SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

first language

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
first language
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{short description|Language a person was raised speaking from birth}}{{For|the journal|First Language (journal)}}{{redirect-multi|4|Mother tongue|Father tongue|Native speaker|Native tongue|Mother tongue|Mother tongue (disambiguation)|Father Tongue|Father Tongue hypothesis|Native speaker|Native Speaker (disambiguation)|Native tongue|Native Tongue (Carl Hiaasen novel)}}{{Refimprove|date=August 2008}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2013}}File:Ana Dili.JPG|thumb|upright=1.15|The monument for the mother tongue ("Ana dili") in Nakhchivan, AzerbaijanAzerbaijanA first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1), is a language that a person has been exposed to from birthBloomfield, Leonard. Language {{ISBN|81-208-1196-8}} or within the critical period. In some countries, the term native language or mother tongue refers to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's first language. "K*The Native Speaker: Myth and Reality By Alan Davies {{ISBN|1-85359-622-1}} {{Page needed|date=September 2010}} Sometimes, the term "mother tongue" or "mother language" is used for the language that a person learned as a child at home (usually from their parents). Children growing up in bilingual homes can, according to this definition, have more than one mother tongue or native language.The first language of a child is part of that child's personal, social and cultural identity.WEB,weblink Terri Hirst: The Importance of Maintaining a Childs First Language, bisnet.or.id,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160312012655weblink">weblink 12 March 2016, live, dmy-all, Another impact of the first language is that it brings about the reflection and learning of successful social patterns of acting and speaking.{{clarify|date=May 2019}}WEB,weblink Archived copy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130510152648weblink">weblink 10 May 2013, dead, 2013-09-17, dmy-all, It is basically responsible for differentiating the linguistic competence of acting.{{clarify|date=May 2019}} While some argue that there is no such thing as a "native speaker" or a "mother tongue", it is important{{Fix|text=in what context?}} to understand the key terms as well as to understand what it means to be a "non-native" speaker, and the implications that can have on one's life. Research suggests that while a non-native speaker may develop fluency in a targeted language after about two years of immersion, it can take between five and seven years for that child to be on the same working level as their native speaking counterparts. That has implications on the education of non-native speakers.Second Language Acquisition Essential Information: Professor J. Cumminweblink 17 November 1999, UNESCO designated 21 February as International Mother Language Day.

Definitions

One of the more widely accepted definitions of native speakers is that they were born in a particular country (and) raised to speak the language of that country during the critical period of their development.WEB,weblink Who Is An Ideal Native Speaker?! Andisheh Saniei, English Language Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, ipedr.com, 1 February 2018, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180202012310weblink">weblink 2 February 2018, dmy-all, {{Fix|text=not in citation given}} The person qualifies as a "native speaker" of a language by being born and immersed in the language during youth, in a family in which the adults shared a similar language experience to the child.Love, Nigel, and Umberto Ansaldo. "The Native Speaker and the Mother Tongue." Language Sciences 32.6 (2010): 589-93. Print. Native speakers are considered to be an authority on their given language because of their natural acquisition process regarding the language, as opposed to having learned the language later in life. That is achieved by personal interaction with the language and speakers of the language. Native speakers will not necessarily be knowledgeable about every grammatical rule of the language, but they will have good "intuition" of the rules through their experience with the language.The designation "native language", in its general usage, is thought to be imprecise and subject to various interpretations that are biased linguistically, especially with respect to bilingual children from ethnic minority groups. Many scholars{{Citation needed|date=November 2010}} have given definitions of 'native language' based on common usage, the emotional relation of the speaker towards the language, and even its dominance in relation to the environment. However, all three criteria lack precision. For many children whose home language differs from the language of the environment (the 'official' language), it is debatable which language is their "native language".

