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Serbian language
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{{distinguish|Sorbian language}}{{other uses2|Serbian}}{{pp|small=yes}}







factoids
| map = Map of Serbian language - official or recognized.PNG#004DFF|Countries where Serbian is an official language.}}{{legend|#88C4FF|Countries where it is recognized as a minority language.}}| states = Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and Serb diaspora| ethnicity = Serbs| region = | speakers = {{circa}} 8 million in the Balkans| date = 2016| ref = Including, as of 2016, 6.33 million in Serbia (88% of the population), 1.08 million in Bosnia and Herzegovina (30.8%), 265,000 in Montenegro (42.8%), 100,000 in Kosovo, 52,000 in Croatia, and 24,000 in North Macedonia Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd ed.| speakers2 = 0.5–1.5 million abroad{{ethnologue16}}| familycolor = Indo-EuropeanBalto-Slavic languages>Balto-SlavicSlavic languages>SlavicSouth Slavic languages>South SlavicWestern South Slavic languages>Western| fam6 = Serbo-CroatianShtokavian dialect>Shtokavian| fam8 = Neo-ShtokavianEastern Herzegovinian dialect>Eastern Herzegovinian| iso1 = sr| iso2 = srp| iso3 = srp| glotto = serb1264| glottorefname = Serbian Standard| lingua = part of 53-AAA-gCyrillic script>Cyrillic (Serbian Cyrillic alphabet)Latin script>Latin (Gaj's alphabet)Yugoslav Braillename=status}}(co-official)Ec.Europa.eu {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071130221600weblink B92.net {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131110174015weblink PUBLISHER=MINORITYRIGHTS.ORG ACCESSDATE=2012-10-24 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20121026011833/HTTP://WWW.MINORITYRIGHTS.ORG/?LID=1834 DF=, HTTP://WWW.VLADA.CZ/ASSETS/PPOV/RNM/DOKUMENTY/MEZINARODNI-DOKUMENTY/DUVODOVA_ZPRAVA_VLADA_2005.PDF >TITLE=NáRODNOSTNí MENšINY V ČESKé REPUBLICE A JEJICH JAZYKY PUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF CZECH REPUBLIC QUOTE=PODLE čL. 3 ODST. 2 STATUTU RADY JE JEJICH POčET 12 A JSOU UžIVATELI TěCHTO MENšINOVýCH JAZYKů: [...], SRBšTINA A UKRAJINšTINA DEADURL=NO ARCHIVEDATE=2016-03-15 PUBLISHER=MINORITYRIGHTS.ORG ACCESSDATE=2012-10-24 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20121026011843/HTTP://WWW.MINORITYRIGHTS.ORG/?LID=4021 DF=, {{ROM}}| agency = Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language| notice = IPA}}Serbian ( / , {{IPA-sh|sr̩̂pskiː|pron}}) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.David Dalby, Linguasphere (1999/2000, Linguasphere Observatory), pg. 445, 53-AAA-g, "Srpski+Hrvatski, Serbo-Croatian".Benjamin W. Fortson IV, Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (2010, Blackwell), p. 431, "Because of their mutual intelligibility, Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian are usually thought of as constituting one language called Serbo-Croatian."Václav Blažek, "On the Internal Classification of Indo-European Languages: Survey" retrieved 20 Oct 2010 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120204101748weblink |date=2012-02-04 }}, pp. 15–16. It is the official language of Serbia, co-official in the territory of Kosovo, and one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro, where it is spoken by the relative majority of the population,Montenegro Census 2011 data, Montstat, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2011-07-12, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110727092553weblink">weblink 2011-07-27, as well as in Croatia, North Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic.Standard Serbian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian (more specifically on the dialects of Šumadija-Vojvodina and Eastern Herzegovina{{citation |author1=Ljiljana Subotić |author2=Dejan Sredojević |author3=Isidora Bjelaković |title=Fonetika i fonologija: Ortoepska i ortografska norma standardnog srpskog jezika |language=Serbo-Croatian |year=2012 |publisher=FILOZOFSKI FAKULTET NOVI SAD |url=http://digitalnabiblioteka.tk/digitalna-biblioteka?task=view&id=56&catid=903 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140103173557weblink |archivedate=2014-01-03 |df= }}), which is also the basis of standard Croatian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin varietiesSerbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Or Montenegrin? Or Just 'Our Language'? {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101105003544weblink |date=2010-11-05 }}, Radio Free Europe, February 21, 2009 and therefore the Declaration on the Common Language of Croats, Bosniaks, Serbs and Montenegrins was issued in 2017.MAGAZINE, Dan, Nosovitz, 11 February 2019, What Language Do People Speak in the Balkans, Anyway?,weblink Atlas Obscura, 11 February 2019, no,weblink 6 May 2019, BOOK, Zanelli, Aldo, 2018, Eine Analyse der Metaphern in der kroatischen Linguistikfachzeitschrift Jezik von 1991 bis 1997, Analysis of Metaphors in Croatian Linguistic Journal Language from 1991 to 1997, German, Studien zur Slavistik ; 41, Hamburg, Kovač, 21, 83, 978-3-8300-9773-0, 1023608613, (NSK). (FFZG) The other dialect spoken by Serbs is Torlakian in southeastern Serbia, which is transitional to Macedonian and Bulgarian.Serbian is practically the only European standard language whose speakers are fully functionally digraphic,JOURNAL,weblink Digraphia in the territories of the Croats and Serbs, Thomas F., Magner, 10 January 2001, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 2001, 150, 27 April 2018, 10.1515/ijsl.2001.028, no,weblink 11 October 2017, using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was devised in 1814 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić, who created it based on phonemic principles. The Serbian Latin alphabet was designed by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1830.

