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{{About|the People's Republic of Bangladesh}}{{pp-protected|reason=Persistent |small=yes}}{{short description|Country in South Asia}}{{use Bangladeshi English|date=September 2019}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2019}}{{coord|23.8|90.3|type:country_region:BD|display=title}}

>Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh}}| image_flag = Flag of Bangladesh.svg| image_coat = National emblem of Bangladesh.svg| symbol_type = Emblem(File:Government Seal of Bangladesh.svgSeal of the Government of Bangladesh)}}Government Seal of Bangladesh}}bnAmar Sonar Bangla">italics=off}}{{small|"My Golden Bengal"}}(File:Amar Shonar Bangla instrumental.ogg|center)
{{center|March: "Notuner Gaan"{{small|"The Song of Youth"}}WEB, National Symbols→National march, Bangladesh Tourism Board, Bangladesh, Ministry of Civil Aviation & Tourism,weblink In 13 January 1972, the ministry of Bangladesh has adopted this song as a national marching song on its first meeting after the country's independence., 21 February 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 28 December 2016, dead, }}| image_map = Bangladesh (orthographic projection).svgframe=yestype=shape-inverseframe-width=260stroke-width=1frame-lat=23.5frame-align=center|title=Bangladesh}}| map_width = 220px| capital = Dhaka23509020type:city_region:BD|display=inline}}| largest_city = Dhaka{{nobold|and national language}}}}Bengali language>BengaliTHE CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH>CHAPTER=ARTICLE 3. THE STATE LANGUAGEWEBSITE=BDLAWS.MINLAW.GOV.BDACCESSDATE=1 FEBRUARY 2017, item_style=white-space:nowrap; Islam in Bangladesh>Islam {{small9.5% Hinduism in Bangladesh >0.6% Buddhism in Bangladesh >0.4% Christianity}}LANGUAGE=BN PUBLISHER=US DEPARTMENT OF STATES ACCESS-DATE=3 DECEMBER 2017, | ethnic_groups = {hide}vunblist
| 98% Bengalis
| {{collapsible list
|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;font-size:100%;
|title= 2% minorities
| Chakmas | Biharis | Marmas | Santhals | Mros | Tanchangyas | Bawms | Tripuris | Khumis | Kukis | Garos | Bisnupriya Manipuris
}}LANGUAGE=BN PUBLISHER=NATIONAL WEB PORTAL OF BANGLADESH TITLE=ARCHIVED COPY ARCHIVE-DATE=16 FEBRUARY 2015, live, | demonym = BangladeshiUnited Nations>UN, World Trade Organization, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation>SAARC, Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation, Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition>IMCTC, OIC, Commonwealth of Nations Unitary state Parliamentary system>parliamentaryconstitutional republic }} President of Bangladesh>PresidentAbdul Hamid (politician)>Abdul HamidPrime Minister of Bangladesh>Prime Minister| leader_name2 = Sheikh HasinaSpeaker of the Jatiya Sangsad>House SpeakerShirin Sharmin Chaudhury>Shirin ChaudhuryChief Justice of Bangladesh>Chief Justice| leader_name4 = Syed Mahmud Hossain| legislature = Jatiya SangsadHistory of Bangladesh>Formation and independenceIndependence Day of Bangladesh>Declared| established_date1 = 26 March 1971Victory Day of Bangladesh>V-Day| established_date2 = 16 December 1971WEBSITE=DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF HEALTH SERVICES (DGHS) ACCESS-DATE=11 SEPTEMBER 2017 ARCHIVE-DATE=13 JUNE 2017, live, | area_rank = 92nd| area_sq_mi = 56,992.54 | percent_water = 6.4Bangladesh}}{{UN_Population|ref}}Data {{webarchive>url= |date=4 September 2011 }}. Census – Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.Year}}| population_estimate_rank = 8th| population_census_year = 2011| population_census_rank = 8th| population_density_km2 = 1,106| population_density_sq_mi = 2,864.5| population_density_rank = 10thWEBSITE=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 16 April 2019, | GDP_PPP_year = 2019| GDP_PPP_rank = 29thWEBSITE=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 16 April 2019, | GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 136thWEBSITE=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 16 April 2019, | GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = 39thWEBSITE=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 16 April 2019, | GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 143th| Gini = 32.4 | Gini_year = 2016| Gini_change = PUBLISHER=KNOEMA ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130907061928/HTTP://KNOEMA.COM/ATLAS/BANGLADESH/TOPICS/POVERTY/INCOME-INEQUALITY/GINI-INDEX URL-STATUS=LIVE, | Gini_rank = | HDI = 0.608 | HDI_year = 2017 | HDI_change = increase PUBLISHER=HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME >PAGE=34 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170322153238/HTTP://HDR.UNDP.ORG/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/2016_HUMAN_DEVELOPMENT_REPORT.PDF URL-STATUS=LIVE, 136}}Bangladeshi taka ()| currency_code = BDTBangladesh Standard Time>BST| utc_offset = +6dd-mm-yyyy Bengali Era>BS  {{smallCommon Era>CE−594)}}}}Right- and left-hand traffic#Bangladesh>leftTelephone numbers in Bangladesh>}}| area_magnitude =| footnote =}}Bangladesh ({{IPAc-en|ËŒ|b|æ|Å‹|É¡|l|É™|ˈ|d|É›|ʃ|,_|ËŒ|b|ɑː|Å‹|-}}; }} {{transl|bn|Bangladesh}} {{IPA-bn|ˈbaÅ‹ladeʃ||Bn-বাংলাদেশ.oga}}, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh ( {{transl|bn|Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh}}), is a country in South Asia. While it is the 92nd-largest country, spanning {{convert|147570|km2|sqmi}}, it is the world's 8th-most populous country with a population nearing 163 million{{UN_Population|ref}}, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north and the east and Myanmar to the east, whereas the Bay of Bengal lies to its south. Dhaka, its capital and largest city, is also the economic, political and the cultural hub of the country. Chittagong, the largest sea port, is the second largest city. The country's geography is dominated by the Ganges delta which empties into the Bay of Bengal the combined waters of several river systems, including those of the Brahmaputra and the Ganges. As a result, the country is criss-crossed by numerous rivers and inland water ways. Highlands with evergreen forests cover the landscape in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country. The country also features the longest natural sea beach and most of the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plants and wildlife, including the endangered Bengal tiger, the national animal.Bangladesh forms the largest and eastern part of the Bengal region.BOOK, Frank E. Eyetsemitan, James T. Gire, Aging and Adult Development in the Developing World: Applying Western Theories and Concepts,weblink 2003, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-89789-925-3, 91, According to the ancient Indian epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, the Vanga Kingdom, one of the namesakes of the Bengal region, was known as an ally of the legendary Ayodhya and was notable for its strong navy. In the ancient and classical period of the Indian subcontinent, the territory of Bangladesh was home to many principalities, including the Pundra, the Gangaridai, Gauda, Samatata and Harikela. It was also a Mauryan province under the reign of Ashoka. The principalities were notable for their overseas trade, their contacts with the Roman world, the export of fine muslin and silk to the Middle East, and spreading of philosophy and art to Southeast Asia. The Pala Empire, the Chandra dynasty and the Sena dynasty were the last pre-Islamic Bengali middle kingdoms. Islam was introduced during the Pala Empire, through trade with the Abbasid Caliphate,BOOK, Raj Kumar, 2003, Essays on Ancient India,weblink Discovery Publishing House, 199, 978-81-7141-682-0, but following the early conquest of Bakhtiyar Khalji and the subsequent establishment of the Delhi Sultanate and preaching of Shah Jalal in East Bengal, it fully spread across the entire region. Later, it was absorbed into the Mughal Empire in 1576, although part of the region was overrun by the Suri Empire. Following the decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 1700s, Bengal became a semi-independent state under the Nawabs of Bengal, ultimately led by Siraj ud-Daulah. It was later conquered by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757.BOOK, Esposito, John L., John L. Esposito, 2004, The Islamic World: Past and Present, Volume 1: Abba - Hist.,weblink Oxford University Press, 174, 978-0-19-516520-3, 29 August 2017,weblink 20 December 2017, live, dmy-all, The borders of modern Bangladesh were established with the separation of Bengal and India in August 1947, when the region became East Pakistan as a part of the newly formed State of Pakistan following the Boundary of the Partition of India.WEB, Peacocks at Sunset,weblink Opinionator: Borderlines, The New York Times, Jacobs, Frank, 6 January 2013, 15 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 14 July 2012, live, dmy-all, Later the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement led to the Liberation War and eventually resulted in the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent sovereign in 1971.Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population of Bangladesh. The politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's fourth-largest Muslim-majority country. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims.BOOK, The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, Article 12. Secularism and freedom of religion,weblink, Ministry of Law, The People's Republic of Bangladesh, 17 May 2019, WEB,weblink The state religion,, 2015-07-17, A middle power,WEB,weblink A Balancing Act: The Role of Middle Powers in Contemporary Diplomacy, Willem, Oosterveld, Bianca, Torossian, Strategic Monitor 2018–2019, Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael, Clingendael Institute, 25 May 2019, Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional republic in the Westminster tradition. The country is divided into eight administrative divisions and sixty-four districts. It is one of the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is listed among the Next Eleven countries. It has one of the fastest real GDP growth rates in the world. Its gross domestic product ranks 39th largest in the world in terms of market exchange rates and 29th in purchasing power parity. Its per capita income ranks 143th nominally and 136th by purchasing power parity. In recent years Bangladesh has registered notable success in reducing child mortality, population control, combating natural disasters, women's empowerment, generation of income through the export of textiles, and using microcredit as a tool for poverty alleviation. However, the country continues to face the challenges of the Rohingya genocide and refugee crisis,WEB,weblink Myanmar Rohingya crisis: Deal to allow return of Muslim refugees, 23 November 2017, BBC,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-11-25, live, 26 November 2017, terrorism,JOURNAL,weblink Terrorism in Bangladesh, Academia, 20 November 2010, 19 February 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 21 December 2014, live, dmy-all, Sohel, Sahiduzzaman, corruption,JOURNAL, Zafarullah, Habib, Siddiquee, Noore Alam, 1 December 2001, Dissecting Public Sector Corruption in Bangladesh: Issues and Problems of Control, Public Organization Review, en, 1, 4, 465–486, 10.1023/A:1013740000213, 1566-7170, and the erratic effects of climate change.NEWS,weblink Bangladesh, India Most Threatened by Climate Change, Risk Study Finds, Braun, David Maxwell, 20 October 2010, National Geographic, 14 July 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 3 May 2016, dead,


The etymology of Bangladesh (Country of Bengal) can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh Momo by Kazi Nazrul Islam and Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy by Rabindranath Tagore, used the term.WEB,weblink Notation of song aaji bangladesher hridoy, 10 September 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 September 2015, The term Bangladesh was often written as two words, Bangla Desh, in the past. Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan.The exact origin of the word Bangla is unknown, though it is believed to come from "Vanga", an ancient kingdom and geopolitical division on the Ganges delta in the Indian subcontinent. It was located in southern Bengal, with the core region including present-day southern West Bengal (India) and southwestern Bangladesh. The suffix "al" came to be added to it from the fact that the ancient rajahs of this land raised mounds of earth 10 feet high and 20 in breadth in lowlands at the foot of the hills which were called "al". From this suffix added to the Bung, the name Bengal arose and gained currency".Land of Two Rivers, Nitish SenguptaBOOK, Ain-i-Akbari, Abu'l-Fazl, Ain-i-Akbari, Abu'l-Fazl, Support to this view is found in Ghulam Husain Salim's Riyaz-us-Salatin.RIYAZU-S-SALÄ€TĪN: A History of Bengal {{Webarchive|url= |date=15 December 2014 }}, Ghulam Husain Salim, The Asiatic Society, Calcutta, 1902.Other theories point to a Bronze Age proto-Dravidian tribe,WEB,weblink Bangladesh: early history, 1000 B.C.–A.D. 1202, September 1988, Bangladesh: A country study, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, 1 December 2014, Historians believe that Bengal, the area comprising present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, was settled in about 1000 B.C. by Dravidian-speaking peoples who were later known as the Bang. Their homeland bore various titles that reflected earlier tribal names, such as Vanga, Banga, Bangala, Bangal, and Bengal.,weblink" title="">weblink 7 December 2013, live, the Austric word "Bonga" (Sun god),BOOK, SenGupta, Amitabh, 2012, Scroll Paintings of Bengal: Art in the Village, AuthorHouse UK, 14, 978-1-4678-9663-4, and the Iron Age Vanga Kingdom. The Indo-Aryan suffix Desh is derived from the Sanskrit word deÅ›ha, which means "land" or "country". Hence, the name Bangladesh means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal".The term Bangla denotes both the Bengal region and the Bengali language. The earliest known usage of the term is the Nesari plate in 805 AD. The term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.BOOK, Sen, Sailendra Nath, 1999, First published 1988, Ancient Indian History and Civilization,weblink New Age International, 281, 978-81-224-1198-0, BOOK, Keay, John, John Keay, 2000, India: A History, Atlantic Monthly Press, 220, 978-0-87113-800-2, In C1020 ... launched Rajendra's great northern escapade ... peoples he defeated have been tentatively identified ... 'Vangala-desa where the rain water never stopped' sounds like a fair description of Bengal in the monsoon., registration,weblink The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century.BOOK, Ahmed, Salahuddin, 2004, Bangladesh: Past and Present,weblink APH Publishing, 23, 978-81-7648-469-5, 14 May 2016,weblink 23 December 2016, live, "But the most important development of this period was that the country for the first time received a name, ie Bangalah." Banglapedia: Islam, Bengal {{Webarchive|url= |date=23 July 2015 }} Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as the first "Shah of Bangala" in 1342. The word Bangla became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century.BOOK, Sircar, D.C., 1990, Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India,weblink Motilal Banarsidass, 135, 978-81-208-0690-0, 19 April 2016,weblink 10 June 2016, live,


Early and medieval periods

File:পাহাড়পুর বৌদ্ধ বিহার 22.jpg|thumb|left|The 9th-century ruins of Somapura Mahavihara. The ruins hosted the largest monastery in pre-Islamic Bangladesh and is a UNESCO World Heritage SiteUNESCO World Heritage SiteFile:Sixty Dome Mosque,Bagerhat.jpg|thumb|left|The 15th-century Sixty Dome Mosque is the largest mosque in Bangladesh that was built during the period of the Bengal SultanateBengal SultanateFile:Awesome look of Lalbagh Fort.jpg|thumb|left|The 17th-century incomplete Lalbagh Fort is the largest fort in Bangladesh from the period of the Mughal Empire, when the country formed part of Bengal SubahBengal SubahStone Age tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20,000 years,BOOK, Bharadwaj, G, Majumdar, RC, 2003, The Ancient Period, History of Bengal, B.R. Publishing Corp, and remnants of Copper Age settlements date back 4,000 years. Ancient Bengal was settled by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmans, Dravidians and Indo-Aryans in consecutive waves of migration.BOOK, Blood, Peter R., 1989, Early History, 1000 B.C.–A.D. 1202,weblink Heitzman, James, Worden, Robert, Bangladesh: A Country Study,weblink Washington, DC, Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, 4, 17 October 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 22 June 2011, live, Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region. By the 11th century people lived in systemically-aligned housing, buried their dead, and manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery.BOOK, The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760, Eaton, R.M., 1996, University of California Press, 978-0-520-20507-9,weblink 20 June 2015,weblink 6 January 2017, live, The Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation, and estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permitted maritime trade. The early Iron Age saw the development of metal weaponry, coinage, agriculture and irrigation. Major urban settlements formed during the late Iron Age, in the mid-first millennium BCE,BOOK, Lewis, David, David Lewis (academic), 2011, Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society,weblink Cambridge University Press, 42, 978-1-139-50257-3, 16 July 2017,weblink 31 January 2018, live, when the Northern Black Polished Ware culture developed.BOOK, Pieris, Sita, Raven, Ellen, 2010, ABIA: South and Southeast Asian Art and Archaeology Index, Volume Three – South Asia,weblink Brill, 116, 978-90-04-19148-8, 11 December 2015,weblink 23 December 2016, live, In 1879, Alexander Cunningham identified Mahasthangarh as the capital of the Pundra Kingdom mentioned in the Rigveda.BOOK, Alam, Shafiqul, 2012, Mahasthan,weblink Islam, Sirajul, Sirajul Islam, Jamal, Ahmed A., Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Second, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, BOOK, Ghosh, Suchandra, 2012, Pundravardhana,weblink Islam, Sirajul, Sirajul Islam, Jamal, Ahmed A., Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Second, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, The oldest inscription in Bangladesh was found in Mahasthangarh and dates from the 3rd century BCE. It is written in the Brahmi script.WEB,weblink Mahasthan Brahmi Inscription - Banglapedia, Greek and Roman records of the ancient Gangaridai Kingdom, which (according to legend) deterred the invasion of Alexander the Great, are linked to the fort city in Wari-Bateshwar.BOOK, Ancient India As Described By Megasthenes And Arrian by Mccrindle, J.W,weblink, Mccrindle, J. W., 5 June 2017, NEWS, Hossain, Emran, 19 March 2008, Wari-Bateshwar one of earliest kingdoms,weblink The Daily Star, 16 July 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 30 June 2017, live, The site is also identified with the prosperous trading center of Souanagoura listed on Ptolemy's world map.BOOK, Olivelle, Patrick, 2006, Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE,weblink Oxford University Press, 6, 978-0-19-977507-1, 20 June 2015,weblink 3 September 2015, live, Roman geographers noted a large seaport in southeastern Bengal, corresponding to the present-day Chittagong region.BOOK, Ring, Trudy, Salkin, Robert M., La Boda, Sharon, 1994, International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania,weblink Taylor & Francis, 186, 978-1-884964-04-6, 11 December 2015,weblink 6 January 2017, live, Ancient Buddhist and Hindu states which ruled Bangladesh included the Vanga, Samatata and Pundra kingdoms, the Mauryan and Gupta Empires, the Varman dynasty, Shashanka's kingdom, the Khadga and Candra dynasties, the Pala Empire, the Sena dynasty, the Harikela kingdom and the Deva dynasty. These states had well-developed currencies, banking, shipping, architecture and art, and the ancient universities of Bikrampur and Mainamati hosted scholars and students from other parts of Asia. Xuanzang of China was a noted scholar who resided at the Somapura Mahavihara (the largest monastery in ancient India), and Atisa travelled from Bengal to Tibet to preach Buddhism. The earliest form of the Bengali language began to the emerge during the eighth century.Early Muslim explorers and missionaries arrived in Bengal late in the first millennium CE. The Islamic conquest of Bengal began with the 1204 invasion by Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji; after annexing Bengal to the Delhi Sultanate, Khilji waged a military campaign in Tibet. Bengal was ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for a century by governors from the Mamluk, Balban and Tughluq dynasties. Subsequently the independent Bengal Sultanate was established by the rabel governors in 1352. During their rule Bengal was transformed into a cosmopolitan Islamic superpower and became a major trading nation in the world, often referred by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with.Nanda, J. N (2005). BOOK, 2005, Bengal: the unique state, Concept Publishing Company. p. 10., 978-81-8069-149-2, Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with., The sultanate's ruling houses included the Ilyas Shahi, Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah, Hussain Shahi, Suri and Karrani dynasties, and the era saw the introduction of a distinct mosque architectureBOOK, Hasan, Perween, 2007, Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh,weblink I.B. Taurus, 32, 978-1-84511-381-0, 28 August 2017,weblink 31 January 2018, live, and the tangka currency. The Arakan region was brought under Bengali hegemony. The Bengal Sultanate was visited by explorers Ibn Battuta, Admiral Zheng He and Niccolo De Conti. The Khorasanis referred to the land as an "inferno full of gifts", due to its unbearable climate but abundance of wealth.BOOK, The Rehla of Ibn Battuta, Ibn Battutah, Ibn Battutah, During the late 16th century, the Baro-Bhuyan (a confederation of Muslim and Hindu aristocrats) ruled eastern Bengal; its leader was the Mansad-e-Ala,WEB,weblink Isa Khan – Banglapedia,, 19 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 7 March 2016, live, a title held by Isa Khan and his son Musa Khan. The Khan dynasty are considered local heroes for resisting North Indian invasions with their river navies.The Mughal Empire controlled Bengal by the 17th century. During the reign of Emperor Akbar, the Bengali agrarian calendar was reformed to facilitate tax collection. The Mughals established Dhaka as a fort city and commercial metropolis, and it was the capital of Mughal Bengal for 75 years.WEB,weblink Dhaka – national capital, Bangladesh, Encyclopædia Britannica, 19 September 2017,weblink 10 October 2017, live, In 1666, the Mughals expelled the Arakanese from Chittagong. Mughal Bengal attracted foreign traders for its muslin and silk goods, and the Armenians were a notable merchant community. A Portuguese settlement in Chittagong flourished in the southeast, and a Dutch settlement in Rajshahi existed in the north. Bengal accounted for 40% of overall Dutch imports from Asia; including more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks.Om Prakash, "Empire, Mughal", History of World Trade Since 1450, edited by John J. McCusker, vol. 1, Macmillan Reference USA, 2006, pp. 237–240, World History in Context. Retrieved 3 August 2017 The Bengal Subah, described as the Paradise of the Nations,WEB,weblink The paradise of nations | Dhaka Tribune,, 2014-12-20, 2016-11-07,weblink" title="">weblink 16 December 2017, dead, was the empire's wealthiest province, and a major global exporter,John F. Richards (1995), The Mughal Empire, page 202, Cambridge University PressBOOK, How India Clothed the World: The World of South Asian Textiles, 1500–1850, Giorgio Riello, Tirthankar Roy, Brill Publishers, 2009, 174,weblink 9789047429975, a notable center of worldwide industries such as muslin, cotton textiles, silk,Richard Maxwell Eaton (1996), The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760, page 202, University of California Press and shipbuilding,.BOOK, Ray, Indrajit, 2011, Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757–1857)publisher=Routledge isbn=978-1-136-82552-1, Its citizens also enjoyed one of the world's most superior standards of living.DEVELOPING CULTURES: CASE STUDIESLAWRENCE HARRISON (ACADEMIC)>LAWRENCE E. HARRISON, PETER L. BERGERROUTLEDGE>YEAR=2006URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.CO.UK/BOOKS?ID=RB0OAQAAIAAJPUBLISHER=SPRINGER SCIENCE+BUSINESS MEDIAPAGE=32 URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.CO.UK/BOOKS?ID=SUKKCWAAQBAJ&PG=PA32, M. Shahid Alam, (File:1776 Rennell - Dury Wall Map of Bihar and Bengal, India - Geographicus - BaharBengal-dury-1776.jpg|thumb|Map of Bengal and Bihar, dated 1776)During the 18th century, the Nawabs of Bengal became the region's de facto rulers. The title of the ruler is popularly known as the Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, given that the Bengali Nawab's realm encompassed much of the eastern subcontinent. The Nawabs forged alliances with European colonial companies, which made the region relatively prosperous early in the century. Bengal accounted for 50% of the gross domestic product of the empire. The Bengali economy relied on textile manufacturing, shipbuilding, saltpetre production, craftsmanship and agricultural produce. Bengal was a major hub for international trade - silk and cotton textiles from Bengal were worn in Europe, Japan, Indonesia and Central Asia.John F. Richards (1995), The Mughal Empire, p. 202, Cambridge University PressRichard Maxwell Eaton (1996), The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760, p. 202, University of California Press Annual Bengali shipbuilding output was 223,250 tons, compared to an output of 23,061 tons in the nineteen colonies of North America. Bengali shipbuilding proved to be more advanced than European shipbuilding prior to the Industrial Revolution. The flush deck of Bengali rice ships was later replicated in European shipbuilding to replace the stepped deck design for ship hulls.BOOK, Poverty From The Wealth of Nations: Integration and Polarization in the Global Economy since 1760, M. Shahid Alam, Springer Science+Business Media, 2016, 32, 978-0-333-98564-9,weblink M. Shahid Alam, NEWS, Khandker, Hissam, 31 July 2015, Which India is claiming to have been colonised?,weblink The Daily Star, Op-ed, Maddison, Angus (2003): Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics, OECD Publishing, {{ISBN|9264104143}}, pages 259–261Om Prakash, "Empire, Mughal", History of World Trade Since 1450, edited by John J. McCusker, vol. 1, Macmillan Reference US, 2006, pp. 237–240, World History in Context. Retrieved 3 August 2017Ray, Indrajit (2011). Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757–1857). Routledge. p. 174. {{ISBN|978-1-136-82552-1}}weblink Bengali Muslim population was a product of conversion and religious evolution,BOOK,weblink The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760, Richard M., Eaton, 1996, University of California Press, 978-0-520-20507-9, 20 June 2015,weblink 6 January 2017, live, and their pre-Islamic beliefs included elements of Buddhism and Hinduism. The construction of mosques, Islamic academies (madrasas) and Sufi monasteries (khanqahs) facilitated conversion, and Islamic cosmology played a significant role in developing Bengali Muslim society. Scholars have theorised that Bengalis were attracted to Islam by its egalitarian social order, which contrasted with the Hindu caste system.BOOK, Samaren Roy, The Bengalees: Glimpses of History and Culture,weblink 1999, Allied Publishers, 978-81-7023-981-9, 72, 30 July 2017,weblink 31 January 2018, live, One of the notable Muslim preachers was Shah Jalal who arrived in the region of Sylhet in 1303 with many other disciples to preach the religion to the people.WEB,weblink Islam in Bangladesh - Shah Jalal, OurBangla,weblink" title="">weblink 2007-10-08, 2008-09-27, {{self-published inline|date=August 2015}}WEB,weblink Islam in Bangladesh - History, OurBangla,weblink" title="">weblink 2006-10-05, 2008-09-27, {{self-published inline|date=August 2015}} By the 15th century, Muslim poets were writing in the Bengali language. Notable medieval Bengali Muslim poets included Daulat Qazi, Abdul Hakim and Alaol. Syncretic cults, such as the Baul movement, emerged on the fringes of Bengali Muslim society. The Persianate culture was significant in Bengal, where cities like Sonargaon became the easternmost centers of Persian influence.WEB,weblink Bengal, Encyclopaedia Iranica, 19 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 30 September 2017, live, WEB,weblink Persian, Banglapedia, 21 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 11 September 2017, live, The Mughals had aided France during the Seven Years' War to avoid losing the Bengal region to the British. However, in the Battle of Plassey the British East India Company registered a decisive victory over the Nawab of Bengal and his French{{sfn|Campbell|Watts|1760|loc=weblink}} allies on 22 June 1757, under the leadership of Robert Clive. The battle followed the order of Siraj-ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, to the English to stop the extension of their fortification. Robert Clive bribed Mir Jafar, the commander-in-chief of the Nawab's army, and also promised him to make him Nawab of Bengal which helped him to defeat Siraj-ud-Daulah and capture Calcutta.WEB, Robins, Nick, This Imperious Company â€” The East India Company and the Modern Multinational â€” Nick Robins â€” Gresham College Lectures,weblink Gresham College Lectures, Gresham College, 19 June 2015, The battle consolidated the Company's presence in Bengal, which later expanded to cover much of India over the next hundred years. Although they had lost control of Bengal Subah, Shah Alam II was involved in the Bengal War which ended once more in their defeat at the Battle of Buxar.BOOK, A Dictionary of Modern History (1707–1947), Parshotam Mehra, 0-19-561552-2, 1985, Oxford University Press,

