}} In contrast, Jain monastic rules have either required no clothes (Digambara) or white (Śvētāmbara) and the use of wooden or empty gourd as the begging bowl.{{sfn|Johnston|2000|pp=681–683}} The Jain monastic rules have encouraged the use of mouth cover, as well as a broom to gently remove any insect that comes in their path.{{sfn|Vijay K. Jain|2013|p=197}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=152, 163–164}}{{sfn|Jaini|1998|p=190}}

Supplementary vows and Sallekhana

Jainism also prescribes seven supplementary vows which include three guņa vratas (merit vows) and four śikşā vratas.{{sfn|Vijay K. Jain|2012|p=87–88}}{{sfn|Tukol|1976|p=5}}The Sallekhana (or Santhara) vow is a "religious death" ritual vow observed at the end of life, historically by Jain monks and nuns, but rare in the modern age.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=179–180}} In this vow, there is voluntary and gradual reduction of food and liquid intake to end one's life by choice and with dispassion,{{sfn|Jaini|2000|p=16}}{{sfn|Tukol|1976|p=7}} In Jainism this is believed to reduce negative karma that affects a soul's future rebirths.{{sfn|Williams|1991|pp=166–167}}

Traditions and sects

Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras

The Jain community is divided into two major denominations, Digambara and Śvētāmbara. Monks of the Digambara (sky-clad) tradition do not wear clothes. Female monastics of the Digambara sect wear unstitched plain white sarees and are referred to as Aryikas. Śvētāmbara (white-clad) monastics, on the other hand, wear seamless white clothes.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=45}}During Chandragupta Maurya's reign, Jain tradition states that Acharya Bhadrabahu predicted a twelve-year-long famine and moved to Karnataka with his disciples. Sthulabhadra, a pupil of Acharya Bhadrabahu, stayed in Magadha.{{sfn|Clarke|Beyer|2009|p=326}} Later, when followers of Acharya Bhadrabahu returned, they found those who had remained at Magadha had started wearing white clothes, which was unacceptable to the others who remained naked.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=47}} This is how Jains believe the Digambara and Śvētāmbara schism began, with the former being naked while the latter wore white clothes.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=46}} Digambara saw this as being opposed to the Jain tenet of aparigraha which, according to them, required not even possession of clothes, i.e. complete nudity. In the 5th-century CE, the Council of Valabhi was organized by Śvētāmbara, which Digambara did not attend. At the council, the Śvētāmbara adopted the texts they had preserved as canonical scriptures, which Digambara have ever since rejected. This council solidified the historic schism between these two major traditions of Jainism.{{sfn|Price|2010|pp=104–105}}{{sfn|Fohr|2015|pp=21–22}} The earliest record of Digambara beliefs is contained in the Prakrit Suttapahuda of Kundakunda.{{sfn|Jaini|1991|p=3}}{{multiple image| header =| background color = #FFDDBB| image1 = Mahavir.jpg| width1 = 125| caption1 = Digambara Mahāvīra iconography| image2 = Shri Simandhar Swami.jpg| width2 = 125| caption2 = Śvētāmbara Simandhar Swami iconography}}Other than rejecting or accepting different ancient Jain texts, Digambaras and Śvētāmbara differ in other significant ways such as:
  • ÅšvÄ“tāmbaras trace their practices and dress code to the teachings of Parshvanatha, the 23rd tirthankara, which they believe taught only Four restraints (a claim, scholars say are confirmed by the ancient Buddhist texts that discuss Jaina monastic life). MahāvÄ«ra taught Five vows, which Digambara follow.{{sfn|Jones|Ryan|2006|p=211}}{{sfn|Umakant P. Shah|1987|p=5}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=31–33}} The Digambara sect disagrees with the ÅšvÄ“tāmbara interpretations,{{sfn|Jaini|2000|pp=27–28}} and reject the theory of difference in Parshvanatha and MahāvÄ«ra's teachings.{{sfn|Umakant P. Shah|1987|p=5}}
  • Digambaras believe that both Parshvanatha and MahāvÄ«ra remained unmarried, whereas ÅšvÄ“tāmbara believe the 23rd and 24th did indeed marry. According to the ÅšvÄ“tāmbara version, Parshva married Prabhavati,{{sfn|Kailash Chand Jain|1991|p=12}} and MahāvÄ«ra married Yashoda who bore him a daughter named Priyadarshana.{{sfn|Natubhai Shah|2004|pp=73–74}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=21}} The two sects also differ on the origin of Trishala, MahāvÄ«ra's mother,{{sfn|Natubhai Shah|2004|pp=73–74}} as well as the details of Tirthankara's biographies such as how many auspicious dreams their mothers had when they were in the wombs.{{sfn|Umakant P. Shah|1987|p=17}}
  • Digambara believe Rishabha, Vasupujya and Neminatha were the three tirthankaras who reached omniscience while in sitting posture and other tirthankaras were in standing ascetic posture. In contrast, ÅšvÄ“tāmbaras believe it was Rishabha, Nemi and MahāvÄ«ra who were the three in sitting posture.{{sfn|Umakant P. Shah|1987|pp=79–80}}
  • Digambara monasticism rules are more rigid.{{sfn|Dalal|2010a|p=167}}
  • Digambara iconography are plain, ÅšvÄ“tāmbara icons are decorated and colored to be more lifelike.{{sfn|Dalal|2010a|p=167}}
Excavations at Mathura revealed Jain statues from the time of the Kushan Empire (c.{{nbsp}}1st century CE). Tirthankara represented without clothes, and monks with cloth wrapped around the left arm, are identified as the Ardhaphalaka (half-clothed) mentioned in texts. The Yapaniyas, believed to have originated from the Ardhaphalaka, followed Digambara nudity along with several Śvētāmbara beliefs.{{sfn|Jaini|2000|p=167}}

Other sub-traditions

Both of the major Jain traditions evolved into sub-traditions over time. For example, the devotional worship traditions of Śvētāmbara are referred to as Murti-pujakas, those who live in and around Jain temples became Deravasi or Mandira-margi. Those who avoid temples and pursue their spirituality at a designated monastic meeting place came to be known as Sthānakavāsī.{{sfn|Dalal|2010a|p=341}}Sthanakavasi {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170822185609weblink |date=22 August 2017 }}, "Jain Sect", Encyclopaedia Britannica About the 18th century, the Śvētāmbara and Digambara traditions saw an emergence of separate Terapanthi movements.{{sfn|Cort|2001a|pp=41, 60}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=155–157, 249–250, 254–259}} Some scholars such as Malvaniya state that these ideas entered Jainism from an influence of Islam, while others such as Dundas state that these ideas, debates and movements can be traced in more ancient texts than the start of Islam.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=249}}In the modern era, according to Flügel, new Jaina religious movements that are a "primarily devotional form of Jainism" have developed which resemble "Jain Mahayana" style devotionalism.{{sfn|Flügel|2005|pp=194–243}}

Gender and spiritual liberation

A male human being is considered closest to the apex with the potential to achieve liberation, particularly through asceticism. In the Digambara traditional belief, women must gain karmic merit, to be reborn as man, and only then can they achieve spiritual liberation.{{sfn|Long|2013|pp=36–37}}{{sfn|Harvey|2016|pp=182–183}} However, this view has been historically debated within Jainism and different Jaina sects have expressed different views, particularly the Śvētāmbara sect that believes that women too can achieve spiritual liberation from rebirths in Saṃsāra.{{sfn|Harvey|2016|pp=182–183}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp= 55–59}} The Śvētāmbaras state the 19th Tirthankara Māllīnātha was female.{{sfn|Vallely|2002|p=15}} However, Digambara reject this, and worship Mallinatha as a male.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=56}}

Beliefs and philosophy

{{Jain philosophy}}

Dravya (Substance)

(File:Dravya.jpeg|thumb|upright=1.15|Chart showing the classification of dravya and astikaya)The dravya in Jainism are fundamental entities, called astikaya (literally, "collection that exists).{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=93–94}} They are believed to be eternal, and the ontological building blocks that constitute and explain all existence, whether perceived or not.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=93–94}}{{sfn|Jaini|1998|p=81–89}}According to the Śvētāmbara tradition of Jainism, there are five eternal substances in existence: Soul (jiva), Matter (pudgala), Space (akasha), motion (Dharma) and rest (Adharma).{{refn|group=note|The ontological categories and definition of dharma as motion, and adharma as rest, is unique to Jainism among Indian religions.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=95}} However, like other Indian religions, dharma also means "moral virtue" in Jainism, while adharma also means "immorality, unethical behavior".}} To this list of five, the Digambara Jain tradition adds "Time" (kala) as the sixth eternal substance.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=93–94}}{{sfn|Doniger|1999|p=551}} In both traditions, the substance of space is conceptualized as "world space" (lokakasha) and "non-world space" (alokiakasha). Further, both soul and matter are considered as active ontological substances, while the rest are inactive. Another categorization found in Jain philosophy is jiva and ajiva, the latter being all dravya that is not jiva.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=93–94}}{{sfn|Jaini|1998|p=81–89}}

Jīva (Soul), Ajīva (Non-Soul)

Jiva means "soul" in Jainism, and is also called jivatman.{{sfn|Long|2013|pp=83–85}} It is a core concept and the fundamental focus of the Jain theology.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=93–94}}{{sfn|Jaini|1998|p=97–101}} The soul is believed to be eternal, and a substance that undergoes constant modifications, in every life, after every rebirth of a living being.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=93–94}}{{sfn|Long|2013|pp=122–125}} Jiva consists of pure consciousness in the Jain thought, has innate "free will" that causes it to act but is believed to be intangible and formless.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=93–94}} It is the soul that experiences existence and gains knowledge, not mind nor body both believed to a heap of matter.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=94–95}}{{sfn|Champat Rai Jain|1929b|pp=15–16}} Jain philosophy further believes that the soul is the mechanism of rebirth, and karma accumulation. It is the same size in all living beings, such as a human being, a tiny insect and a large elephant. Jiva is everywhere, filling and infused in every minuscule part of the entire loka (realm of existence), according to Jainism.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=94–95}} The soul has the potential to reach omniscience and eternal bliss, and end the cycles of rebirth and associated suffering, which is the goal of Jain spirituality.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=94–95}}{{sfn|Jaini|1998|p=97–106}}The jiva is believed to rely on other dravya to function.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=93–94}} The Jain philosophy completely separates body (matter) from the soul (consciousness).{{citation |title=Dravya – Jainism |url=http://www.britannica.com/topic/dravya |work=Encyclopædia Britannica |access-date=12 May 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160401190155weblink |archive-date=1 April 2016 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }} Souls reside in bodies and journey endlessly through saṃsāra (that is, realms of existence through cycles of rebirths and redeaths).{{sfn|Wiley|2009|p=91}}Jivas are believed to be of two types, stationary and mobile. Illustration of the former are plants, while moving jivas include examples such as human beings, animals, gods, hell beings and insects.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=95–96}} Jivas are further classified in Jain philosophy by assigned number of senses which range from one sensory organ to five sensory organs.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=95–96}} Inert world such as air, fire or clod of dirt, considered non-sensate in contemporary science, are asserted in historic texts of Jainism to be living and with sensory powers.Christopher Key Chapple (2001), The Living Cosmos of Jainism: A Traditional Science Grounded in Environmental Ethics {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150816023822weblink |date=16 August 2015 }}, Daedalus, MIT Press, Vol. 130, No. 4, pp. 207–224Ajiva consists of everything other than jiva.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=93–96}} Life processes such as breath, means of knowledge such as language, all emotional and biological experiences such as pleasure and pain are all believed in Jainism to be made of pudgala (matter). These interact with tattva or reality to create, bind, destroy or unbind karma particles to the soul.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=96–98}}{{sfn|Soni|1991|pp=75–88}}According to Dundas, Dharma as a metaphysical substance in Jain philosophy may be understood as "that which carries" instead of the literal sense of ordinary physical motion. Thus, dharma includes all verbal and mental activity, that contribute to karma and purification of the soul.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=95–96}}

Tattva (Reality)

File:Tattva.jpg|thumb|The 7 Tattvas of Jain philosophy]]Tattva connotes "Reality, Truth" in Jain philosophy, and is the framework for salvation. According to Digambara Jains, there are seven tattvas, while Śvētāmbaras believe in nine tattvas:{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=177–187}}{{sfn|Jaini|1998|p=151}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=96–98}}
  • The sentient (jiva, soul)
  • The insentient (ajiva)
  • The karmic influx (Ä€srava) to the soul
  • Good karma (punya, merits), found in the tattva theory of ÅšvÄ“tāmbara, but not of Digambaras
  • Bad karma (papa, negatives), found in the tattva theory of ÅšvÄ“tāmbara, but not of Digambaras
  • The bondage (Bandha) of karmic particles to the soul, thereby causing its change, which cumulatively determines the future rebirths{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=188–190}}{{sfn|Jaini|1980|pp=219–228}}
  • The stoppage (Saṃvara) of karmic influx
  • The dissociation and wiping away of past karmic particles (Nirjarā) from the soul
  • The liberation (Moksha)
The true insight in Jain philosophy is considered as "faith in the tattvas".{{sfn|Jaini|1998|p=151}} The spiritual goal in Jainism is to reach moksha for ascetics, but for most Jain laypersons and ascetics it is to accumulate good karma that leads to better rebirth and a step closer to liberation.{{sfn|Bailey|2012|p=108}}{{sfn|Long|2013|pp=18, 98–100}}

Soul and Karma

According to Jainism, the existence of "a bound and ever changing soul" is a self-evident truth, an axiom which does not need to be proven.{{sfn|Jaini|1998|p=103}} There are numerous souls, but every one of them has three qualities (Guṇa): consciousness (caitanya, most important quality of soul), bliss (sukha) and vibrational energy (virya).{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=104–106}} The vibration draws karmic particles to the soul and creates bondages, but is also what adds merit or demerit to the soul.{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=104–106}}Karma, like in other Indian religions, connotes in Jainism the universal cause and effect law. However, it is envisioned as a material substance (subtle matter) that can bind to the soul, travel with the soul substance in bound form between rebirths, and affect the suffering and happiness experienced by the jiva in the lokas.{{sfn|Long|2013|pp=92–95}} Karma is also believed to obscure and obstruct the innate nature and striving of the soul, as well as its spiritual potential in the next rebirth.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=99–103}}The relationship between the soul and karma, states Padmanabh Jaini, can be explained with the analogy of gold. Like gold is always found mixed with impurities in its original state, Jainism holds that the soul is not pure at its origin but is always impure and defiled like natural gold. One can exert effort and purify gold, similarly, Jainism states that the defiled soul can be purified by proper refining methodology.{{sfn|Jaini|1998|p=107}} Karma either defiles the soul further, or refines it to a cleaner state, and this affects future rebirths.{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=107–115}} Karma is thus an efficient cause (nimitta) in Jain philosophy, but not the material cause (upadana). The soul is believed to be the material cause.{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=117–118}}Tirthankara-nama-karma is a special type of karma, bondage of which raises a soul to the supreme status of a tirthankara.{{sfn|Champat Rai Jain|1929b|p=48}}(File:Jiva.jpg|thumb|left|Classification of Saṃsāri Jīvas (transmigrating souls) in Jainism)Jain texts state that souls exist as "clothed with material bodies", where it entirely fills up the body.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=194}} There are five types of bodies in the Jaina thought: earthly (e.g. most humans, animals and plants), metamorphic (e.g. gods, hell beings, fine matter, some animals and a few humans who can morph because of their perfections), transference type (e.g. good and pure substances realized by ascetics), fiery (e.g. heat that transforms or digests food), and karmic (the substrate where the karmic particles reside and which make the soul ever changing).{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=195–196}}Jain philosophy further divides the earthly body by symmetry, number of sensory organs, vitalities (ayus), functional capabilities and whether one body hosts one soul or one body hosts many.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=195–198}} Every living being has one to five senses, three balas (power of body, language and mind), respiration (inhalation and exhalation), and life-duration.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=198–201}}{{sfn|Vijay K. Jain|2012|p=34}} All living beings, in every realm including the gods and hell beings, accrue and destroy eight types of karma according to the elaborate theories in Jain texts.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=185–194}} Elaborate descriptions of the shape and function of the physical and metaphysical universe, and its constituents, are also provided in the Jain texts.Shah, R.S. "Jaina Mathematics: Lore of Large Numbers". Bulletin of the Marathwada Mathematical Society 10.1 (2009): 43–61.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=241}} All of these elaborate theories attempt to illustrate and consistently explain the Jain karma theory in a deeply moral framework, much like Buddhism and Hinduism but with significant differences in the details and assumptions.{{sfn|Long|2013|pp=180–182}}

