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Punjabi language
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{{Short description|Indo-Aryan language spoken in India and Pakistan}}{{EngvarB|date=October 2019}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2019}}







factoids
  • {{IPA-pa|pÉ™nˈdÊ’aːbːi|lang{edih}
  • {{IPAc-en|lang|p|ÊŒ|n|ˈ|dÊ’|ɑː|b|i}}}}| states = India, Pakistan| region = Punjab| ethnicity = Punjabis
125.3|3}} million | date = 2011–2015 WORK=ETHNOLOGUEWORK=ETHNOLOGUE, 23 December 2018, Figure taken by combining total users of Punjabi, Eastern and Punjabi, Western in all countries.| familycolor = Indo-EuropeanIndo-Iranian languages>Indo-IranianIndo-Aryan languages>Indo-Aryan| fam4 = NorthwesternMajhi dialect>Majhi
  • {{flag|Canada{edih}WEB,weblink Punjabi Now Third Language in Parliament of Canada, 5 November 2015, }}| iso1 = pa| iso2 = pan| lc2 = pan| lc1 = pnb| ld1 = Pakistani Punjabi| ld2 = Indian Punjabi| lingua = 59-AAF-e| image = File:Punjabi gurmukhi shahmukhi.png| imagesize = 150px| imagecaption = 'Punjabi' written in Shahmukhi (top) and Gurmukhi (bottom) scripts| map = Punjabispeakers.png| mapcaption = Areas of the Indian Subcontinent where Punjabi is natively spoken| caption = | notice = IPA| glotto = panj1256| glottoname = Punjabi| glottorefname = Eastern Panjabi| dia1 = Punjabi dialects
}}{{Punjabis}}Punjabi ({{IPAc-en|lang|p|ʌ|n|ˈ|dʒ|ɑː|b|i}};Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh {{IPA-pa|pənˈdʒaːbːi|lang}}, , }}) is an Indo-Aryan language with more than 125 million native speakers in the Indian subcontinent and around the world. It is the native language of the Punjabi people, an ethnolinguistic group of the cultural region of Punjab, which encompasses northwest India and eastern Pakistan. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, the 11th most widely spoken language in India and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian subcontinent. It is also the fifth most-spoken native language in Canada after English, French, Mandarin and Cantonese.Punjabi is unusual among Indo-European languages in its use of lexical tone;BOOK, Bhatia, Tej, 1999, Lust, Barbara, Gair, James, Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages, Lexican Anaphors and Pronouns in Punjabi, 637, Walter de Gruyter, 978-3-11-014388-1, Other tonal Indo-Aryan languages include Lahnda and Western Pahari.Phonemic Inventory of Punjabi {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150716184244weblink |date=16 July 2015 }}{{failed verification|date = November 2016}}Geeti Sen. Crossing Boundaries. Orient Blackswan, 1997. {{ISBN|978-81-250-1341-9}}. Page 132. Quote: "Possibly, Punjabi is the only major South Asian language that has this kind of tonal character. There does seem to have been some speculation among scholars about the possible origin of Punjabi's tone-language character but without any final and convincing answer..." see {{section link||Tone}} below for examples. Gurmukhi is the official script for the language in Punjab, India while Shahmukhi is used in Punjab, Pakistan; other national and local scripts have also been in use historically and currently, as discussed in {{section link||Writing systems}}.

History

Etymology

The word Punjabi (sometimes spelled Panjabi) has been derived from the word Panj-āb, Persian for "Five Waters", referring to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerorsBOOK, Canfield, Robert L., Persia in Historical Perspective, 1991, 1 ("Origins"), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 978-0-521-52291-5, of South Asia and was a translation of the Sanskrit name for the region, Panchanada, which means "Land of the Five Rivers".WEB,weblink Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and Discursive, Yule, Henry, Sir, 13 August 2018, dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu, WEB,weblink A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary with Transliteration, Accentuation, and Etymological Analysis Throughout, Arthur Anthony, Macdonell, 13 August 2018, Panj is cognate with Sanskrit ({{IAST|pañca}}) and Greek (pénte) and Lithuanian Penki - "five", and "āb" is cognate with Sanskrit (áp) and with the {{IAST|Av-}} of {{IAST|Avon}}. The historical Punjab region, now divided between India and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tributary of another, the Sutlej.

Origin

File:Tilla Jogian.jpg|thumb|Tilla JogianTilla JogianPunjabi developed from Sanskrit through Prakrit languages and later {{IAST|Apabhraṃśa}} (Sanskrit: ; corruption or corrupted speech)weblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170121195057weblink |date=21 January 2017 }} From 600 BC Sanskrit gave birth to many regional languages in different parts of India. All these languages are called Prakrit (Sanskrit: {{IAST|prāká¹›ta}}) collectively. Shauraseni Prakrit was one of these Prakrit languages, which was spoken in north and north-western India and Punjabi and western dialects of Hindi developed from this Prakrit. Later in northern India Shauraseni Prakrit gave rise to Shauraseni Aparbhsha, a descendant of Prakrit. Punjabi emerged as an Apabhramsha, a degenerated form of Prakrit, in the 7th century A.D. and became stable by the 10th century.India's culture through the ages by Mohan Lal Vidyarthi. Published by Tapeshwari Sahitya Mandir, 1952. Page 148: "From the apabhramsha of Sauraseni are derived Punjabi, Western Hindi, Rajasthani and Gujerati {{sic}}..."National Communication and Language Policy in India By Baldev Raj Nayar. Published by F. A. Praeger, 1969. Page 35. "...Sauraseni Aprabhramsa from which have emerged the modern Western Hindi and Punjabi."The Sauraseni Prākrit Language {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080923185829weblink |date=23 September 2008 }}. "This Middle Indic language originated in Mathura, and was the main language used in drama in Northern India in the mediaeval era. Two of its descendants are Hindi and Punjabi." By the 10th century, many Nath poets were associated with earlier Punjabi works. {{citation needed|date=March 2019}}