Colonial period

(File:Panam road, Sonargaon, near Dacca.jpg|thumb|Panam Road, Narayanganj during British rule in 1875) After the 1757 Battle of Plassey, Bengal was the first region of the Indian subcontinent conquered by the British East India Company. The company formed the Presidency of Fort William, which administered the region until 1858. A notable aspect of company rule was the Permanent Settlement, which established the feudal zamindari system.WEB,weblink Cornwallis Code, 4 February 2009, Encyclopedia Britannica, 24 February 2017, The plunder of Bengal directly contributed to the Industrial Revolution in Britain, with the capital amassed from Bengal used to invest in British industries such as textile and greatly increase British wealth, while at the same time leading to deindustrialisation of Bengal's traditional textile industry.BOOK, Ray, Indrajit, 2011, Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757-1857),weblink Routledge, 7–10, 978-1-136-82552-1, Shombit Sengupta, Bengals plunder gifted the British Industrial Revolution, The Financial Express, 8 February 2010 The economic mismanagement directly led to the Great Bengal famine of 1770, which is estimated to have caused the deaths of about 10 million people,BOOK, Amartya Sen, Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation,weblink 1981, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-828463-5, 39, as a third of the population in the affected region starved to death.BOOK, Fredrik Albritton Jonsson, Enlightenment's Frontier: The Scottish Highlands and the Origins of Environmentalism,weblink 18 June 2013, Yale University Press, 978-0-300-16374-2, 167–170, Several rebellions broke out during the early 19th century (including one led by Titumir), but British rule displaced the Muslim ruling class. A conservative Islamic cleric, Haji Shariatullah, sought to overthrow the British by propagating Islamic revivalism.Khan, Moin-Ud-Din. “Haji Shari’at-Allah.” Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society11, no. 2 page 106 (April 1, 1963).weblink Several towns in Bangladesh participated in the Indian Rebellion of 1857WEB,weblink Revisiting the Great Rebellion of 1857, 13 July 2014, and pledged allegiance to the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, who was later exiled to neighbouring Burma.The challenge posed to company rule by the failed Indian Mutiny led to the creation of the British Indian Empire as a crown colony. The British established several schools, colleges and a university in what is now Bangladesh. Syed Ahmed Khan and Ram Mohan Roy promoted modern and liberal education in the subcontinent, inspiring the Aligarh movementWEB,weblink Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and the Aligarh Movement, The Next Generation Library, en-US, 2016-04-03, and the Bengal Renaissance.BOOK, Nitish Sengupta, Nitish Sengupta, 2001, History of the Bengali-speaking People, UBS Publishers' Distributors, 211, 978-81-7476-355-6, The Bengal Renaissance can be said to have started with Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1775-1833) and ended with Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), although there were many other stalwarts thereafter embodying particular aspects of the unique intellectual and creative ferment., During the late 19th century, novelists, social reformers and feminists emerged from Muslim Bengali society. Electricity and municipal water systems were introduced in the 1890s; cinemas opened in many towns during the early 20th century. East Bengal's plantation economy was important to the British Empire, particularly its jute and tea. The British established tax-free river ports, such as the Port of Narayanganj, and large seaports like the Port of Chittagong.Bengal had the highest gross domestic product in British India.WEB,weblink Reimagining the Colonial Bengal Presidency Template (Part I) | Daily sun, Bengal was one of the first regions in Asia to have a railway. The first railway in what is now Bangladesh began operating in 1862.WEB,weblink Railway - Banglapedia,, 2019-08-15, In comparison, Japan saw its first railway in 1872. The main railway companies in the region were the Eastern Bengal Railway and Assam Bengal Railway. Railways competed with waterborne transport to become one of the main mediums of transport.WEB,weblink Railways in colonial Bengal, 2019-04-08, The Daily Star, en, 2019-08-15, File:Completed Bridge. (23126065986).jpg|thumb|left|Image of the completion of Hardinge Railway Bridge over the Padma River. Bangladesh was one of the first regions in Asia to have rail transport. Railway development saw many rail brides built over rivers]]Social tensions also increased under British rule, particularly between wealthy Hindus and the Muslim-majority population. The Permanent Settlement made millions of Muslim peasants tenants of Hindu estates, and resentment of the Hindu landed gentry grew.BOOK, Pranab Chatterjee, A Story of Ambivalent Modernization in Bangladesh and West Bengal: The Rise and Fall of Bengali Elitism in South Asia,weblink 2010, Peter Lang, 978-1-4331-0820-4, 218, 30 July 2017,weblink 31 January 2018, live, Supported by the Muslim aristocracy, the British government created the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905; the new province received increased investment in education, transport and industry.WEB,weblink Eastern Bengal and Assam - Encyclopedia,, 2015-09-24, However, the first partition of Bengal created an uproar in Calcutta and the Indian National Congress. In response to growing Hindu nationalism, the All India Muslim League was formed in Dhaka during the 1906 All India Muhammadan Educational Conference. The British government reorganised the provinces in 1912, reuniting East and West Bengal and making Assam a second province.The Raj was slow to allow self-rule in the colonial subcontinent. It established the Bengal Legislative Council in 1862, and the council's native Bengali representation increased during the early 20th century. The Bengal Provincial Muslim League was formed in 1913 to advocate civil rights for Bengali Muslims within a constitutional framework. During the 1920s, the league was divided into factions supporting the Khilafat movement and favouring co-operation with the British to achieve self-rule. Segments of the Bengali elite supported Mustafa Kemal Ataturk's secularist forces.MAGAZINE, Kennedy, Bernard, December 2005, Ambassador Rezaqul Haider: Mediating for commerce,weblink Diplomat, Ankara, Turkey, After the First World War when the great leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk started his war of independence, the people of Bengal were very spontaneous in giving all sorts of support. To the extent that there is evidence that the womenfolk donated their own bangles and gold ornaments, and the funds were used for the establishment of a bank, the construction of the parliament building and the purchase of armaments and ammunitions to help the war of liberation. As you know our national poet, Nazrul Islam, was the first foreigner to write an epic poem about Mustafa Kemal., 30 July 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 10 October 2017, live, In 1929, the All Bengal Tenants Association was formed in the Bengal Legislative Council to counter the influence of the Hindu landed gentry, and the Indian Independence and Pakistan Movements strengthened during the early 20th century. After the Morley-Minto Reforms and the diarchy era in the legislatures of British India, the British government promised limited provincial autonomy in 1935. The Bengal Legislative Assembly, British India's largest legislature, was established in 1937.Although it won a majority of seats in 1937, the Bengal Congress boycotted the legislature. A. K. Fazlul Huq of the Krishak Praja Party was elected as the first Prime Minister of Bengal. In 1940 Huq supported the Lahore Resolution, which envisaged independent states in the northwestern and eastern Muslim-majority regions of the subcontinent. The first Huq ministry, a coalition with the Bengal Provincial Muslim League, lasted until 1941; it was followed by a Huq coalition with the Hindu Mahasabha which lasted until 1943. Huq was succeeded by Khawaja Nazimuddin, who grappled with the effects of the Burma Campaign, the Bengal famine of 1943, which killed up to 3 million people,NEWS, Churchill's policies contributed to 1943 Bengal famine – study,weblink The Guardian, 29 March 2019, and the Quit India movement. In 1946, the Bengal Provincial Muslim League won the provincial election, taking 113 of the 250-seat assembly (the largest Muslim League mandate in British India). H. S. Suhrawardy, who made a final futile effort for a United Bengal in 1946, was the last premier of Bengal.

Partition of Bengal (1947)

File:Bengal PMs.png|thumb|alt=Three Bengali Prime Ministers|Prime Ministers of Bengal A. K. Fazlul Huq, Khawaja Nazimuddin and H. S. Suhrawardy. One of them, Suhrawardy, proposed an independent Bengal in 1947]]On 3 June 1947 Mountbatten Plan outlined the partition of British India. On 20 June, the Bengal Legislative Assembly met to decide on the partition of Bengal. At the preliminary joint meeting, it was decided (120 votes to 90) that if the province remained united it should join the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. At a separate meeting of legislators from West Bengal, it was decided (58 votes to 21) that the province should be partitioned and West Bengal should join the Constituent Assembly of India. At another meeting of legislators from East Bengal, it was decided (106 votes to 35) that the province should not be partitioned and (107 votes to 34) that East Bengal should join the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan if Bengal was partitioned.BOOK, Soumyendra Nath Mukherjee, Sir William Jones: A Study in Eighteenth-century British Attitudes to India,weblink 1987, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-86131-581-9, 230, 30 July 2017,weblink 31 January 2018, live, On 6 July, the Sylhet region of Assam voted in a referendum to join East Bengal.Cyril Radcliffe was tasked with drawing the borders of Pakistan and India, and the Radcliffe Line established the borders of present-day Bangladesh.

Union with Pakistan

File:Dominion of Pakistan & Indian Controlled Kashmir (orthographic projection).svg|thumb|alt=Map of the world, with Pakistan in 1947 highlighted|The Dominion of Pakistan in 1947, with East BengalEast BengalThe Dominion of Pakistan was created on 14 August 1947. East Bengal, with Dhaka as its capital, was the most populous province of the 1947 Pakistani federation (led by Governor General Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who promised freedom of religion and secular democracy in the new state).BOOK, Farahnaz Ispahani, Purifying the Land of the Pure: A History of Pakistan's Religious Minorities,weblink 2017, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-062165-0, 8, 29 August 2017,weblink 31 January 2018, live, BOOK, Yasmin Saikia, Women, War, and the Making of Bangladesh: Remembering 1971,weblink 2011, Duke University Press, 978-0-8223-5038-5, 34, East Bengal was also Pakistan's most cosmopolitan province, home to peoples of different faiths, cultures and ethnic groups. Partition gave increased economic opportunity to East Bengalis, producing an urban population during the 1950s.NEWS,weblink Opinion – Why Do Bangladeshis Seem Indifferent to Partition?, K. Anis, Ahmed, 16 August 2017, 19 September 2017, The New York Times,weblink 29 August 2017, live, NEWS, Abdul Hannan, 28 August 2017, How Partition helped Muslims,weblink Dhaka Tribune, Opinion, 19 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 1 October 2017, live, Khawaja Nazimuddin was East Bengal's first chief minister with Frederick Chalmers Bourne its governor. The All Pakistan Awami Muslim League was formed in 1949. In 1950, the East Bengal Legislative Assembly enacted land reform, abolishing the Permanent Settlement and the zamindari system.Baxter, p. 72 The 1952 Bengali Language Movement was the first sign of friction between the country's geographically-separated wings. The Awami Muslim League was renamed the more-secular Awami League in 1953.BOOK, David S. Lewis, Darren J. Sagar, Political Parties of Asia and the Pacific: A Reference Guide,weblink 1992, Longman, 978-0-582-09811-4, 36, 30 July 2017,weblink 31 January 2018, live, "ts present name in December 1953" The first constituent assembly was dissolved in 1954; this was challenged by its East Bengali speaker, Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan. The United Front coalition swept aside the Muslim League in a landslide victory in the 1954 East Bengali legislative election. The following year, East Bengal was renamed East Pakistan as part of the One Unit program and the province became a vital part of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.File:21 Feb 1953 Dhaka University female students procession.png|thumb|left|alt=Female students, dressed in white, march down a street.|Female students march in defiance of the Section 144Section 144Pakistan adopted its first constitution in 1956. Three Bengalis were its Prime Minister until 1957: Nazimuddin, Mohammad Ali of Bogra and Suhrawardy. None of the three completed their terms, and resigned from office. The Pakistan Army imposed military rule in 1958, and Ayub Khan was the country's strongman for 11 years. Political repression increased after the coup. Khan introduced a new constitution in 1962, replacing Pakistan's parliamentary system with a presidential and gubernatorial system (based on electoral college selection) known as Basic Democracy. In 1962 Dhaka became the seat of the National Assembly of Pakistan, a move seen as appeasing increased Bengali nationalism.BOOK, Vale, Lawrence, Architecture, Power and National Identity,weblink Routledge, 291, 978-1-134-72921-0, 2014, 14 May 2016,weblink 6 January 2017, live, The Pakistani government built the controversial Kaptai Dam, displacing the Chakma people from their indigenous homeland in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.BOOK, Terminski, Bogumil, 2014, Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement,weblink Columbia University Press, 28, 978-3-8382-6723-4, 20 January 2017,weblink 14 February 2017, live, During the 1965 presidential election, Fatima Jinnah lost to Ayub Khan despite support from the Combined Opposition alliance (which included the Awami League).BOOK, Salahuddin Ahmed, Bangladesh: Past and Present,weblink 2004, APH Publishing, 978-81-7648-469-5, 157, 29 August 2017,weblink 4 May 2016, live, The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 blocked cross-border transport links with neighbouring India in what is described as a second partition.NEWS, Zafar Sobhan, 17 August 2007, Tragedy of errors,weblink The Daily Star, Editorial, 19 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 29 August 2017, live, In 1966, Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman announced a six point movement for a federal parliamentary democracy.File:Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan and US Chief Justice.jpg|thumb|alt=Earl Warren and Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan shake hands as a third man looks on|U.S. Chief Justice Earl Warren meets Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan, the plaintiff in Federation of Pakistan v. Maulvi Tamizuddin KhanFederation of Pakistan v. Maulvi Tamizuddin KhanAccording to senior World Bank officials, Pakistan practised extensive economic discrimination against East Pakistan: greater government spending on West Pakistan, financial transfers from East to West Pakistan, the use of East Pakistan's foreign-exchange surpluses to finance West Pakistani imports, and refusal by the central government to release funds allocated to East Pakistan because previous spending had been under budget;BOOK, Muscat, Robert J., 2015, Investing in Peace: How Development Aid Can Prevent or Promote Conflict,weblink Routledge, 978-1-317-46729-8, 20 January 2017,weblink 14 February 2017, live, though East Pakistan generated 70 percent of Pakistan's export revenue with its jute and tea.WEB,weblink Bangladesh – The "Revolution" of Ayub Khan, 1958–66, 11 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 6 March 2016, live, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was arrested for treason in the Agartala Conspiracy Case, and was released during the 1969 uprising in East Pakistan which resulted in Ayub Khan's resignation. General Yahya Khan assumed power, reintroducing martial law.Ethnic and linguistic discrimination was common in Pakistan's civil and military services, in which Bengalis were under-represented. Fifteen percent of Pakistani central-government offices were occupied by East Pakistanis, who formed 10 percent of the military.BOOK, Raic, D, 2002, Statehood and the Law of Self-Determination,weblink Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 336, 978-90-411-1890-5, 20 January 2017,weblink 14 February 2017, live, Cultural discrimination also prevailed, making East Pakistan forge a distinct political identity.BOOK, Thomas, Raju G.C., 2003, Yugoslavia Unraveled,weblink Lexington Books, 322, 978-0-7391-0757-7, 20 January 2017,weblink 14 February 2017, live, Pakistan banned Bengali literature and music in state media, including the works of Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore.NEWS, Syed Badrul Ahsan, 2 June 2010, The sky, the mind, the ban culture,weblink The Daily Star, Editorial, 11 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2015, live, A cyclone devastated the coast of East Pakistan in 1970, killing an estimated 500,000 people,Bangladesh cyclone of 1991 {{Webarchive|url= |date=26 August 2009 }}. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. and the central government was criticised for its poor response.WEB,weblink Bangladesh – Emerging Discontent, 1966–70, 11 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 23 June 2011, live, After the December 1970 elections, calls for the independence of East Bengal became louder; the Bengali-nationalist Awami League won 167 of 169 East Pakistani seats in the National Assembly. The League claimed the right to form a government and develop a new constitution, but was strongly opposed by the Pakistani military and the Pakistan Peoples Party (led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto).