Classification

{{see also|Serbo-Croatian#History|l1=History of Serbo-Croatian}}Serbian is a standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian,BOOK, Kordić, Snježana, Snježana Kordić, 2010, Serbo-Croatian, Jezik i nacionalizam, Language and Nationalism,weblink Rotulus Universitas, no, Zagreb, Durieux, 143, 978-953-188-311-5, 2011520778, 729837512, 15270636W, 1 June 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120601175359weblink">weblink 21 May 2015, (COBISS-Sr). a Slavic language (Indo-European), of the South Slavic subgroup. Other standardized forms of Serbo-Croatian are Bosnian, Croatian, and Montenegrin. It has lower intelligibility with the Eastern South Slavic languages Bulgarian and Macedonian, than with Slovene (Slovene is part of the Western South Slavic subgroup, but there are still significant differences in vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation to the standardized forms of Serbo-Croatian, although it is closer to the Kajkavian and Chakavian dialects of Serbo-CroatianGreenberg, Marc L., A Short Reference Grammar of Slovene, (LINCOM Studies in Slavic Linguistics 30). Munich: LINCOM, 2008. {{ISBN|3-89586-965-1}}).

Geographic distribution

Figures of speakers according to countries:
  • Serbia: 6,540,699 (official language)
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: 1,086,027WEB, Maternji jezik 2013, Popis 2013, 2016,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160729230342weblink">weblink 2016-07-29, (co-official language)
  • Germany: 568,240{{citation needed|date=September 2016}}
  • Austria: 350,000{{citation needed|date=September 2016}}
  • Montenegro: 265,890 (recognized minority language)
  • Switzerland: 186,000
  • United States: 172,874
  • Sweden: 120,000
  • Italy: 106,498 WEB,weblink Statistiche demografiche ISTAT, Demo.istat.it, 2014-10-03, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140401190939weblink">weblink 2014-04-01,
  • Canada: 72,690WEB,weblink Ethno-Cultural Portrait of Canada, Table 1, www12.statcan.ca, 2001, December 17, 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130409060848weblink">weblink April 9, 2013,
  • Australia: 55,114BOOK, The People of Australia - Statistics from the 2011 Census, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, 2014, 978-1-920996-23-9, 59,weblink Ancestry, yes,weblink 2014-07-14, 2017-04-26, WEB,weblink Australian Government Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Immi.gov.au, 2013-04-21, 2015-12-02, yes,weblink 2014-07-14,
  • Croatia: 52,879WEB,weblink Croatian Census 2011, 2011, July 8, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160712145733weblink">weblink July 12, 2016, (recognized minority language)
  • Slovenia: 38,964
  • North Macedonia: 24,773 (recognized minority language)
  • Romania: 22,518 (recognized minority language)