Arabic and Persian influence on Punjabi

Arabic and Persian influence in the historical Punjab region began with the late first millennium Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent.BOOK, East of Indus: My Memories of Old Punjab, Brard, G.S.S., 2007, Hemkunt Publishers, 9788170103608,weblink 81, 13 January 2017, live,weblink 9 February 2018, The Persian language was introduced in the subcontinent a few centuries later by various Turko-Persian dynasties. Many Persian and Arabic words were incorporated in Punjabi.BOOK, The Social Space of Language: Vernacular Culture in British Colonial Punjab, Mir, F., 2010, University of California Press, 9780520262690,weblink 35, 13 January 2017, live,weblink 9 February 2018, BOOK, Language Policy and Language Conflict in Afghanistan and Its Neighbors: The Changing Politics of Language Choice, Schiffman, H., 2011, Brill, 9789004201453,weblink 314, 13 January 2017, live,weblink 9 February 2018, It is noteworthy that the Hindustani language is divided into Hindi, with more Sanskritisation, and Urdu, with more Persianisation, but in Punjabi both Sanskrit and Persian words are used with a liberal approach to language. Later, it was lexically influenced by Portuguese and English, though these influences have been minor in comparison to Persian and Arabic.BOOK, A Panorama of Indian Culture: Professor A. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume, Menon, A.S., Kusuman, K.K., 1990, Mittal Publications, 9788170992141,weblink 87, 13 January 2017, live,weblink 9 February 2018, {| class="wikitable"! English! Gurmukhi-based (Punjab, India)! Shahmukhi-based (Punjab, Pakistan)| Presidentpa|rāshtarpatī}})ALA-LC|sadar-e mumlikat}})| Articlepa|lēkh}})ALA-LC|mazmūn}})| Prime Ministerpa|pardhān mantarī}})*ALA-LC|wazīr-e aʿzam}})| Familypaparvār}})* ({{transl>paṭabbar}}) ({{transl>pa|lāṇā}})ALA-LCkḥāndān}}) }} ({{translALA-LC|ṭabbar}})| Philosophypafalsafā}}) ({{transl>pa|darshan}})ALA-LC|falsafā}})| Capitalpa|rājdhānī}}) ALA-LC|dārul hakūmat}})| Viewerpa|darshak}}) ALA-LC|nāzarīn}})| Listenerpa|sarotā}})ALA-LC|sāma'}})
  • Note: In more formal contexts, hypercorrect Sanskritized versions of these words (ਪ੍ਰਧਾਨ pradhān for ਪਰਧਾਨ pardhān and ਪਰਿਵਾਰ parivār for ਪਰਵਾਰ parvār) may be used.

Modern times

  • Punjabi is spoken in many dialects in an area from Islamabad to Delhi. The Majhi dialect has been adopted as standard Punjabi in Pakistan and India for education, media etc. The Majhi dialect originated in the Majha region of the Punjab. The Majha region consists of several eastern districts of Pakistani Punjab and in India around Amritsar, Gurdaspur, and surrounding districts. The two most important cities in this area are Lahore and Amritsar.
  • In India technical words in Standard Punjabi are loaned from Sanskrit similarly to other major Indian languages, but it generously uses Arabic, Persian, and English words also in the official language. In India, Punjabi is written in the GurmukhÄ« script in offices, schools, and media. Gurmukhi is the official standard script for Punjabi, though it is often unofficially written in the Devanagari or Latin scripts due to influence from Hindi and English, India's two primary official languages at the Union-level.
  • In Pakistan, Punjabi is generally written using the ShahmukhÄ« script, created from a modification of the Persian NastaÊ¿lÄ«q script. In Pakistan, Punjabi loans technical words from Persian and Arabic languages, just like Urdu does.

Geographic distribution

Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, the eleventh -most widely spoken in India and spoken Punjabi diaspora in various countries.

Pakistan

Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, being the native language of {{sigfig|44.15|2}}% of its population. It is the provincial language in the Punjab Province.{| class="wikitable"Census history of Punjabi speakers in PakistanHTTP://WWW.STATPAK.GOV.PK/DEPTS/PCO/INDEX.HTML, Archived copy, 17 September 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090926230905weblink">weblink 26 September 2009, ! Year || Population of Pakistan || Percentage || Punjabi speakers| 22,632,905| 28,468,282| 43,176,004| 40,584,980| 58,433,431Beginning with the 1981 census, speakers of Saraiki and Hindko were no longer included in the total numbers for Punjabi, which could explain the apparent decrease.

India

{{See also|States of India by Punjabi speakers}}File:Jalianwalabag.JPG|thumb|"Jallianwala Bagh" written in Hindi, Punjabi, and English in Amritsar, IndiaIndiaPunjabi is spoken as a native language, second language, or third language by about 30 million people in India. Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab. It is additional official in Haryana and Delhi. Some of its major urban centres in northern India are Ambala, Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, Bathinda and Delhi.{| class="wikitable"Census history of Punjabi speakers in IndiaGROWTH OF SCHEDULED LANGUAGES-1971, 1981, 1991 AND 2001,weblink Census of India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, 22 February 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150220040137weblink">weblink 20 February 2015, ! Year || Population of India || Punjabi speakers in India || Percentage| 2.57%| 2.95%| 2.79%| 2.83%

Punjabi diaspora

File:BCNDP SIGNS.jpg|thumb|Signs in Punjabi (along with English and Chinese) of New Democratic Party of British Columbia, CanadaCanadaPunjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabi people have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada, where it is the fourth-most-commonly used language.NEWS,weblink The Times of India, Punjabi is 4th most spoken language in Canada, 14 February 2008, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161114140743weblink">weblink 14 November 2016, There were 76 million Punjabi speakers in Pakistan in 2008,Pakistan 1998 census – Population by mother tongue {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060217220529weblink |date=17 February 2006 }} 33 million in India in 2011,WEB,weblink Indian Census, Censusindia.gov.in, 4 January 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120206233628weblink">weblink 6 February 2012, 368,000 in Canada in 2006,WEB,weblink Population by mother tongue in Canada, 0.statcan.gc.ca, 13 February 2013, 4 January 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110114233848weblink">weblink 14 January 2011, and smaller numbers in other countries.