Saṃsāra

File:Gati or existences.jpg|right|thumb|Souls are reborn in various realms of existence depending on their karmakarmaThe conceptual framework of the Saṃsāra doctrine differs between the Jainism traditions and other Indian religions. For instance, in Jaina traditions, soul (jiva) is accepted as a truth, as is assumed in the Hindu traditions. It is not assumed in the Buddhist traditions. However, Saṃsāra or the cycle of rebirths, has a definite beginning and end in Jainism.{{Sfn|Jaini|1980|p=226}} The Jaina theosophy, unlike Hindu and Buddhist theosophies, asserts that each soul passes through 8,400,000 birth-situations, as they circle through Saṃsāra.{{Sfn|Jaini|1980|p=228}}{{sfn|Jaini|2000|pp=130–131}} As the soul cycles, states Padmanabh Jaini, Jainism traditions believe that it goes through five types of bodies: earth bodies, water bodies, fire bodies, air bodies and vegetable lives.{{Sfn|Jaini|1980|pp=223–224}} With all human and non-human activities, such as rainfall, agriculture, eating and even breathing, minuscule living beings are taking birth or dying, their souls are believed to be constantly changing bodies. Perturbing, harming or killing any life form, including any human being, is considered a sin in Jainism, with negative karmic effects.{{Sfn|Jaini|1980|pp=224–225}}{{sfn|Sethia|2004|pp=30–31}}Souls begin their journey in a primordial state, and exist in a state of consciousness continuum that is constantly evolving through Saṃsāra.{{Sfn|Jaini|1980|p=227}} Some evolve to a higher state; some regress asserts the Jaina theory, a movement that is driven by the karma.{{Sfn|Jaini|1980|pp=227–228}} Further, Jaina traditions believe that there exist Abhavya (incapable), or a class of souls that can never attain moksha (liberation).{{Sfn|Jaini|1980|p=226}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=104–105}} The Abhavya state of soul is entered after an intentional and shockingly evil act.{{Sfn|Jaini|1980|p=225}} Jainism considers souls as pluralistic each in a karma-samsara cycle, and does not subscribe to Advaita-style (not two) nondualism of Hinduism, or Advaya-style nondualism of Buddhism.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=104–105}} A liberated soul in Jainism is one who has gone beyond Saṃsāra, is at the apex, is omniscient, remains there eternally, and is known as a Siddha.{{Sfn|Jaini|1980|pp=222–223}}

Cosmology

(File:Jain universe.JPG|thumb|left|Rebirth loka (realms of existence) in Jain cosmology.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=90–92}})Jain texts propound that the universe consists of many eternal lokas (realms of existence). As in Buddhism and Hinduism, Jain cosmology believes both time and the universe are eternal without beginning and end, and that the universe is transient (impermanent in attributes) at the same time.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=241}}{{sfn|Long|2013|pp=83–85}} The universe, body, matter and time are considered in Jain philosophy as separate from the soul (jiva or jivatman). Their interaction explains life, living, death and rebirth.{{sfn|Long|2013|pp=83–85}}(File:Jain Cosmic Time Cycle.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Division of time in Jain cosmology.)According to the Jain texts, the universe is divided into three parts, the upper, middle, and lower worlds, called respectively urdhva loka, madhya loka, and adho loka.{{sfn|Shah|1998b|p=25}} As with the realms of existences, Kāla (time) is without beginning and eternal;{{sfn|Doniger|1999|p=551}} the cosmic wheel of time, called kālachakra, rotates ceaselessly. According to Jain texts, in this part of the universe, there are six periods of time within two aeons (ara), and in the first aeon the universe generates, and in the next it degenerates.{{sfn|Vijay K. Jain|2011|p=46}} Thus, the worldly cycle of time is divided into two parts or half-cycles, utsarpiṇī (ascending) and avasarpiṇī (descending).{{sfn|Doniger|1999|p=551}} Utsarpiṇī is a period of progressive prosperity, where happiness increases, while avasarpiṇī is a period of increasing sorrow and immorality.{{sfn|Upinder Singh|2016|p=313}}{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=271–272}} According to Jain cosmology, it is currently the fifth ara of avasarpiṇī (half time cycle of degeneration). The present age is one of sorrow and misery, of religious decline, where the height and shape of living beings shrink. Jain thought holds that after the sixth ara, the universe will be reawakened in the new cycle and the start of utsarpiṇī aras.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=13}}{{sfn|Champat Rai Jain|1929b|p=124}}{{sfn|Dalal|2010a|p=27}}According to Jain texts, sixty-three illustrious beings, called śalākāpuruṣas, are born on this earth in every Dukhama-sukhamā ara.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=134–135}} The Jain universal history is a compilation of the deeds of these illustrious persons.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=12}} They comprise twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras, twelve chakravartins, nine balabhadra, nine narayana, and nine pratinarayana.{{sfn|Joseph|1997|p=178}}{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=134–135, 285}}{{refn|group=note|Balabhadra is also referred to as Baladeva, Narayana as Vasudeva or Vishnu, and Pratinarayana as Prativasudeva in Jain texts.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=134–135, 285}}}}A chakravartī is an emperor of the world and lord of the material realm.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=134–135}} Though he possesses worldly power, he often finds his ambitions dwarfed by the vastness of the cosmos. Jain puranas give a list of twelve chakravartins (universal monarchs). They are golden in complexion.{{sfn|Umakant P. Shah|1987|p=72}} One of the chakravartins mentioned in Jain scriptures is Bharata Chakravartin. Jain texts like Harivamsa Purana and Hindu Texts like Vishnu Purana state that Indian subcontinent came to be known as Bharata varsha in his memory.{{sfn|Sangave|2001|p=106}}{{sfn|Kailash Chand Jain|1991|p=5}}There are nine sets of balabhadra, narayana, and pratinarayana. The balabhadra and narayana are brothers.{{sfn|Jaini|2000|p=377}} Balabhadra are nonviolent heroes, narayana are violent heroes, and pratinarayana the villains. According to the legends, the narayana ultimately kill the pratinarayana. Of the nine balabhadra, eight attain liberation and the last goes to heaven. On death, the narayana go to hell because of their violent exploits, even if these were intended to uphold righteousness.{{sfn|Umakant P. Shah|1987|pp=73–76}}Jain cosmology divides the worldly cycle of time into two parts (avasarpiṇī and utsarpiṇī). According to Jain belief, in every half-cycle of time, twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras are born in the human realm to discover and teach the Jain doctrine appropriate for that era.{{sfn|Vijay K. Jain|2015|p=175}}{{sfn|Jansma|Jain|2006|p=28}}{{sfn|Lindsay Jones|2005|p=4764}} The word tīrthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha, which means a fordable passage across a sea. The tīrthaṅkaras show the 'fordable path' across the sea of interminable births and deaths.{{sfn|Balcerowicz|2009|p=16}} Rishabhanatha is said to be the first tīrthankara of the present half-cycle (avasarpiṇī). Mahāvīra (6th century BC) is revered as the twenty fourth tīrthankara of avasarpiṇī.{{sfn|Natubhai Shah|2004|pp=21–28}}{{sfn|Zimmer|1953|pp=182–183}} Jain texts explain that Jainism has always existed and will always exist.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=12}}In Jainism, perfect souls with the body are called arihant (victors) and perfect souls without the body are called Siddhas (liberated souls).{{Sfn|Jaini|1980|pp=222–223}}{{sfn|Rankin|Mardia|2013|p=40}}{{sfn|Zimmer|1953|p=182}}

God

File:Jain 24-Tirthankaras.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Jain miniature painting of 24 tirthankaras, 1850}}{{See also|Pañca-Parameṣṭhi}}According to Jainism, the universe was never created, nor will it ever cease to exist. It is independent and self-sufficient, does not require a creator nor any superior power to govern it, nor a judge nor destroyer.{{sfn|Long|2013|pp=83–85}}{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=241–242}} In this belief, it is distinct from the monotheistic Abrahamic religions; it is similar to Buddhism. It shares premises with the non-theistic part of the spectrum of diverse beliefs found in different traditions within Hindu philosophy and distinct from theistic Hindu traditions.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=241–243}}Jain texts reject the idea of a creator, ruler or destroyer god and postulate an eternal universe. However, Jainism believes in the world of gods and hell beings who are born, and who die to be reborn like living beings in the earthly realm of existence.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=247–249, 262–263}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=20–21, 34–35, 74, 91, 95–96, 103}} Those souls who live in the body of a god do so because of their positive karma. They have a metamorphic body, that is they are believed in Jain thought to be able to change their body at will. The gods live a life of happiness, fun and frolic, whose wishes are automatically fulfilled.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=262–263}} They also possess a more transcendent knowledge about material things and can anticipate events in the human realms.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=262–263}} However, once their past karmic merit is exhausted, the souls leave the "god body" and are reborn again as humans, animals or other beings.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=262–263}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=91, 95–96}}

Epistemology

Jain philosophy accepts three reliable means of knowledge (pramana). It holds that correct knowledge is based on perception (pratyaksa), inference (anumana) and testimony (sabda or the word of scriptures).John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, {{ISBN|978-0-7914-3067-5}}, p. 238Jayandra Soni (2000), Basic Jaina Epistemology, Philosophy East and West, University of Hawai'i Press, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 367–377 These ideas are elaborated in Jain texts such as TattvarthasÅ«tra, Parvacanasara, Nandi and Anuyogadvarini.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=75–76, 131, 229–230}} Some Jain texts add analogy (upamana) as the fourth reliable means, in a manner similar to epistemological theories found in other Indian religions.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=229–230}}In Jainism, jnāna (knowledge) is said to be of five kinds â€“ Kevala Jnana (Omniscience), Åšrutu Jñāna (Scriptural Knowledge), Mati Jñāna (Sensory Knowledge), Avadhi Jñāna (Clairvoyance), and Manah prayāya Jñāna (Telepathy).{{sfn|S.A. Jain|1992|p=16}} According to the Jain text Tattvartha sÅ«tra, the first two are indirect knowledge and the remaining three are direct knowledge.{{sfn|Vijay K. Jain|2011|p=6}}

Salvation, liberation

File:MahaveeJi.jpg|thumb|The three shikhar (top) of a Jain templeJain templeAccording to Jainism, purification of soul and liberation can be achieved through the path of three jewels:{{sfn|Vijay K. Jain|2011|p=6}}{{sfn|Cort|2001a|pp=6–7}}{{sfn|Fohr|2015|pp=9–10, 37}}
  1. Samyak darśana (Correct View) {{nsndns}} Faith in basic tenets of Jainism, acceptance of the self-evident truth of soul (jīva){{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=141–147}}
  2. Samyak jnana (Correct Knowledge) {{nsndns}} Knowledge of the tattvas without any doubt or misapprehension{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=148, 200}}
  3. Samyak charitra (Correct Conduct) {{nsndns}} behavior consistent with the Five vows{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=148, 200}}
Jain texts often add samyak tap (Correct Asceticism) as the fourth jewel, thereby emphasizing their belief in ascetic practices as the means to liberation (moksha).{{sfn|Cort|2001a|p=7}} The four jewels of orthodox Jain ideology are called moksha marg.{{sfn|Cort|2001a|pp=6–7}} According to Jain texts, the liberated pure soul (Siddha) goes up to the summit of universe (Siddhashila) and dwells there in eternal bliss.{{sfn|S.A. Jain|1992|p=282–283}}

Scriptures and texts

(File:Suryaprajnapati Sutra.jpg|thumb|The Suryaprajnaptisūtra, a 4th or 3rd century BCE astronomy text of Śvētāmbara Jains. Above: its manuscript from {{circa|1500}} CE.SuryaprajnaptiSūtra {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170615024618weblink |date=15 June 2017 }}, The Schoyen Collection, London/Oslo)(File:Jain Agamas.jpeg|thumb|upright=0.85|Stela depicting Śhrut Jnāna, or complete scriptural knowledge)Jain scriptures are called Agamas. They are believed to have been verbally transmitted by the oral tradition from one generation to the next, much like the ancient Buddhist and Hindu texts.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=60–61}} The Jain tradition believes that their religion is eternal, and the teachings of their first Tirthankara Rishabhanatha were their scriptures millions of years ago.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp= 109–110}} The mythology states that the tirthankara taught in a divine preaching hall called samavasarana, which were heard by the gods, the ascetics and laypersons. The discourse delivered is called Śhrut Jnāna and comprises eleven angas and fourteen purvas.{{sfn|Champat Rai Jain|1929b|p=135}} The discourse is remembered and transmitted by the Ganadharas (chief disciples), and is composed of twelve angas (departments). It is symbolically represented by a tree with twelve branches.{{sfn|Champat Rai Jain|1929b|p=136}}According to the Jain tradition, an araha (worthy one) speaks meaning that is then converted into sūtra (sutta) by his disciples, and from such sūtras emerge the doctrine.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=61}} The creation and transmission of the Agama is the work of disciples in Jainism. These texts, historically for Jains, have represented the truths uttered by their tirthankaras, particularly the Mahāvīra.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=61}} In every cycle of Jain cosmology, twenty-four tirthankaras appear and so do the Jain scriptures for that ara.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=109–110}} The spoken scriptural language is believed to be Ardhamagadhi by the Śvētāmbara Jains, and a form of sonic resonance by the Digambara Jains. These then become coded into duvala samgagani pidaga (twelve limbed baskets by disciples), but transmitted orally.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=60–61}} In the 980th year after Mahāvīra's death (~5th century CE), the texts were written down for the first time by the Council of Valabhi.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=110–111}}The Śvētāmbaras believe that they have the original Jain scriptures. The Śvētāmbara belief is denied by the Digambaras, who instead believe the scriptures were lost.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=61}}{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=121–122}} The Śvētāmbaras state that their collection of 45 works represent a continuous tradition, though they accept that their collection is also incomplete because of a lost Anga text and four lost Purva texts.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=112–113}} The Digambara sect of Jainism believes that Āchārya Bhutabali was the last ascetic who had partial knowledge of the original canon. According to them, Digambara Āchāryas recreated the oldest-known Digambara Jain texts, including the four anuyoga.{{sfn|Vijay K. Jain|2016|p=xii}}{{sfn|Jaini|1998|p=78–81}}{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=124}} According to von Glasenapp, the Digambara texts partially agree with the enumerations and works of older Śvētāmbara texts, but in many cases there are also gross differences between the texts of the two major Jain traditions.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=121–122}}The Śvētāmbara consider their 45 text collection as canonical.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=112–113}} The Digambaras created a secondary canon between 600 and 900 CE, compiling it into four groups: history, cosmography, philosophy and ethics.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=123–124}} This four-set collection is called the "four Vedas" by the Digambaras.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=123–124}}{{refn|group=note|Not to be confused with the four Vedas of Hinduism.{{sfn|Dalal|2010a|pp=164–165}}}}The most popular and influential texts of Jainism have been its non-canonical literature. Of these, the Kalpa Sūtras are particularly popular among Śvētāmbaras, which they attribute to Bhadrabahu (c. 300 BCE). This ancient scholar is revered in the Digambara tradition, and they believe he led their migration into the ancient south Karnataka region, and created their tradition.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=125–126}} Śvētāmbaras disagree, and they believe that Bhadrabahu moved to Nepal, not into peninsular India.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=125–126}} Both traditions, however, consider his Niryuktis and Samhitas as important texts. The earliest surviving Sanskrit text by Umaswati called the Tattvarthasūtra is considered authoritative Jain philosophy text by all traditions of Jainism. {{Sfn|Jones|Ryan|2007|pp=439–440}}{{Sfn|Umāsvāti|1994|p=xi–xiii, Quote: "That Which Is, known as the Tattvartha Sūtra to Jains, is recognized by all four Jain traditions as the earliest, most authoritative and comprehensive summary of their religion."}}{{sfn|Dundas|2006|pp=395–396}} His text has the same importance in Jainism as Vedanta Sūtras and Yogasūtras have in Hinduism.{{Sfn|Umāsvāti|1994|p=xiii}}{{sfn|Jones|Ryan|2007|pp=439–440}}{{sfn|Johnson|1995|pp=46–51, 91–96}}In the Digambara tradition, the texts written by Kundakunda are highly revered and have been historically influential.{{sfn|Finegan|1989|p=221}}{{sfn|Balcerowicz|2003|pp=25–34}}{{sfn|Chatterjee|2000|p=282–283}} Other important Jain texts include: Samayasara, Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, and Niyamasara.{{sfn|Jaini|1991|p=32–33}}