Status in Montenegro

Serbian was the official language of Montenegro until October 2007 when the new Constitution of Montenegro replaced the Constitution of 1992. Amid opposition from pro-Serbian parties,WEB,weblink Pro-Serbian parties oppose Montenegro constitution, setimes.com, 27 April 2018, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303203139weblink">weblink 3 March 2016, the Montenegrin language was made the sole official language of the country, and Serbian was given the status of a recognised minority language along with Bosnian, Albanian, and Croatian.WEB,weblink SNP CG, www.snp.co.me, 27 April 2018, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180120000807weblink">weblink 2018-01-20, In the 2011 Montenegrin census, 42.88% declared Serbian to be their native language, while Montenegrin was declared by 36.97% of the population.

Differences between standard Serbian and standard Croatian and Bosnian

{{expand section|date=November 2012}}{{see also|Serbo-Croatian phonology|Serbo-Croatian grammar}}

Writing system

Standard Serbian language uses both Cyrillic (, ) and Latin script (, ). Serbian is a rare example of synchronic digraphia, a situation where all literate members of a society have two interchangeable writing systems available to them. Media and publishers typically select one alphabet or another.Although Serbian language authorities have recognized the official status of both scripts in contemporary Standard Serbian for more than half of a century now, due to historical reasons, the Cyrillic script was made the official script of Serbia's administration by the 2006 Constitution.WEB, The Constitution, The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Serbia,weblink 2010-12-06, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110723055855weblink">weblink 2011-07-23, However, the law does not regulate scripts in standard language, or standard language itself by any means, leaving the choice of script as a matter of personal preference and to the free will in all aspects of life (publishing, media, trade and commerce, etc.), except in government paperwork production and in official written communication with state officials, which have to be in Cyrillic.In media, the public broadcaster, Radio Television of Serbia, predominantly uses the Cyrillic script whereas the privately run broadcasters, like RTV Pink, predominantly use the Latin script. Newspapers can be found in both scripts. Outdoor signage, including road signs and commercial displays, predominantly uses the Latin alphabet. Larger signs, especially those put up by the government, will often feature both alphabets.A survey from 2014 showed that 47% of the Serbian population favors the Latin alphabet whereas 36% favors the Cyrillic one.WEB,weblink Ivan Klajn: Ćirilica će postati arhaično pismo, b92.net, 27 April 2018, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171011114445weblink">weblink 11 October 2017, Latin script has become more and more popular in Serbia, as it is easier to input on phones and computers.NEWS, Crosby, Alan, Martinovic, Iva, In The Age Of The Internet, Serbia Aims To Keep Its Cyrillic Alive,weblink 5 September 2018, RFE/RL, August 28, 2018,

Alphabetic order

{{South Slavic languages sidebar}}The sort order of the () alphabet:
  • Cyrillic order called (): А Б Ð’ Г Д Ђ Е Ж З И Ј К Л Љ Ðœ Н Њ О П Р С Т Ћ У Ф Ð¥ Ц Ч Џ Ш
The sort order of the () alphabet:
  • Latin order called (): A B C ÄŒ Ć D Dž Đ E F G H I J K L Lj M N Nj O P R S Å  T U V Z Ž

Grammar

Serbian is a highly inflected language, with grammatical morphology for nouns, pronouns and adjectives as well as verbs.BOOK, Celia, Hawkworth, Jelena, Ćalić, Colloquial Serbian: The Complete Course for Beginners, Routledge, 2006, 9781138949799,

Nouns

Serbian nouns are classified into three declensional types, denoted largely by their nominative case endings as "-a" type, "-i" and "-e" type. Into each of these declensional types may fall nouns of any of three genders: masculine, feminine or neuter. Each noun may be inflected to represent the noun's grammatical case, of which Serbian has seven: Nouns are further inflected to represent the noun's number, singular or plural.

Pronouns

Pronouns, when used, are inflected along the same case and number morphology as nouns. Serbian is a pro-drop language, meaning that pronouns may be omitted from a sentence when their meaning is easily inferred from the text. In cases where pronouns may be dropped, they may also be used to add emphasis. For example:{| class="wikitable"! Serbian !! English equivalentKako si? >| How are you?A kako si ti? >| And how are you?

Adjectives

Adjectives in Serbian may be placed before or after the noun they modify, but must agree in number, gender and case with the modified noun.