Major dialects

Majhi (Standard Punjabi)

The Majhi dialect spoken around Amritsar and Lahore is Punjabi's prestige dialect. Majhi is spoken in the heart of Punjab in the region of Majha, which spans Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Kasur, Tarn Taran, Faisalabad, Nankana Sahib, Pathankot, Okara, Pakpattan, Sahiwal, Narowal, Sheikhupura, Sialkot, Chiniot, Gujranwala and Gujrat districts. Punjabi official language based on the Majhi.Majhi retains the nasal consonants {{IPAslink|ŋ}} and {{IPAslink|ɲ}}, which have been superseded elsewhere by non-nasals {{IPAslink|ɡ}} and {{IPAslink|d͡ʒ}} respectively. {{Citation needed|date=January 2019}}

Shahpuri

Shahpuri dialect (also known as Sargodha dialect) is mostly spoken in Pakistani Punjab. Its name is derived from former Shahpur District (now Shahpur Tehsil, being part of Sargodha District). It is spoken throughout a widespread area, spoken in Sargodha and Khushab Districts and also spoken in neighbouring Mianwali and Bhakkar Districts. It is mainly spoken on western end of Indus River to Chenab river crossing Jhelum river.WEB,weblink The Art and Culture of the Diaspora | Mother Tongue: The Many Dialects of Punjabi, Sikhchic.com, 2 February 2016,

Malwai

Malwai is spoken in the southern part of Indian Punjab and also in Bahawalnagar and Vehari districts of Pakistan. Main areas are faridkot, Barnala, Ludhiana, Patiala, Ambala, Bathinda, Mansa, Sangrur, Malerkotla, Fazilka, Ferozepur, Moga. Malwa is the southern and central part of present-day Indian Punjab. It also includes the Punjabi speaking northern areas of Haryana, viz. Ambala, |Hissar], Narnaul etc. Not to be confused with the Malvi language, which shares its name.

Doabi

Doabi is spoken in both the Indian Punjab as well as parts of Pakistan Punjab owing to post-1947 migration of Muslim populace from East Punjab. The word "Do Aabi" means "the land between two rivers" and this dialect was historically spoken between the rivers of the Beas and the Sutlej in the region called Doaba. Regions it is presently spoken in include the Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Kapurthala districts in Indian Punjab, specifically in the areas known as the Dona and Manjki, as well as the Toba Tek Singh and Faisalabad districts in Pakistan Punjab where the dialect is known as Faisalabadi Punjabi.

{{anchor|Pwadhi}}Puadhi

Puadh is a region of Punjab and parts of Haryana between the Satluj and Ghaggar rivers. The part lying south, south-east and east of Rupnagar adjacent to Ambala District (Haryana) is Puadhi. The Puadh extends from that part of the Rupnagar District which lies near Satluj to beyond the Ghaggar river in the east up to Kala Amb, which is at the border of the states of Himachal pradesh and Haryana. Parts of Fatehgarh Sahib district, and parts of Patiala districts like Rajpura are also part of Puadh. The Puadhi dialect is spoken over a large area in present Punjab as well as Haryana. In Punjab, Kharar, Kurali, Ropar, Nurpurbedi, Morinda, Pail, Rajpura and Samrala are areas where Puadhi is spoken and the dialect area also includes Pinjore, Kalka, Ismailabad, Pehowa to Bangar area in Fatehabad district.

Jhangochi/Jhangvi

Jhangochi spoken in Khanewal and Jhang districts is actually subdialect of Jatki/Jangli. 'Jhangochi' word has limitations as it doesn't represent whole bar region of Punjab.

Jatki/Jangli/Rachnavi

Jatki or Jangli is a dialect of native tribes of areas whose names are often suffixed with 'Bar' derived from jungle bar before irrigation system arrived in the start of the 20th century, for example, Sandal Bar, Kirana Bar, Neeli Bar, Ganji Bar. Native people called their dialect as Jatki instead of Jangli. Jatki dialect is mostly spoken by Indigenous peoples of Faisalabad, Jhang, Toba Tek Singh, Chiniot, Nankana Sahib, Hafizabad, Mandi Bahauddin, Sargodha, Sahiwal, Okara, Pakpattan, Bahawalnagar, Vehari and Khanewal districts of Pakistani Punjab. It is also spoken in few areas of Sheikhupura, Muzaffargarh, Lodhran' Bahawalpur districts and Fazilka district of Indian Punjab.

Chenavari

West of Chenaab river in Jhang district of Pakistani Punjab the dialect of Jhangochi merges with Thalochi and resultant dialect is Chenavari. Name is derived from Chenaab river.

Phonology

While a vowel length distinction between short and long vowels exists, reflected in modern Gurmukhi orthographical conventions, it is secondary to the vowel quality contrast between centralised vowels {{IPA|/ɪ ə ʊ/}} and peripheral vowels {{IPA|/iː eː ɛː aː ɔː oː uː/}} in terms of phonetic significance.{{sfn|Shackle|2003|p=587}}{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:center;"|+Vowels! ||Front||Near-front||Central||Near-back||Back!Closeiː}} ਈ {{IPA|uː}} ਊ!Near-closeɪ}} ਇ {{IPA|!Close-mideː}} ਏ {{IPA|oː}} ਓ!Midə}} ਅ !Open-midɛː}} ਐ {{IPA|ɔː}} ਔ!Openaː}} ਆ The peripheral vowels have nasal analogues.{{sfn|Shackle|2003|p=588}}{| class="wikitable"|+Consonants! colspan="2"|! Labial! Dental/Alveolar! Retroflex! Palatal! Velar! Glottal align=center! colspan="2"| Nasalm}} ਮ م n̪}} ਨ نɳ}} ਣ ɲ}} ਞŋ}} ਙ| align=center! rowspan="3"| Stop/Affricate! {{small|tenuis}}p}} ਪ پt̪|t̪}} ਤ تʈ}} ਟ ٹt͡ʃ}} ਚ چk}} ਕ ک| align=center! {{small|aspirated}}pʰ}} ਫ فt̪ʰ}} ਥ تھ ʈʰ}} ਠ ٹھ t͡ʃʰ}} ਛ kʰ}} ਖ کھ| align=center! {{small|voiced}}b}} ਬ ب d̪|d̪}} ਦ د ɖ}} ਡ ڈ d͡ʒ}} ਜ ج ɡ}} ਗ گ | align=center! rowspan="2" |Fricative! {{small|voiceless}}f}} ਫ਼ ف) s}} ਸ س |ʃ}} ਸ਼ ش x}} ਖ਼ خ) | align=center! {{small|voiced}}|z}} ਜ਼ ز) ||ɣ}} ਗ਼ غ) ɦ}} ਹ ه align=center! colspan="2"|Rhotic|ɾ}}~{{IPA link|r}} ਰ ر ɽ}} ੜ ڑ ||| align=center! colspan="2"|Approximantʋ}} ਵ و l}} ਲ لɭ}} ਲ਼ j}} ਯ ی ||The three retroflex consonants {{IPA|/ɳ ɽ ɭ/}} do not occur initially, and the nasals {{IPA|/ŋ ɲ/}} occur only as allophones of {{IPA|/n/}} in clusters with velars and palatals. The well-established phoneme {{IPA|/ʃ/}} may be realised allophonically as the voiceless retroflex fricative {{IPA|/ʂ/}} in learned clusters with retroflexes. The phonemic status of the fricatives {{IPA|/f z x ɣ/}} varies with familiarity with Hindustani norms, with the pairs {{IPA|/f pʰ/}}, {{IPA|/z d͡ʒ/}}, {{IPA|/x kʰ/}}, and {{IPA|/ɣ g/}} systematically distinguished in educated speech.{{sfn|Shackle|2003|p=589}} The retroflex lateral is most commonly analysed as an approximant as opposed to a flap.{{sfn|Masica|1991|p=97}}JOURNAL, Arora, K. K., Arora, S., Singla, S. R., Agrawal, S. S., SAMPA for Hindi and Punjabi based on their Acoustic and Phonetic Characteristics, Proceedings Oriental COCOSDA, 2007, 4–6, BOOK, Ladefoged, Peter, Maddieson, Ian, The Sounds of the World's Languages, 1996, Blackwell, Oxford, 978-0631198154, 190–191,