Influence on Indian literature

File:Mangulam inscription.jpg|thumb|MangulamMangulamParts of the Sangam literature in Tamil are attributed to Jaina authors. The authenticity and interpolations are controversial, because the Sangam literature presents Hindu ideas.{{sfn|Cush|Robinson|York|2012|pp=515, 839}} Some scholars state that the Jain portions of the Sangam literature were added about or after the 8th-century CE, and they are not the ancient layer.{{sfn|Zvelebil|1992|pp=13–16}}Tamil Jain texts such as the Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi and Nālaṭiyār are credited to Digambara Jain authors.{{sfn|Cort|1998|p=163}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=116–117}} These texts have seen interpolations and revisions. For example, it is generally accepted now that the Jain nun Kanti inserted a 445-verse poem into Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi in the 12th century.{{sfn|Zvelebil|1992|pp=37–38}}{{sfn|Spuler|1952|pp=24–25, context: 22–27}} The Tamil Jain literature, according to Dundas, has been "lovingly studied and commented upon for centuries by Hindus as well as Jains".{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=116–117}} The themes of two of the Tamil epics, including the Silapadikkaram, have an embedded influence of Jainism.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=116–117}}Jain scholars also contributed to Kannada literature.{{sfn|Cort|1998|p=164}} The Digambara Jain texts in Karnataka are unusual, in that they were written under the patronage of kings and regional aristocrats. These Jain texts describe warrior violence and martial valor as equivalent to a "fully committed Jain ascetic". They thus set aside the religious premise of absolute non-violence, possibly reflecting an effort to syncretise various doctrines and beliefs found in Hinduism and Jainism.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=118–120}}Jain manuscript libraries, called bhandaras inside Jain temples, are the oldest surviving in India.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=83}} Jain libraries, including the Śvētāmbara collections at Patan, Gujarat and Jaiselmer, Rajasthan, as well as the Digambara collections in Karnataka temples, have a large number of well-preserved manuscripts.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=83}}{{citation | url=http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/jaim/hd_jaim.htm | title=Jain Manuscript Painting | publisher=Heilburnn Timeline of Art History | work=The Metropolitan Museum of Art | date=January 2012 | last=Guy | first=John | access-date=25 April 2013 | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130402230921weblink | archive-date=2 April 2013 | dead-url=no | df=dmy-all }} The manuscripts in the Jain libraries include Jaina literature, as well as Hindu and Buddhist texts. Almost all their texts have been dated to about, or after, the 11th century CE.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=83–84}} The largest and most valuable libraries are found in the Thar Desert, hidden in the underground vaults of Jain temples. These collections have witnessed insect damage, and only a small portion of these manuscripts have been published and studied by scholars.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=83–84}}

Comparison with Buddhism and Hinduism

All three religions share concepts and doctrines such as karma and rebirth, and have similar ritual festival grammar, mythologies and monastic traditions.{{sfn|Solomon|Higgins|1998|pp=11–22}}{{sfn|Appleton|2016|pp=1–21, 25–27, 57–58, 82–84}}{{sfn|McFaul|2006|pp=27–28}} They do not believe in eternal heaven or hell or judgment day. Jainism, like Buddhism and Hinduism, grants the freedom to choose beliefs such as in gods or no-gods, agree or disagree with core teachings, participate or not participate in prayers, rituals and festivals. They all consider ethical values such as non-violence to be important,{{sfn|Shaw|Demy|2017|p=635|quote=Ahiṃsā (to do no harm) is a significant aspect of three major religions: Jainism, Hinduism and Buddhism}} and link suffering to craving, individual's actions, intents and karma, and believe spirituality is a means to enlightened peace, bliss and eternal liberation (moksha).{{sfn|Solomon|Higgins|1998|pp=18–22}}{{sfn|McFaul|2006|pp=27–40}}Jainism differs from both Buddhism and Hinduism in its ontological premises. All of them believe in impermanence, but Buddhism incorporates, amongst other things, the premise of anatta (non-self", "no eternal self or soul). Hinduism incorporates the premise of an eternal unchanging atman (self", "soul), while Jainism incorporates the premises of a jiva (self", "soul) that is both eternal and changing.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=87–88}}{{sfn|Wiley|2004|pp=2–5}}{{sfn|Long|2013|pp=122–125}} In Jaina thought, there are infinite eternal jivas, predominantly all of which are in their cycles of rebirth, and a few who have liberated themselves through an ascetic life and become siddhas (a perfect one).{{sfn|Hiriyanna|1993|pp=157–158, 168–169}} In contrast to Jainism, Hindu philosophies express a spectrum of views, ranging from nondualism where all souls are identical as Brahman and posited as interconnected one, to dualism where souls are same and have Brahman-nature but are different from Brahman, and to other ideas.{{sfn|Hiriyanna|1993|pp=54–62, 77–82, 132}}{{sfn|Perrett|2013|pp=247–248}}{{sfn|Bartley|2013|pp=1–10, 76–79, 87–98}} Further, in Hindu thought, Jainism-style asceticism is not emphasized, rather liberation is achievable through alternate paths such as Jnana yoga, Karma yoga and Bhakti yoga.{{sfn|Raju|1985|pp=7–8}}{{sfn|Fowler|2012|pp=89–93}}{{sfn|Klostermaier|2007|pp=119–120}}While both Hinduism and Jainism believe "soul exists" to be a self-evident truth, most Hindu systems consider it to be eternally present, infinite and constant (vibhu), but some Hindu scholars proposed soul to be atomic. Hindu thought generally discusses Atman and Brahman through a monistic or dualistic framework. In contrast, Jaina thought denies the Hindu metaphysical concept of Brahman, and Jain philosophy considers the soul to be ever changing and bound to the body or matter for each lifetime, thereby having a finite size that infuses the entire body of a living being.{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=58, 102–105}}Jainism is similar to Buddhism in epistemically rejecting the Vedas and the Hindu metaphysical concept for Reality called Brahman. Jainism and Hinduism, however, both believe "soul exists" as a self-evident truth, and in their historic theology and practice have been more similar than with Buddhism.{{sfn|Dalal|2010b|pp=174–175}}{{sfn|Solomon|Higgins|1998|pp=18–22}} Jains and Hindus have frequently intermarried over their history, particularly in northern, central and western regions of India.{{sfn|Juergensmeyer|2011|p=54}}{{sfn|Kelting|2009|pp=206 note 4}}Some early colonial scholars stated that Jainism like Buddhism was, in part, a rejection of the caste system in Hinduism.{{sfn|Nesfield|1885|pp=116–117}}{{sfn|Pope|1880|pp=40–41}} Later scholars, such as Gombrich state that this notion is an error for which "mainly Western authors are responsible".{{sfn|Alberts|2007|pp=258–259}} A caste system has been a historic part of Jain society.{{sfn|Juergensmeyer|2011|p=54}}{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=147–149, 304 footnote 24}}{{sfn|Babb|1996|pp=137–145, 54, 172}} According to Vilas Adinath Sangave, "caste system is a universal feature of the Jaina community", and the focus of Jainism has been the spiritual liberation of the individual rather than social reforms.{{sfn|Sangave|1980|pp=73, 316–317}}{{refn|group=note|According to Richard Gombrich and other scholars, Buddhism too was not a rejection or rebellion against any ancient caste system and it too was focused on individual's liberation from rebirths and suffering. The caste system in Buddhist societies and monasteries outside India have been documented. Gombrich states, "Some modernists go so far as to say that the Buddha was against caste altogether: this is not the case, but is one of the mistakes picked up from western authors."{{sfn|Gombrich|2012|pp=344–353 with footnotes}}{{sfn|Alberts|2007|pp=258–259}}{{sfn|Florida|2005|pp=134–137}}}} According to Padamnath Jaini, the 8th-century Digambara scholar Jinasena stated that Jain king Bharata, the son of first tirthankara named Rishabhanatha, invented the caste system by performing the ahiṃsā (non-violence) test, with Jain Brahmins being those who followed the non-violence precept.{{sfn|Jaini|1998|pp=288–289, 78}}

Art and architecture

File:Thirakoil-Parsava nathar.JPG|thumb|left|Ancient sculpture depicting Parshvanatha at Thirakoil, Tamil NaduTamil NaduJainism has contributed significantly to Indian art and architecture. Jain arts depict life legends of tirthankara or other important people, particularly with them in a seated or standing meditative posture. Yakshas and yakshinis, attendant spirits who guard the tirthankara, are usually shown with them.{{sfn|Shah|1998b|p=184}} The earliest known Jain image is in the Patna museum. It is dated approximately to the 3rd century BCE.{{sfn|Shah|1998b|p=184}} Bronze images of Pārśva can be seen in the Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai, and in the Patna museum; these are dated to the 2nd century BCE.{{sfn|Umakant P. Shah|1987|p=95}}File:Jain votive plaque.jpg|thumb|Ayagapata, 200 CE, Kankali Tila, Mathura, Uttar PradeshUttar PradeshFile:KHANDAGIRI AND UDAYGIRI Cave Inscriptions 1.jpg|thumb|Inscriptions at a Udaygiri-Khandagiri 1st-century BCE Jain rock cut cave, (Odisha]].Udaygiri and Khandagiri Caves {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151029012248weblink |date=29 October 2015 }}, Archaeological Survey of India, Government of India)Ayagapata is a type of votive tablet used in Jainism for donation and worship in the early centuries. These tablets are decorated with objects and designs central to Jain worship such as the stupa, dharmacakra and triratna. They present simultaneous trends or image and symbol worship. Numerous such stone tablets were discovered during excavations at ancient Jain sites like Kankali Tila near Mathura in Uttar Pradesh, India. The practice of donating these tablets is documented from 1st century BCE to 3rd century CE.JOURNAL, Kishore, Kanika, 2015-06-16, Symbol and Image Worship in Jainism, Indian Historical Review, en, 42, 1, 17–43, 10.1177/0376983615569814, dmy-all, WEB, Ayagapata,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 18 April 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111127223718weblink">weblink 27 November 2011, no, dmy-all, {{harvnb|Jain|Fischer|1978|pp=9–10}}Samavasarana, a preaching hall of tirthankaras with various beings concentrically placed, is an important theme of Jain art.{{sfn|Wiley|2009|p=184}}The Jain tower in Chittor, Rajasthan, is a good example of Jain architecture.{{sfn|Owen|2012|pp=1–2}} Decorated manuscripts are preserved in Jain libraries, containing diagrams from Jain cosmology.{{sfn|Shah|1998b|p=183}} Most of the paintings and illustrations depict historical events, known as Panch Kalyanaka, from the life of the tirthankara. Rishabha, the first tirthankara, is usually depicted in either the lotus position or kayotsarga, the standing position. He is distinguished from other tirthankara by the long locks of hair falling to his shoulders. Bull images also appear in his sculptures.{{sfn|Shah|1998b|p=113}} In paintings, incidents from his life, like his marriage and Indra marking his forehead, are depicted. Other paintings show him presenting a pottery bowl to his followers; he is also seen painting a house, weaving, and being visited by his mother Marudevi.{{sfn|Jain|Fischer|1978|p=16}} Each of the twenty-four tirthankara is associated with distinctive emblems, which are listed in such texts as Tiloyapannati, Kahavaali and Pravacanasaarodhara.{{sfn|Shah|1998b|p=187}}