Verbs

Serbian verbs are conjugated in four past forms—perfect, aorist, imperfect, and pluperfect—of which the last two have a very limited use (imperfect is still used in some dialects, but the majority of native Serbian speakers consider it archaic), one future tense (also known as the first future tense, as opposed to the second future tense or the future exact, which is considered a tense of the conditional mood by some contemporary linguists), and one present tense. These are the tenses of the indicative mood. Apart from the indicative mood, there is also the imperative mood. The conditional mood has two more tenses: the first conditional (commonly used in conditional clauses, both for possible and impossible conditional clauses) and the second conditional (without use in the spoken language—it should be used for impossible conditional clauses). Serbian has active and passive voice.As for the non-finite verb forms, Serbian has one infinitive, two adjectival participles (the active and the passive), and two adverbial participles (the present and the past).

Vocabulary

{{See also|Loanwords in Serbian}}
Most Serbian words are of native Slavic lexical stock, tracing back to the Proto-Slavic language. There are many loanwords from different languages, reflecting cultural interaction throughout history. Notable loanwords were borrowed from Greek, Latin, Italian, Turkish, Hungarian, Russian, and German.

Serbian literature

File:Jevandj.gif|right|thumb|upright=1.15|Miroslavljevo jevanđelje (The Gospel of Miroslav), a manuscriptmanuscriptSerbian literature emerged in the Middle Ages, and included such works as Miroslavljevo jevanđelje (Miroslav's Gospel) in 1192 and Dušanov zakonik (Dušan's Code) in 1349. Little secular medieval literature has been preserved, but what there is shows that it was in accord with its time; for example, the Serbian Alexandride, a book about Alexander the Great, and a translation of Tristan and Iseult into Serbian. Although not belonging to the literature proper, the corpus of Serbian literacy in the 14th and 15th centuries contains numerous legal, commercial and administrative texts with marked presence of Serbian vernacular juxtaposed on the matrix of Serbian Church Slavonic.By the beginning of the 14th century the Serbo-Croatian language, which was so rigorously proscribed by earlier local laws, becomes the dominant language of the Republic of Ragusa.Through Bosnia and the Herzegovina on Foot During the Insurrection by Sir Arthur Evans, page 416 However, despite her wealthy citizens speaking the Serbo-Croatian dialect of Dubrovnik in their family circles, they sent their children to Florentine schools to become perfectly fluent in Italian. Since the beginning of the 13th century, the entire official correspondence of Dubrovnik with states in the hinterland was conducted in Serbian.ANGUAGE AND LETTER IN MEDIEVAL BOSNIAN STATE – CHARTERS AND LETTERS at plemenito.comIn the mid-15th century, Serbia was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and for the next 400 years there was no opportunity for the creation of secular written literature. However, some of the greatest literary works in Serbian come from this time, in the form of oral literature, the most notable form being epic poetry. The epic poems were mainly written down in the 19th century, and preserved in oral tradition up to the 1950s, a few centuries or even a millennium longer than by most other "epic folks". Goethe and Jacob Grimm learned Serbian in order to read Serbian epic poetry in the original. By the end of the 18th century, the written literature had become estranged from the spoken language. In the second half of the 18th century, the new language appeared, called Slavonic-Serbian. This artificial idiom superseded the works of poets and historians like Gavrilo Stefanović Venclović, who wrote in essentially modern Serbian in the 1720s. These vernacular compositions have remained cloistered from the general public and received due attention only with the advent of modern literary historians and writers like Milorad Pavić. In the early 19th century, Vuk Stefanović Karadžić promoted the spoken language of the people as a literary norm.