Tone

Punjabi is a tonal language and in many words there is a choice of up to three tones, high-falling, low-rising, and level (neutral):Bailey, T.Grahame (1919), English-Punjabi Dictionary, introduction.Singh, Sukhvindar, "Tone Rules and Tone Sandhi in Punjabi".Bowden, A.L. (2012). "Punjabi Tonemics and the Gurmukhi Script: A Preliminary Study".{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center;"! Word! Transliteration! Tone! Meaning| ਘਰ| kàr| high-falling| house| ਕਰ੍ਹ| kár| low-rising| dandruff| ਕਰ| kar| level| do| ਘੋੜਾ| kòṛā| high-falling| horse| ਕੋੜ੍ਹਾ| kóṛā| low-rising| leper| ਕੋੜਾ| koṛā| level| whipLevel tone is found in about 75% of words and is described by some as absence of tone. There are also some words which are said to have rising tone in the first syllable and falling in the second. (Some writers describe this as a fourth tone.) However, a recent acoustic study of six Punjabi speakers in America found no evidence of a separate falling tone following a medial consonant.Kanwal, J.; Ritchart, A.V (2015) "An experimental investigation of tonogenesis in Punjabi". Proceedings of the 18th International of Phonetic Sciences, 2015
  • ਮੋਢਾ móḍà (rising-falling) "shoulder"
(File:Punjabi specific sounds.ogg|thumb|Some Punjabi distinct tones for gh, jh, ḍh, dh, bh)It is considered that these tones arose when voiced aspirated consonants (gh, jh, ḍh, dh, bh) lost their aspiration. At the beginning of a word they became voiceless unaspirated consonants (k, c, ṭ, t, p) followed by a high-falling tone; medially or finally they became voiced unaspirated consonants (g, j, ḍ, d, b), preceded by a low-rising tone. (The development of a high-falling tone apparently did not take place in every word, but only in those which historically had a long vowel.)The presence of an [h] (although the [h] is now silent or very weakly pronounced except word-initially) word-finally (and sometimes medially) also often causes a rising tone before it, for example cá(h) "tea".Lata, Swaran; Arora, Swati (2013) "Laryngeal Tonal characteristics of Punjabi: An Experimental Study"The Gurmukhi script which was developed in the 16th century has separate letters for voiced aspirated sounds, so it is thought that the change in pronunciation of the consonants and development of tones may have taken place since that time.Some other languages in Pakistan have also been found to have tonal distinctions, including Burushaski, Gujari, Hindko, Kalami, Shina, and Torwali.Baart, J.L.G. "Tonal features in languages of northern Pakistan"

Grammar

File:Punjabi Alphabet.jpg|thumb|The 35 traditional characters of the GurmukhiGurmukhiPunjabi has a canonical word order of SOV (subject–object–verb).Gill, Harjeet Singh and Gleason Jr, Henry A. (1969). A Reference Grammar of Panjabi. Patiala: Department of Linguistics, Punjabi University It has postpositions rather than prepositions. Wals.infoPunjabi distinguishes two genders, two numbers, and five cases of direct, oblique, vocative, ablative, and locative/instrumental. The ablative occurs only in the singular, in free variation with oblique case plus ablative postposition, and the locative/instrumental is usually confined to set adverbial expressions.{{Harvcoltxt|Shackle|2003|p=599}}Adjectives, when declinable, are marked for the gender, number, and case of the nouns they qualify.{{Harvcoltxt|Shackle|2003|p=601}} There is also a T-V distinction.Upon the inflectional case is built a system of particles known as postpositions, which parallel English's prepositions. It is their use with a noun or verb that is what necessitates the noun or verb taking the oblique case, and it is with them that the locus of grammatical function or "case-marking" then lies. The Punjabi verbal system is largely structured around a combination of aspect and tense/mood. Like the nominal system, the Punjabi verb takes a single inflectional suffix, and is often followed by successive layers of elements like auxiliary verbs and postpositions to the right of the lexical base.{{Harvcoltxt|Masica|1991|p=257}}The grammar of the Punjabi language concerns the word order, case marking, verb conjugation, and other morphological and syntactic structures of the Punjabi language.

Writing systems

{{Arabic-script sidebar|Punjabi}}The Punjabi language is written in multiple scripts (a phenomenon known as synchronic digraphia). Each of the major scripts currently in use is typically associated with a particular religious group,{{sfn|Bhatia|2008|p=128}}{{sfn|Bhardwaj|2016|pp=12–13}} although the association is not absolute or exclusive.{{sfn|Jain|2003|pp=53, 57–8}}In India, Punjabi Sikhs use Gurmukhi, a script of the Brahmic family, which has official status in the state of Punjab. In Pakistan, Punjabi Muslims use Shahmukhi, a variant of the Perso-Arabic script and closely related to the Urdu alphabet. The Punjabi Hindus in India had a preference for Devanagari, another Brahmic script also used for Hindi, and in the first decades since independence raised objections to the uniform adoption of Gurmukhi in the state of Punjab,{{sfn|Nayar|1966|pp= 46 ff}} but most have now switched to Gurmukhi{{sfn|Bhardwaj|2016|p=12}} and so the use of Devanagari is rare.{{sfn|Shackle|2003|p=594}}Historically, various local Brahmic scripts including Laṇḍā and its descendants were also in use.{{snf|Shackle|2003|p=594}}{{sfn|Bhardwaj|2016|p=15}}The Punjabi Braille is used by the visually impaired.