Defining "native language"{{anchor|Defining native language}}

  • Based on origin: the language(s) one learned first (the language(s) in which one has established the first long-lasting verbal contacts).
  • Based on internal identification: the language(s) one identifies with/as a speaker of;
  • Based on external identification: the language(s) one is identified with/as a speaker of, by others.
  • Based on competence: the language(s) one knows best.
  • Based on function: the language(s) one uses most.
In some countries, such as Kenya, India, and various East Asian countries, "mother language" or "native language" is used to indicate the language of one's ethnic group in both common and journalistic parlance ("I have no apologies for not learning my mother tongue"), rather than one's first language. Also, in Singapore, "mother tongue" refers to the language of one's ethnic group regardless of actual proficiency, and the "first language" refers to English, which was established on the island under the British Empire, and is the lingua franca for most post-independence Singaporeans because of its use as the language of instruction in government schools and as a working language.In the context of population censuses conducted on the Canadian population, Statistics Canada defines mother tongue as "the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual at the time of the census."WEB,weblink mother tongue, 2001 census,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080916172728weblink">weblink 16 September 2008, live, 25 August 2008, dmy-all, {{Unreliable source?|date=August 2008}}It is quite possible that the first language learned is no longer a speaker's dominant language. That includes young immigrant children whose families have moved to a new linguistic environment as well as people who learned their mother tongue as a young child at home (rather than the language of the majority of the community), who may have lost, in part or in totality, the language they first acquired (see language attrition). According to Ivan Illich, the term "mother tongue" was first used by Catholic monks to designate a particular language they used, instead of Latin, when they were "speaking from the pulpit". That is, the "holy mother the Church" introduced this term and colonies inherited it from Christianity as a part of colonialism.[Ivan Illich] in Patttanayak, 1981:24 cited in "(M)other Tongue Syndrome: From Breast to Bottle" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170830045733weblink |date=30 August 2017 }}Ivan Illich, "Vernacular Values" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160720033517weblink |date=20 July 2016 }} J. R. R. Tolkien, in his 1955 lecture "English and Welsh", distinguishes the "native tongue" from the "cradle tongue". The latter is the language one learns during early childhood, and one's true "native tongue" may be different, possibly determined by an inherited linguistic taste{{fact|date=May 2019}} and may later in life be discovered by a strong emotional affinity to a specific dialect (Tolkien personally confessed to such an affinity to the Middle English of the West Midlands in particular).Children brought up speaking more than one language can have more than one native language, and be bilingual or multilingual. By contrast, a second language is any language that one speaks other than one's first language.

Bilingualism

File:Int-mother-lang-day-monument.jpg|thumb|International Mother Language DayInternational Mother Language DayA related concept is bilingualism. One definition is that a person is bilingual if they are equally proficient in two languages. Someone who grows up speaking Spanish and then learns English for four years is bilingual only if they speak the two languages with equal fluency. Pearl and Lambert were the first to test only “balanced” bilinguals—that is, a child who is completely fluent in two languages and feels that neither is their “native” language because they grasp both so perfectly. This study found that
  • balanced bilinguals perform significantly better in tasks that require flexibility (they constantly shift between the two known languages depending on the situation),
  • they are more aware of the arbitrary nature of language,
  • they choose word associations based on logical rather than phonetic preferences.WEB,weblink Language Proficiency: Defining Levels Avoids Confusion, 2013-08-26, Alsintl.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130917082347weblink">weblink 17 September 2013, live, 2013-11-13, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Archived copy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131024165613weblink">weblink 24 October 2013, live, 2013-10-21, dmy-all,

Multilingualism

One can have two or more native languages, thus being a native bilingual or indeed multilingual. The order in which these languages are learned is not necessarily the order of proficiency. For instance, if a French-speaking couple have a child who learned French first but then grew up in an English-speaking country, the child would likely be most proficient in English. Other examples are India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Kenya, Malaysia, Singapore, and South Africa, where most people speak more than one language.

Defining "native speaker"

Defining what constitutes a native speaker is difficult, and there is no test which can identify one. It is not known whether native speakers are a defined group of people, or if the concept should be thought of as a perfect prototype to which actual speakers may or may not conform.BOOK, The Linguistics Studentʻs Handbook, Bauer, Laurie, Edinburgh University Press, 2007, 978-0-7486-2758-5, 78, An article titled “The Native Speaker: An Achievable Model?” published by the Asian EFL JournalJOURNAL, Lee, Joseph, The Native Speaker: An Achievable Model?, Asian EFL Journal, 7, 2, states that there are six general principles that relate to the definition of "native speaker". The principles, according to the study, are typically accepted by language experts across the scientific field. A native speaker is defined according to the following guidelines:
  1. The individual acquired the language in early childhood and maintains the use of the language.
  2. The individual has intuitive knowledge of the language.
  3. The individual is able to produce fluent, spontaneous discourse.
  4. The individual is communicatively competent in different social contexts.
  5. The individual identifies with or is identified by a language community.
  6. The individual does not have a foreign accent.

See also

References

{{Reflist}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "first language" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 4:48am EDT - Tue, Oct 22 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 JUL 2019
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
CONNECT