War of Independence

File:1971 Instrument of Surrender.jpg|thumb|Surrender of PakistanSurrender of PakistanFile:National Martyrs’ Memorial 08.jpg|thumb|National Martyrs' MemorialNational Martyrs' MemorialThe Bengali population was angered when Prime Minister-elect Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was prevented from taking the office.Baxter, pp. 78–79 Civil disobedience erupted across East Pakistan, with calls for independence.BOOK, Ray, Jayanta Kumar, 2013, India's Foreign Relations, 1947–2007,weblink Routledge, 978-1-136-19714-7, 20 January 2017,weblink 14 February 2017, live, Mujib addressed a pro-independence rally of nearly 2 million people in Dacca on 7 March 1971, where he said, "This time the struggle is for our freedom. This time the struggle is for our independence." The flag of Bangladesh was raised for the first time on 23 March, Pakistan's Republic Day.BOOK, Thorpe, Edgar, 2012, The Pearson General Knowledge Manual,weblink Pearson Education India, A.125, 978-81-317-6190-8, Later, on 25 March late evening, the Pakistani military junta led by Yahya Khan launched a sustained military assault on East Pakistan under the code name of Operation Searchlight.BOOK, Bass, Gary Jonathan, 2014, The Blood Telegram: Nixon, Kissinger, and a Forgotten Genocide, Alfred A. Knopf, 50, 978-0-307-70020-9, That night [25 March] ... The Pakistani military had launched a devastating assault on the Bengalis., BOOK, Siegfried O. Wolf, Jivanta Schöttli, Dominik Frommherz, Kai Fürstenberg, Marian Gallenkamp, Lion König, Markus Pauli, Politics in South Asia: Culture, Rationality and Conceptual Flow,weblink 2014, Springer, 978-3-319-09087-0, 111, 20 January 2017,weblink 14 February 2017, live, The Pakistan Army arrested Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and flew him away to Karachi.BOOK, Bates, Crispin, 2013, Subalterns and Raj: South Asia Since 1600,weblink Routledge, 191, 978-1-134-51375-8, 20 January 2017,weblink 14 February 2017, live, BOOK, Pervez Musharraf, In the Line of Fire,weblink 2008, Simon and Schuster, 978-1-84739-596-2, 70, BOOK, Johnston, Faith, 2013, Four Miles to Freedom,weblink Random House India, 978-81-8400-507-3, 20 January 2017,weblink 14 February 2017, live, However, before his arrest Mujib proclaimed the Independence of Bangladesh at midnight on 26 March which led the Bangladesh Liberation War to break out within hours. The Pakistan Army continued to massacre Bengali students, intellectuals, politicians, civil servants and military defectors in the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, while the Mukti Bahini and other Bengali guerrilla forces created strong resistance throughout the country.BOOK, Totten, Samuel, 2012, Plight and Fate of Women During and Following Genocide,weblink Transaction Publishers, 47, 978-1-4128-4759-9, 20 January 2017,weblink 14 February 2017, live, During the war, an estimated 300,000 to three million people were killed and several million people took shelter in neighbouring India.WEB,weblink Bangladesh sets up war crimes court, 11 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 16 December 2015, live, Global public opinion turned against Pakistan as news of the atrocities spread;BOOK, Benvenisti, Eyal, Eyal Benvenisti, 2012, First published 1992, The International Law of Occupation, 2nd,weblink Oxford University Press, 190, 978-0-19-163957-9, The genuine and widely recognized claim for Bangladeshi self-determination as an entity independent of West Pakistan, coupled with the repulsion caused by the Pakistani measures to suppress that claim convinced global public opinion ... By the time its admission for membership in the United Nations came before the Security Council, in August 1972, Bangladesh had already been recognized by eighty-six countries., 20 January 2017,weblink 14 February 2017, live, the Bangladesh movement was supported by prominent political and cultural figures in the West, including Ted Kennedy, George Harrison, Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Victoria Ocampo and André Malraux.WEB,weblink In Bangladesh, Ted Kennedy revered, 12 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2015, live, NEWS,weblink Bangladesh to honour Bob Dylan and George Harrison, 19 October 2012, The Daily Telegraph, Nelson, Dean, 18 June 2018,weblink 13 June 2018, live, WEB,weblink Joan Baez: Singing heroine of 1971 left out of Shommyanona list, The Opinion Pages, 10 April 2012, 12 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2015, live, The Concert for Bangladesh was held at Madison Square Garden in New York City to raise funds for Bangladeshi refugees. The first major benefit concert in history, it was organised by Harrison and Indian Bengali sitarist Ravi Shankar.BOOK, Womack, Kenneth, 2014, Beatles Encyclopedia, The: Everything Fab Four,weblink ABC-CLIO, 200, 978-0-313-39172-9, 20 January 2017,weblink 14 February 2017, live, During the Bangladesh Liberation War, Bengali nationalists declared independence and formed the Mukti Bahini (the Bangladeshi National Liberation Army). The Provisional Government of Bangladesh was established on 17 April 1971, converting the 469 elected members of the Pakistani national assembly and East Pakistani provincial assembly into the Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh. The provisional government issued a proclamation that became the country's interim constitution and declared "equality, human dignity and social justice" as its fundamental principles. Due to Mujib's detention, Syed Nazrul Islam took over the role of Acting President, while Tajuddin Ahmad was named Bangladesh's first Prime Minister. The Mukti Bahini and other Bengali guerrilla forces formed the Bangladesh Forces which became the military wing of the provisional government. Led by General M. A. G. Osmani and eleven sector commanders, the forces held the countryside during the war and conducted wide-ranging guerrilla operations against Pakistani forces. As a result, almost the entire country except the capital Dacca was liberated by Bangladesh Forces by late November. This led the Pakistan Army to attack neighbouring India's western front on 2 December. India retaliated in both the western and eastern fronts. With a joint ground advance by Bangladeshi and Indian forces, coupled with air strikes by both India and the small Bengali air contingent, the capital Dacca was liberated from Pakistani occupation in mid-December. During the last phase of the war, the Soviet Union and the United States dispatched naval forces to the Bay of Bengal in a Cold War standoff. The nine-months long war ended with the surrender of Pakistani armed forces to the Bangladesh-India Allied Forces on 16 December 1971.JOURNAL, 10.1525/as.1972.12.2.01p0190a, LaPorte, R, 1972, Pakistan in 1971: The Disintegration of a Nation, Asian Survey, 12, 2, 97–108, Rummel, Rudolph J. (1997) "Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900" {{Webarchive|url= |date=21 February 2016 }}. Transaction Publishers, Rutgers University. {{ISBN|3-8258-4010-7}}, Chapter 8, Table 8.2 Pakistan Genocide in Bangladesh Estimates, Sources, and Calculations {{Webarchive|url= |date=4 February 2012 }}. Under international pressure, Pakistan released Rahman from imprisonment on 8 January 1972 and he was flown by the British Royal Air Force to a million-strong homecoming in Dacca.BOOK, Srinath Raghavan, 1971,weblink 2013, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-73127-1, 247, 20 January 2017,weblink 14 February 2017, live, AV MEDIA,weblink Sheikh Mujib's Return to Bangladesh – January 10, 1972 Monday, 23 December 2013, NBC, 21 December 2015, Centre for Bangladesh Genocide Research,weblink 17 March 2016, live, Remaining Indian troops were withdrawn by 12 March 1972, three months after the war ended.BOOK, Lyon, Peter, 2008, Conflict Between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia,weblink ABC-CLIO, 192, 978-1-57607-712-2, 20 January 2017,weblink 14 February 2017, live, The cause of Bangladeshi self-determination was recognised around the world. By August 1972, the new state was recognised by 86 countries. Pakistan recognised Bangladesh in 1974 after pressure from most of the Muslim countries.NEWS, Syed Muazzem Ali, 19 February 2006, Bangladesh and the OIC,weblink 15th Anniversary Special, The Daily Star, 21 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, live,

People's Republic of Bangladesh

First parliamentary era

File:Mujib and Ford.jpg|thumb|alt=A seated Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Gerald Ford, smiling and talking|Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and U.S. president Gerald FordGerald FordThe constituent assembly adopted the constitution of Bangladesh on 4 November 1972, establishing a secular, multiparty parliamentary democracy. The new constitution included references to socialism, and Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman nationalised major industries in 1972.JOURNAL, Umar, Badruddin, Badruddin Umar, 1972, Bangladesh nationalisation: What does it all mean?, Journal of Contemporary Asia, 2, 3, 328–30, 10.1080/00472337285390641, A major reconstruction and rehabilitation program was launched. The Awami League won the country's first general election in 1973, securing a large majority in the "Jatiyo Sangshad", the national parliament. Bangladesh joined the Commonwealth of Nations, the UN, the OIC and the Non-Aligned Movement, and Rahman strengthened ties with India. Amid growing agitation by the opposition National Awami Party and National Socialist Party, he became increasingly authoritarian. Rahman amended the constitution, giving himself more emergency powers (including the suspension of fundamental rights). The Bangladesh famine of 1974 also worsened the political situation.BOOK, David Lewis, Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society,weblink 2011, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-139-50257-3, 11 December 2015,weblink 6 January 2017, live,

Presidential era and coups (1975–1991)

{{See also|Military coups in Bangladesh}}{{multiple image
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}}In January 1975, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman introduced one-party socialist rule under BAKSAL. Rahman banned all newspapers except four state-owned publications, and amended the constitution to increase his power. He was assassinated during a coup on 15 August 1975. Martial law was declared, and the presidency passed to the usurper Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad for four months. Ahmad is widely regarded as a quisling by Bangladeshis.NEWS, Mushtaq was worst traitor: attorney general,weblink, 19 September 2017,weblink 10 October 2017, live, Tajuddin Ahmad, the nation's first prime minister, and four other independence leaders were assassinated on 4 November 1975. Chief Justice Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem was installed as president by the military on 6 November 1975. Bangladesh was governed by a military junta led by the Chief Martial Law Administrator for three years. In 1977, the army chief Ziaur Rahman became president. Rahman reinstated multiparty politics, privatised industries and newspapers, established BEPZA and held the country's second general election in 1979. A semi-presidential system evolved, with the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) governing until 1982. Rahman was assassinated in 1981, and was succeeded by Vice-President Abdus Sattar. Sattar received 65.5 percent of the vote in the 1981 presidential election.BOOK, B.Z. Khasru, The Bangladesh Military Coup and the CIA Link,weblink Rupa Publications India Pvt. Ltd, 978-81-291-3416-5, After a year in office, Sattar was overthrown in the 1982 Bangladesh coup d'état. Chief Justice A. F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury was installed as president, but army chief Hussain Muhammad Ershad became the country's de facto leader and assumed the presidency in 1983. Ershad lifted martial law in 1986. He governed with four successive prime ministers (Ataur Rahman Khan, Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury, Moudud Ahmed and Kazi Zafar Ahmed) and a parliament dominated by his Jatiyo Party. General elections were held in 1986 and 1988, although the latter was boycotted by the opposition BNP and Awami League. Ershad pursued administrative decentralisation, dividing the country into 64 districts, and pushed Parliament to make Islam the state religion in 1988.WEB,weblink Bangladesh profile, 13 August 2017, 19 September 2017, BBC News,weblink 11 July 2018, live, A 1990 mass uprising forced him to resign, and Chief Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed led the country's first caretaker government as part of the transition to parliamentary rule.

Current parliamentary era (1991–present)

{{See also|2006-2008 Bangladeshi political crisis}}{{multiple image
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| footer = The rivalry between Hasina and Zia has been dubbed the Battle of the BegumsNEWS, Alam, Julhas, 5 January 2014, Fear for Bangladesh as 'Begums' fight forfuture power,weblink Daily Express, London, 2 March 2018,weblink 17 November 2017, live, MAGAZINE, Women and property rights: Who owns Bangladesh?,weblink The Economist, Blog, 21 August 2013, 2 December 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 7 December 2013, live, BOOK, Torild, Skard, 2014, Women of power: Half a century of female presidents and prime ministers worldwide,weblink Policy Press, 135, 978-1-4473-1578-0,
}}File:Rohingya refugees entering Bangladesh after being driven out of Myanmar, 2017.JPG|thumb|Rohingya refugees entering Bangladesh from Myanmar]]After the 1991 general election, the twelfth amendment to the constitution restored the parliamentary republic and Begum Khaleda Zia became Bangladesh's first female prime minister. Zia, a former first lady, led a BNP government from 1990 to 1996. In 1991 her finance minister, Saifur Rahman, began a major program to liberalise the Bangladeshi economy.In February 1996, a general election was held which was boycotted by all opposition parties giving a 300 (of 300) seat victory for BNP. This election was deemed illegitimate, so a system of a caretaker government was introduced to oversee the transfer of power and a new election was held in June 1996, overseen by Justice Muhammad Habibur Rahman, the first Chief Adviser of Bangladesh. The Awami League won the seventh general election, marking its leader Sheikh Hasina's first term as Prime Minister. Hasina's first term was highlighted by the Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord and a Ganges water-sharing treaty with India. The second caretaker government, led by Chief Adviser Justice Latifur Rahman, oversaw the 2001 Bangladeshi general election which returned Begum Zia and the BNP to power.The second Zia administration saw improved economic growth, but political turmoil gripped the country between 2004 and 2006. A radical Islamist militant group, the JMB, carried out a series of terror attacks. The evidence of staging these attacks by these extremist groups have been found in the investigation, and hundreds of suspected members were detained in numerous security operations in 2006, including the two chiefs of the JMB, Shaykh Abdur Rahman and Bangla Bhai, who were executed with other top leaders in March 2007, bringing the militant group to an end.WEB,weblink The Daily Star Web Edition Vol. 5 Num 1007, 10 November 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 15 September 2018, live, dmy-all, In 2006, at the end of the term of the BNP administration, there was widespread political unrest related to the handover of power to a caretaker government. As such, the Bangladeshi military urged President Iajuddin Ahmed to impose a state of emergency and a caretaker government, led by technocrat Fakhruddin Ahmed, was installed. Emergency rule lasted for two years, during which time investigations into members of both Awami League and BNP were conducted, including their leaders Sheikh Hasina and Khaleda Zia.WEB,weblink Former Bangladeshi PM arrested: reports, 16 July 2007, ABC News, 26 December 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 22 September 2018, live, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 12 February 2009, Ex-PM sued on corruption charges in Bangladesh, International Herald Tribune, 12 February 2009, 26 December 2018, In 2008 the ninth general election saw a return to power for Sheikh Hasina and the Awami League led Grand Alliance in a landslide victory. In 2010, the Supreme Court ruled martial law illegal and affirmed secular principles in the constitution. The following year, the Awami League abolished the caretaker-government system.Citing the lack of caretaker government the 2014 general election was boycotted by the BNP and other opposition parties, giving the Awami League a decisive victory. The election was controversial with reports of violence and an alleged crackdown on the opposition in the run-up to the election and 153 seats (of 300) went uncontested in the election. Despite the controversy Hasina went on to form a government which saw her return for a third term as Prime Minister. Due to strong domestic demand, Bangladesh emerged as one of the fastest-growing economies in the world.WEB,weblink Economic Reforms Can Make Bangladesh Grow Faster, 9 April 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 11 April 2019, live, However, human rights abuses increased under the Hasina administration, particularly enforced disappearances. Between 2016 and 2017, an estimated 1 million Rohingya refugees took shelter in southeastern Bangladesh amid a military crackdown in neighbouring Rakhine State, Myanmar.In 2018, the country saw major movements for government quota reforms and road-safety. The 2018 Bangladeshi general election was marred by allegations of widespread vote rigging.WEB,weblink Bangladesh PM Hasina wins thumping victory in elections opposition reject as 'farcical', Michael, Safi, Redwan, Ahmed, 31 December 2018, The Guardian, The Awami League won 259 out of 300 seats and the main opposition alliance Jatiya Oikya Front secured only 8 seats, with Sheikh Hasina becoming the longest serving prime minister in Bangladeshi history.WEB,weblink Hasina's win makes her the longest serving PM of Bangladesh, 9 April 2019,weblink 31 December 2018, live, Pro-democracy leader Dr. Kamal Hossain called for an annulment of the election result and for a new election to be held in a free and fair manner.WEB,weblink Bangladesh election: Opposition demands new vote, 9 April 2019,weblink 11 April 2019, live, The election was also criticised by the observers from the European Union.WEB,weblink Statement by the Spokesperson on parliamentary elections in Bangladesh, EEAS - European External Action Service - European Commission, en, 2019-08-15,


(File:Brahmaputra-verlaufsgebiet.jpg|thumb|A satellite image showing the topography of Bangladesh)File:Goodmorning Keokaradang (6830453822).jpg|thumb|One of the highest peaks in the country, KeokradongKeokradongThe geography of Bangladesh is divided between three regions. Most of the country is dominated by the fertile Ganges-Brahmaputra delta, the largest delta in the world,.WEB, Misachi, John,weblink Where Is The Largest Delta In The World?, WorldAtlas,, 25 April 2017, The northwest and central parts of the country are formed by the Madhupur and the Barind plateaus. The northeast and southeast are home to evergreen hill ranges.The Ganges delta is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (local name Padma or Pôdda), Brahmaputra (Jamuna or Jomuna), and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. The Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna, finally flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh has 57 trans-boundary rivers, making the resolution of water issues politically complicated, in most cases, as the country is a lower riparian state to India.BOOK, Suvedī, Sūryaprasāda, International watercourses law for the 21st century, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2005, 154–66, 978-0-7546-4527-6, Bangladesh is predominantly rich fertile flat land. Most of it is less than {{convert|12|m|ft|1|abbr=on}} above sea level, and it is estimated that about 10% of its land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by {{convert|1|m|ft|2|abbr=on}}.JOURNAL, Ali, A, 1996, Vulnerability of Bangladesh to climate change and sea level rise through tropical cyclones and storm surges, 10.1007/BF00175563, Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 92, 1–2, 171–79, 2019-10-12, 17% of the country is covered by forests and 12% is covered by hill systems. The country's haor wetlands are of significance to global environmental science.In southeastern Bangladesh, experiments have been done since the 1960s to 'build with nature'. Construction of cross dams has induced a natural accretion of silt, creating new land. With Dutch funding, the Bangladeshi government began promoting the development of this new land in the late 1970s. The effort has become a multi-agency endeavour, building roads, culverts, embankments, cyclone shelters, toilets and ponds, as well as distributing land to settlers.WEB,weblink "Bangladesh fights for survival against climate change", by William Wheeler and Anna-Katarina Gravgaard, The Washington Times,, 3 July 2010, 18 October 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 24 July 2011, live, Years of collaboration with donors and global experts in water resources management has enabled Bangladesh to formulate strategies to combad the impacts of climate change. In Sep 2018, Bangladesh Government approved Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100, a combination of long-term strategies and subsequent interventions for ensuring long term water and food security, economic growth and environmental sustainability.NEWS,weblink Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100: Implementation challenges and way forward, The Financial Express, 24 September 2019, 23 March 2019, The formulation of the plan was led by the General Economics Division of the Ministry of Planning, and supported by the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, bringing together cross-sectoral expertise from the Netherlands and Bangladesh.WEB,weblink Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100, The Dutch water sector, 24 September 2019, 20 May 2019, With an elevation of {{convert|1064|m|ft|abbr=on}}, Saka Haphong (also known as Mowdok Mual) near the border with Myanmar, is claimed to be the highest peak of Bangladesh.WEB,weblink World Country High Points,,, However, it is not yet widely recognized as the highest point of the country, and most sources give the honor to Keokradong.WEB,weblink Bangladesh, The World Factbook, CIA,