Sample text

This sample text was taken from the Punjabi Wikipedia article on Lahore.Gurmukhi: ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨੀ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦੀ ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ ਹੈ । ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਕਰਾਚੀ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਲਹੌਰ ਦੂਜਾ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਡਾ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਹੈ । ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਸਿਆਸੀ, ਰਹਤਲੀ ਅਤੇ ਪੜ੍ਹਾਈ ਦਾ ਗੜ੍ਹ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਇਸੇ ਲਈ ਇਹਨੂੰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਦਿਲ ਵੀ ਕਿਹਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ । ਲਹੌਰ ਰਾਵੀ ਦਰਿਆ ਦੇ ਕੰਢੇ 'ਤੇ ਵਸਦਾ ਹੈ । ਇਸਦੀ ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਇੱਕ ਕਰੋੜ ਦੇ ਨੇੜੇ ਹੈ |Shahmukhi:{{Nastaliq|لہور پاکستانی پنجاب دا دارالحکومت اے۔ لوک گنتی دے نال کراچی توں بعد لہور دوجا سبھ توں وڈا شہر اے۔ لہور پاکستان دا سیاسی، رہتلی اتے پڑھائی دا گڑھ اے اتے، اسے لئی ایھنوں پاکستان دا دل وی کیھا جاندا اے۔ لہور راوی دریا دے کنڈھے تے وسدا ۔ اسدی لوک گنتی اک کروڑ دے نیڑے اے ۔}}Transliteration: lahaur pākistānī panjāb dī rājtā̀ni ài. lok giṇtī de nāḷ karācī tõ bāad lahaur dūjā sáb tõ vaḍḍā šáir ài. lahaur pākistān dā siāsī, rátalī ate paṛā̀ī dā gáṛ ài te ise laī ínū̃ pākistān dā dil vī kihā jāndā ài. lahaur rāvī dariā de káṇḍè te vasdā ài. isdī lok giṇtī ikk karoṛ de neṛe ài.IPA: {{IPA|[ləɦɔːɾᵊ paːkɪst̪aːniː pənd͡ʒaːbᵊ d̪iː ɾaːd͡ʒᵊt̪àːni: ɦɛ̀ː ‖ lo:kᵊ ɡɪɳᵊt̪iː d̪e naːlᵊ kəɾaːt͡ʃiː t̪õ: baːəd̪ᵊ ləɦɔːɾᵊ d̪uːd͡ʒaː sə́bᵊ t̪õ: ʋəɖːaː ʃəɦɪɾ ɦɛ̀ː ‖ ləɦɔːɾᵊ paːkɪst̪aːnᵊ d̪aː sɪaːsiː {{!}} ɾə́ɦt̪əliː ət̪e: pəɽàːiː d̪aː ɡə́ɽ ɦɛ̀ː ət̪e: ɪse: ləiː ɪ́ɦnū̃ paːkɪst̪aːnᵊ d̪aː d̪ɪlᵊ ʋiː kɪɦaː d͡ʒa:nd̪aː ɛ̀ː ‖ ləɦɔːɾᵊ ɾaːʋiː d̪əɾɪa: d̪e: kə́ɳɖe: t̪e: ʋəsᵊd̪aː ɛ̀ː ‖ ɪsᵊd̪iː lo:kᵊ ɡɪɳᵊt̪iː ɪkːᵊ kəɾo:ɽᵊ d̪e: ne:ɽe: ɛ̀ː ‖]}}Translation: Lahore is the capital city of Pakistani Punjab. After Karachi, Lahore is the second largest city. Lahore is Pakistan's political, cultural, and educational hub, and so it is also said to be the heart of Pakistan. Lahore lies on the bank of the Ravi River. Its population is close to ten million people.

Literature development

Medieval era, Mughal and Sikh period

  • The earliest Punjabi literature is found in the fragments of writings of the 11th century Nath yogis Gorakshanath and Charpatnah which is primarily spiritual and mystical in tone. {{citation needed|date=May 2019}}
  • Fariduddin Ganjshakar (1179-1266) is generally recognised as the first major poet of the Punjabi language.Shiv Kumar Batalvi {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20030410071639weblink |date=10 April 2003 }} sikh-heritage.co.uk. Roughly from the 12th century to the 19th century, many great Sufi saints and poets preached in the Punjabi language, the most prominent being Bulleh Shah. Punjabi Sufi poetry also developed under Shah Hussain (1538–1599), Sultan Bahu (1630–1691), Shah Sharaf (1640–1724), Ali Haider (1690–1785), Waris Shah (1722–1798), Saleh Muhammad Safoori (1747-1826), Mian Muhammad Baksh (1830-1907) and Khwaja Ghulam Farid (1845-1901).
(File:Punjab-Pak-Sufi Poets.jpg|thumb|right|Sufi poets have enriched Punjabi literature)
  • The Sikh religion originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region and Punjabi is the predominant language spoken by Sikhs.BOOK, Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember, Ian A. Skoggard, Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World, Springer, 2005, 978-0-306-48321-9, 1077, Most portions of the Guru Granth Sahib use the Punjabi language written in Gurmukhi, though Punjabi is not the only language used in Sikh scriptures.
File:Varan Gyan Ratnavali.jpg|thumb|right|Varan Gyan Ratnavali by 16th-century historian Bhai GurdasBhai GurdasThe Janamsakhis, stories on the life and legend of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), are early examples of Punjabi prose literature.
  • The Punjabi language is famous for its rich literature of qisse, most of the which are about love, passion, betrayal, sacrifice, social values and a common man's revolt against a larger system. The qissa of Heer Ranjha by Waris Shah (1706–1798) is among the most popular of Punjabi qissas. Other popular stories include Sohni Mahiwal by Fazal Shah, Mirza Sahiban by Hafiz Barkhudar (1658–1707), Sassui Punnhun by Hashim Shah (c. 1735–c. 1843), and Qissa Puran Bhagat by Qadaryar (1802–1892).{{citation needed|date=November 2016}}
  • Heroic ballads known as Vaar enjoy a rich oral tradition in Punjabi. Famous Vaars are Chandi di Var (1666–1708), Nadir Shah Di Vaar by Najabat and the Jangnama of Shah Mohammad (1780–1862).The Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature (Volume One - A to Devo). Volume 1. Amaresh Datta, ed. Sahitya Akademi: 2006, 352.