Temples

{{location map+|India|float=right|width=375|caption=Major pilgrimage and temple sites in Jainism.|places={{location map~|India |lat=21.52 |long= 71.83 |label=Palitana|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=bottom}}{{location map~|India |lat= 21.494722 |long= 70.505556 |label=Girnar|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=left}}{{location map~|India |lat= 24.5925 |long= 72.7083 |label=Mount Abu|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=bottom}}{{location map~|India |lat= 25.719 |long= 78.378|label=Sonagiri|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=top}}{{location map~|India |lat= 29.09407|long= 78.00236 |label=Hastinapur|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=right}}{{location map~|India |lat= 26.8 |long= 82.2 |label=Ayodhya|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=right}}{{location map~|India |lat= 23.9611 |long= 86.1371 |label=Shikharji|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=right}}{{location map~|India |lat= 23.984944 |long= 79.719957 |label=Kundalpur|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=bottom}}{{location map~|India |lat= 25.091667 |long= 85.538889 |label=Pawapuri|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=right}}{{location map~|India |lat= 21.996 |long= 74.862 |label=Bawangaja|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=right}}{{location map~|India |lat= 25.135 |long= 73.447 |label=Ranakpur|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=left}}{{location map~|India |lat= 24.85 |long= 79.93 |label=Khajuraho|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=left}}{{location map~|India |lat= 25.299528 |long= 82.999944 |label=Varanasi|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=bottom}}{{location map~|India |lat= 12.859 |long= 76.489 |label=Shravanabelagola|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=right}}{{location map~|India |lat= 20.262831 |long= 85.78603 |label=Udayagiri|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=right}}{{location map~|India |lat= 16.821639 |long= 74.444861 |label=Kumbhoj|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=right}}{{location map~|India |lat= 26.7167 |long= 72.9167 |label=Osian|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=left}}{{location map~|India |lat= 15.9484 |long= 75.8159 |label=Pattadakal|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=bottom}}{{location map~|India |lat= 13.2157 |long= 75.9914 |label=Halebidu|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=left}}{{location map~|India |lat= 20.0268 |long= 75.1771 |label=Ellora|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=right}}{{location map~|India |lat= 16.49687 |long= 80.58178 |label=Guntur|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=right}}{{location map~|India |lat= 17.698611 |long= 79.037222 |label=Kulpakji|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=right}}{{location map~|India |lat= 9.9625 |long= 76.254167 |label=Mattancherry|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=left}}{{location map~|India |lat= 12.22 |long= 79.07 |label=Tirumalai|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=right}}{{location map~|India |lat= 10.4544 |long= 78.7247 |label=Pudukottai|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=top}}{{location map~|India |lat= 9.9 |long= 78.1 |label=Madurai|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=right}}{{location map~|India |lat= 8.3327 |long= 77.2395 |label=Chitharal|mark=Orange_pog.svg|position=right}}}}A Jain temple, Derasar or Basadi is a place of worship for Jains.{{citation |url=http://www.kamat.com/glossary/?whoID=234 |title=Basadi |work=kamat.com |access-date=15 December 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304031423weblink |archive-date=4 March 2016 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }} Jain temples are built with various architectural designs,{{sfn|Singhvi|Chopra|2002|p=}}{{Page needed|date=March 2017}} but there are mainly two type of Jain temples:
  1. Shikar-bandhi Jain temple (one with a dome)
  2. Ghar Jain temple (Jain house temple – one without a dome).
There is always a main deity also known as moolnayak in every Jain temple placed inside a sanctum called "Gambhara" (Garbha Griha). A manastambha (column of honor) is a pillar that is often constructed in front of Jain temples.There are 26 caves, 200 stone beds, 60 inscriptions, and over 100 sculptures in and around Madurai. This is also the site where Jain ascetics wrote great epics and books on grammar in Tamil.{{citation |author=S. S. Kavitha |url=http://www.thehindu.com/life-and-style/namma-madurai-history-hidden-inside-a-cave/article4051011.ece |title=Namma Madurai: History hidden inside a cave |work=The Hindu |date=31 October 2012 |access-date=15 November 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140103053626weblink |archive-date=3 January 2014 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}Ancient Jain monuments include the Udaigiri Hills near Bhelsa (Vidisha) in Madhya Pradesh, the Ellora in Maharashtra, the Palitana temples in Gujarat, and the Jain temples at Dilwara Temples near Mount Abu, Rajasthan.{{citation |last=Barik |first=Bibhuti |title=Plan to beautify Khandagiri – Monument revamp to attract more tourists |url=http://www.telegraphindia.com/1150623/jsp/odisha/story_27206.jsp |work=The Telegraph |date=22 June 2015 |location=Bhubaneswar |access-date=16 February 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160223232545weblink |archive-date=23 February 2016 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }} Chaumukha temple in Ranakpur is considered one of the most beautiful Jain temples and is famous for its detailed carvings.{{sfn|Sehdev Kumar|2001|p=}}{{citation |last=Trivedi |first=Tanvi |title=The architectural beauty of Ranakpur |url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/The-architectural-beauty-of-Ranakpur/articleshow/11166701.cms |work=The Times of India |date=17 September 2012 |access-date=5 April 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161117061617weblink |archive-date=17 November 2016 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }} According to Jain texts, Shikharji is the place where twenty of the twenty-four Jain Tīrthaṅkaras along with many other monks attained moksha (died without being reborn, with their soul in Siddhashila). The Shikharji site in northeastern Jharkhand is therefore a revered pilgrimage site.{{Sfn|Cort|2010|pp=130–133}}{{refn|group=note|Some texts refer to the place as Mount Sammeta.{{sfn|Jacobi|1964|p=275}}}} The Palitana temples are the holiest shrine for the Śvētāmbara Murtipujaka sect.{{sfn|Peter|2010|p=352}} Along with Shikharji the two sites are considered the holiest of all pilgrimage sites by the Jain community.{{citation|url=http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/jainism/murti.html |title="Murtipujakas, Jainism", Encyclopedia of World Religions (PHILTAR), University of Cambria |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071013131021weblink |archivedate=13 October 2007 |df= }}The Jain complex, Khajuraho and Jain Narayana temple are part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site.{{citation |url=weblink |title= Khajuraho Group of Monuments |publisher= UNESCO |access-date= 14 March 2017 |archive-url=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170218144204weblink">weblink |archive-date= 18 February 2017 |dead-url= no |df= dmy-all }}{{citation |url=weblink |title= Group of Monuments at Pattadakal |publisher= UNESCO |access-date= 14 March 2017 |archive-url=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326134122weblink">weblink |archive-date= 26 March 2014 |dead-url= no |df= dmy-all }} Shravanabelagola, Saavira Kambada Basadi or 1000 pillars and Brahma Jinalaya are important Jain centers in Karnataka.{{sfn|Butalia|Small|2004|p=367}}{{sfn|Bright|2010|p=465}}{{sfn|Fergusson|1876|p=271}}{{sfn|Pandya|2014|p=17}}The Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves dating back to the 2nd–1st century BCE are dedicated to Jainism. They are rich with carvings of Jain tirthanakars and deities with inscriptions including the Hathigumpha inscription (Elephant Cave" inscription).{{citation |url=http://www.proel.org/index.php?pagina=alfabetos/dravidi |title=Source |work=proel.org |access-date=13 January 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181201132912weblink |archive-date=1 December 2018 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}{{sfn|Upinder Singh|2016|p=460}} Jain cave temples at Badami, Mangi-Tungi and the Ellora Caves are considered important.{{sfn|Owen|2012|p=50}}The Sittanavasal Cave temple is regarded as one of the finest examples of Jain art. It is the oldest and most famous Jain centre in the region. It possesses both an early Jain cave shelter, and a medieval rock-cut temple with excellent fresco paintings comparable to Ajantha paintings; the steep hill contains an isolated but spacious cavern. Locally, this cavern is known as "Eladipattam", a name that is derived from the seven holes cut into the rock that serve as steps leading to the shelter. Within the cave there are seventeen stone beds aligned in rows; each of these has a raised portion that could have served as a pillow-loft. The largest stone bed has a distinct Tamil-Brahmi inscription assignable to the 2nd century BCE, and some inscriptions belonging to the 8th century BCE are also found on the nearby beds. The Sittannavasal cavern continued to be the Holy Sramana Abode until the 7th and 8th centuries. Inscriptions over the remaining stone beds name mendicants such as Tol kunrattu Kadavulan, Tirunilan, Tiruppuranan, Tittaicharanan, Sri Purrnacandran, Thiruchatthan, Ilangowthaman, Sri Ulagathithan, and Nityakaran Pattakali as monks.{{citation |author=S. S. Kavitha |url=http://www.thehindu.com/features/metroplus/preserving-the-past/article100194.ece |title=Preserving the past |work=The Hindu |date=3 February 2010 |access-date=15 November 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140103060244weblink |archive-date=3 January 2014 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}The 8th century Kazhugumalai temple marks the revival of Jainism in South India.{{citation |url=http://www.hindu.com/2003/09/15/stories/2003091503060500.htm |title=Arittapatti inscription throws light on Jainism |work=The Hindu |date=15 September 2003 |access-date=15 November 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131123051449weblink |archive-date=23 November 2013 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}File:Palitana.jpg|Palitana temples, ShatrunjayaFile:Jain Temple Ranakpur.jpg|Ranakpur Jain TempleFile:Delwada.jpg|Dilwara TemplesFile:1000-Pillar-Temple-Moodbidri-Left-Side-View.JPG|Saavira Kambada BasadiFile:Jain_temple_at_Lakkundi_built_in_the_Kalyani_Chalukya_style.jpg|Brahma Jinalaya, LakkundiFile:Sheth_Hutheesinh_Temple.jpg|Hutheesing Jain TempleFile:Le temple de Parshvanath (Khajuraho) (8638423582).jpg|Parshvanath Temple in KhajurahoFile:Girnar Jain temple - Neminath temple.jpg|Girnar Jain templesFile:Jal_Mandir.The_Jain_Temple_at_Pawapur,.jpg|Jal Mandir, PawapuriFile:Panchakuta_Basadi_(10th_century_AD)_at_Kambadahalli.JPG|Panchakuta Basadi, KambadahalliFile:Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal.JPG|Jain Narayana templeFile:Lodurva_Temples.jpg|Lodhruva Jain templeFile:Templejaindanvers.jpg|Jain temple, Antwerp, Belgium

Pilgrimages

Jain Tirtha (pilgrim) sites are divided into the following categories:{{sfn|Titze|1998|p=}} Outside contemporary India, Jain communities built temples in locations such as Nagarparkar, Sindh (Pakistan). However, according to a UNESCO tentative world heritage site application, Nagarparkar was not a "major religious centre or a place of pilgrimage" for Jainism, but it was once an important cultural landscape before "the last remaining Jain community left the area in 1947 at Partition".Nagarparkar Cultural Landscape {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170510093259weblink |date=10 May 2017 }}, Tantative List, UNESCO World Heritage Centre

Statues and sculptures

Jain sculptures are mainly images depicting tīrthaṅkaras. A sculpture could depict any of the twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras{{'}}s images. Parshvanatha, Rishabhanatha and Mahāvīra are among the more popular. These tīrthaṅkaras usually depicted in the lotus position or kayotsarga.{{sfn|Arora||p=405}} Sculptures of chaumukha (quadruple) images are also popular in Jainism. Sculptures of Arihant, Bahubali, and protector deities like Ambika are also found. Tirthanakar idols look similar and are differentiated by the symbol belonging to each tirthanakar except Parshvanatha. Statues of Parshvanath have a snake crown on head. There are a few differences between the Digambara and the Śvētāmbara depictions of idols.{{sfn|Cort|2010}} Digambara images are naked without any beautification, whereas Śvētāmbara depictions are clothed and decorated with temporary ornaments.{{sfn|Cort|2010}}A monolithic, {{convert|18|m|ft|adj=on|abbr=off}} statue of Bahubali, referred to as Gommateshvara, built in 981 CE by the Ganga minister and commander Chavundaraya, is situated on a hilltop in Shravanabelagola in the Hassan district of Karnataka state. This statue was voted first in the SMS poll Seven Wonders of India conducted by The Times of India.{{citation |url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/2256323.cms |title=And India's 7 wonders are |newspaper=The Times of India |date=5 August 2007 |access-date=3 January 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121018033432weblink |archive-date=18 October 2012 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }} The Statue of Ahiṃsā (depicting Rishabhanatha) was erected in the Nashik district in 2015; it is {{convert|33|m|ft|abbr=on}} tall.{{citation |url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/nashik/70-crore-plan-for-idol-installation-at-Mangi-Tungi/articleshow/50037188.cms |title=70-crore plan for idol installation at Mangi-Tungi |work=The Times of India |date=4 December 2015 |last=Botekar |first=Abhilash |agency=TNN |location=Nashik |access-date=7 February 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160119161127weblink |archive-date=19 January 2016 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }} Idols made from Ashtadhatu (literally "eight metals), Akota Bronze, brass, gold, silver, stone monoliths, rock cut, and precious stones are popular in Jainism.{{Citation|url={{Google books|clUmKaWRFTkC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|title=Indian Sculpture: Circa 500 B.C.–A.D. 700|publisher=Los Angeles County Museum of Art|first=Pratapaditya|last=Pal|p=22}}HTTP://WWW.METMUSEUM.ORG/TOAH/HD/JAIS/HD_JAIS.HTM, Met Museum, 16 April 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170506060348weblink">weblink 6 May 2017, no, dmy-all, A large number of ayagapata, votive tablets for offerings and the worship of tīrthankara, were excavated from Kankali Tila, Mathura. These sculptures date from the 2nd century BCE to the 12th century CE.{{sfn|Jain|Fischer|1978|pp=9–10}}

Symbols

(File:Jain Prateek Chihna.svg|thumb|upright=0.8|The Jain emblem)Jain icons and arts incorporate symbols such as swastika, om, and the Ashtamangala.

Swastika

The swastika is an important Jain symbol. Its four arms symbolise the four realms of existence in which rebirth occurs according to Jainism: humans, heavenly beings, hellish beings and non-humans (plants and animals).{{sfn|Cort|2001a|p=17}}{{sfn|Jansma|Jain|2006|p=123}} This is conceptually similar to the six realms of rebirth represented by bhavachakra in Buddhism.{{sfn|Cort|2001a|p=17}} It is usually shown with three dots on the top, which represent the three jewels mentioned in ancient texts such as Tattvartha sūtra and Uttaradhyayana sūtra: correct faith, correct understanding and correct conduct. These jewels are the means believed in Jainism to lead one to the state of spiritual perfection, a state that is symbolically represented by a crescent and one dot on top representing the liberated soul.{{sfn|Cort|2001a|pp=17–18}}

Symbol of Ahiṃsā

The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes ahimsā in Jainism with ahiṃsā written in the middle. The wheel represents the dharmachakra (Wheel of the Dharma), which stands for the resolve to halt the saṃsāra (wandering) through the relentless pursuit of ahimsā (compassion).

Om

File:Om_jaïn_orange.svg|thumb|upright=0.45|Om in Jainism]]In Jainism, Om is considered a condensed form of reference to the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi, by their initials A+A+A+U+M ({{IAST|o3}}{{IAST|m}}). According to the Dravyasamgraha by Acharya Nemicandra, AAAUM (or just Om) is a one syllable short form of the initials of the five parameshthis: "Arihant, Ashiri, Acharya, Upajjhaya, Muni".{{citation |url=http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/om.html |title=Om – significance in Jainism, Languages and Scripts of India, Colorado State University|work=cs.colostate.edu }}{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=410–411}} The Om symbol is also used in ancient Jain scriptures to represent the five lines of the Ṇamōkāra Mantra.{{Sfn|Agarwal|2012|p=135}}{{Sfn|Agarwal|2013|p=80}}

Jain emblem

In 1974, on the 2500th anniversary of the nirvana of Mahāvīra, the Jain community chose one image as an emblem to be the main identifying symbol for Jainism.{{Sfn|Robinson|2006|p=225}} The overall shape depicts the three loka (realms of rebirth) of Jain cosmology i.e., heaven, human world and hell. The semi-circular topmost portion symbolizes Siddhashila, which is a zone beyond the three realms. The Jain swastika is present in the top portion, and the symbol of Ahiṃsā in the lower portion. At the bottom of the emblem is the Jain mantra, Parasparopagraho Jīvānām. According to Vilas Sangave, the mantra means "all life is bound together by mutual support and interdependence".{{sfn|Sangave|2001|p=123}} According to Anne Vallely, this mantra is from sūtra 5.21 of Umaswati's Tattvarthasūtra, and it means "souls render service to one another".BOOK, Anne Vallely, Stephen Bullivant and Michael Ruse, The Oxford Handbook of Atheism, {{Google books, 93VoAgAAQBAJ, yes, |year=2013|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-166739-8|page=358}}

Jain flag

(File:Jain flag.jpg|thumb|Jain Flag)The five colours of the Jain flag represent the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi and the five vows, small as well as great:{{sfn|Vijay K. Jain|2012|p=iv}}
  • White – represents the arihants, souls who have conquered all passions (anger, attachments, aversion) and have attained omniscience and eternal bliss through self-realisation. It also denotes peace or ahiṃsā (non-violence ).
  • Red – represents the Siddha, souls that have attained salvation and truth. It also denotes satya (truthfulness)
  • Yellow – represents the acharya the Masters of Adepts. The colour also stands for achaurva (non-stealing).
  • Green – represents the upadhyaya (adepts), those who teach scriptures to monks. It also signifies brahmacharya (chastity).
  • Black – represents the Jain ascetics. It also signifies aparigraha (non-possession).

Ashtamangala

The Ashtamangala are a set of eight auspicious symbols, which are different in the Digambara and Śvētāmbar traditions.{{sfn|Titze|1998|p=234}}In the Digambara tradition, the eight auspicious symbols are Chatra, Dhvaja, Kalasha, Chaamara, Mirror, Chair, Hand fan and Vessel. In the Śvētāmbar tradition, these are Swastika, Srivatsa, Nandavarta, Vardhmanaka (food vessel), Bhadrasana (seat), Kalasha (pot), Darpan (mirror) and pair of fish.{{Sfn|Titze|1998|p=234}}

History

File:Photo of lord adinath bhagwan at kundalpur.JPG|thumb|Rishabhdev, believed to have lived over a million years ago, is considered the traditional founder of Jainism.]]