Administrative geography

{{Further|Divisions of Bangladesh|Districts of Bangladesh|Upazilas of Bangladesh}}{{Bangladesh Divisions Image Map}}Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions,WEB,weblink Bangladesh Government, National Web Portal of Bangladesh, 15 September 2015, 23 September 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 23 September 2015, live, WEB, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, Bangladesh, Langley, Virginia,weblink 2012, 15 May 2007,weblink 20 July 2015, live, WEB,weblink Rangpur becomes a divivion,, 25 January 2010, 6 August 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 3 September 2015, live, each named after their respective divisional headquarters: Barisal (officially BarishalNEWS,weblink Bangladesh changes English spellings of five districts,, 2 April 2018, 1 October 2019, ), Chittagong (officially Chattogram), Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, and Sylhet.Divisions are subdivided into districts (zila). There are 64 districts in Bangladesh, each further subdivided into upazila (subdistricts) or thana. The area within each police station, except for those in metropolitan areas, is divided into several unions, with each union consisting of multiple villages. In the metropolitan areas, police stations are divided into wards, which are further divided into mahallas.There are no elected officials at the divisional or district levels, and the administration is composed only of government officials. Direct elections are held in each union (or ward) for a chairperson and a number of members. In 1997, a parliamentary act was passed to reserve three seats (out of 12) in every union for female candidates.Local Government Act, No. 20, 1997{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align: right"|+ Administrative Divisions of Bangladesh! scope="col" | Division! scope="col" | Capital! scope="col" data-sort-type="date" | Established! scope="col" | Area (km2)! scope="col" | PopulationWEB, 2011 Population & Housing Census: Preliminary Results,weblink Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2013, 12 January 2012, ! scope="col" | Density Barisal Division Barisal| 1 January 1993| 13,297| 8,325,666| 626 Chittagong Division Chittagong| 1 January 1829| 33,771| 28,423,019| 841 Dhaka Division Dhaka| 1 January 1829| 20,593| 36,054,418| 1,751 Khulna Division Khulna| 1 October 1960| 22,272| 15,687,759| 704 Mymensingh Division Mymensingh| 14 September 2015| 10,584| 11,370,000| 1,074 Rajshahi Division Rajshahi| 1 January 1829| 18,197| 18,484,858| 1,015 Rangpur Division Rangpur| 25 January 2010| 16,317| 15,787,758| 960 Sylhet Division Sylhet| 1 August 1995| 12,596| 9,910,219| 780


File:Koppen-Geiger Map BGD present.svg|thumb|Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for BangladeshJOURNAL, Beck, Hylke E., Zimmermann, Niklaus E., McVicar, Tim R., Vergopolan, Noemi, Berg, Alexis, Wood, Eric F., Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution, Scientific Data, 30 October 2018, 5, 180214, 10.1038/sdata.2018.214, 30375988, 6207062, 2018NatSD...580214B, ]](File:Agriculture of Bangladesh 11.jpg|thumb|Bangladesh has a tropical monsoon climate)File:Flooding after 1991 cyclone.jpg|thumb|Flooding after the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone1991 Bangladesh cycloneStraddling the Tropic of Cancer, Bangladesh's climate is tropical with a mild winter from October to March, and a hot, humid summer from March to June. The country has never recorded an air temperature below {{convert|0|°C}}, with a record low of {{convert|1.1|°C}} in the north west city of Dinajpur on 3 February 1905.WEB,weblink Map Of Dinajpur,,weblink" title="">weblink 13 July 2011, 17 April 2015, A warm and humid monsoon season lasts from June to October and supplies most of the country's rainfall.Natural calamities, such as floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and tidal bores occur almost every year,BOOK, Alexander, David E., Natural Disasters,weblink 1999, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 978-0-412-04751-0, 532, The Third World, 1993, combined with the effects of deforestation, soil degradation and erosion. The cyclones of 1970 and 1991 were particularly devastating, the latter killing some 140,000 people."Beset by Bay's Killer Storms, Bangladesh Prepares and Hopes {{Webarchive|url= |date=11 May 2011 }}". Los Angeles Times. 27 February 2005In September 1998, Bangladesh saw the most severe flooding in modern world history. As the Brahmaputra, the Ganges and Meghna spilt over and swallowed 300,000 houses, {{convert|9700|km|mi|abbr=on}} of road and {{convert|2700|km|mi|abbr=on}} of embankment, 1,000 people were killed and 30 million more were made homeless; 135,000 cattle were killed; {{convert|50|km2|mi2|abbr=on}} of land were destroyed; and {{convert|11000|km|mi|abbr=on}} of roads were damaged or destroyed. Effectively, two-thirds of the country was underwater.The severity of the flooding was attributed to unusually high monsoon rains, the shedding of equally unusually large amounts of melt water from the Himalayas, and the widespread cutting down of trees (that would have intercepted rain water) for firewood or animal husbandry.BOOK, Haggett, Peter, Encyclopedia of World Geography,weblink Marshall Cavendish, 2002, New York, 978-0-7614-7308-4, 46578454, 2, 634, The Indian Subcontinent, 2002, As a result of various international and national level initiatives in disaster risk reduction, human toll and economic damage from floods and cyclones have come down over the years.NEWS, Raju, M. N. A., Disaster Preparedness for Sustainable Development in Bangladesh,weblink Daily Sun, 10 March 2018, 26 September 2019, A similar country wide flood in 2007, which left five million people displaced, had a death toll around 500,NEWS, Bangladesh flood death toll nears 500, thousands ill,weblink Reuters, AlertNet, Reuters, Reuters Foundation, 15 August 2007, 15 August 2007, Bangladesh is now widely recognised to be one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Over the course of a century, 508 cyclones have affected the Bay of Bengal region, 17 percent of which are believed to have caused landfall in Bangladesh.JOURNAL, Khan, Hafiz T. A., Kabi, Russell, 2017-05-31, Study on the Health Status of Coastal People in Bangladesh After Cyclone Sidr and Aila, European Scientific Journal, ESJ, en, 13, 15, 10, 10.19044/esj.2017.v13n15p10, Natural hazards that come from increased rainfall, rising sea levels, and tropical cyclones are expected to increase as the climate changes, each seriously affecting agriculture, water and food security, human health, and shelter.BOOK, 2008, Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan, 2008,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 7 October 2009, Ministry of Environment and Forests Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, 978-984-8574-25-6, It is estimated that by 2050, a 3 feet rise in sea levels will inundate some 20 percent of the land and displace more than 30 million people.WEB,weblink The Unfolding Tragedy of Climate Change in Bangladesh, Glennon, Robert, 23 November 2017,weblink 1 December 2017, live, To address the sea level rise threat in Bangladesh, the Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100 has been launched.Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100Bangladesh Delta Plan (BDP) 2100There is evidence that earthquakes pose a threat to the country and that plate tectonics have caused rivers to shift course suddenly and dramatically. It has been shown that rainy-season flooding in Bangladesh, on the world's largest river delta, can push the underlying crust down by as much as 6 centimetres, and possibly perturb faults.Beneath Bangladesh: The Next Great Earthquake? {{Webarchive|url= |date=11 August 2011 }}. (12 July 2011)Bangladeshi water is frequently contaminated with arsenic because of the high arsenic content of the soil—up to 77 million people are exposed to toxic arsenic from drinking water.NEWS, Walker, Brian,weblink Study: Millions in Bangladesh exposed to arsenic in drinking water, CNN, 21 June 2010, 3 July 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 23 June 2010, live, NEWS,weblink Bangladesh: 77 m poisoned by arsenic in drinking water, BBC News, 19 June 2010, 3 July 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 23 June 2010, live,


File:Bengal Tiger gets down in a shallow canal in Sundarban.jpg|thumb|A Bengal tigerBengal tigerBangladesh ratified the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 3 May 1994.WEB,weblink Bangladesh – Country Profile,, 16 February 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 17 February 2015, live, {{As of|2014}}, the country was set to revise its National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.Bangladesh is located in the Indomalaya ecozone. Its ecology includes a long sea coastline, numerous rivers and tributaries, lakes, wetlands, evergreen forests, semi evergreen forests, hill forests, moist deciduous forests, freshwater swamp forests and flat land with tall grass. The Bangladesh Plain is famous for its fertile alluvial soil which supports extensive cultivation. The country is dominated by lush vegetation, with villages often buried in groves of mango, jackfruit, bamboo, betel nut, coconut and date palm.Bangladesh | history – geography :: Plant and animal life {{Webarchive|url= |date=3 February 2014 }}. Encyclopædia Britannica. The country has up to 6000 species of plant life, including 5000 flowering plants.WEB,weblink Flora and Fauna – Bangladesh high commission in India, Bangladesh High Commission, New Delhi,weblink" title="">weblink 20 August 2013, Water bodies and wetland systems provide a habitat for many aquatic plants. Water lilies and lotuses grow vividly during the monsoon season. The country has 50 wildlife sanctuaries.Bangladesh is home to much of the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest, covering an area of 6,000 km2 in the southwest littoral region. It is divided into three protected sanctuaries–the South, East and West zones. The forest is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The northeastern Sylhet region is home to haor wetlands, which is a unique ecosystem. It also includes tropical and subtropical coniferous forests, a freshwater swamp forest and mixed deciduous forests. The southeastern Chittagong region covers evergreen and semi evergreen hilly jungles. Central Bangladesh includes the plainland Sal forest running along the districts of Gazipur, Tangail and Mymensingh. St. Martin's Island is the only coral reef in the country.Bangladesh has an abundance of wildlife in its forests, marshes, woodlands and hills. The vast majority of animals dwell within a habitat of 150,000 km2.NEWS, Soraya Auer, Anika Hossain, 7 July 2012, Lost Wards of the State,weblink Star Weekend Magazine, The Daily Star, 14 February 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 14 February 2015, live, The Bengal tiger, clouded leopard, saltwater crocodile, black panther and fishing cat are among the chief predators in the Sundarbans.BOOK, Peter Haggett, Encyclopedia of World Geography,weblink 2001, Marshall Cavendish, 978-0-7614-7289-6, 2620, 20 January 2017,weblink 14 February 2017, live, WEB,weblink Bangladesh Sunderbans Wildlife Survey Finds New Species of Leopard, International Business Times UK, 28 March 2012, 14 February 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 14 February 2015, live, Northern and eastern Bangladesh is home to the Asian elephant, hoolock gibbon, Asian black bear and oriental pied hornbill.WEB,weblink Bears in Bangladesh, Bangladesh Bear Project, 14 February 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 14 February 2015, live, The Chital deer are widely seen in southwestern woodlands. Other animals include the black giant squirrel, capped langur, Bengal fox, sambar deer, jungle cat, king cobra, wild boar, mongooses, pangolins, pythons and water monitors. Bangladesh has one of the largest population of Irrawaddy dolphins and Ganges dolphins. A 2009 census found 6,000 Irrawaddy dolphins inhabiting the littoral rivers of Bangladesh.WEB,weblink 6,000 Rare, Large River Dolphins Found in Bangladesh, National Geographic, March 2009, 13 February 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 12 October 2014, live, The country has numerous species of amphibians (53), reptiles (139), marine reptiles (19) and marine mammals (5). It also has 628 species of birds.NEWS, Hossain, Muhammad Selim, 23 May 2009, Conserving biodiversity must for survival,weblink The Daily Star, 30 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 30 May 2015, live, Several animals became extinct in Bangladesh during the last century, including the one horned and two horned rhinoceros and common peafowl. The human population is concentrated in urban areas, hence limiting deforestation to a certain extent. Rapid urban growth has threatened natural habitats. Although many areas are protected under law, a large portion of Bangladeshi wildlife is threatened by this growth. Furthermore, access to biocapacity in Bangladesh is low. In 2016, Bangladesh had 0.4 global hectaresWEB,weblink Country Trends, Global Footprint Network, 9 October 2019, of biocapacity per person within its territory, or about one fourth of the world average. In contrast, in 2016, they used 0.84 global hectares of biocapacity - their ecological footprint of consumption. As a result, Bangladesh is running a biocapacity deficit.The Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act was enacted in 1995. The government has designated several regions as Ecologically Critical Areas, including wetlands, forests and rivers. The Sundarbans tiger project and the Bangladesh Bear Project are among the key initiatives to strengthen conservation.

Politics and government

File:রাতের বেলায় বঙ্গভবনের সৌন্দর্য্য! 02.jpg|thumb|BangabhabanBangabhabanBangladesh is a de jure representative democracy under its constitution, with a Westminster-style unitary parliamentary republic that has universal suffrage. The head of government is the Prime Minister, who is invited to form a government every five years by the President. The President invites the leader of the largest party in parliament to become Prime Minister. Once the world's fifth largest democracy,WEB,weblink Is Bangladesh becoming an autocracy? {{!, DW {{!}} 27.03.2018|last=Welle (|first=Deutsche|website=DW.COM|language=en-GB|access-date=2019-08-15}} Bangladesh experienced a two party system between 1990 and 2014, when the Awami League and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) alternated in power. During this period, elections were managed by a neutral caretaker government. But the caretaker government was abolished by the Awami League government in 2011. The BNP boycotted the next election in 2014, arguing that it would not be fair without a caretaker government. The BNP-led Jatiya Oikya Front participated in the 2018 election and lost. The election saw many allegations of irregularities. Bangladesh is increasingly classified as an autocracy due to the authoritarian practices of its government. The democratic wave which ushered parliamentary democracy in 1990 has been reversed by an illiberal electoral autocracy which features a dominant party state led by the Awami League. Bangladesh has a prominent civil society since the colonial period. There are various interest groups, including non-governmental organisations, human rights organisations, professional associations, chambers of commerce, employers' associations and trade unions.WEB,weblink Detail,, en, 2019-08-15, One of the key aspects of Bangladeshi politics is the so-called "spirit of the liberation war",WEB,weblink Spirit of Liberation War, 2014-03-26, The Daily Star, en, 2019-08-15, which refers to the ideals of the liberation movement. For example, the Proclamation of Independence enunciated the values of "equality, human dignity and social justice". In 1972, the constitution included a bill of rights and declared "nationalism, socialism, democracy and secularity" as the principles of government policy. Socialism was later de-emphasised and neglected by successive governments; Bangladesh has a market-based economy. To many Bangladeshis, especially in the younger generation, the spirit of the liberation war is a vision for a society based on civil liberties, human rights, the rule of law and good governance.WEB, Sobhan, Rehman,weblink The Spirit of the Liberation War, 2011-12-31, The Daily Star, en, 2019-10-07,

Executive branch

The Government of Bangladesh is overseen by a cabinet headed by the Prime Minister of Bangladesh. The tenure of a parliamentary government is five years. The Bangladesh Civil Service assists the cabinet in running the government. Recruitment for the civil service is based on a public examination. In theory, the civil service should be a meritocracy. But a disputed quota system coupled with politicisation and preference for seniority have allegedly affected the civil service's meritocracy.WEB,weblink Kabir, A., No Meritocracy: Bangladesh's Civil Service, The Diplomat, 12 August 2013, 9 October 2019, The President of Bangladesh is the ceremonial head of stateWEB,weblink President, The Nexus Commonwealth Network, 10 October 2019, whose powers include signing bills passed by parliament into law. The President is elected by the parliament and has a five-year term. Under the constitution, the president acts on the advice of the prime minister. The President is the Supreme Commander of the Bangladesh Armed Forces and the chancellor of all universities.

Legislative branch

File:National Assembly of Bangladesh (06).jpg|thumb|The National Assembly of Bangladesh ]]The Jatiya Sangshad (National Assembly) is the unicameral parliament. It has 350 Members of Parliament (MPs), including 300 MPs elected on the first past the post system and 50 MPs appointed to reserved seats for women's empowerment. Article 70 of the Constitution of Bangladesh forbids MPs from voting against their party, thereby rendering the Jatiya Sangshad a largely rubber-stamp parliament. However, several laws proposed independently by MPs have been transformed into legislation, including the anti-torture law.WEB,weblink Amendment to anti-torture law to hinder HR protection, says ASK, New Age {{!, The Most Popular Outspoken English Daily in Bangladesh|language=en|access-date=2019-08-15}} A bill proposing to declare Bangladesh as a nuclear weapons free zone remains pending.WEB,weblink Private Member Bill on Declaring Bangladesh as a Nuclear Weapons Free Zone, User, Super, Saber Hossain Chowdhury MP, Bangladesh Awami League, Dhaka-9 Constituency, en-gb, 2019-08-15, The parliament is presided over by the Speaker of the Jatiya Sangsad, who is second in line to the president as per the constitution. There is also a Deputy Speaker. When a president is incapable of performing duties (i.e. due to illness), the Speaker steps in as Acting President and the Deputy Speaker becomes Acting Speaker. A recurring proposal suggests that the Deputy Speaker should be a member of the opposition.NEWS, Shahid, S. A.,weblink Deputy speaker from opposition, no chance for war criminals, 18 January 2019, The Daily Star, 14 October 2019,

Legal system

File:Bangladesh Supreme Court.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Long, white, domed building|Supreme Court of BangladeshSupreme Court of BangladeshThe Supreme Court of Bangladesh, including its High Court and Appellate Divisions, is the high court of the land. The head of the judiciary is the Chief Justice of Bangladesh, who sits on the Supreme Court. The courts have wide latitude in judicial review, and judicial precedent is supported by the Article 111 of the constitution. The judiciary includes district and metropolitan courts, which are divided into civil and criminal courts. Due to a shortage of judges, the judiciary has a large backlog. The Bangladesh Judicial Service Commission is an independent body responsible for judicial appointments, salaries and discipline.Bangladesh's legal system is based on common law, and its principal source of laws are acts of Parliament.WEB,weblink Omar, Sial, A Research Guide to the Legal System of the Peoples' Republic of Bangladesh, GlobaLex, October 2008, 27 April 2015, The Bangladesh Code includes a list of all laws in force in the country. The code begins in 1836, and most of its listed laws were crafted under the British Raj by the Bengal Legislative Council, the Bengal Legislative Assembly, the Eastern Bengal and Assam Legislative Council, the Imperial Legislative Council and the Parliament of the United Kingdom; one example is the 1860 Penal Code. From 1947 to 1971, laws were enacted by Pakistan's national assembly and the East Pakistani legislature. The Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh was the country's provisional parliament until 1973, when the first elected Jatiyo Sangshad was sworn in. Although most of Bangladesh's laws were compiled in English, after a 1987 government directive laws are now primarily written in Bengali. While most of Bangladeshi law is secular; marriage, divorce and inheritance are governed by Islamic, Hindu and Christian family law. The judiciary is often influenced by legal developments in the Commonwealth of Nations, such as the doctrine of legitimate expectation.


