Hellenic languages

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Hellenic languages
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Proto-Greek language>Proto-GreekGreek language>GreekAncient Macedonian language>Macedonian|iso5 = grk|lingua = 56= (phylozone)|glotto=gree1276|glottorefname=Greek}}{{Indo-European topics}}Hellenic is the branch of the Indo-European language family whose principal member is Greek.In other contexts, "Hellenic" and "Greek" are generally synonyms. In most classifications, Hellenic consists of Greek alone,Browning (1983), Medieval and Modern Greek, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Joseph, Brian D. and Irene Philippaki-Warburton (1987): Modern Greek. London: Routledge, p. 1. but some linguists use the term Hellenic to refer to a group consisting of Greek proper and other varieties thought to be related but different enough to be separate languages, either among ancient neighbouring languagesB. Joseph (2001): "Ancient Greek". In: J. Garry et al. (eds.) Facts about the World's Major Languages: An Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages, Past and Present. (Online Paper) or among modern spoken dialects.David Dalby. ''The Linguasphere Register of the World's Languages and Speech Communities (1999/2000, Linguasphere Press). Pp. 449-450.

Greek and ancient Macedonian

A family under the name "Hellenic" has been suggested to group together Greek proper and the ancient Macedonian language, which is barely attested and whose degree of relatedness to Greek is not well known. The suggestion of a "Hellenic" group with two branches, in this context, represents the idea that Macedonian was not simply a dialect within Greek but a "sibling language" outside the group of Greek varieties proper.LinguistList, Ancient Macedonian Other approaches include Macedonian as a dialect of Greek proper or as an unclassified Paleo-Balkan language.For a survey of different views, see Brixhe C., Panayotou A. (1994), "Le Macédonien", in Bader, F. (ed.), Langues indo-européennes, Paris:CNRS éditions, 1994, pp 205–220.

Modern Hellenic languages

In addition, some linguists use the term "Hellenic" to refer to modern Greek in a narrow sense together with certain other, divergent modern varieties deemed separate languages on the basis of a lack of mutual intelligibility.BOOK, Salminen, Tapani, 2007, Europe and North Asia, Moseley, Christopher, Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages, London, Routledge, 211–284, Separate language status is most often posited for Tsakonian, which is thought to be uniquely a descendant of Doric rather than Attic Greek, followed by Pontic and Cappadocian Greek of Anatolia.Ethnologue: Family tree for Greek. The Griko or Italiot varieties of southern Italy are also not readily intelligible to speakers of standard Greek.N. Nicholas (1999), The Story of Pu: The Grammaticalisation in Space and Time of a Modern Greek Complementiser. PhD Dissertation, University of Melbourne. p. 482f. (weblink" title="">PDF) Separate status is sometimes also argued for Cypriot, though this is not as easily justified. In contrast, Yevanic (Jewish Greek) is mutually intelligible with standard Greek but is sometimes considered a separate language for ethnic and cultural reasons.BOOK, Brian, Joseph, Georgios, Tserdanelis, Modern Greek, Thorsten, Roelcke, 2003, Variationstypologie: Ein sprachtypologisches Handbuch der europäischen Sprachen, Berlin, de Gruyter, 836, Greek linguistics traditionally treats all of these as dialects of a single language.G. Horrocks (1997), Greek: A History of the Language and its Speakers. London: Longman.P. Trudgill (2002), Ausbau Sociolinguistics and Identity in Greece, in: P. Trudgill, Sociolinguistic Variation and Change, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Language tree

{{clade|label1=Hellenic label1= Greek |1={{clade Ionic Greek–Attic Greek>Attic }}|1={{clade|1={{cladeModern Greek>Standard Modern GreekYevanic language>Yevanic|3=Cypriot Greek}}|2=Cappadocian Greek|3={{clade Pontic Greek>PonticMariupol Greek>Crimean Greek (Mariupolitan)}}Romano-Greek language>Romano-Greek (a mixed language)label1=Italiot Greek Griko dialect>Griko (Doric-influenced)|2=Calabrian Greek}}}}Aeolic Greek>Aeolic (extinct)|3={{cladeArcadocypriot Greek>Arcadocypriot (extinct; related to Mycenaean?)Pamphylian Greek>Pamphylian (extinct)}}Mycenaean Greek>Mycenaean (extinct)Doric Greek>Doric Tsakonian language>Tsakonian (Doric-influenced Koine?; critically endangered)}}Ancient Macedonian language>Ancient Macedonian (extinct)}}}}


Hellenic constitutes a branch of the Indo-European language family. The ancient languages that might have been most closely related to it, ancient MacedonianRoger D. Woodard. "Introduction," The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages, ed. Roger D. Woodard (2004, Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-18), pp. 12-14.Benjamin W. Fortson. Indo-European Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2004, p. 405. and Phrygian,Johannes Friedrich. Extinct Languages. Philosophical Library, 1957, pp. 146-147.Claude Brixhe. "Phrygian," The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages, ed. Roger D. Woodard, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 777-788), p. 780.Benjamin W. Fortson. Indo-European Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2004, p. 403. are not documented well enough to permit detailed comparison. Among Indo-European branches with living descendants, Greek is often argued to have the closest genetic ties with ArmenianJames Clackson. Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp. 11-12. (see also Graeco-Armenian) and Indo-Iranian languages (see Graeco-Aryan).Benjamin W. Fortson. Indo-European Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2004, p. 181.Henry M. Hoenigswald, "Greek," The Indo-European Languages, ed. Anna Giacalone Ramat and Paolo Ramat (Routledge, 1998 pp. 228-260), p. 228.BBC: Languages across Europe: Greek

See also


{{Reflist}}{{Greek language}}

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