Origins

{{See also|Timeline of Jainism|Śramaṇa}}The origins of Jainism are obscure.{{sfn|Rankin|Mardia|2013|p=975}}{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=13}} The Jains claim their religion to be eternal, and consider Rishabhanatha to be the founder in the present time-cycle, the first of 24 Jain tirthankaras in Jain belief, and someone who lived for 8,400,000 purva years.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=16}} According to one hypothesis, such as one by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the first vice president of India, Jainism was in existence before the Vedas were composed.{{sfn|Jambuvijaya|2002|p=114}}{{sfn|Pande|1957|p=353}} According to historians, the first 22 of the 24 tirthankaras were mythical figures. These figures were supposed to have lived more than 85,000 years ago. They were five to hundred times taller than average human beings and lived for thousands of years.{{citation |title=Rishabhanatha, in Encyclopaedia Britannica |url=https://www.britannica.com/topic/Rishabhanatha |publisher=Editors of the Encyclopaedia Britannica |year=2010 |access-date=9 May 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170519135604weblink |archive-date=19 May 2017 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}{{sfn|Sangave|2001|pp=104, 129}}{{sfn|Saraswati|1908|p=444}} The 23rd tirthankara, Parshvanatha, is generally accepted to be based on an ancient historic human being{{sfn|Zimmer|1953|pp=183}}{{citation |first=Paul |last=Dundas |title=Jainism |publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica |date=2013 |url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/299478/Jainism |access-date=17 September 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130917124851weblink |archive-date=17 September 2013 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}{{sfn|Jaini|1998|p=10}} of uncertain dates, possibly 8th–7th century BCE.Some confessional Jain scholars such as Parikh have argued that some images such as those of the bull in Indus Valley Civilization seal may be related to Jainism, but such claims are highly speculative and a subjective interpretation. This theory has not been accepted by most scholars because very little is known about the Indus Valley iconography and script.{{sfn|Long|2013|pp=53–54}} Jainism, like Buddhism, is one of the Sramana traditions of ancient India, those that rejected the Vedas and developed their own scriptures.{{sfn|Lochtefeld|2002|p=639}}P. Billimoria (1988), Śabdapramāṇa: Word and Knowledge, Studies of Classical India Volume 10, Springer, {{ISBN|978-94-010-7810-8}}, pp. 1–30There is inscriptional evidence for the presence of Jain monks in south India by the second or first centuries BC, and archaeological evidence of Jain monks in Saurashtra in Gujarat by the second century CE.{{sfn|Cort|2010|p=202}} Statues of Jain tirthankara have been found dating back to second century BC.{{sfn|Upinder Singh|2016|p=444}}

Political history

File:Udayagiri Caves - Rani Gumpha 01.jpg|thumb|Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves built by King Kharavela of Mahameghavahana dynastyMahameghavahana dynastyInformation regarding the political history of Jainism is uncertain and fragmentary. Jains consider the king Bimbisara (c. 558–491 BCE), Ajatashatru (c. 492–460 BCE), and Udayin (c. 460–440 BCE) of the Haryanka dynasty as a patron of Jainism.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=41}}Jain tradition states that Chandragupta Maurya (322–298 BCE), the founder of the Mauryan Empire and grandfather of Ashoka, became a monk and disciple of Jain ascetic Bhadrabahu during later part of his life. According to historians, Chandragupta's story appears in various versions in Buddhist, Jain, and Hindu texts.{{sfn|Mookerji|1988|pp=4–21, 232–237}} Broadly, Chandragupta was born into a humble family, abandoned, raised as a son by another family, then with the training and counsel of Chanakya of Arthashastra fame ultimately built one of the largest empires in ancient India.Chandragupta Maurya, Emperor of India {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170808163434weblink |date=8 August 2017 }}, Encyclopaedia BritannicaBOOK, Roger Boesche, Roger Boesche, The First Great Political Realist: Kautilya and His Arthashastra, {{Google books, K85NA7Rg67wC, yes, |year=2003|publisher=Lexington Books|isbn=978-0-7391-0607-5|pages=7–18}} According to Jain history, late in his life, Chandragupta renounced the empire he built and handed over his power to his son, became a Jaina monk, and headed to meditate and pursue spirituality in the Deccan region, under the Jaina teacher Bhadrabahu at Shravanabelagola.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=42}} There state Jain texts, he died by fasting, a Jaina ascetic method of ending one's life by choice (Sallenkana vrata).{{sfn|Mookerji|1988|pp=39–46, 234–236}}BOOK, Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, {{Google books, RoW9GuFJ9GIC, yes, |year=2004|publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-0-415-32920-0|pages=63–65}} The 3rd century BCE emperor Ashoka, in his pillar edicts, mentions several ancient Indian religious groups including the Niganthas (Jaina).{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=43}}According to another Jain legend, King Salivahana of the late 1st century CE was a patron of Jainism, as were many others in the early centuries of the 1st millennium CE. But von Glasenapp states that the historicity of these stories is difficult to establish.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=51}} Archeological evidence suggests that Mathura was an important Jain centre between the 2nd century BCE and the 5th century CE. Inscriptions from the 1st and 2nd century CE show that the schism between Digambara and Śvētāmbara had already taken place.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=49}}King Harshavardhana of the 7th century grew up in Shaivism, following his family, but he championed Jainism, Buddhism and all traditions of Hinduism.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=52}} King Ama of the 8th century converted to Jainism, and the Jaina pilgrimage tradition was well established in his era.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=52–54}} Mularaja, the founder of Chalukya dynasty, constructed a Jain temple, even though he was not a Jain.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|p=56}}In the second half of the 1st century CE, Hindu kings sponsored and helped build major Jaina cave temples. For example, the Hindu Rashtrakuta dynasty started the early group of Jain temples,BOOK, José Pereira, Monolithic Jinas, {{Google books, LMTgiygj4-oC, PA24, yes, |year=1977|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass|isbn=978-81-208-2397-6|pages=21–24}} and the Yadava dynasty built many of the middle and later Jain group of temples at the Ellora Caves between 700 and 1000 CE.World Heritage Sites – Ellora Caves {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151007002950weblink |date=7 October 2015 }}, Archeological Survey of India (2011), Government of IndiaBOOK, India through the ages, Gopal, Madan, 1990, 178, K.S. Gautam, Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, BOOK, Lisa Owen, Carving Devotion in the Jain Caves at Ellora, {{Google books, vHK2WE8xAzYC, yes, |year=2012|publisher=Brill Academic|isbn=978-90-04-20629-8|pages=1–10}}

Interaction with other religions

(File:Shrine with Four Jinas (Rishabhanatha (Adinatha)), Parshvanatha, Neminatha, and Mahavira) LACMA M.85.55 (1 of 4).jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Chaumukha Sculpture with Four Jinas (Rishabhanatha (Adinatha), Parshvanatha, Neminatha, and Mahavira), LACMA, 6th century)Mahāvīra and Buddha are generally accepted as contemporaries (circa 5th century BCE).{{sfn|Dundas|2003a|p=383}}BOOK, Damien Keown, Charles S. Prebish, Encyclopedia of Buddhism, {{Google books, NFpcAgAAQBAJ, PA127, yes, |year=2013|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-136-98588-1|pages=127–130}} The interaction between Jainism and Buddhism began with the Buddha. Buddhist texts refer to Mahāvīra as Nigantha Nataputta.{{sfn|Sangave|2001|p=105}}Beyond the times of the Mahāvīra and the Buddha, the two ascetic sramana (seeker) religions competed for followers as well as the merchant trade networks that sustained them.{{sfn|Hirakawa|1993|pp=4–7}}BOOK, Jason Neelis, Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks: Mobility and Exchange Within and Beyond the Northwestern Borderlands of South Asia, {{Google books, GB-JV2eOr2UC, yes, |year=2010|publisher=Brill Academic|isbn=978-90-04-18159-5|pages=72–76}} Their mutual interaction, along with those of Hindu traditions, have been significant. In some cases the titles of the Buddhist and Jaina texts are the same or similar but present different doctrines.{{sfn|Dundas|2003b|pp=ix–xi, 151–162}}Royal patronage has been a key factor in the growth as well as the decline of Jainism.{{sfn|Natubhai Shah|2004|pp=69–70}} The Pallava King Mahendravarman I (600{{nsndns}}630 CE) converted from Jainism to Shaivism under the influence of Appar.{{sfn|Lochtefeld|2002|p=409}} His work Mattavilasa Prahasana ridicules certain Shaiva sects and the Buddhists and also expresses contempt towards Jain ascetics.{{sfn|Arunachalam|1981|p=170}} Sambandar converted the contemporary Pandya king to Shaivism. During the 11th century, Basava, a minister to the Jain Kalachuri king Bijjala, succeeded in converting numerous Jains to the Lingayat Shaivite sect. The Lingayats destroyed various temples belonging to Jains and adapted them to their use.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=75–77}} The Hoysala King Vishnuvardhana (c.{{nbsp}}1108{{nsndns}}1152 CE) became a follower of the Vaishnava sect under the influence of Ramanuja, after which Vaishnavism grew rapidly in what is now Karnataka.{{sfn|Das|2005|p=161}}File:La grotte Jain Indra Sabha Ellora Caves, India.jpg|thumb|left|The Indra Sabha cave at the Ellora CavesEllora CavesJainism and Hinduism influenced each other. Jain texts declare some of the Hindu gods as blood relatives of legendary tirthankara. Neminatha, the 22nd tirthankara for example is presented as a cousin of Krishna in Jain Puranas and other texts.Arishtanemi: Jaina Saint {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170812180605weblink |date=12 August 2017 }}, Encyclopaedia Britannica{{sfn|Long|2009|p=42}} However, Jain scholars such as Haribhadra also wrote satires about Hindu gods, mocking them with novel outrageous stories where the gods misbehave and act unethically.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=236–237}}BOOK, John R. Hinnells, Who's Who of World Religions, {{Google books, CDSxCwAAQBAJ, PA145, yes, |year=1991|publisher=Palgrave Macmillan |isbn=978-1-349-09500-1|pages=145–146}} The Hindu gods are presented by some Jain writers as persecuting, tempting, afraid of, or serving a legendary Jina before he gains omniscience. In other stories, one or more Jinas easily defeat the Hindu deities such as Vishnu, or Rama and Sita who come to pay respect to a Jina at a major Jain pilgrimage site such as Mount Satrunjaya.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=113–115, 222–223, 236–237}}The Jain and Hindu communities have often been very close and mutually accepting. Some Hindu temples have included a Jain Tirthankara within its premises in a place of honour.{{sfn|Long|2009|pp=5–6}}BOOK, Ramesh Chandra Sharma, Pranati Ghosal, Jaina Contribution to Varanasi, {{Google books, YoLXAAAAMAAJ, yes, |year=2006|publisher=Jnanapravaha|isbn=978-81-246-0341-3|pages=100–103}} Similarly numerous temple complexes feature both Hindu and Jain monuments, with Badami cave temples and Khajuraho among some of the most well known.{{Sfn|Michell|2014|p=38–52, 60–61}}Trudy King et al., Asia and Oceania: International Dictionary of Historic Places, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-1-884964-04-6}}, pp. 468–470File:Gori_Mandar.jpg|alt=Jain monuments in Nagarparkar, Pakistan|thumb|The ruins of Gori Jain temples in NagarparkarNagarparkarJainism faced persecution during and after the Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=145–146, 124}} Muslims rulers, such as Mahmud Ghazni (1001), Mohammad Ghori (1175) and Ala-ud-din Muhammed Shah Khalji (1298) further oppressed the Jain community.{{sfn|von Glasenapp|1925|pp=74–75}} They vandalised idols and destroyed temples or converted them into mosques. They also burned Jain books and killed Jains. There were significant exceptions, such as Emperor Akbar (1542{{nsndns}}1605) whose legendary religious tolerance, out of respect for Jains, ordered the release of caged birds and banned the killing of animals on the Jain festival of Paryusan.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|p=146}} After Akbar, Jains faced an intense period of Muslim persecution in the 17th century.{{sfn|Dundas|2002|pp=220–221}}JOURNAL, Truschke, Audrey, 2015-09-01, Dangerous Debates: Jain responses to theological challenges at the Mughal court*,weblink Modern Asian Studies, 49, 5, 1311–1344, 10.1017/S0026749X14000055, 0026-749X, 23 May 2017,weblink 30 September 2017, no, dmy-all, The Jain community were the traditional bankers and financiers, and this significantly impacted the Muslim rulers. However, they rarely were a part of the political power during the Islamic rule period of the Indian subcontinent.{{sfn|Cort|1998|pp=85–86}}

Colonial era

Colonial era reports and Christian missions variously viewed Jainism as either a sect of HinduismBOOK, British India, Various Census of India: 1871–1872, {{Google books, 4AEJAAAAQAAJ, yes, |year=1867|publisher=Government of India|pages=31 note 140}} or Buddhism, or as a distinct religion.BOOK, Edward Washburn Hopkins, The Religions of India, {{Google books, O0IvAAAAYAAJ, PA283, yes, |year=1902|publisher=Ginn & Company|page=283}}BOOK, A.J. Sunavala, Adarsha Sadhu: An Ideal Monk, {{Google books, oUU4AAAAIAAJ, PA91, yes, |year=1934|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-1-001-40429-5|pages=91–93}} According to Padmanath Jaini, Christian missionaries expressed extreme frustration at Jain people without pagan creator gods refusing to convert to Christianity, while colonial era Jain scholars such as Champat Rai Jain defended Jainism against criticism and misrepresentation by Christian activists.{{sfn|Jaini|2000|p=33}} Missionaries of Christianity and Islam considered Jain traditions as idolatrous and a false religion,BOOK, Rosalind I. J. Hackett, Proselytization Revisited: Rights Talk, Free Markets and Culture Wars, {{Google books, ZHHXAAAAMAAJ, yes, |year=2008|publisher=Equinox Academic|isbn=978-1-84553-227-7|pages=63–68}} characterizing Jain temples and icons, such of those of Jina, as false idols and superstitious practices. These criticisms, states John Cort, were flawed and also ignored similar practices within sects of Christianity.{{sfn|Cort|2010|pp=12–16, 200–207, 218–219, 251 with note 10}}The British colonial government in India, as well as Indian princely states, passed laws that made monks roaming naked in streets a crime, one that led to arrest. This law particularly impacted the Digambara monks.{{sfn|Flügel|2006|pp=348–349}} The Akhil Bharatiya Jaina Samaj opposed this law, and argued that it interfered with the religious rights of Jains. Acharya Shantisagar entered Bombay (now Mumbai) in 1927, but was forced to cover his body. He then led an India-wide tour as the naked monk with his followers, to various Digambara sacred sites, and was welcomed by kings of the Maharashtra provinces.{{sfn|Flügel|2006|pp=348–349}} Shantisagar fasted to oppose the restrictions imposed on Digambara monks by the British Raj and prompted their discontinuance.{{sfn|Natubhai Shah|2004|p=56}} The colonial era laws that banned naked monks remained effective through World War II, but they were abolished by independent India after it gained independence.{{sfn|Flügel|2006|pp=359–360}}