File:BangladeshMilitaryUN PeacekeepingForce.jpg|thumb|alt=World map, indicating where the Bangladeshi UN peacekeeping force is stationed|Map of Bangladesh UN Peacekeeping ForceBangladesh UN Peacekeeping ForceThe Bangladesh Armed Forces have inherited the institutional framework of the British military and the British Indian Army.WEB,weblink The Military and Democracy in Bangladesh,, 19 September 2017, It was formed in 1971 from the military regiments of East Pakistan. In 2012 the army strength was around 300,000, including reservists,Bangladesh troops lead global peacekeeping. Retrieved 29 May 2012. the Air Force (22,000) and the Navy (24,000).Including service and civilian personnel. See weblink" title="">Bangladesh Navy. Retrieved 17 July 2007. In addition to traditional defence roles, the military has supported civil authorities in disaster relief and provided internal security during periods of political unrest. For many years, Bangladesh has been the world's largest contributor to UN peacekeeping forces. In February 2015, the country made major deployments to Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Darfur, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Golan Heights, Haiti, Lebanon, Liberia and South Sudan.WEB,weblink Ongoing Operations, Armed Forces Division,, The Bangladesh Navy has the third-largest fleet (after India and Thailand) of countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal, including guided-missile frigates, submarines, cutters and aircraft. The Bangladesh Air Force is equipped with several Russian multi-role fighter jets. Bangladesh cooperates defensively with the United States Armed Forces, participating in the Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) exercises. Ties between the Bangladeshi and the Indian military have increased, with high-level visits by the military chiefs of both countries.NEWS, New Indian army chief General Bipin Rawat coming to Bangladesh Friday,weblink, 19 September 2017, WEB,weblink What Can Be Expected From The India-Bangladesh Defence Deal?, Outlook India, 19 September 2017, Eighty percent of Bangladesh's military equipment comes from China.NEWS, Balachandran, P.K., 12 April 2017, Rivals India and China woo Bangladesh with aid totalling $ 46 b,weblink Daily FT, Colombo,

Foreign relations

File:1st Saarc summit.jpg|thumb|alt=Leaders seated at a dais|First South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) meeting in 1985 in Dhaka (l-r, top row: the presidents of Pakistan and the Maldives, the king of Bhutan, the president of Bangladesh, the prime minister of India, the king of Nepal and the president of Sri LankaSri LankaThe first major intergovernmental organisation joined by Bangladesh was the Commonwealth of Nations in 1972. The country joined the United Nations in 1974, and has been elected twice to the UN Security Council. Ambassador Humayun Rashid Choudhury was elected president of the UN General Assembly in 1986. Bangladesh relies on multilateral diplomacy in the World Trade Organization. It is a major contributor to UN peacekeeping, providing 113,000 personnel to 54 UN missions in the Middle East, the Balkans, Africa and the Caribbean in 2014.WEB,weblink Bangladesh in UN Mission, Armed Forces Division,, In addition to membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations, Bangladesh pioneered regional co-operation in South Asia. Bangladesh is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), an organisation designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among its members. It has hosted several summits, and two Bangladeshi diplomats were the organisation's secretary-general.Bangladesh joined the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) in 1973. It has hosted the summit of OIC foreign ministers, which addresses issues, conflicts and disputes affecting Muslim-majority countries. Bangladesh is a founding member of the Developing 8 Countries, a bloc of eight Muslim-majority republics.Japan is Bangladesh's largest economic-aid provider, and the countries have common political goals.Hasib, Nurul Islam (1 February 2015) First Bangladesh-Japan foreign secretary-level talks on Feb 5. Retrieved 27 April 2015. The United Kingdom has longstanding economic, cultural and military links with Bangladesh. The United States is a major economic and security partner, including its largest export market and foreign investor. Seventy-six percent of Bangladeshis viewed the United States favourably in 2014, one of the highest ratings among Asian countries.WEB,weblink Chapter 4: How Asians View Each Other, 14 July 2014,, 19 September 2017, WEB,weblink Bangladesh,, 19 September 2017, The United States views Bangladesh as a key partner in the Indo-Pacific.weblink" title="">United States Department of State The European Union is Bangladesh's largest regional market, conducting public diplomacy and providing development assistance.Relations with other countries are generally positive. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western countries, and similar economic concerns forge ties to other developing countries. Despite poor working conditions and war affecting overseas Bangladeshi workers, relations with Middle Eastern countries are friendly and bounded by religion and culture; more than a million Bangladeshis are employed in the region. In 2016, the king of Saudi Arabia called Bangladesh "one of the most important Muslim countries".NEWS, Rezaul Karim, 11 June 2016, Saudi wants active role of Bangladesh,weblink The Daily Star, File:US President Clinton and Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina make a joint statement, Prime Minister's office, Bangladesh, March 20, 2000.jpg|thumb|left|PM Sheikh Hasina with US President Bill ClintonBill ClintonBangladesh's most politically-important bilateral relationship is with neighbouring India. In 2015, major Indian newspapers called Bangladesh a "trusted friend".NEWS, 8 June 2015, Indian papers back strong ties with 'trusted friend' Bangladesh,weblink BBC News, Bangladesh and India are South Asia's largest trading partners. The countries are forging regional economic and infrastructure projects, such as a regional motor-vehicle agreement in eastern South Asia and a coastal shipping agreement in the Bay of Bengal. Indo-Bangladesh relations often emphasise a shared cultural heritage, democratic values and a history of support for Bangladeshi independence. Despite political goodwill, border killings of Bangladeshi civilians and the lack of a comprehensive water-sharing agreement for 54 trans-boundary rivers are major issues. In 2017, India joined Russia and China in refusing to condemn Myanmar's atrocities against the Rohingya, which contradicted with Bangladesh's demand for recognising Rohingya human rights.NEWS, Mahfuz Anam, 9 September 2017, Rohingya crisis: A concern for the region,weblink The Daily Star, Opinion, 19 September 2017, However, the Indian air force delivered aid shipments for Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh.NEWS, Rohingya aid from India, Morocco, Indonesia arrives,weblink The Daily Star, 14 September 2017, 19 September 2017, The rise of Hindu extremism and Islamophobia in India has also affected Bangladesh. The Bangladeshi beef and leather industries have seen increased prices due to the Indian BJP government's Hindu nationalist campaign against the export of beef and cattle skin.NEWS,weblink India's push to save its cows starves Bangladesh of beef, 2 July 2015, Reuters, 19 September 2017, Sino-Bangladesh relations date to the 1950s and are relatively warm, despite the Chinese leadership siding with Pakistan during Bangladesh's war of independence. China and Bangladesh established bilateral relations in 1976 which have significantly strengthened, and the country is considered a cost-effective source of arms for the Bangladeshi military.NEWS, Sheikh Shahariar Zaman, 18 March 2014, China biggest arms supplier to Bangladesh,weblink Dhaka Tribune, 19 September 2017, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 September 2017, Since the 1980s 80 percent of Bangladesh's military equipment has been supplied by China (often with generous credit terms), and China is Bangladesh's largest trading partner. Both countries are part of the BCIM Forum.File:44th G7 summit Photo.jpg|thumb|right|Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina (second from left on back row) with leaders of the G7G7The neighbouring country of Myanmar was one of first countries to recognise Bangladesh.WEB,weblink Foreign Policy – Banglapedia,, 19 September 2017, Despite common regional interests, Bangladesh-Myanmar relations have been strained by the Rohingya refugee issue and the isolationist policies of the Myanmar military. In 2012, the countries came to terms at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea over maritime disputes in the Bay of Bengal.WEB,weblink Judgment in Bangladesh-Myanmar Maritime Boundary Dispute – International Law Observer – A blog dedicated to reports, commentary and the discussion of topical issues of international law,, 19 September 2017, In 2016 and 2017, relations with Myanmar again strained as over 400,000 Rohingya refugees entered Bangladesh after atrocities. The parliament, government and civil society of Bangladesh have been at the forefront of international criticism against Myanmar for military operations against the Rohingya, which the United Nations has described as ethnic cleansing.NEWS, Alam, Julhas, 16 September 2017, Bangladesh accuses Myanmar of violating its airspace,weblink Daily Press (Virginia), Daily Press, Associated Press, 19 September 2017, NEWS,weblink Myanmar treatment of Rohingya looks like 'textbook ethnic cleansing', says UN, Michael, Safi, 11 September 2017, The Guardian, 19 September 2017, Pakistan and Bangladesh have a US$550 million trade relationship,WEB,weblink Bangladesh-Pakistan Bilateral Trade Statistics, Dhaka Chamber of Commerce & Industry, 19 September 2017, particularly in Pakistani cotton imports for the Bangladeshi textile industry. Although Bangladeshi and Pakistani businesses have invested in each other, diplomatic relations are strained because of Pakistani denial of the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.Bangladeshi aid agencies work in many developing countries. An example is BRAC in Afghanistan, which benefits 12 million people in that country.WEB,weblink Bangladesh, U.S. Central Command,weblink" title="">weblink 14 August 2014, Bangladesh has a record of nuclear nonproliferation as a party to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).WEB,weblink Bangladesh Opting for Peace Rather Than Nuclear Arms, Naimul, Haq, IDN-InDepthNews, 19 September 2017, It is a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.Bangladeshi foreign policy is influenced by the principle of "friendship to all and malice to none", first articulated by Bengali statesman H. S. Suhrawardy in 1957.BOOK,weblink Changing Security Dynamic in Eastern Asia,, 3 December 2015, 978-81-86019-52-8, Sisodia, N.S., Naidu, G.V.C., 2005, BOOK, Shamsul Huda Harun, The Making Of The Prime Minister H.S. Suhra Wardy Inan Anagram Polity 1947–1958,weblink 2001, Institute of Liberation Bangabandhu and Bangladesh Studies, National University, 978-984-783-012-4, Suhrawardy led East and West Pakistan to join the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, CENTO and the Regional Cooperation for Development.

Human rights

File:Protest against War Crimes at Shahabag Square (8459696133).jpg|thumb|2013 Shahbag protests demanding the death penalty for the war criminals of the 1971 war ]]A list of fundamental rights is enshrined in the country's constitution. The drafter of the constitution in 1972, Dr. Kamal Hossain, was influenced by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.WEB,weblink Lecture Series - Dr. Kamal Hossain,, 2019-08-15, Bangladesh also recognises the third gender.WEB,weblink Bangladesh Adds Third Gender Option to Voter Forms, Diplomat, Shakil Bin Mushtaq , The, The Diplomat, en-US, 2019-08-15, Homosexuality is illegal in Bangladesh.WEB,weblink Bangladesh authorities arrest 27 men on suspicion of being gay,, 19 May 2017, Judicial activism has often upheld human rights. In the 1970s, judges invalidated detentions under the Special Powers Act, 1974 through cases such as Aruna Sen v. Government of Bangladesh and Abdul Latif Mirza v. Government of Bangladesh. In 2008, the Supreme Court paved the way for citizenship for the Stranded Pakistanis, who were an estimated 300,000 stateless people.WEB,weblink How a Bangladesh court ruling changed the lives of more than 300,000 stateless people, Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for, UNHCR, en, 2019-08-15, Despite being a non-signatory of the UN Refugee Convention, Bangladesh has taken in Rohingya refugees since 1978 and the country is now home to a million refugees. Bangladesh is an active member of the International Labour Organization (ILO) since 1972. It has ratified 33 ILO conventions, including the seven fundamental ILO conventions.WEB,weblink International labour standards in Bangladesh (ILO in Bangladesh),, en, 2019-08-15, Bangladesh has ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.WEB,weblink United Nations Treaty Collection,, EN, 2019-08-15, WEB,weblink United Nations Treaty Collection,, EN, 2019-08-15, In 2018, Bangladesh came under heavy criticism for its repressive Digital Security Act which threatened freedom of speech. The photojournalist Shahidul Alam was jailed and tortured for criticising the government.WEB,weblink Bangladesh: New Digital Security Act imposes dangerous restrictions on freedom of expression,, en, 2019-08-15, Alam was featured in the 2018 Time Person of the Year issue.The National Human Rights Commission of Bangladesh was set up in 2007. Notable human rights organisations and initiatives include the Centre for Law and Mediation, Odhikar, the Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety, the Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers Association, the Bangladesh Hindu Buddhist Christian Unity Council and the War Crimes Fact Finding Committee.Successive governments and their security forces have flouted constitutional principles and have been accused of human rights abuses. Bangladesh is ranked "partly free" in Freedom House's Freedom in the World report,Bangladesh. Freedom House. Retrieved 27 April 2015. but its press is ranked "not free".WEB,weblink Bangladesh – Country report – Freedom in the World – 2016,, 12 May 2016, 27 January 2016, According to the British Economist Intelligence Unit, the country has a hybrid regime: the third of four rankings in its Democracy Index.WEB,weblink Democracy Index 2014: Democracy and its discontents, The Economist,, Bangladesh was the third-most-peaceful South Asian country in the 2015 Global Peace Index.NEWS, Bangladesh 98th among 162 countries,weblink The Daily Star, Op-ed, 16 August 2014, 9 December 2015, Civil society and media in Bangladesh have been attacked by the ruling Awami League government and Islamic extremists.NEWS, Civil society, freedom of speech under attack in Bangladesh: UN,weblink The Daily Star, Op-ed, 5 March 2015, 9 December 2015, (File:Rapid Action Battalion (04).jpg|thumb|alt=Armed men in black uniforms on a street|Bangladeshi law-enforcement agencies, including the Rapid Action Battalion (pictured), have been accused of human-rights abuses)According to National Human Rights Commission, 70% of alleged human-rights violations are committed by law-enforcement agencies.WEB,weblink Clashing ideologies, Ridwanul Hoque, D+C, development and cooperation, 21 December 2015, Targets have included Nobel Peace Prize winner Muhammad Yunus and the Grameen Bank, secularist bloggers and independent and pro-opposition newspapers and television networks. The United Nations is concerned about government "measures that restrict freedom of expression and democratic space".Bangladeshi security forces, particularly the Rapid Action Battalion (RAB), have received international condemnation for human-rights abuses (including enforced disappearances, torture and extrajudicial killings). Over 1,000 people have been said to have been victims of extrajudicial killings by RAB since its inception under the last Bangladesh Nationalist Party government.WEB,weblink British police trained Bangladeshi death squads, Simon Whelan, 7 January 2011, World Socialist Web Site, 9 December 2015, The RAB has been called a "death squad" by Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International,WEB,weblink Bangladesh: Disband Death Squad, Human Rights Watch, 9 December 2015, 21 July 2014, WEB,weblink Rights groups demand disbanding of RAB, Deutsche Welle, 9 December 2015, which have called for the force to be disbanded. The British and American governments have been criticised for funding and engaging the force in counter-terrorism operations.NEWS,weblink Bangladeshi force trained by UK police 'allowed to kill and torture', Fariha Karim, The Guardian, 9 December 2015, 10 May 2011, The Bangladeshi government has not fully implemented the Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord.PRESS RELEASE,weblink CHT Commission concludes Sixth Mission, Kapaeeng Foundation, 6 December 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 January 2016, The Hill Tracts region remains heavily militarized, despite a peace treaty with indigenous people forged by the United People's Party of the Chittagong Hill Tracts.NEWS,weblink Trouble brewing in Chittagong Hill tracts, Suvojit Bagchi, The Hindu, 9 December 2015, 3 December 2015, Secularism is protected by the constitution of Bangladesh and religious parties are barred from contesting elections; however, the government is accused of courting religious extremist groups. Islam's ambiguous position as the de facto state religion has been criticised by the United Nations.WEB,weblink Secular state with state religion gives rise to ambiguities, The Independent, Dhaka, 9 December 2015, Despite relative harmony, religious minorities have faced occasional persecution. The Hindu and Buddhist communities have experienced religious violence from Islamic groups, notably the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami and its student wing (Shibir). Islamic far-right candidates peaked at 12 percent of the vote in 2001, falling to four percent in 2008.WEB,weblink Bangladesh's Top Islamist Party Banned From Poll – WSJ, Syed Zain Al-Mahmood, 1 August 2013, The Wall Street Journal, 9 December 2015, Homosexuality is outlawed by section 377 of the criminal code (a legacy of the colonial period), and is punishable by a maximum of life imprisonment.NEWS, Ashif Islam Shaon, 27 April 2016, Where does Bangladesh stand on homosexuality issue?,weblink Dhaka Tribune, 30 May 2017, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 June 2017, According to the 2016 Global Slavery Index, an estimated 1,531,300 people are enslaved in modern-day Bangladesh, or 0.95% of the population.WEB, Kevin Bales, etal, Bangladesh,weblink The Global Slavery Index 2016, The Minderoo Foundation Pty Ltd, 13 March 2018,weblink 13 March 2018, dead, A number of slaves in Bangladesh are forced to work in the fish and shrimp industries.BOOK, Bales, Kevin, Blood and Earth: Modern Slavery, Ecocide, and the Secret to Saving the World, 2016, Spiegel & Grau, New York, 978-0-8129-9576-3, 71–97, First, BOOK, Siddharth, Kara, Bonded Labor: Tackling the System of Slavery in South Asia, 2012, Columbia University Press, New York, 104–22, NEWS, McGoogan, Cara, Rashid, Muktadir, Satellites reveal 'child slave camps' in Unesco-protected park in Bangladesh,weblink 13 March 2018, The Telegraph, 23 October 2016,


Bangladesh was 14th on Transparency International's 2014 Corruption Perceptions Index.NEWS, Bangladesh 14th most corrupt country,weblink The Daily Star, 3 December 2014, 9 December 2015, In 2015, bribes made up 3.7 percent of the national budget.Corruption in Service Sectors: National Household Survey 2015, Transparency International Bangladesh, Dhaka, 2016, p. 1 The country's Anti-Corruption Commission was active during the 2006–08 Bangladeshi political crisis, indicting many leading politicians, bureaucrats and businessmen for graft. After it assumed power in 2009, the Awami League government reduced the commission's independent power to investigate and prosecute.WEB,weblink Overview of corruption and anti-corruption in Bangladesh, U4, 9 December 2015, Land administration was the sector with the most bribery in 2015,Corruption in Service Sectors: National Household Survey, 2015, Transparency International Bangladesh, Dhaka, 2016, p. 1 followed by education,Corruption in Service Sectors: National Household Survey 2015, Transparency International Bangladesh, Dhaka, 2016, p. 12 policeCorruption in Service Sectors: National Household Survey 2015, Transparency International Bangladesh, Dhaka, 2016, p. 21and water supply.The Business of Bribes: Bangladesh: The Blowback of Corruption, Public Broadcasting Services, Arlington, Virginia, 2009


File:Dhaka April (33274941853).jpg|thumb|Dhaka, the commercial and financial hub of the country, is a major business center in South Asia and the largest economic centre in Eastern South AsiaEastern South AsiaBangladesh has the world's 39th largest economy in terms of market exchange rates and 29th largest in terms of purchasing power parity, which ranks second in South Asia after India.WEB,weblink WELT 2019 {{!, Centre for Economics and Business Research||access-date=2019-08-15}} Bangladesh is also one of the world's fastest-growing economies and one of the fastest growing middle-income countries.WEB,weblink Economic Reforms Can Make Bangladesh Grow Faster, The country has a market-based mixed economy. A developing nation, Bangladesh is one of the Next Eleven emerging markets. According to the IMF, its per-capita income was {{US$|1,888|link=yes}} in 2018, with a GDP of $314 billion.WEB,weblink Report for Selected Countries and Subjects, Bangladesh has the second-highest foreign-exchange reserves in South Asia (after India). The Bangladeshi diaspora contributed $15.31 billion in remittances in 2015.NEWS, Remittance hits record $15.31b,weblink The Daily Star, 3 July 2015, 25 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 26 December 2015, live, Bangladesh's largest trading partners are the European Union, the United States, Japan, India, Australia, China and ASEAN. Expat workers in the Middle East and Southeast Asia send back a large chunk of remittances. The economy is driven by strong domestic demand.During its first five years of independence Bangladesh adopted socialist policies. The subsequent military regime and BNP and Jatiya Party governments restored free markets and promoted the country's private sector. In 1991, finance minister Saifur Rahman introduced a programme of economic liberalisation. The Bangladeshi private sector has rapidly expanded, with a number of conglomerates driving the economy. Major industries include textiles, pharmaceuticals, shipbuilding, steel, electronics, energy, construction materials, chemicals, ceramics, food processing and leather goods. Export-oriented industrialisation has increased, with fiscal year 2014–15 exports increasing by 3.3% over the previous year to $30 billion, although Bangladesh's trade deficit ballooned by over 45% in this same time period.NEWS,weblink Bangladesh fiscal trade deficit balloons, Business Standard, 12 August 2015, 17 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2015, live, Most export earnings are from the garment-manufacturing industry.{|class="wikitable" style="float: right; margin-left: 10px"! style="text-align:center; background:#cfb;" colspan="2" |Share of world GDP (PPP)WEB,weblink Report for Selected Countries and Subjects, International Monetary Fund, 19 September 2018,weblink 19 September 2018, live, ! style="background:#cfb;"|Year! style="background:#cfb;"|Share1980 style="text-align:right;" |0.31%1990 style="text-align:right;" |0.33%|20000.36%|20100.44%2019 style="text-align:right;" |0.58%File:Bangabandhu Bridge (Jamuna Multi-purpose Bridge).jpg|thumb|left|Bangabandhu BridgeBangabandhu BridgeHowever, an insufficient power supply is a significant obstacle to Bangladesh's economic development. According to the World Bank, poor governance, corruption and weak public institutions are also major challenges.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink Bangladesh – Country Brief, 15 September 2007, World Bank, 17 December 2015, dead, In April 2010, Standard & Poor's gave Bangladesh a BB- long-term credit rating, below India's but above those of Pakistan and Sri Lanka.NEWS, Bangladesh Gets first Credit Rating,weblink The Daily Star, 7 April 2010, 7 April 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 14 April 2016, live, The country is notable for its soil fertility land, including the Ganges Delta, Sylhet Division and the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Agriculture is the largest sector of the economy, making up 18.6 percent of Bangladesh's GDP in November 2010 and employing about 45 percent of the workforce.WEB,weblink CIA – The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 8 August 2011,weblink 29 June 2011, live, The agricultural sector impacts employment generation, poverty alleviation, human resources development and food security. More Bangladeshis earn their living from agriculture than from any other sector. The country is among the top producers of rice (fourth), potatoes (seventh), tropical fruits (sixth), jute (second), and farmed fish (fifth).WEB,weblink Countries by Commodity, 2013, FAOSTAT, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 13 November 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 13 November 2016, live, REPORT, Golub, Stephen, Varma, Abir, February 2014, Fishing Exports and Economic Development of Least Developed Countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Comoros, Sierra Leone and Uganda,weblink Swarthmore College, 23, 17 February 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 24 October 2014, live, Bangladesh is the seventh-largest natural gas producer in Asia, ahead of neighbouring Myanmar, and 56 percent of the country's electricity is generated by natural gas. Major gas fields are located in the northeastern (particularly Sylhet) and southern (including Barisal and Chittagong) regions. Petrobangla is the national energy company. The American multinational corporation Chevron produces 50 percent of Bangladesh's natural gas.WEB,weblink Bangladesh, Chevron Policy, Government and Public Affairs, Chevron, 23 January 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 22 January 2016, dead, According to geologists, the Bay of Bengal contains large, untapped gas reserves in Bangladesh's exclusive economic zone.MAGAZINE, Jack Detsch, The Diplomat,weblink Bangladesh: Asia's New Energy Superpower?, The Diplomat, 17 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 29 December 2016, live, Bangladesh has substantial coal reserves, with several coal mines operating in the northwest.Jute exports remain significant, although the global jute trade has shrunk considerably since its World War II peak. Bangladesh has one of the world's oldest tea industries, and is a major exporter of fish and seafood.File:Muhammad yunus at weforum.jpg|thumb|right|Noble-laurate Yunus at the 2009 meeting of the World Economic Forum in DavosDavosBangladesh's textile and ready-made garment industries are the country's largest manufacturing sector, with 2014 exports of $25 billion.WEB,weblink The Financialexpress-bd,, 15 November 2015, 17 December 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2015, Leather-goods manufacturing, particularly footwear, is the second-largest export sector. The pharmaceutical industry meets 97 percent of domestic demand, and exports to many countries.NEWS, Hassan, Nazmul, 26 March 2005, Pharmaceutical Sector Growing Fast,weblink Arab News, 30 September 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 1 October 2015, live, WEB,weblink Bangladesh's drug industry meets nearly all domestic demand, eyes exports, Lane, EJ, 13 February 2015, Fierce Pharma Asia, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 October 2015, Shipbuilding has grown rapidly, with exports to Europe.WEB, Lakshmi, Aiswarya,weblink Bangladesh Mulls Investments in Shipbuilding,, 10 March 2015, 17 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2015, live, Steel is concentrated in the port city of Chittagong, and the ceramics industry is prominent in international trade. In 2005 Bangladesh was the world's 20th-largest cement producer, an industry dependent on limestone imports from northeast India. Food processing is a major sector, with local brands such as PRAN increasing their international market share. The electronics industry is growing rapidly, particularly the Walton Group.NEWS, Palak: Once Walton may turn into private Hi-Tech Park,weblink Dhaka Tribune, 16 October 2015, 17 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 8 November 2017, live, Bangladesh's defence industry includes the Bangladesh Ordnance Factories and the Khulna Shipyard.The service sector accounts for 51 percent of the country's GDP. Bangladesh ranks with Pakistan as South Asia's second-largest banking sector.NEWS, Sajjadur Rahman, 4 April 2014, Bank assets go up on steady economic growth,weblink The Daily Star, 17 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2015, live, The Dhaka and Chittagong Stock Exchanges are the country's twin financial markets. Bangladesh's telecommunications industry is one of the world's fastest-growing, with 114 million cellphone subscribers in December 2013,NEWS, Internet growth hinges on local content, cheap phones,weblink The Daily Star, 9 March 2014, 18 February 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 18 February 2015, live, and Grameenphone, Banglalink, Robi and BTTB are major companies. Tourism is developing, with the beach resort of Cox's Bazar the center of the industry. The Sylhet region, home to Bangladesh's tea country, also hosts a large number of visitors. The country has three UNESCO World Heritage Sites (the Mosque City, the Buddhist Vihara and the Sundarbans) and five tentative-list sites.WEB,weblink Tentative Lists, 6 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 6 August 2012, live, Following the pioneering work of Akhter Hameed Khan on rural development at Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development, several NGOs in Bangladesh including BRAC (the world's largest NGO),NEWS,weblink BRAC in business, 6 September 2017, 18 February 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 7 September 2017, live, and Grameen Bank, focused on rural development and poverty alleviation in the country. Muhammad Yunus successfully pioneered microfinance as a sustainable tool for provery alleviation and others followed suit. As of 2015, the country had over 35 million microcredit borrowers.WEB,weblink Bangladesh Microfinance Statistics 2010, 14 December 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2015, In recognition of their tangible contribution to proverty alleviation, Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006.WEB,weblink The Nobel Peace Prize for 2006, 6 September 2017,weblink 19 October 2006, live,