British Raj era and post-independence period

File:Ghadar di gunj.jpg|thumb|upright=0.68|Ghadar di Gunj 1913, newspaper in Punjabi of Ghadar PartyGhadar PartyThe Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature through the introduction of British education during the Raj. Nanak Singh (1897–1971), Vir Singh, Ishwar Nanda, Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Puran Singh (1881–1931), Dhani Ram Chatrik (1876–1957), Diwan Singh (1897–1944) and Ustad Daman (1911–1984), Mohan Singh (1905–78) and Shareef Kunjahi are some legendary Punjabi writers of this period.After independence of Pakistan and India Najm Hossein Syed, Fakhar Zaman and Afzal Ahsan Randhawa, Shafqat Tanvir Mirza, Ahmad Salim, and Najm Hosain Syed, Munir Niazi, Pir Hadi abdul Mannan enriched Punjabi literature in Pakistan, whereas Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Jaswant Singh Rahi (1930–1996), Shiv Kumar Batalvi (1936–1973), Surjit Patar (1944–) and Pash (1950–1988) are some of the more prominent poets and writers from India.

Status

Despite Punjabi's rich literary history, it was not until 1947 that it would be recognised as an official language. Previous governments in the area of the Punjab had favoured Persian, Hindustani, or even earlier standardised versions of local registers as the language of the court or government. After the annexation of the Sikh Empire by the British East India Company following the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849, the British policy of establishing a uniform language for administration was expanded into the Punjab. The British Empire employed Hindi and Urdu in its administration of North-Central and North-West India, while in the North-East of India, Bengali was used as the language of administration. Despite its lack of official sanction, the Punjabi language continued to flourish as an instrument of cultural production, with rich literary traditions continuing until modern times. The Sikh religion, with its Gurmukhi script, played a special role in standardising and providing education in the language via Gurdwaras, while writers of all religions continued to produce poetry, prose, and literature in the language.In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. It is the first official language of the Indian State of Punjab. Punjabi also has second language official status in Delhi along with Urdu, and in Haryana. In Pakistan, no regional ethnic language has been granted official status at the national level, and as such Punjabi is not an official language at the national level, even though it is the most spoken language in Pakistan after Urdu, the national language of Pakistan. It is, however, the official provincial language of Punjab, Pakistan, the second largest and the most populous province of Pakistan as well as in Islamabad Capital Territory. The only two official national languages in Pakistan are Urdu and English, which are considered the lingua francas of Pakistan.

In Pakistan

When Pakistan was created in 1947, although Punjabi was the majority language in West Pakistan and Bengali the majority in East Pakistan and Pakistan as whole, English and Urdu were chosen as the national languages. The selection of Urdu was due to its association with South Asian Muslim nationalism and because the leaders of the new nation wanted a unifying national language instead of promoting one ethnic group's language over another. Broadcasting in Punjabi language by Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation decreased on TV and radio after 1947. Article 251 of the Constitution of Pakistan declares that these two languages would be the only official languages at the national level, while provincial governments would be allowed to make provisions for the use of other languages.WEB,weblink Chapter 4: "General." of Part XII: "Miscellaneous", pakistani.org, 30 December 2016, live,weblink" title="archive.is/20140603233302weblink">weblink 3 June 2014, However, in the 1950s the constitution was amended to include the Bengali language. Eventually, Punjabi was granted status as a provincial language in Punjab Province, while the Sindhi language was given official status in 1972 after 1972 Language violence in Sindh.Despite gaining official recognition at the provincial level, Punjabi is not a language of instruction for primary or secondary school students in Punjab Province (unlike Sindhi and Pashto in other provinces).WEB, Zaidi, Abbas, Linguistic cleansing: the sad fate of Punjabi in Pakistan,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161029194115weblink">weblink 29 October 2016, Pupils in secondary schools can choose the language as an elective, while Punjabi instruction or study remains rare in higher education. One notable example is the teaching of Punjabi language and literature by the University of the Punjab in Lahore which began in 1970 with the establishment of its Punjabi Department.University of the Punjab (2015), "B.A. Two-Year (Pass Course) Examinations"
  • WEB,weblink pu.edu.pk, University of the Punjab - Examinations, 13 January 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170208022145weblink">weblink 8 February 2017,
WEB,weblink Department of Punjabi, University of the Punjab, 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161127220237weblink">weblink 27 November 2016, In the cultural sphere, there are many books, plays, and songs being written or produced in the Punjabi-language in Pakistan. Until the 1970s, there were a large number of Punjabi-language films being produced by the Lollywood film industry, however since then Urdu has become a much more dominant language in film production. Additionally, television channels in Punjab Province (centred on the Lahore area) are broadcast in Urdu. The preeminence of Urdu in both broadcasting and the Lollywood film industry is seen by critics as being detrimental to the health of the language.WEB, Masood, Tariq, The colonisation of language, The Express Tribune, 21 February 2015,weblink 19 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150912044311weblink">weblink 12 September 2015, dmy-all, WEB, Warraich, Faizan, Ali, Haider, Intelligentsia urges govt to promote Punjabi language, DailyTimes, 15 September 2015,weblink 15 September 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150630230024weblink">weblink 30 June 2015, The use of Urdu and English as the near exclusive languages of broadcasting, the public sector, and formal education have led some to fear that Punjabi in Pakistan is being relegated to a low-status language and that it is being denied an environment where it can flourish. Several prominent educational leaders, researchers, and social commentators have echoed the opinion that the intentional promotion of Urdu and the continued denial of any official sanction or recognition of the Punjabi language amounts to a process of "Urdu-isation" that is detrimental to the health of the Punjabi languageWEB,weblink apnaorg.com, Punjabis Without Punjabi, 13 January 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170525144848weblink">weblink 25 May 2017, "Inferiority complex declining Punjabi language: Punjab University Vice-Chancellor". PPI News Agency
  • WEB,weblink ppinewsagency.com, Inferiority complex declining Punjabi language: Punjab University Vice-Chancellor &124; Pakistan Press International, 13 January 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161127220151weblink">weblink 27 November 2016,
NEWS,weblink Urdu-isation of Punjab - The Express Tribune, 4 May 2015, The Express Tribune, en-US, 30 December 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161127215535weblink">weblink 27 November 2016, In August 2015, the Pakistan Academy of Letters, International Writer’s Council (IWC) and World Punjabi Congress (WPC) organised the Khawaja Farid Conference and demanded that a Punjabi-language university should be established in Lahore and that Punjabi language should be declared as the medium of instruction at the primary level.WEB,weblink Rally for ending 150-year-old 'ban on education in Punjabi, 21 February 2011, The Nation, 15 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160307142807weblink">weblink 7 March 2016, MAGAZINE,weblink Sufi poets can guarantee unity, 26 August 2015, The Nation, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151030021751weblink">weblink 30 October 2015, In September 2015, a case was filed in Supreme Court of Pakistan against Government of Punjab, Pakistan as it did not take any step to implement the Punjabi language in the province.WEB,weblink Supreme Court's Urdu verdict: No language can be imposed from above, 15 September 2015, The Nation, 15 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150916165410weblink">weblink 16 September 2015, WEB,weblink Two-member SC bench refers Punjabi language case to CJP, 14 September 2015, Business Recorder, 15 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151021133224weblink">weblink 21 October 2015, Additionally, several thousand Punjabis gather in Lahore every year on International Mother Language Day. Thinktanks, political organisations, cultural projects, and individuals also demand authorities at the national and provincial level to promote the use of the language in the public and official spheres."Mind your language—The movement for the preservation of Punjabi". The Herald. 2 September 2106.
  • WEB,weblink herald.dawn.com, Mind your language—The movement for the preservation of Punjabi - People & Society - Herald, 13 January 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161223065731weblink">weblink 23 December 2016, 4 August 2016,
"Punjabi in schools: Pro-Punjabi outfits in Pakistan threaten hunger strike". The Times of India. 4 October 2015.
  • WEB,weblink timesofindia.indiatimes.com, Punjabi in schools: Pro-Punjabi outfits in Pakistan threaten hunger strike - Times of India, 13 January 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160927231834weblink">weblink 27 September 2016,
"Rally for Ending the 150 year-old Ban on Education in Punjabi" The Nation. 21 February 2011.
  • WEB,weblink nation.com.pk, Rally for ending 150-year-old 'ban on education in Punjabi, 13 January 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160307142807weblink">weblink 7 March 2016, 21 February 2011,