Dialects

{{see also|Dialects of Serbo-Croatian}}The dialects of Serbo-Croatian, regarded Serbian (traditionally spoken by Serbs), include:

Dictionaries

{{Expand section|date=June 2008}}Vuk Karadžić's Srpski rječnik, first published in 1818, is the earliest dictionary of modern literary Serbian. The Rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika (I–XXIII), published by the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts from 1880 to 1976, is the only general historical dictionary of Serbo-Croatian. Its first editor was Đuro Daničić, followed by Pero Budmani and the famous Vukovian Tomislav Maretić. The sources of this dictionary are, especially in the first volumes, mainly Štokavian. There are older, pre-standard dictionaries, such as the 1791 German–Serbian dictionary.
Standard dictionaries
  • Rečnik srpskohrvatskog književnog i narodnog jezika (Dictionary of Serbo-Croatian standard language and vernaculars) is the biggest dictionary of Serbian and still unfinished. Starting with 1959, 16 volumes were published, about 40 are expected. Works of Croatian authors are excerpted, if published before 1991.
  • Rečnik srpskohrvatskoga književnog jezika in six volumes, started as a common project of Matica srpska and Matica hrvatska, but only the first three volumes were also published in Croato-Serbian (hrvatskosrpski).
  • Rečnik srpskoga jezika ({{ISBN|978-86-7946-004-2}}) in one volume, published in 2007 by Matica srpska, which on more than 1500 pages in A4 format explains more than 85,000 entries. Several volume dictionaries were published in Croatia (for the Croatian language) since the 1990s (Anić, Enciklopedijski rječnik, Hrvatski rječnik).


Etymological dictionaries
The standard and the only completed etymological dictionary of Serbian is the "Skok", written by the Croatian linguist Petar Skok: Etimologijski rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika ("Etymological Dictionary of Croatian or Serbian"). I-IV. Zagreb 1971–1974.There is also a new monumental Etimološki rečnik srpskog jezika (Etymological Dictionary of Serbian). So far, two volumes have been published: I (with words on A-), and II (Ba-Bd).There are specialized etymological dictionaries for German, Italian, Croatian, Turkish, Greek, Hungarian, Russian, English and other loanwords (cf. chapter word origin).{{Clear}}
Dialectal dictionaries
  • Kosovsko-resavski dialect dictionaries:
    • GliÅ¡a Elezović, Rečnik kosovsko-metohiskog dijalekta I-II. 1932/1935.
  • Prizren-Timok (Torlakian) dialect dictionaries:
    • Brana Mitrović, Rečnik leskovačkog govora. Leskovac 1984.
    • Nikola Živković, Rečnik pirotskog govora. Pirot, 1987.
    • Miodrag Marković, Rečnik crnorečkog govora I-II. 1986/1993.
    • JakÅ¡a Dinić, Rečnik timočkog govora I-III.1988–1992.
    • JakÅ¡a Dinić, Timocki dijalekatski recnik, (Institut za srpski jezik, Monografije 4; {{ISBN|978-86-82873-17-4}}) Beograd 2008,
    • Momčilo Zlatanović, Rečnik govora južne Srbije. Vranje, 1998, 1–491.
  • East-Herzegovinian dialect dictionaries:
    • Milija Stanić, Uskočki rečnik I–II. Beograd 1990/1991.
    • MiloÅ¡ Vujičić, Rečnik govora Prošćenja kod Mojkovca. Podgorica, 1995.
    • SrÄ‘an Musić, Romanizmi u severozapadnoj Boki Kotorskoj. 1972.
    • Svetozar Gagović, Iz leksike Pive. Beograd 2004.
  • Zeta-PeÅ¡ter dialect:
    • Rada Stijović, Iz leksike Vasojevića. 1990.
    • Drago Ćupić{{spaced ndash}}Željko Ćupić, Rečnik govora Zagarača. 1997.
    • Vesna Lipovac-Radulović, Romanizmi u Crnoj Gori{{spaced ndash}}jugoistočni dio Boke Kotorske. Cetinje{{spaced ndash}}Titograd, 1981.
    • Vesna Lipovac-Radulović, Romanizmi u Budvi i PaÅ¡trovićima. Novi Sad 1997.
  • Others:
    • Rečnik srpskih govora Vojvodine. Novi Sad.
    • Mile Tomić, Rečnik radimskog govora{{spaced ndash}}dijaspora, Rumunija. 1989.