File:Boeing 777-3E9ER S2-AFO Bangladesh Biman Airlines (10497235545).jpg|thumb|A Boeing 777 of the national flag carrier Biman Bangladesh AirlinesBiman Bangladesh AirlinesTransport is a major sector of the economy. Aviation has grown rapidly, and includes the flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines and other privately owned airlines. Bangladesh has a number of airports: three international and several domestic and STOL (short takeoff and landing) airports. The busiest, Shahjalal International Airport connects Dhaka with major destinations.Bangladesh has a {{convert|2,706|km|mi|adj=on|abbr=off}} rail network operated by state-owned Bangladesh Railway. The total length of the country's road and highway network is nearly {{convert|21,000|km|mi|adj=on|abbr=off}}.It has one of the largest inland waterway networks in the world,Transport – Bangladesh Transport Sector {{Webarchive|url= |date=7 January 2015 }}. World Bank. Retrieved 27 April 2015. with {{convert|8,046|km|mi|abbr=off}} of navigable waters. The southeastern port of Chittagong is its busiest seaport, handling over $60 billion in annual trade (more than 80 percent of the country's export-import commerce).NEWS,weblink Bangladesh pins hope on Chittagong port, BBC News, 4 September 2012, Ethirajan, Anbarasan, 21 June 2018,weblink 15 October 2018, live, The second-busiest seaport is Mongla. Bangladesh has three seaports and 22 river ports.WEB,weblink River Port – Banglapedia,, 19 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 7 September 2017, live, {|class="infobox" style="text-align:center; width:97%; margin-right:10px; font-size:90%"|+Top maritime and inland ports!rowspan=23 width:150|(File:Karnaphuli River at night (02).jpg|border|135px|Port of Chittagong)Chittagong(File:Port of Dhaka.jpg|border|135px|Port of Dhaka)Dhaka! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"|Rank! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"|Port! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"|Type! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"|TEU traffic!rowspan=23 width:150|!rowspan=23 width:150|(File:Mongla port (মংলা পোর্ট).jpg|border|135px|Mongla)Mongla(File:Aricha Ghat Manikganj Bangladesh (4).JPG|135px|Aricha)Aricha1align=leftPort of Chittagong>|2align=leftPort of Pangaon>|116,0003align=leftPort of Mongla>|70,0004align=leftPort of Dhaka>|5align=leftPort of Narayanganj>|6align=leftPort of Ashuganj>|7align=leftPort of Payra>|8align=leftAricha Ghat>|9align=leftGoalondo>|{{clear}}

Energy and infrastructure

(File:বাংলাদেশের কয়লা ও গ্যাস ফিল্ড.png|thumb|alt=Map of Bangladesh, illustrating coal and gas deposits|Coal and natural-gas fields in Bangladesh, 2011)Bangladesh had an installed electrical capacity of 10,289 MW in January 2014.WEB,weblink Key Statistics,, 13 August 2015, 17 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2016, live, About 56 percent of the country's commercial energy is generated by natural gas, followed by oil, hydropower and coal. Bangladesh has planned to import hydropower from Bhutan and Nepal.BOOK, Lall, Marie, 2009, The Geopolitics of Energy in South Asia,weblink Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 143, 978-981-230-827-6, 14 May 2016,weblink 6 January 2017, live, Nuclear energy is being developed with Russian support in the Ruppur Nuclear Power Plant project.WEB,weblink Rosatom to Build Bangladesh's First Nuclear Power Plant | Business, The Moscow Times, 3 October 2013, 17 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 19 February 2016, live, The country ranks fifth worldwide in the number of renewable energy green jobs, and solar panels are increasingly used to power urban and off-grid rural areas.WEB,weblink Why Green Jobs Are Booming in Bangladesh, Woody, Todd, 12 May 2014, The Atlantic, 5 March 2017,weblink 6 February 2017, live, An estimated 98 percent of the country's population had access to improved water sources in 2004* WEB, World Health Organization, World_Health_Organization, UNICEF, Joint Monitoring Program,weblink 20 October 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 February 2008, Data are based on BOOK, National Institute of Population Research and Training (Bangladesh), Mitra and Associates (Dhaka), ORC Macro. Measure/DHS+ (Programme), Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2004, 2005, Dhaka, (a high percentage for a low-income country), achieved largely through the construction of hand pumps with support from external donors. However, in 1993 it was discovered that much of Bangladesh's groundwater (the source of drinking water for 97 percent of the rural population and a significant share of the urban population) is naturally contaminated with arsenic.Another challenge is low cost recovery due to low tariffs and poor economic efficiency, especially in urban areas (where water revenue does not cover operating costs). An estimated 56 percent of the population had access to adequate sanitation facilities in 2010.WEB, Bangladesh, The World Factbook,weblink Central Intelligence Agency, 25 September 2013,weblink 20 July 2015, live, dmy-all, Community-led total sanitation, addressing the problem of open defecation in rural areas, is credited with improving public health since its introduction in 2000.JOURNAL, Kar, Kamal, Bongartz, Petra, Update on Some Recent Developments in Community-Led Total Sanitation, University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, April 2006,weblink 28 April 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 May 2008,

Science and technology

{{See also|Information technology in Bangladesh|Biotechnology and genetic engineering in Bangladesh}}File:Bangabandhu Satellite-1 Mission (42025498972).jpg|thumb|left|In 2018, the first payload of SpaceX's Falcon 9 Block 5 rocket was the Bangabandhu-1 satellite built by Thales Alenia SpaceThales Alenia Space The Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, founded in 1973, traces its roots to the East Pakistan Regional Laboratories established in Dhaka (1955), Rajshahi (1965) and Chittagong (1967). Bangladesh's space agency, SPARRSO, was founded in 1983 with assistance from the United States.WEB,weblink Dhaka, Bangladesh. 1985, YouTube, 17 December 2015,weblink 11 March 2016, live, The country's first communications satellite, Bangabandhu-1, was launched from the United States in 2018.NEWS, Bangladesh launches its first satellite Bangabandhu-1,weblink The Times of India, 13 May 2018, 15 May 2018, The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission operates a TRIGA research reactor at its atomic-energy facility in Savar.WEB,weblink Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission,, 22 June 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, 17 December 2015, In 2015, Bangladesh was ranked the 26th global IT outsourcing destination.NEWS, Bangladesh Best Destination for IT outsourcing,weblink The Daily Star, 8 March 2015, 15 August 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 16 August 2016, live,


File:One of the famous beach in the world "Cox's Bazaar.jpg|thumb| The beach in 120|km|mi|abbr=on}}, it is the longest natural sea beach in the worldFile:WALK IN THE CLOUDS.JPG|thumb|Mountain trekking is a popular activity in the Bandarban DistrictBandarban DistrictBangladesh's tourist attractions include historical and monuments, resorts, beaches, picnic spots, forests and tribal people, wildlife of various species. Activities for tourists include angling, water skiing, river cruising, hiking, rowing, yachting, and sea bathing.BOOK, Lonely Planet's Best in Travel, 2011, Lonely Planet,weblink 978-1-74220-090-3, 11 April 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 24 February 1999, live, WEB,weblink Top 10 best value destinations for 2011, Lonely Planet, 2011, 11 April 2018,weblink 16 January 2017, live, The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) reported in 2013 that the travel and tourism industry in Bangladesh directly generated 1,281,500 jobs in 2012 or 1.8 percent of the country's total employment, which ranked Bangladesh 157 out of 178 countries worldwide.WEB,weblink Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2013: Bangladesh, World Travel and Tourism Council,weblink" title="">weblink 7 October 2013, Direct and indirect employment in the industry totalled 2,714,500 jobs, or 3.7 percent of the country's total employment. The WTTC predicted that by 2023, travel and tourism will directly generate 1,785,000 jobs and support an overall total of 3,891,000 jobs, or 4.2 percent of the country's total employment. This would represent an annual growth rate in direct jobs of 2.9 percent. Domestic spending generated 97.7 percent of direct travel and tourism gross domestic product (GDP) in 2012. Bangladesh's world ranking in 2012 for travel and tourism's direct contribution to GDP, as a percentage of GDP, was 142 out of 176.


{{Historical populations|source = OECD/World Bankweblink" title="">CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971–2009 IEA (weblink" title="">pdf. pp. 87–89)|title = Population (millions)|percentages = pagr67.880.6105.3129.6148.7161.1}}Estimates of the Bangladeshi population vary, but UN data suggests {{UN_Population|Bangladesh}} (162.9 million).{{UN_Population|ref}} The 2011 census estimated 142.3 million,WEB,weblink Bangladesh's Population to Exceed 160 Mln after Final Census Report,, 6 August 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 14 January 2012, live, much less than 2007–2010 estimates of Bangladesh's population (150–170 million). Bangladesh is the world's eighth-most-populous nation. In 1951, its population was 44 million."Bangladesh â€“ population {{Webarchive|url= |date=14 December 2010 }}". Library of Congress Country Studies. Bangladesh is the most densely-populated large country in the world, ranking 7th in population density when small countries and city-states are included.WEB,weblink Population density â€“ Persons per sq km 2010 Country Ranks, 2 October 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 24 October 2010, live, The country's population-growth rate was among the highest in the world in the 1960s and 1970s, when its population grew from 65 to 110 million. With the promotion of birth control in the 1980s, Bangladesh's growth rate began to slow. Its total fertility rate is now 2.05,BOOK,weblink Bangladesh Economic Review 2018, Ministry of Finance, Bangladesh, 2018, Socio-Economic Indicators of Bangladesh, 2019-04-26,weblink lower than India's (2.58) and Pakistan's (3.07). The population is relatively young, with 34 percent aged 15 or younger and five percent 65 or older. Life expectancy at birth was estimated at 72.49 years in 2016. According to the World Bank, {{as of|2016|lc=y}} 14.8% of the country lives below the international poverty line on less than $1.90 per day.WEB, Poverty & Equity Data Portal,weblink world bank, 26 December 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 27 December 2018, live, WEB, The World Bank In Bangladesh,weblink world bank, 26 December 2018,weblink 17 December 2018, live, Bengalis are 98 percent of the population."Background Note: Bangladesh" . Retrieved 11 June 2008. Of Bengalis, Muslims are the majority, followed by Hindus, Christians and Buddhists.The Adivasi population includes the Chakma, Marma, Tanchangya, Tripuri, Kuki, Khiang, Khumi, Murang, Mru, Chak, Lushei, Bawm, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Khasi, Jaintia, Garo, Santal, Munda and Oraon tribes. The Chittagong Hill Tracts region experienced unrest and an insurgency from 1975 to 1997 in an autonomy movement by its indigenous people. Although a peace accord was signed in 1997, the region remains militarised.JOURNAL, Rashiduzzaman, M, 1998, Bangladesh's Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord: Institutional Features and Strategic Concerns, Asian Survey, 38, 7, 653–70, 10.1525/as.1998.38.7.01p0370e, 2645754, Bangladesh is home to a significant Ismaili community.WEB,weblink New Dhaka Jamatkhana seen as a symbol of confidence in Bangladesh – The Ismaili,, 10 October 2012, 22 February 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 22 February 2015, live, It hosts many Urdu-speaking immigrants, who migrated there after the partition of India. Stranded Pakistanis were given citizenship by the Supreme Court in 2008.Note on the nationality status of the Urdu-speaking community in Bangladesh {{Webarchive|url= |date=22 February 2015 }}. UNHCR – The UN Refugee Agency.Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh number at around 1 million, making Bangladesh one of the countries with the largest refugee populations in the world.

Urban centres

{{Further|List of cities and towns in Bangladesh}}{{Largest cities of Bangladesh}}Dhaka is Bangladesh's capital and largest city. There are 12 city corporations which hold mayoral elections: Dhaka South, Dhaka North, Chittagong, Comilla, Khulna, Mymensingh, Sylhet, Rajshahi, Barisal, Rangpur, Gazipur and Narayanganj. Mayors are elected for five-year terms. Altogether there are 506 urban centres in Bangladesh among which 43 cities have a population of more than 100000.{{Citation |title=Population and Housing Census 2011 – Volume 3: Urban Area Report |url= |publisher=Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics |date=Aug 2014 |access-date=29 September 2018 |archive-url= |archive-date=11 April 2019 |url-status=live }}


File:Rajshahi College Library Inside 02.JPG|thumb|right|The Charyapada scrolls are the oldest surviving text of the Bengali language. The photograph was taken at the Rajshahi CollegeRajshahi CollegeThe predominant language of Bangladesh is Bengali (also known as Bangla). Bengali is the one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family. It is a part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages in South Asia, which developed between the 10th and 13th centuries. Bengali is written using the Bengali script. In ancient Bengal, Sanskrit was the language of written communication, especially by priests. During the Islamic period, Sanskrit was replaced by Bengali as the vernacular language. The Sultans of Bengal promoted the production of Bengali literature instead of Sanskrit. Bengali also received Persian and Arabic loanwords during the Sultanate of Bengal. Under British rule, Bengali was significantly modernised by Europeans. Modern Standard Bengali emerged as the lingua franca of the region. A heavily Sanskritized version of Bengali was employed by Hindu scholars during the Bengali Renaissance. Muslim writers such as Kazi Nazrul Islam gave attention to the Persian and Arabic vocabulary of the language. Today, the Bengali language is regulated by the Bangla Academy in Bangladesh. Bengali is a symbol of secular Bangladeshi identity. More than 98 percent of people in Bangladesh speak Bengali as their native language.WEB, Condition of English in Bangladesh,weblink ESL Teachers Board, 21 October 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2013, live, weblink" title="">Constitution of Bangladesh (As modified up to 17 May 2004), Part I, Article 5. Dialects of Bengali are spoken in some parts of the country, which include non-standard dialects (sometimes viewed as separate languages) such as Chatgaiya, Sylheti and Rangpuri.WEB,weblink 3. The state language,,weblink" title="">weblink 5 August 2017, live, 12 May 2016, Bengali Language Implementation Act, 1987 made it mandatory to use Bengali in all government affairs in Bangladesh.WEB,weblink Bangla Bhasha Prachalan Ain, 1987,, bn:বাংলা ভাষা প্রচলন আইন, ১৯৮৭ (Bengali Language Implementation Act, 1987), 2019-04-22, Although laws were historically written in English, they were not translated into Bengali until the Bengali Language Implementation Act of 1987. All subsequent acts, ordinances and laws have been promulgated in Bengali since 1987.WEB,weblink Bangla Rules in All Domains of National Life, Daily Sun (Bangladesh), Daily Sun, en,weblink 2019-04-25, live, 2019-04-25, English is often used in the verdicts delivered by the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, and is also used in higher education.The Chakma language is another native Eastern Indo-Aryan language of Bangladesh. It is written using the Chakma script. The unique aspect of the language is that it is used by the Chakma people, who are a population with similarities to the people of East Asia, rather than the Indian subcontinent. The Chakma language is endangered due to its decreasing use in schools and institutions.Other tribal languages include Garo, Manipuri, Kokborok and Rakhine. Among the Austroasiatic languages, the Santali language is spoken by the Santali tribe. Many of these languages are written in the Bengali script; while there is also some usage of the Latin script.Urdu has a significant heritage in Bangladesh. The language was introduced to Bengal in the 17th-century. Traders from North India often spoke the language in Bengal, as did sections of the Bengali upper class. Urdu poets lived in many parts of Bangladesh. The use of Urdu became controversial during the Bengali Language Movement, when the people of East Bengal resisted attempts to impose Urdu as the main official language. In modern Bangladesh, the Urdu-speaking community is today restricted to the country's Bihari community (formerly Stranded Pakistanis); and some sections of the non-Bengali upper class.WEB,weblink Urdu - Banglapedia, The University of Dhaka operates a Department of Urdu.WEB,weblink University of Dhaka {{!, {{!}} the highest echelon of academic excellence||access-date=2019-08-15}}