In India

At the federal level, Punjabi has official status via the Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution,JOURNAL, Khokhlova, Liudmila, January 2014, Majority Language Death,weblink Language Endangerment and Preservation in South Asia, 29 April 2017, Punjabi was nonetheless included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India and came to be recognized as one of the fifteen official languages of the country., live,weblink 25 May 2017, dmy-all, earned after the Punjabi Suba movement of the 1950s.WEB,weblink Fifty Years of Punjab Politics (1920-70), Panjab Digital Library, 6 January 2019, At the state level, Punjabi is the sole official language of the state of Punjab, while it has secondary official status in the states of Haryana and Delhi.JOURNAL, Ayres, Alyssa, 2008, Language, the Nation, and Symbolic Capital: The Case of Punjab,weblink The Journal of Asian Studies, 67, 3, 917–946, 10.1017/S0021911808001204, 28 April 2017, in India, Punjabi is an official language as well as the first language of the state of Punjab (with secondary status in Delhi and widespread use in Haryana)., live,weblink 25 May 2017, dmy-all, Both federal and state laws specify the use of Punjabi in the field of education. The state of Punjab uses the Three Language Formula, and Punjabi is required to be either the medium of instruction, or one of the three languages learnt in all schools in Punjab.JOURNAL, Kumar, Ashutosh, 2004, Electoral Politics in Punjab: Study of Akali Dal, Economic & Political Weekly, 39, 14/15, 1515–1520, Punjabi was made the first compulsory language and medium of instruction in all the government schools whereas Hindi and English as second and third language were to be implemented from the class 4 and 6 respectively, 4414869, Punjabi is also a compulsory language in Haryana,REPORT,weblink 52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India, 2015, 25, National Commission on Linguistic Minorities, 28 April 2017, "Languages taught in the State under the Three Language Formula: First Language : Hindi Second Language : Punjabi Third language : English", dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170525141614weblink">weblink 25 May 2017, dmy-all, and other states with a significant Punjabi speaking minority are required to offer Punjabi medium education.{{dubious|date=October 2017}}There are vibrant Punjabi language movie and news industries in India, however Punjabi serials have had a much smaller presence within the last few decades in television due to market forces.WEB, Singh, Jasmine, Serial killer, The Tribune, 13 September 2015,weblink 15 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150916044000weblink">weblink 16 September 2015, dmy-all, Despite Punjabi having far greater official recognition in India, "where the Punjabi language is officially admitted in all necessary social functions, while in Pakistan it is used only in a few radio and TV programs," attitudes of the English-educated elite towards the language are ambivalent as they are in neighbouring Pakistan.{{rp|37}} There are also claims of state apathy towards the language in non-Punjabi majority areas like Haryana and Delhi.WEB, SGPC claims Haryana govt ignoring Punjabi language, Hindustan Times, 30 July 2015,weblink 15 September 2015, WEB, Aujla, Harjap Singh, Punjabi's of Delhi couldn't get justice for Punjabi language, Punjab News Express, 15 June 2015,weblink 19 September 2015, {{dead link|date=July 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}WEB, Singh, Perneet, Sikh bodies oppose DU's 'anti-Punjabi' move, Tribune India, 9 July 2013,weblink 21 February 2018,

Advocacy

  • Punjabi University, It was established on 30 April 1962, and is only the second university in the world to be named after a language, after Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The Research Centre for Punjabi Language Technology, Punjabi University, Patiala.WEB,weblink punjabiuniversity.ac.in, final, 13 January 2017, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161124024441weblink">weblink 24 November 2016, It is working for development of core technologies for Punjabi, Digitisation of basic materials, online Punjabi teaching, developing software for office use in Punjabi, providing common platform to Punjabi cyber community.WEB,weblink learnpunjabi.org, ACTDPL, Punjabi University, Patiala, 13 January 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161210232833weblink">weblink 10 December 2016, Punjabipedia, an online encyclopaedia was also launched by Patiala university in 2014.WEB,weblink punjabipedia.org, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਪੀਡੀਆ, 13 January 2017, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161221005250weblink">weblink 21 December 2016, WEB,weblink hindustantimes.com, Pbi University launches Punjabipedia &124; punjab &124; Hindustan Times, 13 January 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161123201247weblink">weblink 23 November 2016, 26 February 2014,
  • The Dhahan Prize was created award literary works produced in Punjabi around the world. The Prize encourages new writing by awarding $25,000 CDN annually to one "best book of fiction" published in either of the two Punjabi scripts, Gurmukhi or Shahmukhi. Two second prizes of $5,000 CDN are also awarded, with the provision that both scripts are represented among the three winners. The Dhahan Prize is awarded by Canada India Education Society (CIES).WEB,weblink dhahanprize.com, The Dhahan Prize &124; The Dhahan Prize for Punjabi Literature, 13 January 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170227040500weblink">weblink 27 February 2017,

