Indo-Iranian languages

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Indo-Iranian languages
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{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2016}}{{Use Indian English|date=June 2016}}

|mapsize=300px}}The Indo-Iranian languages (Indo-Iranic languagesBOOK, D. D. Mahulkar, Pre-Pāṇinian Linguistic Studies,weblink 1990, Northern Book Centre, 978-81-85119-88-5, BOOK, Annarita Puglielli, Mara Frascarelli, Linguistic Analysis: From Data to Theory,weblink 2011, Walter de Gruyter, 978-3-11-022250-0, ), or Aryan languagesBOOK,weblink Numeral Types and Changes Worldwide, by Jadranka (EDT) Gvozdanovic, Language Arts & Disciplines,1999, Page 221,, 2013-01-02, : "The usage of 'Aryan languages' is not to be equated with Indo-Aryan languages, rather Indo-Iranic languages of which Indo-Aryan is a subgrouping." constitute the largest and southeasternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family. It has more than 1.5 billion speakers, stretching from Europe (Romani), Turkey (Kurdish and Zaza–Gorani) and the Caucasus (Ossetian) eastward to Xinjiang (Sarikoli) and Assam (Assamese), and south to Sri Lanka (Sinhala) and the Maldives (Maldivian). Furthermore, there are large communities of Indo-Iranian speakers in northwestern Europe (the United Kingdom), North America (United States and Canada), and Australia.The common ancestor of all of the languages in this family is called Proto-Indo-Iranian—also known as Common Aryan—which was spoken in approximately the late 3rd millennium BC. The three branches of the modern Indo-Iranian languages are Indo-Aryan, Iranian, and Nuristani. Additionally, sometimes a fourth independent branch, Dardic, is posited, but recent scholarship in general places Dardic languages as archaic members of the Indo-Aryan branch.ENCYCLOPAEDIA, 2007, The Indo-Aryan languages, Danesh, Jain, George, Cardona, 905, 'Dardic' is a geographic cover term for those Northwest Indo-Aryan languages which [..] developed new characteristics different from the IA languages of the Indo-Gangetic plain. Although the Dardic and Nuristani (previously 'Kafiri') languages were formerly grouped together, Morgenstierne (1965) has established that the Dardic languages are Indo-Aryan, and that the Nuristani languages constitute a separate subgroup of Indo-Iranian., 978-0415772945, Elena, Bashir,


(File:Indo-Iranian languages.png|thumb|Chart classifying Indo-Iranian languages within the Indo-European language family)(File:Lenguas indoiranias.PNG|thumb|Distribution of the Indo-Iranian languages)The Indo-Iranian languages consist of three groups: Indo-Iranian languages are spoken by more than 1.5 billion people. The languages with the most speakers are a part of the Indo-Aryan group: Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu), (~590 millionWEB, Edwards, Viv, Urdu Today,weblink BBC, ), Bengali (205 millionWEB, Thompson, Irene, Bengali,weblink AboutWorldLanguages, March 29, 2013, ), Punjabi (100 million), Marathi (75 million), Gujarati (50 million), Bhojpuri (40 million), Awadhi (40 million), Maithili (35 million), Odia (35 million), Marwari (30 million), Sindhi (25 million), Assamese (24 million), Rajasthani (20 million), Chhattisgarhi (18 million), Sinhala (19 million), Nepali (17 million), Bishnupuriya (12 million)WEB, Census of India: Family-wise grouping of the 122 Scheduled and Non-Scheduled Languages -2001,weblink, and Rangpuri (15 million). Among the Iranian branch, major languages are Persian (60 million), Pashto (ca. 50 million), Kurdish (35 million),CIA- The World Factbook: 14.7 million in Turkey (18%)weblink{{not in citation|date=February 2016}}, 4.9–6.5 million in Iraq (15-20%)weblink{{not in citation|date=February 2016}}, 8 million in Iran (10%)WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2011-03-31, dead,weblink 3 February 2012, dmy-all, {{not in citation|date=February 2016}} (all for 2014), plus several million in Syria, neighboring countries, and the diaspora and Balochi (8 million). There are also many smaller languages.{{Indo-European topics}}


{{Expand section|date=December 2018}}The common proto-language of the Indo-Iranian languages is Proto-Indo-Iranian, which has been reconstructed.The oldest attested Indo-Iranian languages are Vedic Sanskrit, Older and Younger Avestan and Old Persian (ancient Iranian languages). A few words from another Indo-Aryan language (see Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni) are attested in documents from the ancient Mitanni and Hittite kingdoms in the Near East.


Innovations shared with other languages affected by the satem sound changes include: {{cn|date=August 2015}}
  • Fronting and assibilation of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) palato-velar stops: {{PIE|kʲ, gʲʰ, gʲ > t͡ʃ, dÍ¡Ê’Ê°, dÍ¡Ê’}}
  • The merger of the PIE labiovelar and plain velar stops: {{PIE|kÊ·, gÊ·Ê°, gÊ· > k, gÊ°, g}}
  • The Ruki sound law
Innovations shared with Greek include: {{cn|date=August 2015}}
  • The vocalization of the PIE syllabic nasals {{PIE|mÌ¥, nÌ¥}} to {{PIE|a}} (may be independent developments)
  • Grassmann's law (may be independent developments)
Innovations unique to Indo-Iranian include: {{cn|date=August 2015}}
  • The lowering of PIE {{PIE|e}} to {{PIE|a}}
    • o was also lowered to a, though this occurred in several other Indo-European languages as well.
  • The use of a verb root krÌ¥- to derive verbal forms from nouns.
  • Brugmann's law




  • Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1994). A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co. {{ISBN|81-7074-128-9}}
  • BOOK, Indo-Iranian Languages and Peoples, Nicholas Sims-Williams, 2002, Oxford University Press,

Further reading

  • WEB,weblink Contact and change in the diversification of the Indo-Iranic languages,

External links

{{wiktionary|Indo-Iranian Swadesh lists}}{{Commons category}} {{Indo-Iranian languages}}{{Authority control}}

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