{{bar box|width=250px|barwidth=100px|title=Religions in Bangladesh in 2011WEB,weblink Official Census Results 2011 page xiii, Bangladesh Government, 17 April 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 3 September 2017, live, |titlebar=#ddd|left1=Religion|right1=Percent|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Islam|MediumSeaGreen|90}}{{bar percent|Hinduism|DarkOrange|9.5}}{{bar percent|Buddhism|Gold|0.6}}{{bar percent|Christianity|blue|0.4}}}}Islam is the largest and the official state religion of Bangladesh,WEB,weblink Bangladesh's Constitution of 1972, Reinstated in 1986, with Amendments through 2014,, 29 October 2017, WEB,weblink Bangladesh court upholds Islam as religion of the state, Bergman, David, 28 March 2016, Al Jazeera, followed by 90 percent of the population.WEB, Know Bangladesh,weblink Government of Bangladesh, Government of Bangladesh, 10 October 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 9 October 2018, live, Most Bangladeshis are Bengali Muslims, who form the largest Muslim ethnoreligious group in South Asia and the second largest in the world after the Arabs. There is also a minority of non-Bengali Muslims. The vast majority of Bangladeshi Muslims are Sunni, followed by minorities of Shia and Ahmadiya. About four percent are non-denominational Muslims.Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation {{Webarchive|url= |date=26 December 2016 }}. Retrieved 4 September 2013 Bangladesh has the fourth-largest Muslim population in the world, and is the third-largest Muslim-majority country (after Indonesia and Pakistan).WEB,weblink Muslim Population by Country, Pew Research, 27 January 2011, 23 October 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 26 July 2013, live, Sufism has an extensive heritage in the region.WEB,weblink Community: Sufism in Bangladesh, Sufism Journal, 3 July 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 29 July 2011, live, Liberal Bengali Islam sometimes clashes with orthodox movements. The largest gathering of Muslims in Bangladesh is the apolitical Bishwa Ijtema, held annually by the orthodox Tablighi Jamaat. The Ijtema is the second-largest Muslim congregation in the world, after the Hajj. The Islamic Foundation is an autonomous government agency responsible for some Muslim religious matters, including sighting the moon in accordance with the lunar Islamic calendar in order to set festival dates; as well as the charitable tradition of zakat. Public holidays include the Islamic observances of Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-al-Adha, the Prophet's Birthday, Ashura and Shab-e-Barat.File:Religions of bangladesh.png|thumb|left|Montage of religions of Bangladesh. Clockwise from top left: Muslims praying in Baitul Mukarram; a Hindu monk in Dhakeshwari Temple; a Buddhist monk in Buddha Dhatu JadiBuddha Dhatu JadiHinduism is followed by 9.5 percent of the population; most are Bengali Hindus, and some are members of ethnic minority groups. Bangladeshi Hindus are the country's second-largest religious group and the third-largest Hindu community in the world, after those in India and Nepal. Hindus in Bangladesh are evenly distributed, with concentrations in Gopalganj, Dinajpur, Sylhet, Sunamganj, Mymensingh, Khulna, Jessore, Chittagong and parts of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Hindus are the second largest religious community in Bangladeshi cities. The festivals of Durga's Return and Krishna's Birthday are public holidays.Buddhism is the third-largest religion, at 0.6 percent. Bangladeshi Buddhists are concentrated among ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (particularly the Chakma, Marma and Tanchangya peoples), and coastal Chittagong is home to a large number of Bengali Buddhists. While the Mahayana school of Buddhism was historically prevalent in the region, Bangladeshi Buddhists today adhere to the Theravada school. Buddha's Birthday is a public holiday. The chief Buddhist priests are based at a monastery in Chittagong.File:Eid Prayers at Barashalghar, Debidwar, Comilla.jpg|thumb|Eid prayers for Muslims at Barashalghar, Debidwar, ComillaComillaChristianity is the fourth-largest religion, at 0.4 percent.WEB,weblink ১০ বছরে ৯ লাখ হিন্দু কমেছে,, 3 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 24 December 2014, live, Roman Catholicism is the largest denomination among Bangladeshi Christians. Bengali Christians are spread across the country; while there are many Christians among minority ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (southeastern Bangladesh) and within the Garo tribe of Mymensingh (north-central Bangladesh). The country also has Protestant, Baptist and Oriental Orthodox churches. Christmas is a public holiday.The Constitution of Bangladesh declares Islam the state religion, but bans religion-based politics. It proclaims equal recognition of Hindus, Buddhists, Christians and people of all faiths.WEB,weblink Report on International Religious Freedom, U.S. Department of State, 24 June 2017, In 1972, Bangladesh was South Asia's first constitutionally-secular country.Struggle for the Soul of Bangladesh {{webarchive|url= |date=2 April 2015 }}. Tony Blair Faith Foundation (5 December 2014). Retrieved 27 April 2015. Article 12 of the constitution continues to call for secularism, the elimination of interfaith tensions and prohibits the abuse of religion for political purposes and any discrimination against, or persecution of, persons practising a particular religion.WEB,weblink 12. Secularism and freedom of religion,, 2017-07-11, Article 41 of the constitution subjects religious freedom to public order, law and morality; it gives every citizen the right to profess, practice or propagate any religion; every religious community or denomination the right to establish, maintain and manage its religious institutions; and states that no person attending any educational institution shall be required to receive religious instruction, or to take part in or to attend any religious ceremony or worship, if that instruction, ceremony or worship relates to a religion other than his own.WEB,weblink 41. Freedom of religion,, 2017-07-11,


Bangladesh has a literacy rate of 72.9 percent as of 2018. 75.7% percent for males and 70.09% percent for females. The country's educational system is three-tiered and heavily subsidised, with the government operating many schools at the primary, secondary and higher-secondary levels and subsidising many private schools. In the tertiary-education sector, the Bangladeshi government funds over 15 state universities through the University Grants Commission.(File:Literacy rate Bangladesh.png|thumb|right|Literacy rates in Bangladesh districts)The education system is divided into five levels: primary (first to fifth grade), junior secondary (sixth to eighth grade), secondary (ninth and tenth grade), higher secondary (11th and 12th grade) and tertiary.BOOK, T. Neville Postlethwaite, The Encyclopedia of Comparative Education and National Systems of Education, 130, Pergamon Press, 1988, 978-0-08-030853-1, Five years of secondary education end with a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) examination; since 2009, the Primary Education Closing (PEC) examination has also been given. Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to four years of secondary or matriculation training, culminating in the SSC examination.Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to three years of junior-secondary education, culminating in the Junior School Certificate (JSC) examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of secondary education, culminating in the SSC examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of higher-secondary education, culminating in the Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSC) examination.Education is primarily in Bengali, but English is commonly taught and used. Many Muslim families send their children to part-time courses or full-time religious education in Bengali and Arabic in madrasas.Bangladesh conforms with the Education For All (EFA) objectives, the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and international declarations. Article 17 of the Bangladesh Constitution provides that all children between the ages of six and ten years receive a basic education free of charge.File:Department of chemistry, University of Dhaka .jpg|thumb|University of DhakaUniversity of DhakaUniversities in Bangladesh are of three general types: public (government-owned and -subsidized), private (privately owned universities) and international (operated and funded by international organisations). Bangladesh has 34 public, 64 private and two international universities; Bangladesh National University has the largest enrolment, and the University of Dhaka (established in 1921) is the oldest.University of Chittagong (established in 1966) is the largest University (Campus: Rural, 2,100 acres (8.5 km2)) . Islamic University of Technology, commonly known as IUT, is a subsidiary of the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC, representing 57 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and South America). Asian University for Women in Chittagong is the preeminent South Asian liberal-arts university for women, representing 14 Asian countries; its faculty hails from notable academic institutions in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia and the Middle East.WEB,weblink IUT is categorized as International University by UGC, UGC, Bangladesh, 23 June 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 July 2013, BUET, CUET, KUET and RUET are Bangladesh's four public engineering universities. BUTex and DUET are two specialised engineering universities; BUTex specialises in textile engineering, and DUET offers higher education to diploma engineers. The NITER is a specialised public-private partnership institute which provides higher education in textile engineering. Science and technology universities include SUST, PUST, JUST and NSTU. Bangladeshi universities are accredited by and affiliated with the University Grants Commission (UGC), created by Presidential Order 10 in 1973.WEB,weblink University Grant Commission (UGC), 29 March 2008, Ministry of Education, Government of Bangladesh,weblink" title="">weblink 1 December 2012, live, Medical education is provided by 29 government and private medical colleges. All medical colleges are affiliated with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.Bangladesh's 2015 literacy rate rose to 71 percent due to education modernisation and improved funding, with 16,087 schools and 2,363 colleges receiving Monthly Pay Order (MPO) facilities. According to education minister Nurul Islam Nahid, 27,558 madrasas and technical and vocational institutions were enlisted for the facility. 6,036 educational institutions were outside MPO coverage, and the government enlisted 1,624 private schools for MPO in 2010.WEB,weblink Bangladesh Education for All, Centre for Research and Information, 7 October 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 14 August 2017, live, NEWS, 16 June 2015, Bangladesh's literacy rate rises to 70 percent, education minister says,weblink bdnews24, 7 October 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 16 June 2015, live,


File:BSMMU A block.jpg|thumb|Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical UniversityBangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical UniversityHealth and education levels remain relatively low, although they have improved as poverty levels have decreased significantly. In rural areas, village doctors with little or no formal training constitute 62 percent of healthcare providers practising "modern medicine"; formally-trained providers make up four percent of the total health workforce. A Future Health Systems survey indicated significant deficiencies in the treatment practices of village doctors, with widespread harmful and inappropriate drug prescribing.JOURNAL, Bhuiya, Abbas, Costs of utilizing healthcare services in Chakaria, a rural area in Bangladesh, FHS Research Brief, June 2009, 2,weblink 18 May 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 16 November 2012, live, Receiving health care from informal providers is encouraged.JOURNAL, Bloom, G, Standing, H., Lucas, H, Bhuiya, A, Oladepo, O, Peters, DH, 5, 2011, Making Health Markets Work Better for Poor People: The Case of Informal Providers, Health Policy and Planning, 26, Suppl 1, i45–i52,weblink 26 May 2012, 10.1093/heapol/czr025, 21729917,weblink" title="">weblink 16 November 2012, live, A 2007 study of 1,000 households in rural Bangladesh found that direct payments to formal and informal healthcare providers and indirect costs (loss of earnings because of illness) associated with illness were deterrents to accessing healthcare from qualified providers. A community survey of 6,183 individuals in rural Bangladesh found a gender difference in treatment-seeking behaviour, with women less likely to seek treatment than to men.JOURNAL, Bhuiya, Abbas, Health Seeking Behaviour In Chakaria, FHS Research Brief, September 2008, 1,weblink 18 May 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 16 November 2012, live, The use of skilled birth attendant (SBA) services, however, rose from 2005 to 2007 among women from all socioeconomic quintiles except the highest.JOURNAL, Bhuiya, Abbas, Three methods to monitor utilization of healthcare services by the poor, International Journal for Equity in Health, 2009, 8, 1, 29,weblink 26 May 2012, 10.1186/1475-9276-8-29, 19650938, 2729304, etal,weblink" title="">weblink 16 November 2012, live, A health watch, a pilot community-empowerment tool, was successfully developed and implemented in south-eastern Bangladesh to improve the uptake and monitoring of public-health services.JOURNAL, Aziz, Rumesa, A community health watch to establish accountability and improve performance of the health system, FHS Research Brief, November 2009, 3,weblink 18 May 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 16 November 2012, live, Bangladesh's poor health conditions are attributed to the lack of healthcare provision by the government. According to a 2010 World Bank report, 2009 healthcare spending was 3.35 percent of the country's GDP.WEB, Global Health Observatory Data Repository, WHO, Bangladesh statistics summary (2002–present),weblink 14 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 15 April 2011, live, The number of hospital beds is 3 per 10,000 population.WEB,weblink Hospital beds (per 10 000 population), 2005, UN Data, United Nations Statistics Division, 13 November 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 14 November 2016, live, Government spending on healthcare that year was 7.9 percent of the total budget; out-of-pocket expenditures totalled 96.5 percent.Malnutrition has been a persistent problem in Bangladesh, with the World Bank ranking the country first in the number of malnourished children worldwide.WEB, Child and Maternal Nutrition in Bangladesh,weblink UNICEF, 24 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 6 September 2012, live, JOURNAL, Bangladesh has world's highest malnutrition rate, Owsa,weblink, 24 November 2008, 14 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2012, dead, Twenty-six percent of the population (two-thirds of children under the age of five) are undernourished,WEB, The state of food insecurity in the food 2011,weblink, 24 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2012, live, and 46 percent of children are moderately or severely underweight.WEB, The State of the World's Children 2011,weblink UNICEF, 24 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 1 June 2012, live, Forty-three to 60 percent of children under five are smaller than normal; one in five preschool children are vitamin-A deficient, and one in two are anaemic.WEB, High Malnutrition in Bangladesh prevents children from becoming "Tigers",weblink 15 February 2011, Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 September 2014, 13 November 2016, NEWS, Bangladesh Healthcare Crisis,weblink 14 February 2012, BBC News, 28 February 2000,weblink" title="">weblink 9 June 2012, live, More than 45 percent of rural families and 76 percent of urban families were below the acceptable caloric-intake level.WEB, Bangladesh â€“ Health,weblink, 14 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 11 October 2011, live,


Visual arts

(File:Serious discussion Du Fine Art.jpg|thumb|A sculpture at the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Dhaka)The recorded history of art in Bangladesh can be traced to the 3rd century BCE, when terracotta sculptures were made in the region. In classical antiquity, a notable school of sculptural Hindu, Jain and Buddhist art developed in the Pala Empire and the Sena dynasty. Islamic art evolved since the 14th century. The architecture of the Bengal Sultanate saw a distinct style of domed mosques with complex niche pillars that had no minarets. Mughal Bengal's most celebrated artistic tradition was the weaving of Jamdani motifs on fine muslin, which is now classified by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage. Jamdani motifs were similar to Iranian textile art (buta motifs) and Western textile art (paisley). The Jamdani weavers in Dhaka received imperial patronage.WEB,weblink In Search of Bangladeshi Islamic Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, i.e. The Met Museum, 19 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 12 August 2016, live, Ivory and brass were also widely used in Mughal art. Pottery is widely used in Bengali culture.The modern art movement in Bangladesh took shape during the 1950s, particularly with the pioneering works of Zainul Abedin. East Bengal developed its own modernist painting and sculpture traditions, which were distinct from the art movements in West Bengal. The Art Institute Dhaka has been an important center for visual art in the region. Its annual Bengali New Year parade was enlisted as an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in 2016.Modern Bangladesh has produced many of South Asia's leading painters, including SM Sultan, Mohammad Kibria, Shahabuddin Ahmed, Kanak Chanpa Chakma, Kafil Ahmed, Saifuddin Ahmed, Qayyum Chowdhury, Rashid Choudhury, Quamrul Hassan, Rafiqun Nabi and Syed Jahangir, among others. Novera Ahmed and Nitun Kundu were the country's pioneers of modernist sculpture.The Chobi Mela is the largest photography festival in Asia.


{{See also|Bangladeshi literature}}File:Young tagore and nazrul.png|thumb|Rabindranath Tagore, author of the national anthem, and Kazi Nazrul Islam, the National PoetNational PoetFile:Bangla Academy Inside 2 by Ashfaq.jpg|thumb|The Bangla AcademyBangla AcademyThe oldest evidence of writing in Bangladesh is the Mahasthan Brahmi Inscription, which dates back to the 3rd century BCE.WEB,weblink Mahasthan Brahmi Inscription, Banglapedia, 17 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2015, live, In the Gupta Empire, Sanskrit literature thrived in the region. Bengali developed from Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit in the from the 8th to 10th century. Bengali literature is a millennium-old tradition; the Charyapadas are the earliest examples of Bengali poetry. Sufi spiritualism inspired many Bengali Muslim writers. During the Bengal Sultanate, medieval Bengali writers were influenced by Arabic and Persian works. The Chandidas are the notable lyric poets from the early Medieval Age. Syed Alaol was a noted secular poet and translator from the Arakan region. The Bengal Renaissance shaped the emergence of modern Bengali literature, including novels, short stories and science fiction. Rabindranath Tagore was the first non-European laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature and is described as the Bengali Shakespeare.NEWS, Junaidul Haque, 7 May 2011, Rabindranath: He belonged to the world,weblink The Daily Star, 17 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, live, Kazi Nazrul Islam was a revolutionary poet who espoused political rebellion against colonialism and fascism. Begum Rokeya is regarded as the pioneer feminist writer of Bangladesh.NEWS,weblink Begum Rokeya : The Pioneer Feminist of Bangladesh, Rubaiyat, Hossain, The Daily Star, 25 June 2016,weblink 15 August 2016, live, Other renaissance icons included Michael Madhusudan Dutt and Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay.The writer Syed Mujtaba Ali is noted for his cosmopolitan Bengali worldview.NEWS, Syed Mujtaba Ali,weblink The Daily Star, 18 September 2009, 17 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2015, live, Jasimuddin was a renowned pastoral poet. Shamsur Rahman was the poet laureate of Bangladesh for many years. Al Mahmud is considered one of the greatest Bengali poets to have emerged in the 20th century. Farrukh Ahmed, Sufia Kamal, and Nirmalendu Goon are important figures of modern Bangladeshi poetry. Ahmed Sofa is regarded as the most important Bangladeshi intellectual in the post-independence era. Humayun Ahmed was a popular writer of modern Bangladeshi magical realism and science fiction. Notable writers of Bangladeshi fictions include Mir Mosharraf Hossain, Akhteruzzaman Elias, Syed Waliullah, Shahidullah Kaiser, Shawkat Osman, Selina Hossain, Taslima Nasreen, Haripada Datta, Razia Khan, Anisul Hoque, and Bipradash Barua. Many Bangladeshi writers, such as Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, and Farah Ghuznavi are acclaimed for their short stories.The annual Ekushey Book Fair and Dhaka Literature Festival, organised by the Bangla Academy, are among the largest literary festivals in South Asia.

Women in Bangladesh

File:Germents worker Bangladesh.jpg|thumb|Women make up most of the workforce of Bangladesh's export oriented garment industry that makes the highest contribution to the country's economic growth.REPORT, Bureau of International Labor Affairs,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink February 19, 2004, dead, Bangladesh, ]]Although, {{as of|2015|lc=y}}, several women occupied major political office in Bangladesh, its women continue to live under a patriarchal social regime where violence is common.Whispers to Voices: Gender and Social Transformation in Bangladesh {{Webarchive|url= |date=3 March 2016 }} World 2008 Whereas in India and Pakistan women participate less in the workforce as their education increases, the reverse is the case in Bangladesh.Bengal has a long history of feminist activism dating back to the 19th century. Begum Rokeya and Faizunnessa Chowdhurani played an important role in emancipating Bengali Muslim women from purdah, prior to the country's division, as well as promoting girls' education. Several women were elected to the Bengal Legislative Assembly in the British Raj. The first women's magazine, Begum, was published in 1948.In 2008, Bangladeshi female workforce participation stood at 26%.WEB,weblink World Bank Document, World Bank, 19 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 3 March 2016, live, Women dominate blue collar jobs in the Bangladeshi garment industry. Agriculture, social services, healthcare and education are also major occupations for Bangladeshi women, while their employment in white collar positions has steadily increased.


File:Ahsan Manzil-Front View.jpg|thumb|left|The Ahsan Manzil is one of the largest residences in Old Dhaka, where there are many Indo-SaracenicIndo-SaracenicThe architectural traditions of Bangladesh have a 2,500-year-old heritage.BOOK, Rahman, Mahbubur, 2012, Architecture,weblink Islam, Sirajul, Sirajul Islam, Jamal, Ahmed A., Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Second, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Terracotta architecture is a distinct feature of Bengal. Pre-Islamic Bengali architecture reached its pinnacle in the Pala Empire, when the Pala School of Sculptural Art established grand structures such as the Somapura Mahavihara. Islamic architecture began developing under the Bengal Sultanate, when local terracotta styles influenced medieval mosque construction. The Adina Mosque of United Bengal was the largest mosque built on the Indian subcontinent.WEB,weblink Adina Mosque, – Banglapedia,, 12 July 2019, The Sixty Dome Mosque was the largest medieval mosque built in Bangladesh, and is a fine example of Turkic-Bengali architecture. The Mughal style replaced indigenous architecture when Bengal became a province of the Mughal Empire and influenced the development of urban housing. The Kantajew Temple and Dhakeshwari Temple are excellent examples of late medieval Hindu temple architecture. Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, based on Indo-Islamic styles, flourished during the British period. The zamindar gentry in Bangladesh built numerous Indo-Saracenic palaces and country mansions, such as the Ahsan Manzil, Tajhat Palace, Dighapatia Palace, Puthia Rajbari and Natore Rajbari.File:Guest house in Sylhet (01).jpg|thumb|The bungalow, which originated in Bengal, is a common sight. The roof style seen in the picture is common in the hilly areas of Sylhet and ChittagongChittagongBengali vernacular architecture is noted for pioneering the bungalow. Bangladeshi villages consist of thatched roofed houses made of natural materials like mud, straw, wood and bamboo. In modern times, village bungalows are increasingly made of tin.Muzharul Islam was the pioneer of Bangladeshi modern architecture. His varied works set the course of modern architectural practice in the country. Islam brought leading global architects, including Louis Kahn, Richard Neutra, Stanley Tigerman, Paul Rudolph, Robert Boughey and Konstantinos Doxiadis, to work in erstwhile East Pakistan. Louis Kahn was chosen to design the National Parliament Complex in Sher-e-Bangla Nagar. Kahn's monumental designs, combining regional red brick aesthetics, his own concrete and marble brutalism and the use of lakes to represent Bengali geography, are regarded as one of the masterpieces of the 20th century. In more recent times, award-winning architects like Rafiq Azam have set the course of contemporary architecture by adopting influences from the works of Islam and Kahn.