Governmental academies and institutes

The Punjabi Sahit academy, Ludhiana, established in 1954WEB,weblink Archived copy, 16 October 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170503114809weblink">weblink 3 May 2017, WEB,weblink Sirsa again elected Punjabi Sahit Akademi president, Tribuneindia.com, 18 April 2016, 13 August 2018, is supported by the Punjab state government and works exclusively for promotion of the Punjabi language, as does the Punjabi academy in Delhiweblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170718101904weblink |date=18 July 2017 }} The Jammu and Kashmir academy of art, culture and literaturweblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161123081031weblink |date=23 November 2016 }} in Jammu and Kashmir, India works for Punjabi and other regional languages like Urdu, Dogri, Gojri etc. Institutions in neighbouring statesWEB,weblink पंजाबी सीखने वाले छात्रों को अगले माह बटेगा एकल प्रोत्साहन राशि, M.livehindustan.com, 24 October 2016, 13 August 2018, as well as in Lahore, Pakistan]weblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170711180642weblink |date=11 July 2017 }} also advocate for the language.File:Punjabi academy ludhiana.jpeg|Punjabi Sahit academy, Ludhiana,1954File:Punjabi academy delhi.jpg|Punjabi academy, Delhi,1981-1982File:Jammu and Kashmir academy of art culture and literature.jpg|Jammu and Kashmir academy of art, culture and literatureFile:Punjab institute of language art and culture.jpeg|Pilac(Punjab Institute of Language, Art and Culture, Lahore,2004

Software

  • Software are available for Punjabi language for almost all platforms. These software are mainly in Gurmukhi script. Nowadays, nearly all Punjabi newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals are composed on computers via various Punjabi software programmes, the most widespread of which is InPage Desktop Publishing package. Microsoft has included Punjabi language support in all new versions of Windows and both Windows Vista, Mircrsoft Office 2007, 2010 and 2013, are available in Punjabi through the Language Interface PackWEB,weblink microsoft.com, Microsoft Download Center, 13 January 2017, live,weblink 23 November 2016, support. Most Linux Desktop distributions allow the easy installation of Punjabi support and translations as well.WEB,weblink sourceforge.net, Punjabi Linux (punlinux) download &124; SourceForge.net, 13 January 2017, live,weblink 23 November 2016, Apple implemented the Punjabi language keyboard across Mobile devices.WEB,weblink itunes.apple.com, Connecting to the iTunes Store., 13 January 2017, live,weblink 23 November 2016, Google also provides many applications in Punjabi, like Google Search,WEB,weblink Google, 13 January 2017, Google TranslateWEB,weblink Google ਅਨੁਵਾਦ, 13 January 2017, live,weblink 29 December 2016, and Google Punjabi Input Tools.WEB,weblink Cloud ਇਨਪੁਟ ਔਜ਼ਾਰ ਔਨਲਾਈਨ ਅਜਮਾਓ – Google ਇਨਪੁਟ ਔਜ਼ਾਰ, 13 January 2017, live,weblink 12 January 2017,

Gallery

File:Guru Granth Sahib By Bhai Pratap Singh Giani.jpg|Guru Granth Sahib in GurmukhiFile:Punjabi Alphabet.jpg| Punjabi Gurmukhi scriptFile:Shahmukhi1.JPG|Punjabi Shahmukhi scriptFile:Bhulay Shah.jpg|Bhulay Shah poetry in Punjabi (Shahmukhi script)File:Munir niazi.gif|Munir Niazi poetry in Punjabi (Shahmukhi script)File:Das Buch der Schrift (Faulmann) 138.jpg|Gurmukhi alphabetFile:Punjabi language sign board at hanumangarh rajasthan india.jpeg|A sign board in Punjabi language along with Hindi at Hanumangarh, Rajasthan, India

See also

Notes

{{notelist}}{{Reflist|30em}}

References

  • {{citation|last = Bhardwaj | first = Mangat Rai | date = 2016 | title = Panjabi: A Comprehensive Grammar | doi = 10.4324/9781315760803| isbn = 9781138793859 | publisher = Routledge}}.
  • {{citation| last = Bhatia| first = Tej K.| year = 2008| chapter = Major regional languages| doi= 10.1017/CBO9780511619069.008| title = Language in South Asia| publisher = Cambridge University Press| editors = Braj B. Kachru, Yamuna Kachru and S.N. Sridhar| pages=121–131}}.
  • LSI, 9, 1,
  • {hide}Citation


|last=Jain
|first=Dhanesh
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|title=The Indo-Aryan Languages
|publisher=Routledge
|isbn=978-0-415-77294-5
|pages=46–66
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|last=Masica
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|authorlink=Colin Masica
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|title=The Indo-Aryan Languages
|place= Cambridge
|publisher=Cambridge University Press
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|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=J3RSHWePhXwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=indo-aryan+languages
}}.
  • {{citation| last = Nayar| first = Baldev Raj | year = 1966 | title = Minority Politics in the Punjab| publisher = Princeton University Press| url =weblink}}.
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|last=Shackle
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|title=The Indo-Aryan Languages
|publisher=Routledge
|isbn=978-0-415-77294-5
|pages=581–621
}}.

Further reading

  • Bhatia, Tej. 1993 and 2010. Punjabi : a cognitive-descriptive grammar. London: Routledge. Series: Descriptive grammars.
  • Gill H.S. [Harjit Singh] and Gleason, H.A. 1969. A reference grammar of Punjabi. Revised edition. Patiala, Punjab, India: Languages Department, Punjab University.
  • Chopra, R. M., Perso-Arabic Words in Punjabi, in: Indo-Iranica Vol.53 (1–4).
  • Chopra, R. M.., The Legacy of The Punjab, 1997, Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta.
  • Singh, Chander Shekhar (2004). Punjabi Prosody: The Old Tradition and The New Paradigm. Sri Lanka: Polgasowita: Sikuru Prakasakayo.
  • Singh, Chander Shekhar (2014). Punjabi Intonation: An Experimental Study. Muenchen: LINCOM EUROPA.

External links

{{InterWiki|Eastern Punjabi|code=pa}}{{InterWiki|Western Punjabi|code=pnb}} {{Punjabi language topics}}{{Sikhism}}{{Indo-Aryan languages}}{{Authority control}}

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