Jains in the modern era

File:Pakbirra Jain Shrine of Purulia 03.jpg|thumb|Ancient temple of Pakbirra, Purulia ]]Followers of the path practised by the Jinas are known as Jains.{{sfn|Sangave|2006|p=15}}{{sfn|Upinder Singh|2016|p=313}} The majority of Jains currently reside in India. With four to five million followers worldwide,{{sfn|Melton|Baumann|2010|p=lix, 1395}} Jainism is relatively small compared to major world religions. Jains form 0.37% of India's population. Most of them are concentrated in the states of Maharashtra (1.4 million in 2011, 31.46% of Indian Jains), Rajasthan (13.97%), Gujarat (13.02%) and Madhya Pradesh (12.74%). Karnataka (9.89%), Uttar Pradesh (4.79%), Delhi (3.73%) and Tamil Nadu (2.01%) also have significant Jain populations.{{citation |url=http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/c-01.html |title=C-1 Population By Religious Community |publisher=Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India |last=Office of registrar general and census commissioner |date=2011 |access-date=9 September 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150913045700weblink |archive-date=13 September 2015 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }} Outside India, Jain communities can be found in Europe, the United States, Canada,{{sfn|Wiley|2009|p=43}} Australia and Kenya.{{sfn|Mugambi|2010|p=108}}According to the National Family and Health Survey (NFHS-4) conducted in 2015–16, Jains form the wealthiest community in India.WEB,weblink Delhi and Punjab richest states, Jain wealthiest community: National survey, 13 January 2018,weblink Jains have the highest literacy rate (87%) in India, in the 7-years to oldest age group, according to its 2011 census. The Jaina community also has the highest number of college graduates.{{citation |url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Jains-have-highest-percentage-of-literates-Census-data/articleshow/53942863.cms |title=Jains have highest percentage of literates: Census 2011 |publisher=The Times of India |date=31 August 2016 |access-date=19 May 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170129153443weblink |archive-date=29 January 2017 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }} Excluding the retired senior citizens, Jain literacy rate in India exceeded 97%. The female to male child sex ratio in the 0–6 year age was second lowest for Jains (870 girls per 1,000 boys), higher than Sikhs in India. Further, Jain males have the highest work participation rates, while Jain females have the lowest work participation rates in India.{{citation| url=http://censusindia.gov.in/Ad_Campaign/drop_in_articles/04-Distribution_by_Religion.pdf| title=Distribution of Population by Religions| author=Census India| publisher=Government of India| year=2011| access-date=19 May 2017| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304191803weblink| archive-date=4 March 2016| dead-url=no| df=dmy-all}}Major Jain communities:File:Deogarh,_UP._Jain_temple_complex.jpg|thumb|Jain Temple complex, Deogarh ]]
  • Jain Bunt are a Jain community from Karnataka, India.BOOK, Kumar Suresh Singh, Anthropological Survey of India, People of India: Maharashtra, Volume 1, 2004, Popular Prakashan, 978-81-7991-100-6, 387–391(Emigrant Bunts by P. Dhar),
  • Jain Komati is a small community scattered all over South and Central India and patrons of many Jain Institutions.WEB,weblink Jain Culture In Telugu Literature, www.jainsamaj.org, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160207000251weblink">weblink 7 February 2016, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Inscription on the last Jain temple in Telangana found, thehindu.com,
  • Saraks is a community in Jharkhand, Bihar, Bengal, and Orissa. They have been followers of Jainism since ancient time.WEB,weblink Government of West Bengal: List of Other Backward Classes, Govt. of West Bengal, December 23, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160119112501weblink">weblink 19 January 2016, no, dmy-all,
  • Porwal community that originated in southern Rajasthan, India.BOOK, Anthropological Survey of India, K. S. Singh, People of India: Maharashtra, {{Google books, 4bfmnmsBfQ4C, PA1738, yes, |year=2004|publisher=Popular Prakashan|location=Mumbai, India|isbn=978-81-7991-102-0|page=1738}}
  • Parwar is a major Jain community from the Bundelkhand region, which is largely in Madhya Pradesh and Lalitpur District, Jhansi.{{citation|url={{Google books|OmBjoAFMfjoC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|title=People of India|edition=Maharashtra, Part 1|first=Kumar Suresh|last=Singh|publisher=Popular Prakashan|date=2004|isbn=978-81-7991-100-6|p=565}}
  • Agrawal Jain of Hisar, Haryana.{{citation needed|date=May 2017}}
  • Bhabra of Punjab is an ancient merchant community from Punjab region which mainly follows Jainism.
  • Sarawagi or Khandelwali originated from Khandela, a historical town in northern Rajasthan.
  • Bagherwal from Baghera (currently known as Ajmer district) a princely state in Rajasthan, a community of Digambar sect.{{citation needed|date=May 2017}}
  • Shrimal, originally from Rajasthan, Shrimal town in southern Rajasthan. The Shrimal (Srimal) Jain are part of the Oswal merchant and minister caste that is found primarily in the north of India.{{citation|url={{Google books|vm_KCE4XXPMC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|title=People of India|edition=Rajasthan|first=K.S.|last=Singh|publisher=Popular Prakashan|date=1989|isbn=978-81-7154-769-2|p=524}}
  • Oswal are a Jain community with origins in the Marwar region of Rajasthan and Tharparkar district in Sindh.BOOK, Alchemies of Violence: Myths of Identity and the Life of Trade in Western India, Lawrence A., Babb, Sage, 2004, 978-0-7619-3223-9, 164–178, {{Google books, 74tUY0le33UC, PA164, yes, }}
  • Jaiswal are mainly located in the Gwalior and Agra region.WEB,weblink About Jaiswals, Jaiswal Samaj,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180430084050weblink">weblink 30 April 2018, no, 12 January 2019, dmy-all,
  • Navnat emerged as a result of blending of several smaller Jain communities in East Africa as well as in Gujarat itself in early 20th century.{{Citation|url={{Google books|PQPqCgAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|title=Indian Africa: Minorities of Indian-Pakistani Origin in Eastern Africa|first=Michel|last=Adam|publisher=Mkuki na Nyota Publishers|date=2015|isbn=978-9987-08-297-1|p=299}}
Jainism has been praised for some of its practices and beliefs.Mahatma Gandhi, who was greatly influenced by Jainism, said:{{sfn|Rudolph|Rudolph|1984|p=171}}}}

See also

Notes

{{Reflist|group=note}}

References

Citations

{{Reflist|25em}}

Sources

  • {{citation |first=Wanda |last=Alberts|title=Integrative Religious Education in Europe: A Study-of-Religions Approach|url={{Google books|xvwKWS3VKfcC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2007|publisher=Walter de Gruyter|isbn=978-3-11-097134-7 }}
  • {{citation |first=Naomi |last=Appleton|title=Shared Characters in Jain, Buddhist and Hindu Narrative: Gods, Kings and Other Heroes |url={{Google books|3QWcDQAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2016|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-1-317-05574-7 }}
  • {{citation |url={{Google books|d4VeYJdww2YC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |title=Udayana |first=Udai Prakash |last=Arora |authorlink=Udai Prakash Arora }}
  • {{citation |editor-last=Arunachalam |editor-first=M. |editor-link=M. Arunachalam |title=Aintām Ulakat Tamil̲ Mānāṭu-Karuttaraá¹…ku Ä€yvuk Kaá¹­á¹­uraikaḷ |url={{Google books|3WFDAAAAYAAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=1981 |publisher=International Association of Tamil Research }}
  • {{citation |first=Lawrence A. |last=Babb|title= Absent Lord: Ascetics and Kings in a Jain Ritual Culture|url={{Google books|C8HcBvE8XJ4C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year= 1996|publisher= University of California Press|isbn= 978-0-520-91708-8 }}
  • {{citation |last=Bailey |first=William|title=The Theological Universe |url={{Google books|G7_GBgAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=Bailey Publishing, PA |date=2012 |isbn=978-1-312-23861-9 }}
  • {{citation |last=Balcerowicz |first=Piotr |authorlink=Piotr Balcerowicz |title=Essays in Jaina Philosophy and Religion|url={{Google books|NcRpfZcIhLoC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2003|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-1977-1 }}
  • {{citation |last=Balcerowicz |first=Piotr |authorlink=Piotr Balcerowicz |title=Jainism and the definition of religion |date=2009 |publisher=Hindi Granth Karyalay |location=Mumbai |isbn=978-81-88769-29-2 |edition=1st }}
  • {{citation |last=Balcerowicz |first=Piotr |authorlink=Piotr Balcerowicz |title=Early Asceticism in India: Ä€jÄ«vikism and Jainism |url={{Google books|nfOPCgAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2015|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-317-53853-0 }}
  • {{citation |first=C.J. |last=Bartley |title=The Theology of Rāmānuja: Realism and Religion|url={{Google books|9SpTAQAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}| year=2013| publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-136-85306-7 }}
  • {{citation |editor-last=Bright |editor-first=P.S. |editor-link=P.S. Bright |title=General Knowledge Digest |url={{Google books|rpYNWAwxRk4C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=Bright publications |date=2010 }}
  • {{citation |first=Johannes|last= Bronkhorst|title=The Two Traditions of Meditation in Ancient India|url={{Google books|AZbZDP8MRJoC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|year=1993|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass|isbn=978-81-208-1114-0}}
  • {{citation |editor-last=Butalia |editor-first=Tarunjit Singh |editor-link=Tarunjit Singh Butalia |editor-last2=Small |editor-first2=Dianne P. |editor-link2=Dianne P. Small |title=Religion in Ohio: Profiles of Faith Communities |url={{Google books|LRFePtMXjT8C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=Ohio University Press |date=2004 |isbn=978-0-8214-1551-1 }}
  • {{citation |first=Colette |last=Caillat |date=2003a |title=Gleanings from a Comparative Reading of Early Canonical Buddhist and Jaina Texts |publisher=Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies |volume=26 |issue=1 }}
  • {{citation |first=Colette |last=Caillat|editor-first=Olle |editor-last=Qvarnström|title=Jainism and Early Buddhism: Essays in Honor of Padmanabh S. Jaini|url={{Google books|5_EdL2FtIqQC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2003b |publisher=Jain Publishing Company|isbn=978-0-89581-956-7 }}
  • {{citation |last=Charitrapragya |first=Samani |editor-last=Sethia |editor-first=Tara |title=Ahimsā, Anekānta, and Jaininsm |url={{Google books|QYdlKv8wBiYC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2004|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass|isbn=978-81-208-2036-4 }}
  • {{citation |first=Asim Kumar |last=Chatterjee|title=A Comprehensive History of Jainism: From the Earliest Beginnings to AD 1000|url={{Google books|IH7XAAAAMAAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|year=2000|publisher=Munshiram Manoharlal|isbn=978-81-215-0931-2 }}
  • {{citation |last=Clarke |first=Peter |authorlink=Peter B. Clarke |last2=Beyer |first2=Peter |authorlink2=Peter Beyer |title=The World's Religions: Continuities and Transformations |url={{Google books|rBgn3xB75ZcC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=2009 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-0-203-87212-3 }}
  • {{citation | last=Cort | first=John |authorlink=John E. Cort |title=Medieval Jaina Goddess Traditions | journal=Numen | volume=34 | issue=2 | pages=235–255 | year=1987 | doi=10.1163/156852787x00047 }}
  • {{citation |last=Cort |first=John E. |authorlink=John E. Cort |title=The Jain Knowledge Warehouses : Traditional Libraries in India|journal=Journal of the American Oriental Society |volume=115 |issue=1 |pages=77–87 |date=1995 |doi=10.2307/605310 |jstor=605310 }}
  • {{citation |editor-last=Cort |editor-first=John E. |editor-link=John E. Cort |title=Open Boundaries: Jain Communities and Cultures in Indian History |url={{Google books|yoHfm7BgqTgC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=SUNY Press |date=1998 |isbn=978-0-7914-3785-8 }}
  • {{citation |last=Cort |first=John E. |authorlink=John E. Cort |title=Jains in the World : Religious Values and Ideology in India |url={{Google books|PZk-4HOMzsoC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=Oxford University Press]|date=2001a |isbn=978-0-19-513234-2 }}
  • {{citation |first=John E |last=Cort |authorlink=John E. Cort |editor-first=David Gordon |editor-last=White|title=Tantra in Practice|url={{Google books|hayV4o50eUEC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2001b | publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn= 978-81-208-1778-4 }}
  • {{citation |last=Cort |first=John E. |authorlink=John E. Cort |title=Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain History |url={{Google books|MDBpq23-0QoC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=2010 |isbn=978-0-19-538502-1 }}
  • {{citation |first=Denise |last=Cush|first2=Catherine |last2=Robinson|first3=Michael |last3=York|title=Encyclopedia of Hinduism|url={{Google books|3N4mGlbutbgC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2012|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-135-18978-5 }}
  • {{citation |last=Dalal |first=Roshen |authorlink=Roshen Dalal |title=The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths |url={{Google books|pNmfdAKFpkQC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=2010a |origyear=2006 |publisher=Penguin books]|isbn=978-0-14-341517-6 }}
  • {{citation |last=Dalal |first=Roshen |authorlink=Roshen Dalal |title=Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide |url={{Google books|DH0vmD8ghdMC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2010b |publisher=Penguin Books |isbn=978-0-14-341421-6 }}
  • {{citation |last=Das |first=Sisir Kumar |authorlink=Sisir Kumar Das |title=A History of Indian Literature, 500–1399: From Courtly to the Popular |url={{Google books|BC3l1AbPM8sC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=2005 |publisher=Sahitya Akademi |isbn=978-81-260-2171-0 }}
  • {{citation |editor-last=Doniger |editor-first=Wendy |editor-link=Wendy Doniger |title=Encyclopedia of World Religions |url={{Google books|ZP_f9icf2roC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=1999 |publisher=Merriam-Webster |isbn=978-0-87779-044-0 }}
  • {{citation |last=Dundas |first=Paul |authorlink=Paul Dundas |title=The Jains |url={{Google books|X8iAAgAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |edition=Second |date=2002 |orig-year=1992 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-0-415-26605-5 |location=London and New York }}
  • {{citation |last=Dundas |first=Paul |authorlink=Paul Dundas |title=Encyclopedia of Buddhism |editor-last=Buswell |editor-first=Robert E. |chapter=Jainism and Buddhism |location=New York |publisher=Macmillan Reference Lib. |year=2003a |isbn=978-0-02-865718-9 }}
  • {{citation |last=Dundas |first=Paul |authorlink=Paul Dundas |editor-last=Qvarnström |editor-first=Olle |title=Jainism and Early Buddhism: Essays in Honor of Padmanabh S. Jaini |url={{Google books|5_EdL2FtIqQC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2003b |publisher=Jain Publishing Company |isbn=978-0-89581-956-7 }}
  • {{citation |first=Paul |last=Dundas |authorlink=Paul Dundas |editor-last=Olivelle |editor-first=Patrick |title=Between the Empires : Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE |url={{Google books|efaOR_-YsIcC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2006 |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0-19-977507-1 }}
  • {{citation|url={{Google books|JXZAAAAAYAAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|title=A History of Architecture in All Countries: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day |volume=3|first=James|last=Fergusson|publisher=John Murray |date=1876 }}
  • {{citation |first=Jack |last=Finegan|title=An Archaeological History of Religions of Indian Asia|url={{Google books|BrDXAAAAMAAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|year=1989|publisher=Paragon House|isbn=978-0-913729-43-4 }}
  • {{citation |first=Robert E. |last=Florida|title=Human Rights and the World's Major Religions: The Buddhist tradition|url={{Google books|IlfuAAAAMAAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2005|publisher=ABC-CLIO|isbn=978-0-313-31318-9 }}
  • {{citation |first=Peter |last=Flügel |authorlink=Peter Flügel |date=2002 |chapter=Terapanth ÅšvÄ“tāmbara Jain Tradition |editor-last=Melton |editor-first=J.G. |editor-last2=Baumann |editor-first2=G. |title=Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices |publisher=ABC-CLIO |isbn=978-1-57607-223-3 }}
  • {{citation |first=Peter |last=Flügel |authorlink=Peter Flügel |editor-first=Olle |editor-last=Qvarnström|title=Jainism and Early Buddhism: Essays in Honor of Padmanabh S. Jaini|url={{Google books|5_EdL2FtIqQC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2003|publisher=Jain Publishing Company|isbn=978-0-89581-956-7 }}
  • {{citation |last=Flügel |first=Peter |authorlink=Peter Flügel |editor-last=King |editor-first=Anna S. |editor-link=Anna S. King |editor-last2=Brockington |editor-first2=John |editor-link2=John Brockington |title=Present Lord: Simandhara Svami and the Akram Vijnan Movement |url=http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/7438/1/Present_Lord_2003.pdf |work=(The Intimate Other: Love Divine in the Indic Religions) |publisher=Orient Longman |year=2005 |isbn=978-81-250-2801-7 |location=New Delhi }}
  • {{citation |last=Flügel |first=Peter |authorlink=Peter Flügel |title=Studies in Jaina History and Culture: Disputes and Dialogues|url={{Google books|CIgqBgAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2006|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-134-23552-0 }}
  • {{citation |first=Sherry |last=Fohr|title=Jainism: A Guide for the Perplexed|url={{Google books|iAXsBQAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2015|publisher=Bloomsbury Publishing|isbn=978-1-4742-2756-8 }}
  • {{citation |first=Sherry |last=Fohr|title=Jainism: A Guide for the Perplexed|url={{Google books|HMXuBQAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2015|publisher=Bloomsbury Academic|isbn=978-1-4742-2755-1 }}
  • {{citation |first=Jeaneane D. |last=Fowler|title=The Bhagavad Gita: A Text and Commentary for Students|url={{Google books|zU4E5ZidVr0C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2012|publisher=Sussex Academic Press|isbn=978-1-84519-346-1 }}
  • {{citation |first=Oliver |last=Freiberger |title=Asceticism and Its Critics: Historical Accounts and Comparative Perspectives |url={{Google books|2cbCr7M4SJ8C|page=PA127|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=2006 |isbn=978-0-19-971901-3 }}
  • {{citation |first= S |last=Fujinaga| editor-first=Olle |editor-last=Qvarnström| title=Jainism and Early Buddhism: Essays in Honor of Padmanabh S. Jaini| url={{Google books|5_EdL2FtIqQC|page=PA206|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2003| publisher=Jain Publishing Company|isbn=978-0-89581-956-7 }}
  • {{citation |first=Richard |last=Gombrich|title=Buddhist Precept & Practice|url={{Google books|lqp4LuZQnHsC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2012|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-136-15623-6 }}
  • {{citation |first=Graham |last=Harvey |title=Religions in Focus: New Approaches to Tradition and Contemporary Practices |url={{Google books|wrTsCwAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2016|publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-134-93690-8 }}
  • {{citation |last=Jacobi |first=Hermann| title= Jaina SÅ«tras (Translation)|editor = Max Muller (The Sacred Books of the East Series, Volume XXII) |url=https://archive.org/stream/jainasÅ«trasparti029233mbppage/n333/mode/2up |date=1964 | publisher = Motilal Banarsidass (Original: Oxford University Press)}}
  • {{citation |first=Akira |last=Hirakawa|title=A History of Indian Buddhism: From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna|url={{Google books|XjjwjC7rcOYC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=1993|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-0955-0 }}
  • {{citation |first=M. |last=Hiriyanna|title=Outlines of Indian Philosophy|url={{Google books|9xGyRAjftrwC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=1993|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-1086-0 }}
  • {{citation |last=Jain |first=Champat Rai |authorlink=Champat Rai Jain |title=The Ratna Karanda Sravakachara |publisher=The Central Jaina Publishing House |url=https://archive.org/details/TheRatnaKarandaSravakachara |year=1917 |quote={{PD-notice}} |ref={{sfnref|Champat Rai Jain|1917}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Jain |first=Champat Rai |authorlink=Champat Rai Jain |title=Nyaya The Science Of Thought |url=https://archive.org/details/Nyaya |year= 1924 |origyear=1916 |quote={{PD-notice}} |ref={{sfnref|Champat Rai Jain|1924}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Jain |first=Champat Rai |authorlink=Champat Rai Jain |title=Risabha Deva – The Founder of Jainism |url=https://archive.org/details/RisabhaDeva-TheFounderOfJainism |publisher=The Indian Press Limited |date=1929 |location=Allahabad |quote={{PD-notice}} |ref={{sfnref|Champat Rai Jain|1929a}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Jain |first=Champat Rai |authorlink=Champat Rai Jain |title=The Practical Dharma |url=https://archive.org/details/ThePracticalDharma |year=1929 |publisher=The Indian Press Ltd. |quote={{PD-notice}} |ref={{sfnref|Champat Rai Jain|1929b}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Jain |first=Champat Rai |authorlink=Champat Rai Jain |title=Jainism, Christianity and Science |publisher=The Indian Press |location=Allahabad |date=1930 |url=https://archive.org/details/JainismChristianityAndScience |quote={{PD-notice}} |ref={{sfnref|Champat Rai Jain|1930}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Jain |first=Champat Rai |authorlink=Champat Rai Jain |title=The Key Of Knowledge |url=https://archive.org/details/keyofknowledge |year=1975 |publisher=Today and Tomorrow's Printers |location=New Delhi |edition=Third |quote={{PD-notice}} |ref={{sfnref|Champat Rai Jain|1975}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Jain |first=Dulichand |authorlink=Dulichand Jain |date=1998 |title=Thus Spake Lord Mahavir |publisher=Sri Ramakrishna Math |location=Chennai |isbn=978-81-7120-825-8 |ref={{sfnref|Dulichand Jain|1998}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Jain |first=Jyotindra |authorlink=Jyotindra Jain |last2=Fischer |first2=Eberhard |authorlink2=Eberhard Fischer |title=Jaina Iconography |url={{Google books|gFZ7vQ2jwlEC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=1978 |publisher=Brill |volume=12 |isbn=978-90-04-05259-8 }}
  • {{citation |last=Jain |first=Kailash Chand |title=Lord MahāvÄ«ra and His Times |url={{Google books|8-TxcO9dfrcC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=1991 |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-0805-8 |ref={{sfnref|Kailash Chand Jain|1991}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Jain |first=Prof. S.A. |authorlink=S.A. Jain |title=Reality (English Translation of Srimat Pujyapadacharya's Sarvarthasiddhi) |date=1992 |origyear=First edition 1960 |publisher=Jwalamalini Trust |url=https://archive.org/details/Reality_JMT |edition=Second |quote={{PD-notice}} |ref={{sfnref|S.A. Jain|1992}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Jain |first=Vijay K. |authorlink=Vijay K. Jain |title=Acharya Umasvami's TattvarthsÅ«tra |date=2011 |publisher=Vikalp Printers |location=Uttarakhand |isbn=978-81-903639-2-1 |edition=1st |url={{Google books|zLmx9bvtglkC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |quote={{PD-notice}} |ref={{sfnref|Vijay K. Jain|2011}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Jain |first=Vijay K. |authorlink=Vijay K. Jain |title=Acharya Amritchandra's Purushartha Siddhyupaya: Realization of the Pure Self, With Hindi and English Translation |url={{Google books|4iyUu4Fc2-YC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=2012 |publisher=Vikalp Printers |isbn=978-81-903639-4-5 |quote={{PD-notice}} |ref={{sfnref|Vijay K. Jain|2012}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Jain |first=Vijay K. |authorlink=Vijay K. Jain |title=Ä€cārya Nemichandra's Dravyasaṃgraha |url={{Google books|g9CJ3jZpcqYC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=2013 |quote={{PD-notice}} |publisher=Vikalp Printers |isbn=978-81-903639-5-2 |ref={{sfnref|Vijay K. Jain|2013}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Jain |first=Vijay K. |authorlink=Vijay K. Jain |title=Acarya Pujyapada's Istopadesa – the Golden Discourse |url={{Google books|r5opAwAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |isbn=978-81-903639-6-9 |date=2014 |quote={{PD-notice}} |ref={{sfnref|Vijay K. Jain|2014}} }}
  • {{citation|last=Jain |first=Vijay K. |authorlink=Vijay K. Jain |title=Acarya Samantabhadra's Svayambhustotra: Adoration of The Twenty-four Tirthankara |date=2015 |publisher=Vikalp Printers |isbn=978-81-903639-7-6 |url={{Google books|xI8HBgAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |quote={{PD-notice}} |ref={{sfnref|Vijay K. Jain|2015}} |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150916101903weblink |archivedate=16 September 2015 |df= }}
  • {{citation |last=Jain |first=Vijay K. |authorlink=Vijay K. Jain |title=Ä€cārya Samantabhadra's Ratnakarandaka-Å›rāvakācāra: The Jewel-casket of Householder's Conduct |date=2016 |publisher=Vikalp Printers |isbn=978-81-903639-9-0 |url={{Google books|87AnDAAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |quote={{PD-notice}} |ref={{sfnref|Vijay K. Jain|2016}} }}
  • {{citation |first=Padmanabh |last=Jaini| editor-first=Wendy |editor-last=Doniger |title=Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions |url={{Google books|4WZTj3M71y0C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=1980 |publisher=University of California Press |isbn=978-0-520-03923-0 }}
  • {{citation |last=Jaini |first=Padmanabh S. |authorlink=Padmanabh Jaini |title=Gender and Salvation: Jaina Debates on the Spiritual Liberation of Women |url={{Google books|GRA-uoUFz3MC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=1991 |isbn=978-0-520-06820-9 |publisher=University of California Press }}
  • {{citation |last=Jaini |first=Padmanabh S. |authorlink=Padmanabh Jaini |title=The Jaina Path of Purification |url={{Google books|wE6v6ahxHi8C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=1998 |origyear=1979 |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |location=Delhi |isbn=978-81-208-1578-0 }}
  • {{citation |editor-last=Jaini |editor-first=Padmanabh S. |editor-link=Padmanabh Jaini |title=Collected Papers On Jaina Studies |url={{Google books|HPggiM7y1aYC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=2000 |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |location=Delhi |edition=First |isbn=978-81-208-1691-6 }}
  • {{citation |last=Jambuvijaya |first=Muni |year=2002|title=Essays in Jaina Philosophy and Religion|editor=Piotr Balcerowicz & Marek Mejor | publisher= Motilal Banarsidass |isbn= 978-81-208-1977-1 }}
  • {{Citation | last =Jones | first =Constance | last2 =Ryan | first2 =James D. | year =2007 | title =Encyclopedia of Hinduism | publisher =Infobase Publishing | url={{Google books|OgMmceadQ3gC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} | isbn= 978-0-8160-5458-9}}
  • {{citation |last=Jansma |first=Rudi |last2=Jain |first2=Sneh Rani |title=Introduction to Jainism |date=2006 |publisher=Prakrit Bharti Academy |location=Jaipur |url={{Google books|lYLXAAAAMAAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |isbn=978-81-89698-09-6 }}
  • {{citation |first=W.J. |last=Johnson|title=Harmless Souls: Karmic Bondage and Religious Change in Early Jainism with Special Reference to Umāsvāti and Kundakunda|url={{Google books|vw8OUSfQbV4C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|year=1995|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-1309-0 }}
  • {{citation |first=William M. |last=Johnston|title=Encyclopedia of Monasticism: A–L |url={{Google books|GfC0TDkJJNgC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2000|publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-57958-090-2 }}
  • {{citation |first=Constance |last=Jones|first2=James D. |last2=Ryan|title=Encyclopedia of Hinduism|url={{Google books|OgMmceadQ3gC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2006|publisher=Infobase Publishing|isbn=978-0-8160-7564-5 }}
  • {{citation |last=Jones |first=Lindsay |title=Encyclopedia of religion |date=2005 |publisher=Macmillan Reference |location= |isbn=978-0-02-865733-2 |url={{Google books|0jMOAQAAMAAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |ref={{sfnref|Lindsay Jones|2005}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Joseph |first=P.M. |authorlink=P. M. Joseph |title=Jainism in South India |url={{Google books|vHnXAAAAMAAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=1997 |isbn=978-81-85692-23-4 }}
  • {{citation |last=Kelting |first=M. Whitney |title=Heroic Wives Rituals, Stories and the Virtues of Jain Wifehood |url={{Google books|-txAd-dK0tEC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2009 |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0-19-973679-9 }}
  • {{citation |last=Koller |first=John M. |title=Syādvadā as the Epistemological Key to the Jaina Middle Way Metaphysics of Anekāntavāda |journal=Philosophy East and West |volume=50 |issue=3 |pages=400–407 |issn=0031-8221 |date=July 2000 |doi=10.1353/pew.2000.0009 |jstor=1400182 }}
  • {{citation |first=Mark |last=Juergensmeyer|title=The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions|url={{Google books|EsMVDAAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2011|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-976764-9 }}
  • {{citation |first=Klaus K. |last=Klostermaier|title=A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition|url={{Google books|E_6-JbUiHB4C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year= 2007|publisher= State University of New York Press|isbn=978-0-7914-7082-4 }}
  • {{citation |last=Kumar |first=Sehdev |authorlink=Sehdev Kumar |title=A Thousand Petalled Lotus: Jain Temples of Rajasthan: Architecture & Iconography |url={{Google books|nSDACkmA_ukC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=Abhinav Publications |date=2001 |isbn=978-81-7017-348-9 |ref={{sfnref|Sehdev Kumar|2001}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Lochtefeld |first=James G. |authorlink=James G. Lochtefeld |title=The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A–M |url={{Google books|5kl0DYIjUPgC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=2002 |publisher=The Rosen Publishing Group |volume=1 |isbn=978-0-8239-3179-8 }}
  • {{citation |first=James G. |last=Lochtefeld|title=The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N–Z |volume=2 |year=2002|publisher=The Rosen Publishing Group |isbn=978-0-8239-2287-1|url={{Google books|g6FsB3psOTIC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Long |first=Jeffery D. |authorlink=Jeffery D. Long |title=Jainism: An Introduction |url={{Google books|ajAEBAAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2009 |publisher=I.B. Tauris |isbn=978-0-85773-656-7}}
  • {{citation |last=Long |first=Jeffery D. |authorlink=Jeffery D. Long |title=Jainism: An Introduction |year=2013 |publisher=I.B. Tauris |isbn= 978-0-85771-392-6}}
  • {{citation | last=Lorenzen | first=David N. | title=Warrior Ascetics in Indian History | journal=Journal of the American Oriental Society | volume=98 | issue=1 | pages=61–75 | year=1978 | doi=10.2307/600151 | jstor=600151 }}
  • {{citation |first=William |last=Mahony|year=1997| title= The Artful Universe: An Introduction to the Vedic Religious Imagination| publisher= State University of New York Press|isbn= 978-0-7914-3580-9}}
  • {{citation |first=Ian S. |last=Markham|first2=Christy |last2=Lohr|title=A World Religions Reader|url={{Google books|JdNNz1jcN9cC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year= 2009|publisher= John Wiley & Sons|isbn=978-1-4051-7109-0 }}
  • {{citation |last=Matilal |first=Bimal Krishna |title=Logic, Language and Reality: Indian Philosophy and Contemporary Issues |url={{Google books|V8SLH7ogB9oC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=1990|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-0717-4 }}
  • {{citation |last=Matilal |first=Bimal Krishna |editor-last=Ganeri |editor-first=Jonardon |editor-last2=Tiwari |editor-first2=Heeraman |title=The Character of Logic in India |url={{Google books|NzZRu12ngLAC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year= 1998|publisher= State University of New York Press|isbn=978-0-7914-3739-1 }}
  • {{citation |last=McFaul |first=Thomas R. |title=The Future of Peace and Justice in the Global Village: The Role of the World Religions in the Twenty-first Century |url={{Google books|V_XCDYzE8qsC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2006 |publisher=Greenwood Publishing |isbn=978-0-275-99313-9 }}
  • {{citation |editor-last=Melton |editor-first=J. Gordon |editorlink=J. Gordon Melton |title=Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations |volume=1 |url={{Google books|KDU30Ae4S4cC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=ABC-CLIO |date=2011 |isbn=978-1-59884-206-7 }}
  • {{citation |editor-last=Melton |editor-first=J. Gordon |editorlink=J. Gordon Melton |editor-last2=Baumann |editor-first2=Martin |editorlink2=Martin Baumann |title=Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices |url={{Google books|v2yiyLLOj88C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |edition=Second |volume=One: A–B |publisher=ABC-CLIO |date=2010 |isbn=978-1-59884-204-3 }}
  • BOOK, Michell, George l, Temple Architecture and Art of the Early Chalukyas: Badami, Mahakuta, Aihole, Pattadakal, {{Google books, -1TroAEACAAJ, yes, |year=2014|publisher=Niyogi Books|isbn=978-93-83098-33-0|ref=harv}}
  • {{citation |last=Mookerji |first=Radha Kumud |authorlink=Radha Kumud Mukherjee |title=Chandragupta Maurya and his times |url={{Google books|i-y6ZUheQH8C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |edition=4th |year=1988 |origyear=first published in 1966 |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-0433-3 }}
  • {{citation |editor-last=Mugambi |editor-first=J.N.K. |editor-link=Jesse Mugambi |title=A Comparative Study of Religions |edition=Second |url={{Google books|cx8ACQAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=University of Nairobi Press |date=2010 |orig-year=1990 |isbn=978-9966-846-89-1 }}
  • {{citation |first=John Collinson |last=Nesfield|title=Brief View of the Caste System of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh|url={{Google books|nuU-AAAAYAAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=1885|publisher=North-Western Provinces and Oudh Government Press }}
  • {{citation | last=Olson | first=Carl | title=The conflicting themes of nonviolence and violence in ancient Indian asceticism as evident in the practice of fasting | journal=International Journal of Dharma Studies | volume=1 | issue=2 | pages=1 | year=2014 | doi=10.1186/2196-8802-2-1 }}
  • {{citation |last=Owen |first=Lisa |authorlink=Lisa Owen |title=Carving Devotion in the Jain Caves at Ellora |url={{Google books|MUszAQAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=Brill |date=2012 |isbn=978-90-04-20629-8 }}
  • {{citation |last=Pal |first=Pratapaditya |authorlink=Pratapaditya Pal |title=Indian Sculpture: Circa 500 B.C.–A.D. 700 |url={{Google books|clUmKaWRFTkC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=Los Angeles Country Museum of Art, University of California Press |date=1986 |volume=1 |isbn=978-0-87587-129-5 }}
  • {{citation|first=Govind|last= Pande|title=Studies in the Origins of Buddhism|url={{Google books|__1kiAonBzIC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} | year=1957| publisher=Motilal Banarsidass (Reprint: 1995)|isbn=978-81-208-1016-7 }}
  • {{citation |last=Pandey |first=Janardan |authorlink=Janardan Pandey |url={{Google books|lmJnWrjnfjMC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=1998 |title=Gandhi and 21st Century |isbn=978-81-7022-672-7 |ref={{sfnref|Janardan Pandey|1998}} }}
  • {{citation|url={{Google books|bBd_BAAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|title=Indian Philately Digest|first=Prashant H. |last=Pandya|date=2014}}
  • {{citation |editor-last=Pechilis |editor-first=Karen |editor-last2=Raj |editor-first2=Selva J. |title=South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today |url={{Google books|kaubzRxh-U0C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=Routledge |date=2013 |isbn=978-0-203-07993-5 }}
  • {{citation|first=Roy W. |last=Perrett|title=Philosophy of Religion: Indian Philosophy| url={{Google books|edhYAQAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}| year=2013| publisher=Routledge| isbn=978-1-135-70322-6 }}
  • {{citation |last=Peter |first=Berger |authorlink=Berger Peter |title=The Anthropology of Values: Essays in Honour of Georg Pfeffer |url={{Google books|qSt8YyRKr0wC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=2010 |publisher=Pearson Education |location=India |isbn=978-81-317-2820-8 }}
  • {{citation |first=George Uglow |last=Pope|title=A Text-book of Indian History|url={{Google books|xpABAAAAQAAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=1880|publisher=W.H. Allen & Company }}
  • {{citation |first=Joan |last=Price|title=Sacred Scriptures of the World Religions: An Introduction|url={{Google books|J0eycqQq9U4C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2010|publisher=Bloomsbury Academic|isbn=978-0-8264-2354-2 }}
  • {{citation |first=P.T. |last=Raju|title=Structural Depths of Indian Thought |url={{Google books|wZ_iahRQomwC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=1985|publisher=State University of New York Press|isbn=978-0-88706-139-4 }}
  • {{citation |last=Rankin |first=Aidan D. |last2=Mardia |first2=Kantilal |authorlink2=Kantilal Mardia |title=Living Jainism: An Ethical Science |url={{Google books|bQxZAQAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=2013 |publisher=John Hunt Publishing |isbn=978-1-78099-911-1 }}
  • {{citation |first=Susan Verma |last=Mishra|first2=Himanshu Prabha |last2=Ray|title=The Archaeology of Sacred Spaces: The Temple in Western India, 2nd Century BCE–8th Century CE|url={{Google books|CtDLDAAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|year=2016|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-317-19374-6 }}
  • {{citation |first=Ashim Kumar |last=Roy |title=A history of the Jainas |chapter-url=http://www.jainworld.com/book/historyofjainism/ch9a.asp | year=1984 | publisher=Gitanjali |chapter = 9. History of the Digambaras |oclc=11604851 |ref={{sfnref|Ashim Kumar Roy|1984}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Rudolph |first=Lloyd I. |last2=Rudolph |first2=Susanne Hoeber |title=The Modernity of Tradition: Political Development in India |url={{Google books|7guY1ut-0lwC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=1984 |publisher=University of Chicago Press |isbn=978-0-226-73137-7 }}
  • {{citation |first=Cynthia |last=Salvadori|title=Through open doors |url={{Google books|4xIRAQAAIAAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|year=1989|publisher=Kenway |isbn=978-9966-848-05-5 }}
  • {{citation |last=Sangave |first=Vilas Adinath |authorlink=Vilas Adinath Sangave |title=Jaina Community: A Social Survey |url={{Google books|FWdWrRGV_t8C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=1980 |publisher=Popular Prakashan |location=Bombay |edition=2nd |isbn=978-0-317-12346-3 }}
  • {{citation |last=Sangave |first=Vilas Adinath |authorlink=Vilas Adinath Sangave |title=Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers on Jain Society, Religion, and Culture |url={{Google books|QzEQJHWUwXQC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=2001 |publisher=Popular Prakashan |location=Mumbai |isbn=978-81-7154-839-2 }}
  • {{citation |last=Sangave |first=Vilas Adinath |authorlink=Vilas Adinath Sangave |title=Aspects of Jaina religion |url={{Google books|8UhvGRoyAqMC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |edition=5 |date=2006 |origyear=1990 |publisher=Bharatiya Jnanpith |isbn=978-81-263-1273-3 }}
  • {{citation |last=Saraswati |first=Dayanand |authorlink=Dayanand Saraswati|title=An English translation of Satyarth Prakash (Reprinted in 1970)|year=1908| url=weblink}}
  • {{citation |last=Sastri |first=K.A. Nilakanta |authorlink=K. A. Nilakanta Sastri |title=A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar |url={{Google books|FjxuAAAAMAAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=1976 |publisher=Oxford University Press|ref={{sfnref|K.A. Nilakanta Sastri|1976}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Schwartz |first=Wm. Andrew |title=The Metaphysics of Paradox: Jainism, Absolute Relativity, and Religious Pluralism |url={{Google books|0jSYuAEACAAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2018 |publisher=Lexington Books |isbn=978-1-4985-6392-5}}
  • {{citation |last=Sethia |first=Tara |title=Ahiṃsā, Anekānta and Jainism |url={{Google books|QYdlKv8wBiYC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=2004 |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-2036-4 }}
  • {{citation |last=Singh |first=Ram Bhushan Prasad |authorlink=Ram Bhushan Prasad Singh |title=Jainism in Early Medieval Karnataka |url={{Google books|JtWGm4E4qZIC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=2008 |origyear=1975 |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-3323-4 |ref={{sfnref|Ram Bhushan Prasad Singh|2008}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Singh |first=Upinder |authorlink=Upinder Singh |title=A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century |url={{Google books|Pq2iCwAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=Pearson Education |date=2016 |isbn=978-93-325-6996-6 |ref={{sfnref|Upinder Singh|2016}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Singhvi |first=Laxmi Mall |authorlink=Laxmi Mall Singhvi |last2=Chopra |first2=Tarun |authorlink2=Tarun Chopra |title=Jain temples in India and around the world |publisher=Himalayan Books |date=2002 }}
  • {{citation |last=Shah |first=Umakant Premanand |authorlink=Umakant Premanand Shah |title=Jaina-rÅ«pa-maṇḍana: Jaina iconography |url={{Google books|m_y_P4duSXsC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=1987 |publisher=Abhinav Publications |isbn=978-81-7017-208-6 |ref={{sfnref|Umakant P. Shah|1987}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Shah |first=Natubhai |authorlink=Natubhai Shah |title=Jainism: The World of Conquerors |url={{Google books|qLNQKGcDIhsC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |volume=I |date=2004 |origyear=First published in 1998 |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-1938-2 |ref={{sfnref|Natubhai Shah|2004}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Shah |first=Natubhai |authorlink=Natubhai Shah |title=Jainism: The World of Conquerors |url={{Google books|g120RG8GkHAC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |volume=2 |date=1998b |publisher=Sussex Academic Press |isbn=978-1-898723-31-8 }}
  • {{citation |first=Jeffrey M. |last=Shaw |first2=Timothy J. |last2=Demy |title=War and Religion: An Encyclopedia of Faith and Conflict |url={{Google books|KDlFDgAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2017 |publisher=ABC-CLIO |isbn=978-1-61069-517-6 }}
  • {{citation |last=Solomon |first=Robert C. |last2=Higgins |first2=Kathleen M. |title=A Passion for Wisdom: A Very Brief History of Philosophy |url={{Google books|btIm8_a8Ol8C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=1998 |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0-19-511209-2 }}
  • {{citation | last=Soni | first=Jayandra | title= Dravya, guna and paryāya in Jaina thought | journal=Journal of Indian Philosophy | volume=19 | issue=1 | pages=75–88 | year=1991 | doi=10.1007/bf00158160 }}
  • {{citation |first=Bertold |last=Spuler|title=Handbook of Oriental Studies|url={{Google books|Kx4uqyts2t4C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|year=1952|publisher=Brill|isbn=978-90-04-04190-5 }}
  • {{citation |last=Taylor |first=Bron |authorlink=Bron Taylor |title=Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature |url={{Google books|i4mvAwAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2008 |publisher=Bloomsbury Academic |isbn=978-1-4411-2278-0}}
  • {{citation |last=Titze |first=Kurt |authorlink=Kurt Titze |title=Jainism: A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-Violence |url={{Google books|loQkEIf8z5wC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |edition=2 |date=1998 |isbn=978-81-208-1534-6 }}
  • {{citation |last=Tukol |first=Justice T.K. |authorlink=T. K. Tukol |title=Sallekhanā is Not Suicide |date=1976 |publisher=L.D. Institute of Indology |location=Ahmedabad |edition=1st |url=https://archive.org/details/SallekhanaIsNotSuicide |quote={{PD-notice}} }}
  • {{citation |last=Umāsvāti |first= Umaswami |title=That which is (Translator: Nathmal Tatia) |url={{Google books|0Rw4RwN9Q1kC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=1994 |publisher=Rowman & Littlefield |isbn=978-0-06-068985-8 }}
  • {{citation |last=Vallely |first=Anne |title=Guardians of the Transcendent: An Ethnology of a Jain Ascetic Community |url={{Google books|eI4PAY9rDmQC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |date=2002 |publisher=University of Toronto Press |isbn=978-0-8020-8415-6 }}
  • {{citation |last=von Glasenapp |first=Helmuth |authorlink=Helmuth von Glasenapp |others=Shridhar B. Shrotri (trans.) |title=Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation |trans-title=Der Jainismus: Eine Indische Erlosungsreligion |url={{Google books|WzEzXDk0v6sC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass (Reprint: 1999) |year=1925| location=Delhi |isbn=978-81-208-1376-2 }}
  • {{citation |last=Voorst |first=Robert E. Van |authorlink=Robert E. Van Voorst |title=RELG: World |url={{Google books|37TcBAAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |publisher=Cengage Learning |year=2015 |edition=Second |isbn=978-1-285-43468-1 }}
  • {{citation |last=Wiley |first=Kristi L. |authorlink=Kriti L. Wiley |title=The A to Z of Jainism |url={{Google books|cIhCCwAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=2009 | volume=38 |publisher=Scarecrow |isbn=978-0-8108-6337-8 }}
  • BOOK, harv, Kristi L., Wiley, Historical Dictionary of Jainism, {{Google books, QCT-CQAAQBAJ, yes, |year=2004| publisher=Scarecrow|isbn=978-0-8108-6558-7}}
  • {{citation |last=Williams |first=Robert |title=Jaina Yoga: A Survey of the Mediaeval Åšrāvakācāras |url={{Google books|LLKcrIJ6oscC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=1991 |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-0775-4 }}
  • {{citation| last=Winternitz| first=Moriz|authorlink=Moriz Winternitz|title=History of Indian Literature: Buddhist & Jain Literature| url={{Google books|Lgz1eMhu0JsC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}| year=1993 | publisher=Motilal Banarsidass| isbn=978-81-208-0265-0}}
  • {{citation |last=Zimmer |first=Heinrich |authorlink=Heinrich Zimmer |title=Philosophies Of India |year=1953 |orig-year=1952 |editor-first=Joseph |editor-last=Campbell |editorlink=Joseph Campbell |publisher=Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd |location=London|url=weblink |isbn=978-81-208-0739-6 }}
  • {{citation |first=Kamil |last=Zvelebil|title=Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature|url={{Google books|qAPtq49DZfoC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} |year=1992|publisher=Brill Academic|isbn=978-90-04-09365-2 }}
  • {{Citation|url={{Google books|ROePWIBgyv8C|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|title=From Bharata to India|edition=Volume 1: Chrysee the Golden|first=M.K. |last=Agarwal|publisher=iUniverse|date=2012|isbn=978-1-4759-0766-7}}
  • {{Citation|url={{Google books|zObPAwAAQBAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|title=The Vedic Core of Human History: And Truth will be the Savior|first=M.K. |last=Agarwal|publisher=iUniverse|date=2013|isbn=978-1-4917-1595-6}}
  • {{Citation|url={{Google books|20DBvovDC0QC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|title=World Religions|first=Thomas Arthur|last=Robinson|publisher=Hymns Ancient and Modern Ltd|date=2006|isbn=978-0-334-04014-9}}

External links

{{Z148}}{{Sister project links|s=1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Jains|v=Ethics/Nonkilling/Spiritual/Jainism|d=Q9232}} {{Jainism topics}}{{Religion topics}}{{Vegetarianism}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Jainism" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 2:03pm EST - Tue, Feb 19 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 18 AUG 2014
Wikinfo
Culture
CONNECT