See also

{{colbegin}} {{colend}}

Notes

{{notes| notes ={{efn| name = status| {{Kosovo-note}}}}}}

References

{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}

Further reading

Books
  • BOOK, Belić, Aleksandar, O dijalektima,weblink 2000, Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva,
  • BOOK, harv, Greenberg, Robert D., Language and Identity in the Balkans: Serbo-Croatian and its Disintegration, 2004, New York, Oxford University Press,weblink 9780191514555,
  • BOOK, Grickat, Irena, Studije iz istorije srpskohrvatskog jezika,weblink 1975, Narodna Biblioteka SR Srbije,
  • WEB, Ivić, Pavle, 1995, The history of Serbian Culture, Standard language as an instrument of culture and the product of national history,weblink Rastko,
  • BOOK, Ivić, P., 1971, Srpski narod i njegov jezik, Srpska književna zadruga, Beograd,
  • BOOK, Ivić, P., 1986, Srpski narod i njegov jezik, 2nd, Srpska književna zadruga, Beograd,weblink
  • BOOK, Kovačević, M., 2003, Srpski jezik i srpski jezici, Srpska književna zadruga,
  • JOURNAL, Marojević, R., 2008, Српски jезик данас, Бард-фин,
  • JOURNAL, Milćanović, A., 2006, Kratka istorija srpskog književnog jezika, Beograd, Zavod za udžbenike,
  • BOOK, MiloÅ¡ević, M., 2001, Gramatika srpskoga jezika: priručnik za poznavanje srpskog književnog jezika, Draganić,
  • BOOK, Okuka, MiloÅ¡, MiloÅ¡ Okuka, Srpski dijalekti, 2008, Zagreb, Prosvjeta,weblink harv, 9789537611064,
  • BOOK, Petrović, Dragoljub, Gudurić, Snežana, 2010, Фонологија српскога језика, Beograd, Institut za srpski jezik SANU, Beogradska knjiga, Matica srpska,
  • BOOK, Popović, I., 1955, Историја српскохрватског језика, Novi Sad, Матица српска,
  • BOOK, Popović, L., 2004, From standard Serbian through standard Serbo-Croatian to standard Serbian,
  • BOOK, Radovanović, M., 2000, From Serbo-Croatian to Serbian,
  • BOOK, Radovanović, Milorad, Српски језик на крају века,weblink 1996, Институт за српски језик САНУ,
  • BOOK, Simić, Ž., 1922, Srpska gramatika, G. Kon.,
  • BOOK, Vujanić, M., Nikolić, M., 2007, Речник српскога језика, Матица српска,


Journals
  • JOURNAL, Belić, Aleksandar, —, Srpski dijalektoloÅ¡ki zbornik [Recueil de dialectologie serbe], 2,weblink 1911,
  • JOURNAL, Greenberg, R. D., 2008, Language politics in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: The crisis over the future of Serbian, Slavic Review, 59, 3, 625–640,
  • JOURNAL, Gröschel, Bernhard, Bernhard Gröschel, Postjugoslavische Amtssprachenregelungen – Soziolinguistische Argumente gegen die Einheitlichkeit des Serbokroatischen?, Post-Yugoslav Official Languages Regulations – Sociolinguistic Arguments Against Consistency of Serbo-Croatian?,weblink German, Srpski Jezik, 8, 1–2, 135–196, 2003, 0354-9259, COBISS 121971724, 4 April 2015,
  • JOURNAL, Kovačević, M., 2007, Srpski jezik i njegove varijante, Srpsko Pitanje I Srbistika, 255–262,
  • JOURNAL, Marinković, M., 2010, Srpski jezik u Osmanskom carstvu: primer četvorojezičnog udžbenika za učenje stranih jezika iz biblioteke sultana Mahmuda I, Slavistika, XIV,
  • JOURNAL, Marojević, R., 1996, Srpski jezik u porodici slovenskih jezika, The Serbian language in the family of Slavic languages, Srpski jezik [The Serbian language], 1–2,
  • JOURNAL, MiÅ¡ić Ilić, B., 2015, Srpski jezik u dijaspori: pogled iz lingvističkog ugla, Serbian language in the diaspora, Srpski Jezik, 20, 289–307,
  • JOURNAL, Okuka, M., 2009, Srpski jezik danas: sociolingvistički status,
  • JOURNAL, Petrović, T., 2001, Speaking a different Serbian language: Refugees in Serbia between conflict and integration,
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  • JOURNAL, Savić, Viktor, The Serbian Redaction of the Church Slavonic Language: From St. Clement, the Bishop of the Slavs, to St. Sava, the Serbian Archbishop, SlovÄ›ne=Словѣне. International Journal of Slavic Studies, 5, 2, 2016, 231–339,
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