Performing arts

File:Ektara player.jpg|alt=|thumb|160px|A Baul from Lalon Shah's shrine in Kushtia ]]Theatre in Bangladesh includes various forms with a history dating back to the 4th century CE.BOOK, Ahmed, Syed Jamil, 2000, Achinpakhi Infinity: Indigenous Theatre of Bangladesh, Dhaka, University Press Ltd., 396, 978-984-05-1462-5, It includes narrative forms, song and dance forms, supra-personae forms, performances with scroll paintings, puppet theatre and processional forms. The Jatra is the most popular form of Bengali folk theatre.The dance traditions of Bangladesh include indigenous tribal and Bengali dance forms, as well as classical Indian dances, including the Kathak, Odissi and Manipuri dances.The music of Bangladesh features the Baul mystical tradition, listed by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of Intangible Cultural Heritage.WEB,weblink UNESCO – The Samba of Roda and the Ramlila proclaimed Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, UNESCO, 17 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 3 March 2016, live, Numerous lyric-based musical traditions, varying from one region to the next, exist, including Gombhira, Bhatiali and Bhawaiya. Folk music is accompanied by a one-stringed instrument known as the ektara. Other instruments include the dotara, dhol, flute, and tabla. Bengali classical music includes Tagore songs and Nazrul Sangeet. Bangladesh has a rich tradition of Indian classical music, which uses instruments like the sitar, tabla, sarod and santoor.London, Ellen (2004). Bangladesh. Gareth Stevens Pub. p. 29. {{ISBN|0-8368-3107-1}}. Musician Ayub Bachchu is credited with popularising Bengali rock music in Bangladesh.WEB,weblink Rock's leading light goes out, 18 October 2018, 10 November 2018,weblink 20 October 2018, live, dmy-all,


{{See also|Textile arts of Bangladesh|Muslin trade in Bengal}}File:Kantha (Quilt) LACMA AC1994.131.1.jpg|thumb|left|Embroidery on Nakshi kantha (embroidered quiltquiltThe Nakshi Kantha is a centuries-old embroidery tradition for quilts, said to be indigenous to eastern Bengal (i.e. Bangladesh). The sari is the national dress for Bangladeshi women. Mughal Dhaka was renowned for producing the finest Muslin saris, including the famed Dhakai and Jamdani, the weaving of which is listed by UNESCO as one of the masterpieces of humanity's intangible cultural heritage.WEB, Traditional art of Jamdani weaving – intangible heritage – Culture Sector – UNESCO,weblink UNESCO, 2 January 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 9 December 2015, live, Bangladesh also produces the Rajshahi silk. The shalwar kameez is also widely worn by Bangladeshi women. In urban areas some women can be seen in western clothing. The kurta and sherwani are the national dress of Bangladeshi men; the lungi and dhoti are worn by them in informal settings. Aside from ethnic wear, domestically tailored suits and neckties are customarily worn by the country's men in offices, in schools and at social events.The handloom industry supplies 60–65% of the country's clothing demand.Ahmad, Shamsuddin (2012). "Textiles". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. The Bengali ethnic fashion industry has flourished in the changing environment of the fashion world. The retailer Aarong is one of the most successful ethnic wear brands in South Asia. The development of the Bangladesh textile industry, which supplies leading international brands, has promoted the production and retail of modern Western attire locally, with the country now having a number of expanding local brands like Westecs and Yellow. Bangladesh is the world's second largest garments exporter. Among Bangladesh's fashion designers, Bibi Russell has received international acclaim for her "Fashion for Development" shows.WEB,weblink more Bibi Russell, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 July 2015,


File:Bangladeshi cuisine.png|thumb|Traditional Bangladeshi Meal: Mustard seed Ilish Curry, Dhakai Biryani and PithaPitha White rice is the staple of Bangladeshi cuisine, along with many vegetables and lentils. Rice preparations also include Bengali biryanis, pulaos, and khichuris. Mustard sauce, ghee, sunflower oil and fruit chutneys are widely used in Bangladeshi cooking. Fish is the main source of protein in Bengali cuisine. The Hilsa is the national fish and immensely popular across Bangladesh. Other kinds of fish eaten include rohu, butterfish, catfish, tilapia and barramundi. Fish eggs are a gourmet delicacy. Seafood holds an important place in Bengali cuisine, especially lobsters, shrimps and dried fish. Meat consumption includes chicken, beef, mutton, venison, duck and squab. In Chittagong, Mezban feasts are a popular tradition featuring the serving of hot beef curry. In Sylhet, the shatkora lemons are used to marinate dishes. In the tribal Hill Tracts, bamboo shoot cooking is prevalent. Bangladesh has a vast spread of desserts, including distinctive sweets like Rôshogolla, Rôshomalai, Chomchom, Mishti Doi and Kalojaam. Pithas are traditional boiled desserts made with rice or fruits. Halwa is served during religious festivities. Naan, paratha, luchi and bakarkhani are the main local breads. Black tea is offered to guests as a gesture of welcome. Kebabs are widely popular across Bangladesh, particularly seekh kebabs, chicken tikka and shashliks.Bangladesh shares its culinary heritage with the neighbouring Indian state of West Bengal. The two regions have several differences, however. In Muslim-majority Bangladesh, meat consumption is greater; whereas in Hindu-majority West Bengal, vegetarianism is more prevalent. The Bangladeshi diaspora dominates the South Asian restaurant industry in many Western countries, particularly in the United Kingdom.


File:Mangal Shobhajatra in Dhaka.jpg|thumb|left|The annual Bengali New YearBengali New YearPahela Baishakh, the Bengali new year, is the major festival of Bengali culture and sees widespread festivities. Of the major holidays celebrated in Bangladesh, only Pahela Baishakh comes without any preexisting expectations (specific religious identity, culture of gift-giving, etc.). Unlike holidays like Eid al-Fitr, where dressing up in lavish clothes has become a norm, or Christmas where exchanging gifts has become an integral part of the holiday, Pahela Baishakh is really about celebrating the simpler, rural roots of the Bengal. As a result, more people can participate in the festivities together without the burden of having to reveal one's class, religion, or financial capacity. Other cultural festivals include Nabonno, and Poush Parbon both of which are Bengali harvest festivals.The Muslim festivals of Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Milad un Nabi, Muharram, Chand Raat, Shab-e-Barat; the Hindu festivals of Durga Puja, Janmashtami and Rath Yatra; the Buddhist festival of Buddha Purnima, which marks the birth of Gautama Buddha, and Christian festival of Christmas are national holidays in Bangladesh and see the most widespread celebrations in the country.Alongside are national days like the remembrance of 21 February 1952 Language Movement Day (International Mother Language Day created by UNESCO in 1999),WEB,weblink The General Conference proclaim"International Mother Language Day" to be observed on 21 February,, 1999-11-16, 2019-04-21, Independence Day and Victory Day. On Language Movement Day, people congregate at the Shaheed Minar in Dhaka to remember the national heroes of the Bengali Language Movement, and at the National Martyrs’ Memorial on Independence Day and Victory Day to remember the national heroes of the Bangladesh Liberation War. These occasions are observed with public ceremonies, parades, rallies by citizens, political speeches, fairs, concerts, and various other public and private events, celebrating the history and traditions of Bangladesh. TV and radio stations broadcast special programs and patriotic songs, and many schools and colleges organise fairs, festivals, and concerts that draw the participation of citizens from all levels of Bangladeshi society.WEB,weblink Pahela Baisakh, – Banglapedia,, 12 July 2019,


File:Bangladesh Players Celebrate Fall of Wicket.jpg|thumb|right|The national cricket team playing against Zimbabwe in 2009. Fans can be seen in the background waving a Bangladesh flag.]]Cricket is one of the most popular sports in Bangladesh, followed by football. The national cricket team participated in their first Cricket World Cup in 1999, and the following year was granted elite Test cricket status. They have however struggled, recording only ten test match victories: one against Australia, one against England, one against Sri Lanka in Sri Lanka, five against Zimbabwe (one in 2005, one in 2013 in Zimbabwe, and three in 2014), two in a 2–0 series victory over the West Indies in the West Indies in 2009.NEWS,weblink Bangladesh secure series victory, BBC News, 20 July 2009, 3 July 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2015, live, Six of Bangladesh's ten test match victories came in between the years 2014 to 2017.The team has been more successful in One Day International cricket (ODI). They reached the quarter-final of the 2015 Cricket World Cup. They also reached the semi-final of the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy. They whitewashed Pakistan in a home ODI series in 2015 followed by home ODI series wins against India and South Africa. They also won home ODI series by 4–0 in 2010 against New Zealand and whitewashed them in the home ODI series in 2013. In July 2010, they celebrated their first-ever win over England in England. In late 2012, they won a five-match home ODI series 3-2 against a full-strength West Indies National team. In 2011, Bangladesh successfully co-hosted the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 with India and Sri Lanka. They also hosted the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 championship. Bangladesh hosted the Asia Cup on four occasions in 2000, 2012, 2014, and 2016. In 2012 Asia Cup, Bangladesh beat India and Sri Lanka but lost the final game against Pakistan. However, it was the first time Bangladesh had advanced to the final of any top-class international cricket tournament. They reached the final again at the 2016 Asia Cup and 2018 Asia Cup. They participated at the 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, defeating Afghanistan to claim their Gold Medal in the first-ever cricket tournament held in the Asian Games. Bangladeshi cricketer Sakib Al Hasan is No.1 on the ICC's all-rounder rankings in all three formats of the cricket.NEWS,weblink World's best all-rounder Shakib Al Hasan to kick-start Bangladesh's Cricket World Cup campaign at Manuka, Polkinghorne, David, 15 February 2015, The Sydney Morning Herald, 28 February 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 17 February 2015, live, dmy-all, Women's sports saw tremendous progress in the 2010s decade in Bangladesh. In 2018 the Bangladesh women's national cricket team the 2018 Women's Twenty20 Asia Cup defeating India women's national cricket team in the final.WEB, Star Live,weblink Champions of Asia T20 Cup 2018: Bangladesh Women's Cricket Team, The Daily Star, 12 June 2018, 14 August 2018,weblink 29 August 2018, live, Kabaddi—very popular in Bangladesh—is the national game.BOOK, Faroqi, Gofran, 2012, Kabadi,weblink Islam, Sirajul, Sirajul Islam, Jamal, Ahmed A., Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Second, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Other popular sports include field hockey, tennis, badminton, handball, football, chess, shooting, angling. The National Sports Council regulates 42 different sporting federations.WEB, All Affiliated National Federation/Association,weblink National Sports Council, 25 January 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 January 2013, On 4 November 2018, Bangladesh national under-15 football team won the 2018 SAFF U-15 Championship, defeating Pakistan national under-15 football team in the final.WEB,weblink Bangladesh defeat Pakistan to win 2018 U15 SAFF Championships, 10 November 2018,weblink 5 November 2018, live, dmy-all, Bangladesh has five grandmasters in chess. Among them, Niaz Murshed was the first grandmaster in South Asia. In another achievement, Margarita Mamun, a Russian rhythmic gymnast of Bangladeshi origin, was the world champion in 2013 and 2014 before winning the gold medal at the 2016 Summer Olympics.

Media and cinema

File:Nawab Sirajuddaula.jpg|thumb|Anwar Hossain playing Siraj-ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, in the 1967 film Nawab Sirajuddaulah]]The Bangladeshi press is diverse, outspoken and privately owned. Over 200 newspapers are published in the country. Bangladesh Betar is the state-run radio service.NEWS, Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra's Rashidul Hossain passes away,weblink, 2 January 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 29 December 2015, live, The British Broadcasting Corporation operates the popular BBC Bangla news and current affairs service. Bengali broadcasts from Voice of America are also very popular. Bangladesh Television (BTV) is the state-owned television network. There more than 20 privately owned television networks, including several news channels. Freedom of the media remains a major concern, due to government attempts at censorship and the harassment of journalists.The cinema of Bangladesh dates back to 1898, when films began screening at the Crown Theatre in Dhaka. The first bioscope on the subcontinent was established in Dhaka that year. The Dhaka Nawab Family patronised the production of several silent films in the 1920s and 30s. In 1931, the East Bengal Cinematograph Society released the first full-length feature film in Bangladesh, titled the Last Kiss. The first feature film in East Pakistan, Mukh O Mukhosh, was released in 1956. During the 1960s, 25–30 films were produced annually in Dhaka. By the 2000s, Bangladesh produced 80–100 films a year. While the Bangladeshi film industry has achieved limited commercial success, the country has produced notable independent filmmakers. Zahir Raihan was a prominent documentary-maker who was assassinated in 1971. The late Tareque Masud is regarded as one of Bangladesh's outstanding directors due to his numerous productions on historical and social issues. Masud was honoured by FIPRESCI at the 2002 Cannes Film Festival for his film The Clay Bird. Tanvir Mokammel, Mostofa Sarwar Farooki, Humayun Ahmed, Alamgir Kabir, and Chashi Nazrul Islam are some of the prominent directors of Bangladeshi cinema. Bangladesh have very active film society culture. its started in 1963 at Dhaka. Now around 40 Film Society active in all over Bangladesh. Federation of Film Societies of Bangladesh is the parent organisation of the film society movement of Bangladesh. Active film societies include the Rainbow Film Society, Children's Film Society, Moviyana Film Society & Dhaka University Film Society.

Museums and libraries

File:Bangladesh National Museum (01).jpg|thumb|Bangladesh National MuseumBangladesh National MuseumFile:Northbrook Hall 05.JPG|thumb|Northbrook Hall, a public library opened in 1882 with rare book collections from the (British Raj]]NEWS, Ananta Yusuf, 15 October 2015, Watch Now: Rare books in ruins at Northbrook Hall,weblink The Daily Star, 17 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 18 December 2015, live, )The Varendra Research Museum is the oldest museum in Bangladesh. It houses important collections from both the pre-Islamic and Islamic periods, including the sculptures of the Pala-Sena School of Art and the Indus Valley Civilization; as well as Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian manuscripts and inscriptions. The Ahsan Manzil, the former residence of the Nawab of Dhaka, is a national museum housing collections from the British Raj. It was the site of the founding conference of the All India Muslim League and hosted many British Viceroys in Dhaka.The Tajhat Palace Museum preserves artefacts of the rich cultural heritage of North Bengal, including Hindu-Buddhist sculptures and Islamic manuscripts. The Mymensingh Museum houses the personal antique collections of Bengali aristocrats in central Bengal. The Ethnological Museum of Chittagong showcases the lifestyle of various tribes in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh National Museum is located in Ramna, Dhaka and has a rich collection of antiquities. The Liberation War Museum documents the Bangladeshi struggle for independence and the 1971 genocide.In ancient times, manuscripts were written on palm leaves, tree barks, parchment vellum and terracotta plates and preserved at monasteries known as viharas. The Hussain Shahi dynasty established royal libraries during the Bengal Sultanate. Libraries were established in each district of Bengal by the zamindar gentry during the Bengal Renaissance in the 19th century. The trend of establishing libraries continued until the beginning of World War II. In 1854, four major public libraries were opened, including the Bogra Woodburn Library, the Rangpur Public Library, the Jessore Institute Public Library and the Barisal Public Library.The Northbrook Hall Public Library was established in Dhaka in 1882 in honour of Lord Northbrook, the Governor-General. Other libraries established in the British period included the Victoria Public Library, Natore (1901), the Sirajganj Public Library (1882), the Rajshahi Public Library (1884), the Comilla Birchandra Library (1885), the Shah Makhdum Institute Public Library, Rajshahi (1891), the Noakhali Town Hall Public Library (1896), the Prize Memorial Library, Sylhet (1897), the Chittagong Municipality Public Library (1904) and the Varendra Research Library (1910). The Great Bengal Library Association was formed in 1925.BOOK, Rahman, Md Zillur, 2012, Library,weblink Islam, Sirajul, Sirajul Islam, Jamal, Ahmed A., Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Second, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, The Central Public Library of Dhaka was established in 1959. The National Library of Bangladesh was established in 1972. The World Literature Center, founded by Ramon Magsaysay Award winner Abdullah Abu Sayeed, is noted for operating numerous mobile libraries across Bangladesh and was awarded the UNESCO Jon Amos Comenius Medal.

See also

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Cited sources

  • BOOK, Ahmed, Salahuddin, 2004, Bangladesh: Past and Present, APH Publishing, 978-81-7648-469-5,
  • BOOK, Baxter
first=C title=Bangladesh, from a Nation to a State isbn=978-0-8133-3632-9, 47885632,
  • BOOK, Lewis, David, 2011, Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-139-50257-3,

Further reading

  • Iftekhar Iqbal (2010) The Bengal Delta: Ecology, State and Social Change, 1840–1943, Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, {{ISBN|0-230-23183-7}}
  • M. Mufakharul Islam (edited) (2004) Socio-Economic History of Bangladesh: essays in memory of Professor Shafiqur Rahman, 1st Edition, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, {{oclc|156800811}}
  • M. Mufakharul Islam (2007), Bengal Agriculture 1920–1946: A Quantitative Study, Cambridge South Asian Studies, Cambridge University Press, {{ISBN|0-521-04985-7}}
  • Meghna Guhathakurta & Willem van Schendel (Edited) (2013) The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics (The World Readers), Duke University Press Books, {{ISBN|0-8223-5304-0}}
  • Sirajul Islam (edited) (1997) History of Bangladesh 1704–1971(Three Volumes: Vol 1: Political History, Vol 2: Economic History Vol 3: Social and Cultural History), 2nd Edition (Revised New Edition), The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, {{ISBN|984-512-337-6}}
  • Sirajul Islam (Chief Editor) (2003) Banglapedia: A National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh.(10 Vols. Set), (written by 1300 scholars & 22 editors) The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, {{ISBN|984-32-0585-5}}
  • Srinath Raghavan (2013) '1971: A Global History of the Creation of Bangladesh', Harvard University Press, {{ISBN|0-674-72864-5}}
  • BOOK, Schendel, Willem van, 2009, A History of Bangladesh, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-86174-8,
  • BOOK, Sisson, Richard, Rose, Leo E, 1991, War and Secession: Pakistan, India, and the Creation of Bangladesh, University of California Press, 978-0-520-07665-5,
  • BOOK, Uddin, Sufia M., 2006, Constructing Bangladesh: Religion, Ethnicity, and Language in an Islamic Nation, University of North Carolina Press, 978-0-8078-7733-3,
  • BOOK, Wahid, Abu N.M.., Weis, Charles E, 1996, The Economy of Bangladesh: Problems and Prospects, Praeger, 978-0-275-95347-8,
  • BOOK, Mojlum Khan, Muhammad, The Muslim Heritage of Bengal: The Lives, Thoughts and Achievements of Great Muslim Scholars, Writers and Reformers of Bangladesh and West Bengal, Kube Publishing Ltd, 978-1-84774-052-6, 2013,
  • BOOK, Bose, Neilesh, 2014, Recasting the Region: Language, Culture, and Islam in Colonial Bengal, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-809728-0,
  • BOOK, Mohan, P.V.S. Jagan, Eagles Over Bangladesh: The Indian Air Force in the 1971 Liberation War, Harper Collins, 978-93-5136-163-3,
  • BOOK, Cardozo, Maj Gen Ian, In Quest of Freedom: The War of 1971 – Personal Accounts by Soldiers from India and Bangladesh, Bloomsbury India, 978-93-85936-00-5,
  • BOOK, Openshaw, Jeanne, 2002, Seeking Bauls of Bengal, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-81125-5,
  • BOOK, Katoch, Dhruv C, Liberation : Bangladesh – 1971, Bloomsbury India, 978-93-84898-56-4, 2015,
  • BOOK, 2001, Religion, identity & politics: essays on Bangladesh, International Academic Publishers, 978-1-58868-081-5,
  • BOOK, Belal, Dr Ataur Rahman, 2012, Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting in Developing Countries: The Case of Bangladesh, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, 978-1-4094-8794-4,
  • BOOK, Sogra, Khair Jahan, 2014, The Impact of Gender Differences on the Conflict Management Styles of Managers in Bangladesh: An Analysis, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 978-1-4438-6854-9,
  • BOOK, Riaz, Ali, 2010, Political Islam and Governance in Bangladesh, Routledge, 978-1-136-92624-2,
  • BOOK, Grover, Verinder, 2000, Bangladesh: Government and Politics, Deep and Deep Publications, 978-81-7100-928-2,
  • BOOK, Riaz, Ali, Rahman, Mohammad Sajjadur, 2016, Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Bangladesh, Routledge, 978-1-317-30877-5,
  • BOOK, Bose, Sarmila, 2012, Dead Reckoning Memories of the 1971 Bangladesh War, Hachette UK, 978-93-5009-426-6,
  • BOOK, Mookherjee, Nayanika, 2015, The Spectral Wound: Sexual Violence, Public Memories, and the Bangladesh War of 1971,weblink Duke University Press, 978-0-8223-5949-4,
  • BOOK, Ali, S. Mahmud, 2010, Understanding Bangladesh,weblink Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-70143-3,
  • BOOK, Umar, Badruddin, 2006, The Emergence of Bangladesh: Rise of Bengali nationalism, 1958–1971, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-597908-4,
  • BOOK, Chakrabarty, Bidyut, 2004, The Partition of Bengal and Assam, 1932-1947: Contour of Freedom, Routledge, 9781134332748,weblink harv,

External links

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Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott